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10 City Scan Report

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Delivering Human Service Information: A Scan of Practices in America's Ten Largest Cities    N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

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The "Ten-City Scan" TM - A Report in Progress Accessibility Analysis January, 2008



"TEN CITY SCAN" TM

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TABLE OF CONTENTS    N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction.... ........ ........ ........ ........ ...... .. .....3 .....3 1. Introduction Methodology........................10 ........................10 2. Methodology 3. City Websites.... Websites........ ........ ........ ........ .... ...16 ...16

Directories.... .... .... .... .... .. ...5 ...59 9 4. Online Directories.. Summary..............102 5. General Summary..............102 6. Appendices Appendices............ ....................... .............108 ..108



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SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION

   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

CITIES AND INFORMA INFORMATION TION SCANNED

WEBSITES SCANNED

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Section 1: Introduction

   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

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"Ten-City

Scan"TM

Background and Purpose

Professional Background  –  Financial Services and Computer Industries: Participated in bringing business computing out of the data center and providing it to end users Management Consulting in Corporate Sector: Consulted with financial services, publishing, and manufacturing clients to improve business process productivity, cost-effectiveness, and quality  –  Nonprofit Consulting: Helped nonprofit and government clients plan and implement strategic business and information systems  – 

 – 

Key Strengths: Business systems analysis and reengineering, strategic  planning, and information systems planning "TEN CITY SCAN" TM

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Section 1: Introduction

   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S



"Ten-City

Scan"TM

Background and Purpose

Human Service Focus  – 

Graduate of School of Social Service Administration at the University of Chicago

 – 

Research at the University of Chicago to construct a social service “industry model”

 – 

MacArthur Foundation grants to scan community resources and create directory of human services on Chicago's South Side

 – 

Recent work with a major foundation and several leading nonprofit organizations to explore directions in human service information in Chicago

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Section 1: Introduction

   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

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"Ten-City

Scan"TM

Background and Purpose

Human Service Information Findings  – 

Human service information is organized and maintained within service “silos”

 – 

Many different “caches” of information exist on the Internet and elsewhere, generally not in integrated form

 – 

Some essential community resources are not included in these information bases

 – 

It is difficult to find good information that is current, comprehensive, accurate, and detailed

 – 

This information is costly to assemble and maintain

 – 

Often human service information is not designed for end-users who have only modest knowledge of human services and limited computer proficiency



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Section 1: Introduction

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"Ten-City

Scan"TM

Background and Purpose

Purposes of the "Ten-City Scan" TM  – 

Research human service information delivery practices and directions among some of the largest practitioners in the United States

 – 

Share findings with audiences involved in delivering, referring, funding, and accessing human services

 – 

Highlight good practices and techniques deserving attention, development, and wider adoption

 – 

Provide forum for brainstorming opportunities for incremental–  and also revolutionary–improvement



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Section 1: Introduction

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"Ten-City

Scan"TM

Cities, Sources, and Subjects Scanned

Human Services All services related to the physical, medical, social, psychological, and economic well-being of the American populace, including emergency services. Cities Scanned

Representative Representative Human Service Subjects

Information Sources

1.  New York York

1. City websites



2. Los Angeles

2. Online human service directories

• •

3. Chicago

• •

4. Houston



5. Philadelphia



6. Phoenix



7. San Antonio

• •

8. San Diego



9. Dallas



10. San Jose

• • "TEN CITY SCAN" TM

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Aging, Elderly, and Seniors Children and Family Community Resources Disabilities Emergency Management Employment and Training Health, Hospitals, and Medical HIV/AIDS Homelessness Justice-Related Mental Health Social Services Violence, Victims, and Abuse Youth

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Section 1: Introduction

   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

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"Ten-City Scan"TM

Websites Scanned

Websites Scanned Government Web Sites City

Population

City

County

State

Online Directory and Related Sites

New York

7,956,113

 New York York City

(Same as City)

New York York

• United Way of New York City

Los Angeles

3,731,437

Los Angeles

Los Angeles County

California

• Healthy City

Chicago

2,701,926

Chicago

Cook County

Illinois

• Community Resource Network

Houston

1,941,430

Houston

Harris County

Texas

• United Way Texas Gulf Coast • 2-1-1 Texas

Philadelphia

1,406,415

Philadelphia

(Same as City)

Pennsylvania

• Philly SOS

Phoenix

1,377,980

Phoenix

Maricopa County

Arizona

• Valley of the Sun United Way • Arizona 2-1-1

San Antonio

1,202,223

San Antonio

Bexar County

Texas

• United Way San Antonio • 2-1-1 Texas

San Diego

1,208,331

San Diego

San Diego County

California

• United Way of San Diego County • 2-1-1 San Diego

Dallas

1,144,946

Dallas

Dallas County

Texas

• United Way of Metro. Dallas • 2-1-1 Texas

San Jose

Santa Clara County

California

• United Way Silicon Valley • 2-1-1 Santa Clara County

San Jose

887,330 Total

23,558,131

Source: US Census Bureau, 2005 American American Community Survey

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SECTION 2 METHODOLOGY

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SECTION 2 "TEN-CITY SCAN"TM METHODOLOGY PHASE 100 WEBSITE SCANNING

 ACCESSIBILITY SCAN: THREE ACCESSIBILITY FACTORS

 ACCESSIBILITY SCAN: SCAN: RATING CRITERIA

USES OF THE "TEN-CITY SCAN" TM

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Section 2: Methodology

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"Ten-City



Multi-phase project methodology



Six key scanning tasks



Task 140: Accessibility Scan

Scan"TM

Phase 100 Website Scanning

 Analyze: "

Ease of Finding

"

Information Organization

"

Information Linkage

 Document: "

Techniques used

"

Strengths and weaknesses

"

Good practices "TEN CITY SCAN" TM

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Section 2: Methodology

"Ten-City

Scan"TM

 Accessibility Scan Three Accessibility Factors

   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

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Section 2: Methodology

   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M



Assess in a "value-free" manner



High-level measures of efficiency and effectiveness

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"Ten-City

Scan"TM



 – 

Time required for task

 – 

Effort required (number and difficulty of tasks)

 – 

Whether desired result obtained

 Accessibility Scan Rating Criteria

High-level measures of user prerequisites  – 

Computer proficiency

 – 

Specialized knowledge and language

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Section 2: Methodology

"Ten-City

Scan"TM

 Accessibility Scan Rating Criteria

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Section 2: Methodology

   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

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"Ten-City

"Ten-City Scan" TM  – 

 – 



Provides high-level survey of current human service information delivery practices in ten largest US cities Methodology Methodology identifies six key elements in human service information delivery

 – 

Provides a foundation for further detailed studies in the ten cities in this report

 – 

Provides basis for scanning human service information delivery in other cities



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Scan"TM

Uses of the "Ten-City Scan"TM

Accessibility Scan (Task 140)  – 

Identifies three key elements of human service information accessibility

 – 

Provides high-level indicators of human service information accessibility in the ten cities

 – 

Provides a foundation for developing more detailed accessibility measures and metrics

 – 

Provides a basis for detailed usability testing with formal test  protocols and and suitable test test user  panels

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SECTION 3 CITY WEBSITES

   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

SECTION 3 CITY WEBSITES

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

INTRODUCTION TO CITY WEBSITES

 ACCESSIBILITY FACTOR 1: EASE OF FINDING

 ACCESSIBILITY FACTOR 2: INFORMATION ORGANIZATION

 ACCESSIBILITY FACTOR 3: INFORMATION LINKAGE

CITY WEBSITES: SECTION SUMMARY

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



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Section 3: City Websites

   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



 Accessibility Analysis

Introduction to the City Websites

The websites of America's ten largest cities were scanned for human service information accessibility and content. City Websites Scanned City

Population

Link

New York

7,956,113

http://www.nyc.gov/portal/site/nycgov/

Los Angeles

3,731,437

http://www.ci.la.ca.us/

Chicago

2,701,926

http://egov.cityofchicago.org/city/webportal/home.do

Houston

1,941,430

http://www.houstontx.gov/

Philadelphia

1,406,415

http://www.phila.gov/

Phoenix

1,377,980

http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/

San Antonio

1,202,223

http://www.sanantonio.gov/?res=1024&ver=true

San Diego

1,208,331

http://www.sandiego.gov/

Dallas

1,144,946

http://www.dallascityhall.com/

887,330

San Jose Total

23,558,131

"TEN CITY SCAN" TM

http://www.sanjoseca.gov/ Source: US Census Bureau, 2005 American American Community Survey

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Section 3: City Websites

   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S





 Accessibility Analysis

Introduction to the City Websites

Initial High-Level Scan Surveyed 153 root URLs and hundreds of web pages. The highlevel scan identified the web pages for detailed review. Detailed Accessibility Scan Included 70 root URLs (7 per city) and several hundred related  pages. For each city, detailed detailed information was gathered gathered about:  – 

The city's home page;

 – 

Six human service subject areas (e.g., homeless services) on the city website, with all linked pages and topics; and

 – 

Linkages to county, state, federal, and nonprofit websites.

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Section 3: City Websites

   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I



   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



In keeping with the "Ten-City Scan" TM Methodology, city website information was analyzed and evaluated for three Accessibility Factors: 1. Ease of finding human service information;

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

 Accessibility Analysis

Introduction to the City Websites

2. Effectiveness of information organization; and 3. Linkage of information to provide a complete picture of

human service resources. •

Techniques that support these three Accessibility Factors, and the strengths, weaknesses, and good practices associated with each, are reviewed in this section.



This interactive PowerPoint presentation includes hyperlinks to good practice examples. The thumbnail thumbnail images of these examples are hyperlinked to specific web pages on the Internet for detailed review by the viewer. "TEN CITY SCAN" TM

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Section 3: City Websites

   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

Ease of Finding: Overview

The scan identified five techniques employed to enhance the ease of finding human service information.

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

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Section 3: City Websites

   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

Technique 1: Human Service Directory

TECHNIQUE 1: HUMAN SERVICE DIRECTORY Definition Definitio n •

Applications that allow users to search for human services by several search criteria such as:  –  Provider

St rengths Strengths •

Dedicated human service directories are the "gold standard" for finding human services in a locality.



Ideally, they take an inclusive view of "human services," encompassing public and private sector providers, and spanning silos of health care, social service, rehabilitative, rehabilitative, and other services.

organization

 –  Service

category

 –  Service

population

 –  Location •

•    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

Only one of the ten cities scanned, Philadelphia, had a human service directory application built and maintained by the city.

Weaknesses •

Human service databases and websites are still evolving in terms of design, usability, and information informati on quality. Overall Overa ll quality and standards vary widely.

As seen later in this report, nonprofit organizations and  public-private  public-private partnerships partnerships maintain online human service directories that serve the ten cities.



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Section 3: City Websites

   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I

Good Practice

Description

Link

"Philly SOS" ("Search Online for Services") is

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

maintained by the city. The application is located on the Department of Human Services  page of the city's website. The directory offers several ways to search for

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

Philadelphia

information, and includes both public- and  private-sector  private-sector service providers. providers. It employs the Association of Referral and Information Services (AIRS) Taxonomy of Human

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S



Technique 1: Human Service Directory

TECHNIQUE 1: HUMAN SERVICE DIRECTORY

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

© 2007 The City of Philadelphia

Services* as Services*  as a vehicle for organizing the information.

*

AIRS, the Alliance of Information and Referral Systems, is a professional membership organization which, in collaboration with the United Way of America, had led the 2-1-1 movement. AIRS has endorsed the INFO LINE Taxonomy of Human Services for defining and indexing human services.

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

Technique 2: Website Search Engine

TECHNIQUE 2: WEBSITE SEARCH ENGINE Definition •



   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

Applications Applications designed to find text or subject matter housed within the web site. All ten cities had search engines:  –  Google TM engines were used on four web sites.

Strengths •

Search engines are fast.



The engines provide a robust list of results, including web pages and documents.



 –  Proprietary municipal engines

were used on six web sites. •

Search engine design varied in terms of functionality and the user interface.

Features may include:  –  Full or partial string

searching, "and/or" (Boolean) searches, word exclusion, etc.

 –  Alternate

languages such as

Spanish.  –  Result sorting capability (e.g.,

 by date or relevance). relevance).

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

 –  Search for a particular type of

subject matter (e.g., city event calendars).

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

Weaknesses •

A key strength of search engines- producing a robust result list--can list--can also be a weakness.  –  In

some cases, hundreds of entries are returned by the search--comprehensiveness is not efficient.

 –  Some

search engines can search within result sets to narrow the entries, but others cannot.

 –  Spelling variations may lead to

failed searches ("centre" vs. "center").  –  There

is no guarantee that the desired item will exist in a voluminous voluminous result list, but no way to determine this except by examining the list.



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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I

Technique 2: Website Search Engine

TECHNIQUE 2: WEBSITE SEARCH ENGINE Good Practice

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

New York

Description

Link

Google Search Engine has both "basic" and "advanced" functionality.

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

© 2007 The City of New York

Proprietary municipal search engine can Phoenix

search for city services, text, calendars, maps, and links.



© Copyright 2007 City of Phoenix, AZ

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

Technique 3: City-Level Service Finder

TECHNIQUE 3: CITY-LEVEL SERVICE FINDER Definition •  Nine

of the ten cities provide a city service finding aid on their websites. • The focus tends to be for basic infrastructure services like repairing potholes or traffic signals. • Five cities use a 311 scheme for accepting telephone calls and organizing services on their websites. The other schemes schemes are  proprietary.  proprietary. • Several cities incorporate human services in their applications: applications:  –  Two cities have extensive human service information.  –  Four cities include a few essential human services.

Strengths •

Integrating human services into the larger framework of all municipal services makes good common sense, and increases the ease of finding human service information.

Weaknesses •

Integrating human services with all other city services may create an "apples and oranges" problem.  –  Many city services--such as

repairing a pothole--involve a simple process and use welldefined materials.  –  By contrast,

needs associated with human services are much less readily defined; the call to action is often to acquire more information or help.



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Good Practice

Description

Los Angeles

Residents may search for city services by keyword, by a listing of provider departments, by service category, or a by full list of all services. The system uses a 311 311 organizational scheme, and incorporates a robust selection of human services.

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

Link

©2001 City of Los Angeles

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

Dallas    S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

Technique 3: City-Level Service Finder

TECHNIQUE 3: CITY-LEVEL SERVICE FINDER

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

City services are organized categorically in a graphical display. Some essential human services are catalogued under "Health & Environment," Environment," additional and more detailed information appears elsewhere in the website.



© 2001-2006 City of Dallas, Texas.

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Technique 4: Dept. Level Service Finder

TECHNIQUE 4: DEPARTMENT-LEVEL DEPARTMENT-LEVEL SERVICE FINDER Definition

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M



A number of departments within the ten cities have developed their own interactive service finding aids.

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C



These aids cover only the department's service offerings, or those of agencies funded by the department--they do not encompass service offerings by other departments. departments.

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

Strengths •

Interactive departmental finding aids increase the efficiency and effectiveness of information access to the department's service offerings or those of funded agencies.

A number of the aids are highly innovative and worthy of further investigation. • Other innovative features are often  packaged together with the the finding aids. •

Weaknesses •

Practices may differ widely  between departments; departments; good good  practices appear appear not be shared. shared.



Different application designs result in redundant investments in software and hardware and may  preclude inter-departm inter-departmental ental data sharing.

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



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Good Practice

Description

New York

Bureau of Day Care finding aid supports searches based on borough, zip code, neighborhood, and facility name. Results show agency location, target population age, capacity, permit status, and history of inspections, violations, and remediation status.

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

Technique 4: Dept. Level Service Finder

TECHNIQUE 4: DEPARTMENT-LEVEL DEPARTMENT-LEVEL SERVICE SERVICE FINDER

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

Link

© 2007 The City of New York

Chicago

Chicago Park District finding aid enables searches based on park, zip code, program types, and target population age groups. Available slots are displayed for a selected  program, which which may then be be placed on a wish list or in a shopping shopping cart. Users may register for the program and pay by credit card.



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 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

Technique 5: Place-Based Finding Aid

TECHNIQUE 5: PLACE-BASED FINDING AID Definition

A number of cities provide location-based location-based interactive finding aids. • After the user supplies a street address or zip code, a list of municipal resources in that area is provided. • Links to web pages or sites with further information may be  provided. • Maps may be provided. •

Strengths

Location is an essential dimension of finding appropriate services, whether in terms of the user's location, the service site, or the area served by the provider.





Searches driven by zip code or street address are simple, fast and  powerful.

Weaknesses •



Existing applications focus on a  broad, general general range of municipal municipal resources, which may include a nominal number of human service resources such as health clinics. Finding aids search for facilities (such as health centers) rather than for specific services.

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



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Good Practice

Houston

Description

Link

Municipal finding aid may be used to find services based on zip code or keyword. Zip code-based search results include municipal resources such as health centers, police and fire stations, parks, and libraries, with web links and maps.

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

Technique 5: Place-Based Finding Aid

TECHNIQUE 5: PLACE-BASED FINDING AID

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

© 2005 copyright, City of Houston. All Rights Reserved

New York

Municipal finding aid may be used to find services based on street address. The resulting detailed map shows a selection of city services, including several types of human services (day care, hospitals, senior services).



© 2007 The City of New York

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I

 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

Ease of Finding: Summary

Ease of Finding: Summary

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



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   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

Ease of Finding: Summary

Ease of Finding: Summary 1. Finding human service information is, on balance, only

somewhat easy. easy. Nearly half of the search efforts efforts recorded would  be difficult and time-consuming for skilled skilled users. Only 10 percent would be easy for unskilled users. 2. Some problems are "show-stoppers." In problematic search

efforts, finding information often required multiple attempts along complex pathways. In such cases, searching is very laborious and time-consuming. In some instances, instances, users will likely likely abandon their their search efforts. 3. Ease of finding varies widely within and between cities. A

detailed study would have to embrace careful examination of all  of  of a city's departments, agencies, and offices to reach reliable conclusions. "TEN CITY SCAN" TM

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

Ease of Finding: Summary

Ease of Finding: Summary 4. Good practices are in evidence and bear closer examination.

Some robustly-developed good practices could serve in their  present form as models for replication. Other innovations offer offer strong potential for further development. 5. Major advances are still needed. Despite the important

innovations noted by the Scan, many users will have difficulty finding human service information confidently, easily, and quickly.

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

 Accessibility Factor 2: Information Organization

Information Organization: Overview

The scan identified two strategies employed to enhance the organization of human service information.

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

 Accessibility Factor 2: Information Organization

Technique 1: Consumer Content

TECHNIQUE 1: CONSUMER-FOCUSED CONSUME R-FOCUSED CONTENT Definition •

Web pages with consumerfocused topics such as "Human Services," "Neighborhood," "Neighborhood," "Community," and "Residents."

Strengths •

Web pages with topical designations and content focus are often given very high visibility on the web site--generally on the Home Page.



Consumer-focused content is generally easy to find.



Such content often contains numerous links to related subject matter.

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

Weaknesses •

The web site's topical organization may not be intuitively obvious for some viewers.



Topical organization may fragment subject matter (e.g., splitting human service information between "City Services" page and "Residents"  page.



Posting subject matter and/or links on multiple topical pages improves ease of finding but increases redundancy.



Static information requires regular and systematic updating.



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Good Practice

Description

Link

Consumer content is organized into topical Chicago

areas such as residents, neighborhoods, health and human services, and popular needs ("I want to").

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

Technique 1: Consumer Content

TECHNIQUE 1: CONSUMER-FOCUSE CONSUMER-FOCUSED D CONTENT

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

 Accessibility Factor 2: Information Organization

© 2007 The City of Chicago

Consumer content is organized into topical San Diego

areas such as community, departments, services A-Z, and popular needs ("I want to").



Copyrighted © 2002-2007 City of San Diego. All rights reserved.

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

 Accessibility Factor 2: Information Organization

Technique 2: Hierarchical Organization

TECHNIQUE 2: HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION OF SUBJECT MATTER Definition •



Websites "drill down" through complex subject matter arranged in a logical, hierarchical manner. An example of an information hierarchy, based on New York City's website, is as follows:

Strengths •

Hierarchies can be good for managing access to complex and voluminous subject matter.



Simple, well-designed, and logical hierarchies are easy to traverse and remember on subsequent visits to the site.

Health and Human Services  –  Health

- Hospitals "

Weaknesses •

Hierarchies may not reflect a consumer point of view,  potentially making making the subject subject matter harder to find.



Complex hierarchies are harder to traverse and remember.



Hierarchies with many levels may fragment subject matter and make it harder to find.

 Public Hospitals Hospitals

 Private Hospitals Hospitals - Insurance "

- Support Programs - Victim Services - Children - Public Assistance - Disabilities



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   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

Technique 2: Hierarchical Organization

TECHNIQUE 2: HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION OF SUBJECT MATTER MATTER Good Practice

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

 Accessibility Factor 2: Information Organization

Description

Link

Hierarchy of material is logical, and easy to understand and remember. While both New York

complex and deep, the hierarchical structure is always displayed, allowing the user to know the location, how it was accessed, and what other subjects might be investigated. investigated. © 2007 The City of New York

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



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 Accessibility Factor 2: Information Organization

Information Organization: Summary

Information Organization: Summary

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



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   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

 Accessibility Factor 2: Information Organization

Information Organization: Summary

Information Organization: Summary 1. Material is somewhat well-organized –– but for

knowledgeable users. About 38 percent of the observed material is somewhat well-organized for a person familiar with human service organizations, programs, and services. services. The average user, lacking specialized knowledge know ledge and terminology, terminology, would benefit less from the way information is organized. 2. Multiple organizational schemes may be best . The

observations suggest that probably no single approach is a "silver  bullet" for organizing organizing human service information, given the  breadth of content and and the diversity of the audience. Sites that organize content from multiple perspectives seem to offer significant promise.



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   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

 Accessibility Factor 2: Information Organization

Information Organization: Summary

Information Organization: Summary 3. Incorporating a consumer point of view in organizing content

is powerful. One of the several organizational schemes for  presenting content should focus focus on the information needs needs of service consumers. consumers. Observations revealed revealed a variety variety of good  practices worthy of consideration consideration and development. 4. Good organization by itself is not sufficient.  Observations

suggested that strong organization is an essential element in effective content presentation. However, good organization needs to be supplemented with other strategies and techniques, such as those reviewed in this report, for making information maximally accessible.



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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

 Accessibility Factor 3: Information Linkage

Information Linkage: Overview

The scan identified these techniques for linking human service information together in a more holistic manner.

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



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   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



Technique 1: Internal Linkage

TECHNIQUE 1: INTERNAL LINKAGE (WITHIN THE MUNICIPALITY) Definition •

Links with Sister Agencies :  provides navigation navigation to desired desired services across departments or agencies.

Strengths

Weaknesses



Good implementations provide easy consumer navigation; great implementations provide a seamless view of human services.



Weak implementations entangle users in a complex maze of linkages, fostering confusion and frustration.



Links for Target Populations: links to information within the website of particular interest to target populations such as senior citizens.



Offers a single place for target  populations  populations to "shop" for relevant relevant information from multiple sources within the website. (Note: often links to external resources appear in the same website location.)



Potentially very high overhead for maintenance of population-specific population-specific content and links.



Consumer Action Links:  links which make it possible for consumers to take direct action (e.g., submit an electronic form) or contact a government agency via e-mail.



Provides an immediate connection with a government agency.



May foster high expectations for fast response time.

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

 Accessibility Factor 3: Information Linkage

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I

Technique 1: Internal Linkage

TECHNIQUE 1: INTERNAL LINKAGE (WITHIN THE MUNICIPALITY) Good Practice

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

 Accessibility Factor 3: Information Linkage

Description

Link

Links with Sister Agencies : the city city portal portal New York York City Cit y

links the human service offerings of multiple agencies and websites seamlessly from a service consumer perspective.

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

© 2007 The City of New York

wealth of Links for Target Populations : a wealth Phoenix

 program and and service information information for youth youth and seniors is provided through links to resources on the city website.



© Copyright 2007 City of Phoenix, AZ

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

Technique 1: Internal Linkage

TECHNIQUE 1: INTERNAL LINKAGE (WITHIN THE MUNICIPALITY) Good Practice

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

 Accessibility Factor 3: Information Linkage

Description

Link

Consumer Action Links : Consumers may

e-mail the Mayor and City Council members individually or as a group with the Dallas

links supplied on this page. These action links are directly adjacent to related links to information about the city government, districts, committees, and councils. © Copyright 2007 City of Phoenix, AZ

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

Technique 2: External Linkage

TECHNIQUE 2: EXTERNAL LINKAGE (OUTSIDE THE MUNICIPALITY) Definition Definiti on

Strengths

Weaknesses



Integrated Government Links:  provide a single single location on on which relevant links for local, state, and federal services are displayed.



Supplies the consumer with a coherent and unified selection of government services, regardless of the provider agency.



Potentially very high overhead for maintenance maintenance of links to external sites.



Extensive External Links : connections to human service information on government and nonprofit websites.



Supplies the consumer with a coherent and unified selection of services across government and nonprofit sectors and providers.



Potentially very high overhead for maintenance maintenance of links to external sites.



Links to Specialized Search Engines: connections to search engines specializing in locating government services.





Many constituents may want more direction and focus in finding relevant information.

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

 Accessibility Factor 3: Information Linkage

Links to specialized search engines  provide broader broader search capability than links to specific sites.



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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I

Good Practice

Description

Link

Integrated Government Links: The

integrated service listing shows municipal San Diego

services in blue, and services provided by the county, port, and transit agencies in green. Covers many major services, services, including some human services.

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

Technique 2: External Linkage

TECHNIQUE 2: EXTERNAL LINKAGE (OUTSIDE THE MUNICIPALITY)

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

 Accessibility Factor 3: Information Linkage

© 2007 The City of San Diego

Extensive External Links: the site offers

numerous links to state and federal agencies New York York City Cit y

and departments. A short description by every link describes the resource to which the user will be directed.



© 2007 The City of New York

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I

Technique 2: External Linkage

TECHNIQUE 2: EXTERNAL LINKAGE (OUTSIDE THE MUNICIPALITY) Good Practice

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

 Accessibility Factor 3: Information Linkage

Description

Link

Links to Specialized Search Engines: An

extensive array of search engines is offered Houston

to find government organizations and services, legislative information, and legal and scientific documents. documents.

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

© 2007 The City of San Diego

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



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 Accessibility Factor 3: Information Linkage

Information Linkage: Summary

Information Linkage: Summary

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

 Accessibility Factor 3: Information Linkage

Information Linkage: Summary

Information Linkage: Summary 1. Links are widely used –– and vary widely in effectiveness.

Much of the information observed is heavily linked to sites within and beyond city websites. Link quality varies quite quite widely, widely, even within cities. 2. Overall, links are only moderately useful. Nearly 66 percent of

observed internal links and 75 percent of external links reflect limited planning and provide only moderate utility. utility. 3. Effective links are well organized by topic, accompanied by a

 brief description of their their target and purpose, and are directly directly connected to related target content (rather than to the home page of the target website).



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 Accessibility Factor 3: Information Linkage

Information Linkage: Summary

Information Linkage: Summary 4. Ineffective links are sparse, poorly documented or undocumented,

do not connect directly to related content on the target site, or connect to targets that are no longer in existence. Ineffective links disadvantage the user by creating more, rather than less, work. 5. More than links are needed to integrate information.  Links

alone cannot provide a coherent and unified picture of services available from the complex service systems within and beyond cities. More innovations are needed to provide provide an integrated integrated "big  picture" to users before they navigate to more detailed information supplied on another page or site.

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Section Summary

 Accessibility Ratings

Section Summary 1.

Accessibility Ratings This synthesis of Accessibility ratings in the figure below shows that overall delivery of human service information is only somewhat efficient and effective. Improvement in ease of finding, and information organization and linkage, is clearly desirable.

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



Section Summary

 Accessibility Ratings

Section Summary 1. Accessibility Ratings (cont'd)

The figure shows that there is a wide range of performance, with outliers below below and above the average. All are worthy of study. A number of the good practices constitute potential best practices worthy of adaptation to a broader array of applications. Their adoption could improve human service information delivery significantly. The Accessibility Ratings are suggestive rather than definitive. They are broad and approximate indicators intended to sharpen focus on the ingredients of Accessibility and on the practices that enhance it. They are intended intended to invite deeper study and and more extensive analysis that would have significant and near-term  benefit in municipalities, municipalities, large and small, small, across the United States. States. "TEN CITY SCAN" TM

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

Section Summary

Observations

Section Summary 2. Observations

Evolving Information Delivery Landscape Many of the websites reflected ongoing improvement of the user interfaces and the underlying human service information. information. The environment is dynamic, and demonstrates significant investment in enhancing information delivery to the public. Growing Consumer Focus The focus on service consumers appears to be growing. An increasing segment of website design and content delivers information for neighborhoods, for specific populations like senior citizens, and for special needs such as benefit eligibility screening.



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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



Section Summary

Observations

Section Summary 2. Observations (cont'd) Growing Service Focus Descriptive information about city agencies is increasingly supplemented with detail for securing a variety of government services. Most service process models are telephone-based: telephone-based: constituents are directed to call a specific department, contact, or help line (including 311 and 211).

An emerging service process model is Internet-based: constituents may use e-mail or electronic forms to request services, report  problems, track the status status of specific issues, and provide provide feedback. The most advanced applications allow users to review available  program slots, select a program, and make payment payment –– all in a manner widely used on Internet retail websites. "TEN CITY SCAN" TM

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



Section Summary

Challenges

Section Summary 3. Challenges

User Community Size and Diversity The ten websites scanned serve cities with more than 23 million constituents. These citizens have a broad and diffuse array of concerns and information needs, speak many languages, and span the entire spectrum spectrum of computer computer experience and and skills. Serving their information requirements is an immense challenge, and human service information is only one of many essential ess ential subjects that must be covered effectively. Service Provider Scope and Diversity Human services are provided by a variety of government departments citywide; by county, state, and federal agencies; and  by contracted nonprofit organizations. organizations. "TEN CITY SCAN" TM

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

Section Summary

Challenges

Section Summary 3. Challenges

Service Provider Scope and Diversity (cont'd) In a large city, their combined numbers may run into the hundreds. Securing and maintaining accurate information is very challenging. Variable Provider Visibility Many of the larger, more established, and more traditional service organizations have historically possessed high visibility in the community, at city hall, and on the Internet. Information about other smaller, newer, and more localized organizations may be less fully articulated and require more effort to communicate their missions, programs, and services.



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   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

Section Summary

Challenges

Section Summary 3. Challenges (cont'd)

Lack of Human Service Information Integration City agencies and departments describe their own programs on city websites. They also provide information about, and links to, contracted local nonprofit organizations and agencies in other government branches.

The Scan found no organization chartered to integrate human service information across city departments and to deliver it to service consumers. Information technology has been only minimally deployed to meet this this integrative challenge. challenge. Generally, information about human services remains within the discrete "caches" of departmental or agency web pages.



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SECTION 4 ONLINE DIRECTORIES

   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

SECTION 4 ONLINE HUMAN SERVICE DIRECTORIES INTRODUCTION TO ONLINE SERVICE DIRECTORIES

 ACCESSIBILITY FACTOR 1: EASE OF FINDING

 ACCESSIBILITY FACTOR 2: INFORMATION ORGANIZATION

 ACCESSIBILITY FACTOR 3: INFORMATION LINKAGE

ONLINE SERVICE DIRECTORIES: SECTION SUMMARY

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

"Ten-City

Scan"TM

Introduction to the Service Directories

Online human service directories that list services in America's ten largest cities were scanned for information accessibility and content.

Online Directories Scanned City

Area Served

Directory

Area Population

Link

New York

United Way CARES Database

County

7,956,113

http://www.unitedwaynyc.org/?id=66

Los Angeles

Healthy City

County

9,758,886

http://www.healthycity.org/

Chicago

Directory of Health & Human Services

Region

8,217,201

http://www.communityresourcenetwork.org

Houston

2-1-1 Texas

State

22,270,165

Philadelphia

Philly SOS

City

1,406,415

http://www.phillysos.org/

Phoenix

Arizona 2-1-1

State

5,829,839

http://az211.gov/

San Antonio

2-1-1 Texas

State

(above)

https://www.211texas.org/211/

San Diego

Inform San Diego

County

2,824,259

http://www.infoline-sd.org/

Dallas

2-1-1 Texas

State

(above)

https://www.211texas.org/211/

San Jose

2-1-1 Santa Clara County

County



Total

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1,669,890 59,932,768

https://www.211texas.org/211/

http://www.211scc.org/ Source: US Census Bureau, 2005 American American Community Survey

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I



   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



"Ten-City

Scan"TM

Introduction to the Service Directories

Initial High-Level Scan  Nine nonprofit, one municipal, municipal, and two state directories were targeted for initial scanning. Information about the directories, organizations involved in managing and funding them, and implementation strategies was reviewed. Detailed Accessibility Scan Eight online directories and several hundred related pages of information were examined in detail:  – 

To develop an understanding of query logic, a total of 36 query variations was mapped in detail and documented.

 – 

To evaluate the three Accessibility Factors (Ease of Finding, Information Organization, and Information Linkage) a total of 40 queries was run, timed, analyzed in detail, and documented.



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"Ten-City

Scan"TM

Introduction to the Service Directories



Techniques that support the three Accessibility Factors, and the strengths, weaknesses, and good practices associated with each, are reviewed in this section.



This interactive PowerPoint presentation includes hyperlinks for good practice examples. The thumbnail images and Integer Integer globe graphics that represent these examples are hyperlinked to specific Internet web pages for detailed review by the audience.

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I

"Ten-City

Scan"TM

Introduction to the Service Directories

Online Human Service Directories

City

Directory

Area Served

Sector Scope

Lead Organization

Organization Type

New York

United Way of New York City CARES Database

County

Public & Private

United Way of New York City

Nonprofi t

Los Angeles

Healthy City

County

Public & Private

Healthy City Project

Nonprofit

Chicago

Directory of Health & Human Services in Metropolitan Chicago

Region

Public & Private

Community Resource Network

Nonprofit

Houston

2-1-1 Texas

State

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

Public & Private

State of Texas Health and Human Services Commission (HHSC)

Public-Private Partnership

Philadelphia

Philly SOS

City

Public & Private

City of Philadelphia Department of Human Services

Government (City)

Phoenix

Arizona 2-1-1 Online

State

Public & Private

State of Arizona

Government (State)

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

San Antonio

2-1-1 Texas

State

Public & Private

State of Texas Health and Human Services Commission (HHSC)

Public-Private Partnership

San Diego

Inform San Diego

County

Public & Private

2-1-1 San Diego

Nonprofit

Dallas

2-1-1 Texas

State

Public & Private

State of Texas Health and Human Services Commission (HHSC)

Public-Private Partnership

San Jose

2-1-1 Santa Clara County

County

Public & Private

United Way of Silicon Valley

Nonprofi t

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

Ease of Finding: Overview

The scan identified three techniques that enhance the ease of finding online human service directory information.

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



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Definition Definitio n •

An interface which provides the user with a set of categories or a list of choices to define the search.



Categorical functionality: AIRS/INFO LINE* Human LINE*  Human Service Service Taxonomy terms Taxonomy  terms (and variations thereof) for services and/or target populations.

Strengths •

Potentially fast and efficient way to guide user choice of search categories and/or terms.



"Educates" the user about the ways information is organized and characterized in the directory.

 –  Commonly-used



May adhere to a commonly-used framework, such as AIRS, for defining human service information.



Help screen may be supplied to explain categorical choices.

 –  Locally-defined

categories specific to the directory.



List-based choice functionality:  –  Custom lists of search values

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

Technique 1: Categorical Search

TECHNIQUE 1: CATEGORICAL SEARCH FUNCTIONALITY

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

for services, target populations, populations, languages, and geographies to confine user choice to specific search terms.

Weaknesses •

Information & Referral specialists are familiar with AIRS categories,  but other users users (such as the the general  public) are generally generally not. not.



All categorical organization schemes reflect decisions about how information is defined and organized. Without explanatory information, information, a categorical framework may be confusing and of limited use.



Poorly-designed categorical searches may lead users into a time-consuming multi-screen search that may produce zero results.

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



* AIRS, the Alliance of Information and Referral Referral Systems, is a professional membership organization which, in in collaboration with the United Way Way of America, had led the 2-1-1 movement. AIRS has endorsed the INFO LINE Taxonomy of Human Services for defining and indexing human services.

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

Technique 1: Categorical Search

TECHNIQUE 1: CATEGORICAL SEARCH FUNCTIONALITY Good Practice

Description and Links •

Healthy City (Los Angeles County)

• •

Arizona 2-1-1 Online (State of Arizona)

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

Philly SOS (City of Philadelphia)

Provides the main AIRS categories to guide the search, supported with descriptive information under each category and pop-up detail. Provides a categorical browse facility, organized alphabetically like a dictionary. Supplies extensive online documentation pertinent to categorical searches.



Customized categorical search is built around two broad functional categories, Health and Human Services, and Emergency Response. When a subcategory within these is selected, the system provides related keywords to initiate the search.



Provides a hierarchical AIRS-based AIRS-based service category list with record counts to ensure positive search results.

© Copyright 2007 Health City

© Copyright 2007 State of Arizona

• Provides a hierarchical AIRS-based AIRS-based service category list with record counts to ensure positive search results. • Provides an AIRS-based target population category list with record counts to ensure positive search results. • Supplies a list of most-frequently most-frequently searched categories as a  possible time-savings time-savings device. device.



© Copyright 2007 City of Philadelphia

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 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

Technique 1: Categorical Search

TECHNIQUE 1: CATEGORICAL SEARCH FUNCTIONALITY Good Practice

Description and Links •

2-1-1 Texas (State of Texas)

• • •

Provides categorical search for Child Care and Education Services. Supplies online help to inform users about program content and eligibility. Search process is linked to electronic service referral action. Provides diagram to depict the search/referral search/referral process. © Copyright 2007 State of Texas

Directory of Health & Human Services Online (Community Resource Network, Chicago)



List-based searches:  –  Services.  –  Geographic  –  Type

Area (county, community area, township).

of business (government, nonprofit, etc.).

 Note: a logon and password password are required required to access this this directory. directory. © Copyright 2004 Community Resource Network

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



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Definition •

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C



   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

Technique 2: Keyword Search

TECHNIQUE 2: KEYWORD SEARCH FUNCTIONALITY FUNCTIONALIT Y

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding



An interface which provides the user with a blank field to enter search terms of his or her own choosing. Database may be indexed by selected descriptive fields or full database text (words in text).

Strengths •





Keyword Search Functionality: Functionality:  –  Search by text

string variations (full or partial word, multiple words)

 –  Hybrid

Keyword + Categorical searches enable rapid narrowing of the search.



Affords maximum flexibility and  breadth of search. search.

Weaknesses •

Relies less on knowledge of human services than categorical search functionality.

Users may be intimidated by a search box if they are not sure what they are looking for.



Use of text string variations significantly increases the likelihood of a successful search.

Users that are unfamiliar with human services may supply ineffective or inaccurate keywords.



Full words-in-text indexing of data enables search of any significant word, regardless of category.

Ineffective searches may lead to a vast number of search results, (or no results).



Users entering multiple search  parameters on on one screen screen may not realize that they are joining them with a Boolean AND operator. This increases the risk of an unintended search argument and of a search failure.

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



Search functionality may not compensate compensate for misspellings.



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Technique 2: Keyword Search

TECHNIQUE 2: KEYWORD SEARCH FUNCTIONALITY Good Practice

Description and Links •

Arizona 2-1-1 Online (State of Arizona)

Multiple configurations of keyword searches are supported  –  Basic keyword search.  –  Hybrid simple search (keyword + list box).  –  Hybrid advanced search (keyword + list box + AIRS taxonomy terms or codes). © Copyright 2007 State of Arizona



2-1-1 Texas (State of Texas)

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

Basic search  –  Service keyword OR agency keyword AND Location (zip, county, or city), with county and city list.  –  Interim results provide categories to narrow search.  –  Popup help to define categories.  –  Popup agency list preview reduces unneeded navigation. © Copyright 2007 State of Texas

Healthy City (Los Angeles County)

• Basic (simple) search produces provider list that can be sorted alphabetically and narrowed by location. • Quick search supplies hybrid search (service keyword OR agency keyword, both supported by underlying lists) plus an alphabetical alphabetical browse facility for services and agencies.



© Copyright 2007 Health City

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Technique 3: Place-Based Search

TECHNIQUE 3: PLACE-BASED SEARCH FUNCTIONALITY Definition •

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

An interface which allows the user to enter a location (such as an address) in free form or choose from a specified unit of geography (e.g., city, county) to begin the search. directories  provide at least least one place based search search parameter. parameter.

Strengths •



 –  Maps of agencies.    S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

Weak implementations:  –  Lack lists of location values

like zip codes, creating an extra search step to find the appropriate value.

 –  Provider service site.  –  Area •



Search outputs may include:  –  Lists of agencies.



consumer home, work, or school location.

 –  Many provide lists of valid

values of city or county names from which to choose.

Location is an essential factor in finding resources:

Weaknesses

 –  Service

 –  All eight online

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding



served by the provider.

Most users are familiar with search  parameters such such as city, city, zip, or address. Location information provides a  basis for planning planning routes via public or private transportation. transportation. Location information provides a  basis for proximity proximity searches (resources can be listed by distance from the search location).

 –  Do

not supply enough different location parameters to narrow the search (e.g., city and zip).

 –  Do

not supply enough information to make proximity searches possible.

 –  Do

not distinguish between the area in which a provider is located and the area which the  provider serves. serves.



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Good Practice

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

Description and Links •

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

Technique 3: Place-Based Search

TECHNIQUE 3: PLACE-BASED SEARCH FUNCTIONALITY

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding



Healthy City (Los Angeles County)



"Search My Neighborhood"  –  Begins with wide variety of location parameters (e.g., address, zip, city, census tract, planning/service unit).  –  Produces map with community organizations marked by  primary AIRS categories, categories, plus a marker marker for Los Angeles city resources. "Your Community Map"  –  Enables users to view selected community and city resources within the location parameters (address, zip, etc.).  –  Lists organizations selected selected for the map, with a link for each organization to the underlying resource directory. "Create Community Profile"  –  Enables users to select community characteristics characteristics for their map such as demographics, health conditions, housing, and other factors.  –  Community resource types can be selected and added to the map.

© Copyright 2007 Health City



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 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

Ease of Finding: Summary

Ease of Finding: Summary

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

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   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

Ease of Finding: Summary

Ease of Finding: Summary 1.

Substantial Investment has been devoted to making information easy to find in the online online directories. Each directory uses its own custom search applications.

2. Categorical/List Based Search: All the directories use some form

of categorical or list-based search vehicle, or a combination of  both. 3. Keyword Search: Six websites websites offer offer keyword keyword search

functionality. functionality. Four of these employ a hybrid approach that uses categories or lists to refine a keyword search that has been initiated. Two directories directories provide provide "pure" keyword searches searches that do not employ a categorical framework as part of the search. s earch.



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   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

 Accessibility Factor 1: Ease of Finding

Ease of Finding: Summary

Ease of Finding: Summary 4. Keyword Searches Outperformed Categorical Searches: The

Scan's observations showed that information was easier to find using keyword searches searches than categorical categorical searches. Also, keyword searches produced results, on average, in less than half the time required by categorical searches. 5. More Place-Based Search Functionality Needed: Only one

directory makes extensive use of place-based finding aids. Because geography is a crucial dimension of service access, this functionality should be more widely implemented. 6. "100% Easy to Find" Should Be The Goal: It seems fair to

assume that online service directories should strive for this goal. While strong progress has been made toward it, more is needed.



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 Accessibility Factor 2: Information Organization

Information Organization: Overview

The "Ten-City Scan" TM identified two techniques to enhance the organization of human service information.

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   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

 Accessibility Factor 2: Information Organization

Technique 1: List Format

TECHNIQUE 1: LIST FORMAT FORMAT ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONALITY Definition Definiti on •

Organizes search results in an array that can be sorted, selected, searched, and/or refined. Desirable functionality:  –  View

or search information that summarizes detailed record.

 –  Sort

by agency name, service, or geography.

Strengths •

Easier and faster identification of information that warrants a detailed review.



Reduces navigational effort.



Identification of resources in a defined geographic area.



Quantification of distance to specific human services.

search by narrowing the geographic area (e.g., from city to zip).

Weaknesses •

Limited (or no) summary information in a result list makes it necessary to review all detailed records produced by the search.



Search effectiveness within a results list is sharply curtailed if results cannot be arrayed on a single screen with searchable text. (Frequently, long result lists are divided into multiple screens.)



Sorting by a single variable (such as agency name) provides limited advantage.

 –  Contract

 –  Expand

search by widening geographic area.

 –  Sort entries in list

by distance from a specific geographic  point (proximity (proximity search/sort). search/sort).



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   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

Technique 1: List Format

TECHNIQUE 1: LIST FORMAT ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONALITY Functionality Functionalit y

View/Search Summary Information in List Format

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

 Accessibility Factor 2: Information Organization

Good Practice

Description and Links

Arizona 2-1-1

Meaningful service summary makes services easier to find and reduces unnecessary navigation.

2-1-1 Texas

Meaningful service summary makes services easier to find and reduces unnecessary navigation.

Healthy City

Popup agency detail reduces unnecessary navigation; "Show All" records list format allows search of entire list. "Expand Search" geographic scope from city to county and/or to state (at bottom of list).

2-1-1 Texas

Expand functional scope of service search results ("See Also Terms" at right of list).

Modify List Scope

Sort List Results

Select List Results

Healthy City

Expand or reduce scope by geographic units.

Arizona 2-1-1

Sort results by distance (in miles) from zip code.

2-1-1 Santa Clara

Sort results by agency name or city.

Directory of Health & Human Services (CRN, Chicago)

Sort results by any of the columns displayed in results list (organization, address, city, state, zip, phone, geographic area) [requires login and password].

Philly SOS

List entries can be selecte d for viewing and printing.



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   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

 Accessibility Factor 2: Information Organization

Technique 2: Detailed Record Format

TECHNIQUE 2: DETAILED RECORD ORGANIZATION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONALITY Definition •

Information is logically grouped and ordered to describe the service, who it serves, its location, how it is acquired, and who provides it. Representative Representative groupings:  –  Service

description. description.

 –  Population and/or area served.  –  Service site

information, information, including address and driving and transit directions.

Strengths •

Content grouping draws attention to essential clusters of information about service content, location, target population, and eligibility and access.



Well organized detailed information also supplies information about the service provider and its portfolio of services.

Weaknesses •

Schemes for organizing and delivering content can be weak if supporting definitions are not supplied. (For example, example, the difference between a "program" and a "service" is generally not given.)



Information on provider organizations is frequently given a higher priority than the information about programs and services. Service consumers are likely more interested in service detail than  provider detail. detail.



Field labels are suppressed when no data has been supplied for a record field. The user may be unaware that the directory does collect does collect this type of information despite its absence in this particular record.

 –  Contact information,

including telephone, fax, and e-mail.

 –  Service acquisition process,

including eligibility, intake  process, fees, and and payment. payment.  –  Agency

information (to the extent it is useful/relevant).



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   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

Technique 2: Detailed Record Format

TECHNIQUE 2: DETAILED RECORD ORGANIZATION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONALITY FUNCTIONALIT Y Functionality Functionali ty

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

 Accessibility Factor 2: Information Organization

Content Grouping

Clearly Structured and Identified Content

Good Practice

Description and Links

2-1-1 Texas

Information groups focus on agency location and contact, service content, and service eligibility and access (drill down to detail from list).

2-1-1 Santa Clara

Information group focuses on details of service eligibility and access (bottom of screen).

2-1-1 Texas

Information group focuses on contacting the provider of information and/or correcting information content (drill down to detail from list).

Arizona 2-1-1

Content is grouped and each grouping is clearly identified.

Inform San Diego

Information linkages are provided between site, service, and agency.

Arizona 2-1-1

Information linkages are provided between a gency, programs, and services (bottom of screen).

Linkages between Service and Provider Detail



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 Accessibility Factor 2: Information Organization

List Format: Summary

List Format: Summary

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

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   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

 Accessibility Factor 2: Information Organization

List Format: Summary

List Format: Summary 1. Effective List Format Functionality Is Essential because it

supplies crucial leverage in information searches. List format should display a snapshot of essential information of all  records  records in a search result set, enabling the user to scan the list swiftly and reach a decision about whether to examine the selected records in detail or execute another search. The user should be able to narrow or broaden a search after scanning the list, and also be able to sort search results based on multiple parameters. Three directories met several or most of these criteria with great distinction, enabling the user to scan, organize, and/or refine search results effectively and efficiently.



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 Accessibility Factor 2: Information Organization

List Format: Summary

List Format: Summary 2. Weak Implementations Deter Effective Searching: Some of the

online directory list formats supply only an agency name and/or a service name in the list. Unless a user has a specific agency agency or  program in mind, it is necessary to review the result list on a record-by-record basis –– an indefensible misuse of the user's time and energy. energy. Poor implementations of this sort pose the risk of users abandoning an online directory in favor of other vehicles that either work more effectively –– or present that appearance.

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 Accessibility Factor 2: Information Organization

Detailed Record Format: Summary

Detailed Record Format: Summary

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 Accessibility Factor 2: Information Organization

Detailed Record Format: Summary

Detailed Record Format: Summary 1. Detailed content is organized fairly well  in the online directories.

Typically, ypically, it is grouped into material describing service providers and material detailing programs and services. 2. Web design doesn't contribute to good organization as much as it

could. Many web pages do not use layout, layout, white space, space, labeling, typography, typography, or color to accentuate the information groups effectively. effectively. 3. None of the directories provided definitions for their content

groups. Key terms like site, like site, service organization organization,, program, program, and  and  service would  service would benefit from being defined, and from that essential information being positioned on the web page where the detailed information is provided.



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 Accessibility Factor 2: Information Organization

Detailed Record Format: Summary

Detailed Record Format: Summary 4. Content sequencing should spotlight services instead of

providers. In many instances, the top of the web w eb page is devoted to service provider or site detail. detail. Service content and access information appears farther down the page, often "below the fold."

In a service directory, it can be argued, this sequence should be inverted, with primary focus placed on services, not on the organizations that provide them. The organization of service content itself should highlight the service  process.  process. Consumers and case managers are concerned concerned with service service detail, but also with the specific steps that must be followed to successfully secure the service. Consistent and effective effective content organization can highlight the process.



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 Accessibility Factor 3: Information Linkage

Information Linkage: Overview

The scan identified five techniques employed to link human service information together in a more holistic manner.

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Definition Definitio n

Strengths



Administrative Links: Links that  provide functionality functionality for adding adding and maintaining data, contacting the organization operating the directory, providing feedback, and downloading needed material.





Organizational Links: Links to the websites of organizations organizations listed in the online directory and to other relevant organizations.





Service Capacity Links: Links to information about the service capacity at a particular site.



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Linkage Techniques

INFORMATION LINKAGE TECHNIQUES 1 - 3

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Enables users to maintain contact with online directory provider in order to exchange information.

Enables users to access more detailed information on service  providers and and on other relevant relevant  public- and private-sector private-sector organizations.

Information on service capacity and current percentage of utilization makes acquisition of available resources faster and more efficient.

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Weaknesses •





May create higher expectations for responsiveness and service than the directory provider is capable of  providing.  providing.

Potentially high overhead for maintenance of links to external sites.

Requires exceptional commitment  by providers, providers, because frequent frequent updates are needed to ensure currency and accuracy of information.

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 Accessibility Factor 3: Information Linkage

Linkage Techniques

LINKAGE STRATEGIES 4 AND 5 Definition

Strengths

Weaknesses



Informational Links: Links to general information, news  bulletins, and educational educational materials.



Human service directory sites are logical places to supply relevant information to the general public.



It is labor-intensive labor-intensive to maintain a  broad and current current portfolio portfolio of information.



Emergency Management Links: Links to local, state, and federal emergency management organizations, to emergency information, and emergency  preparedness  preparedness guides and and  procedures.  procedures.



"One-stop shopping" for emergency and non-emergency human services enables more efficient identification of needed resources, regardless of provider "silo" or the circumstances of the service need.



Links connect, but they do not integrate, information. information. No vehicle was found that integrates information of the various local, state, and federal organizations that  provide emergency emergency managemen managementt services.

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Linkage Techniques

INFORMATION LINKAGE STRATEGIES TECHNIQUE

Administrative Links

Organizational Links Service Capacity Links

Informational Links

Good Practice

Description and Links

2-1-1 Texas

Links to Area Information Centers that are responsible for maintaining and updating data in the directory.

Healthy City

Link for communicating with organization maintaining the directory.

2-1-1 Santa Clara County

Links for downloading data forms, supported with explanatory content and diagrams.

Inform San Diego

Links to relevant public- and private-sector organizations.

2-1-1 Texas

Links to state agencies and other administrative resources.

Inform San Diego

Links to capacity information for mental health services. Links to state's 2-1-1 strategic plan, policy and implementation information.

Arizona 2-1-1

Links to health information topics (top right of screen). Links to state emergency bulletins. Arizona 2-1-1

Link to emergency preparedness and planning website (Just in Case Arizona, Featured Section).

Emergency Management Links Inform San Diego

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 Accessibility Factor 3: Information Linkage

Information Linkage: Summary

Information Linkage: Summary

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 Accessibility Factor 3: Information Linkage

Information Linkage: Summary

Information Linkage: Summary 1. Overall, links are somewhat well used to support administrative,

informational, and and emergency emergency service functions. functions. However, links could be used more widely and effectively for these and additional  purposes. for  a variety of 2. Administrative links are used to good effect for a  purposes. For example, links are provided to enable online online data correction or to download data entry forms. 3. Organizational links are used by some directories to connect

summary-level directory information with detailed information on service provider websites. An inherent limitation limitation exists in that a number of providers lack websites.



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 Accessibility Factor 3: Information Linkage

Information Linkage: Summary

Information Linkage: Summary 4. Links between the directories and government human service

agencies are not widely implemented. implemented. The converse is also true: links from relevant pages of the city websites to the online directories are almost nonexistent. This is an important important shortcoming that could be readily remedied. 5. Half the directories provide links to emergency management

agencies, whether at the local, state, and/or federal level; half do not. Establishing such linkages linkages should carry a high high priority. priority. 6. A variety of information links is provided to bulletins on

emergency situations, public health topics, policy documents, and directory FAQs.



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Section Summary

Summary of Accessibility Ratings

Section Summary 1.

Summary of Accessibility Ratings Ratings for the three Accessibility Factors are shown in the figure  below. Human service information delivery ranges from moderately effective and efficient to reasonably well-suited to an experienced computer user. Accomplishments and improvement opportunities are both evident.

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Section Summary

Summary of Accessibility Ratings

Section Summary 1.

Summary of Accessibility Ratings (cont'd) There was a range of performance ratings, including query failures. Expectations were set somewhat higher for the online directories than for city websites because of their more focused nature and defined defined scope. Delivering query results results poorly, slowly, or not at all is an important shortcoming.

The websites that consistently performed well demonstrated important elements of planning, design, and implementation of very high quality. quality. These will serve as excellent foundations for expansion and are exemplars for organizations in the process of developing or redesigning their directories.



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Section Summary

Observations

Section Summary 2. Observations

Several general observations about online directories crystallized in the course of the Scan. Historical Origins Online human service directories arise from a long and venerable history of community-based information gathering about local social services. services. Over the years, directories directories of community community resources have been maintained and published by local United Ways, information and referral agencies, and other community organizations. In many cases, such published guides have evolved to, or been supplemented by, online directories. A continued evolution of human service information delivery lies ahead.



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Observations

Section Summary 2. Observations (cont'd)

Organizational Models Online directories are produced by several different organizational models. Some of these demonstrate important innovations in data gathering and integration, funding, and information technology deployment. •

In New York, Los Angeles, A ngeles, Chicago, San Diego, and San Jose, nonprofit organizations maintain maintain the directories. In several of these organizations, governance includes leaders from the public sector.



Philadelphia's Department of Human Services maintains an online directory of public and private resources.

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Section Summary



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Observations

Section Summary 2. Observations (cont'd)

Organizational Models •

Texas has formed public-private partnerships with local nonprofits across the state. The state funds funds the nonprofits to manage information and referral functions and to maintain regional resource data. Texas integrates public- and privateprivatesector human service information and delivers it in the 2-1-1 Texas online directory.



Arizona developed a comprehensive strategic plan for statewide implementation implementation of 211 services. It collaborated with local partners to implement statewide information and referral services and a human and emergency services website and directory (Arizona 2-1-1).

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Section Summary

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Section Summary

Observations

Section Summary 2. Observations (cont'd)

Multiple Information Objectives Several websites are targeted to meet multiple objectives. • Arizona's strategy is to improve human service delivery and also

to contain costs and deliver emergency information. • The Los Angeles Healthy City website functions as a community information system to integrate human service s ervice information with demographic, health, and school data. • The 2-1-1 Texas website functions as a directory, as a location to initiate benefit applications, and as a way to report “waste, fraud, and abuse” in human service programs.



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Observations

Section Summary 2. Observations (cont'd)

Works in Progress The online directories are in a dynamic environment that will likely continue to evolve in the coming years. •

Information is provided at a number of directory sites about the plans underlying their development and forthcoming versions and enhancements.



 New York City and United Way Way of New York have announced a joint venture to include nonprofit human service information in the city's 311 system.



Many of the sites provide a vehicle for user feedback on website improvement improvement opportunities. opportunities. Links and electronic forms are provided for this purpose.

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Section Summary

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Section Summary

Challenges

Section Summary 3. Challenges

User Community Size and Diversity The online directories serve a very large and diverse user community. As earlier reviewed, reviewed, the larger larger geographic scope of some of the directories (counties, regions, and entire states) expands the total population served by the directories to nearly 60 million people. Service Provider Scope and Diversity The providers listed in the online directories are very numerous and range enormously in mission, organizational size, geographic distribution, locations, funding, and service portfolios. Cataloguing and maintaining provider and service data is a formidable and ongoing challenge. "TEN CITY SCAN" TM

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Section Summary

Challenges

Section Summary 3. Challenges (cont'd)

Funding and Cost Justification Bringing good online directories to scale and maintaining the quality of the data for the long term requires sizable s izable investment in material, human, and information technology resources. Different funding streams are employed to support the online directories, including individual and corporate donations, foundation grants, government funding, and, in California, Proposition 10 cigarette tax revenues.

Throughout the country, at local, county, state, and federal levels, the challenge is to demonstrate that investment in information and technology is an essential prerequisite to providing human services effectively to Americans.



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Section 5: General Summary

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SECTION 5 GENERAL REPORT SUMMARY

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 A Work in Progress; Section 5: General Report Summary Striking Advances

   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

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General Report Summary Ongoing Work in Progress The findings of the "Ten-City "Ten-City Scan" TM suggest that human service information delivery in America's America's ten largest cities is an ongoing work in progress. The challenges are enormous, the variations of practice are wide, and improvement is constant. Striking Advances The Scan shows in detail that finding human service information can be a challenging and time-consuming process, even for experienced computer and Internet users. At the same time, a number of striking advances and good practices are evident. The most significant significant accomplishments are founded on a rigorous understanding of the strategic importance importance of human service information: that good information can guide the public "TEN CITY SCAN" TM

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



Striking Advances; Necessary Questions

General Report Summary Striking Advances (cont'd) in getting help; that it can help government achieve cost control and reduce waste; and that it can provide a foundation for connecting citizens with essential resources during emergencies. Necessary Questions The Scan's findings also raise important questions about the desirability and potential impact of change: • What if municipalities continue to deliver human service

information just as they do today? today? How significant a problem will this pose (if at all)? • Is human service information delivery a purely local issue that

should be resolved on a town-by-town and city-by-city basis? Is wider involvement really needed or desirable? "TEN CITY SCAN" TM

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Section 5: General Report Summary

   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

Necessary Questions

General Report Summary Necessary Questions (cont'd) • A wide-scale change of human service information delivery will

cross all kinds of boundaries: public and private private sector; local, local, state, and federal government; secular and religious; and perhaps even nonprofit and and for-profit. What's the incentive to cooperate and bridge these boundaries? boundaries? Who will lead and fund the effort? Will investing in better human service information delivery • Will systems divert scarce resources from the human service programs themselves? • What if providing better service information causes an upswing in

demand that overwhelms existing human service capacity?



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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

Necessary Questions

General Report Summary Necessary Questions (cont'd)

Will improved service information also help people in our society • Will who are not reliant on government services? How? the digital divide? divide? How will better human service • What about the information help people who don't have their own computers? How will it help people who are not comfortable with computers or the Internet? • Purchasing a product on the Internet has evolved into a well-

established process: people search for, find, and purchase what they want. Will Will the Internet have a similar impact on the way that human services are provided?



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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



Finding the Answers

General Report Summary Developing the Answers As with other complex issues that affect individuals, communities, and the nation, nation, the questions are numerous and and difficult. But they need to be asked and answered.

It is hoped that the "Ten-City "Ten-City Scan" TM will encourage audiences involved in delivering, referring, funding, and accessing human services to address the questions through thoughtful discussion,  brainstorming, and action. action. Fortunately, Fortunately, such discussion can be informed by the knowledge and experience of public- and private-sector leaders who have been developing good practices in human service information design, technology deployment, resource organization, and funding such as those reviewed in the "Ten City Scan" TM. "TEN CITY SCAN" TM

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SECTION 6  APPENDICES

   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

SECTION 6 APPENDICES

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

CONCORDANCE OF LINKS

INTEGER RESEARCH & CONSULTING,, L LC CONSULTING

RESEARCH REPORTS  AND SEMINARS

CONTACT INFORMATION

 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I

City

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



City Web Pages Reviewed

City Web Pages Reviewed in the "Ten-City Scan" TM

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

Concordance of Links

New York City

Subject

Root URL

Home Page

http://www.nyc.gov/portal/site/nycgov/

Health and Human Services Listing

http://www.nyc.gov/portal/site/nycgov/menuitem. 743f4d965e39ade6a62fa24601c789a0/

Human Resources Administration/ Department of Social Services

http://www.nyc.gov/html/hra/html/home/home.shtml

 New York York City Health and Hospitals Corporation

http://www.nyc.gov/html/hhc/html/facilities/map.shtml

 New York York City Department for the Aging

http://www.nyc.gov/html/dfta/html/home/home.shtml

 NYC Department of Homeless Services

http://www.nyc.gov/html/dhs/html/home/home.shtml

 New York York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/home/home.shtml

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I

City

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



City Web Pages Reviewed

City Web Pages Reviewed in the "Ten-City Scan" TM

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

Concordance of Links

Los Angeles

Subject

URL

Home Page

http://www.ci.la.ca.us/

Citywide Services Directory

http://publiccsd.lacity.org/CSD/categories/index.cfm? QTP=F4971DAF-0BEC-721BE4D9EC0B140A4F06&Fuseaction=viewcategorylist

Citywide Services DirectoryChild Care Information and Assistance

http://publiccsd.lacity.org/CSD/index.cfm?QTP=F4A9CD3C-A3E8-2FF4B681DBBEEE8E5668&Fuseaction=viewservice&SERVICE_ID=1086

Citywide Services DirectoryAIDS Coordinator's Office

http://publiccsd.lacity.org/CSD/index.cfm?QTP=FDA9BAA0-F132B147-851DF51351256699&Fuseaction=viewservice&SERVICE_ID=1293

Citywide Services DirectoryAdult Day Program

http://publiccsd.lacity.org/CSD/index.cfm?QTP=FDA831FE-916DA311-688A260CEB4DB417&Fuseaction=viewservice&SERVICE_ID=2762

Citywide Services DirectoryDomestic Violence Program, Shelter-Based Operations

http://publiccsd.lacity.org/CSD/index.cfm?QTP=FDB41456-EEAE-A075C895EB73D72E8D7E&Fuseaction=viewservice&SERVICE_ID=2093

Citywide Services DirectoryCommission for Children, Youth & Their Families/Children/Youth Families/Children/Youth Services

http://publiccsd.lacity.org/CSD/index.cfm?QTP=FDBF02B2-D022-D4AEBA9AE9DB258591F5&Fuseaction=viewservice&SERVICE_ID=2612

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I

City

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

Chicago

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



City Web Pages Reviewed

City Web Pages Reviewed in the "Ten-City Scan" TM

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

Concordance of Links

Subject

URL

Home Page

http://egov.cityofchicago.org/city/webportal/home.do

Chicago Department of Human Services

http://egov.cityofchicago.org/city/webportal/portalEntityHomeAction.do? entityName=Human +Services&entityNameEnumValue=24&Failed_Reason=Invalid+timestamp, +engine+has+been+restarted&com.broadvision.session.new=Y +engine+has+been+restarted&com.b roadvision.session.new=Yes&Failed_Page= es&Failed_Page= %2fwebportal%2fportalEntityHomeAc

Chicago Department on Aging

http://egov.cityofchicago.org/city/webportal/portalEntityHomeAction.do? entityName=Aging&entityNameEnumValue=1&Failed_Reason=Invalid +timestamp,+engine+has+been +restarted&com.broadvision.session.new=Yes&F +restarted&com.broadvision.session.n ew=Yes&Failed_Page=%2fwebportal ailed_Page=%2fwebportal %2fportalEntityHomeAction.do

Chicago Department of Children & Youth Services

http://egov.cityofchicago.org/city/webportal/portalEntityHomeAction.do? entityName=Children+and+Youth +Services&entityNameEnumValue=143&Failed_Reason=Invalid+timestamp, +engine+has+been+restarted&com.broadvision.session.new=Y +engine+has+been+restarted&com.b roadvision.session.new=Yes&Failed_Page= es&Failed_Page= %2fwebportal%2fport

Chicago Department of Public Health

http://egov.cityofchicago.org/city/webportal/portalEntityHomeAction.do? entityName=Health&entityNameEnumValue=21&Failed_Reason=Invalid +timestamp,+engine+has+been +restarted&com.broadvision.session.new=Yes&F +restarted&com.broadvision.session.n ew=Yes&Failed_Page=%2fwebportal ailed_Page=%2fwebportal %2fportalEntityHomeAction.do

Mayor's Office on Domestic Violence

http://egov.cityofchicago.org/city/webportal/portalEntityHomeAction.do? entityName=Domestic+Violence&entityNameEnumValue=141

http://egov.cityofchicago.org/city/webportal/portalEntityHomeAction.do? entityName=Disabilities&entityNameEnumValue=11&Failed_Reason=Invalid Mayor's Office for People with Disabilities +timestamp,+engine+has+been +restarted&com.broadvision.session.new=Yes&F +restarted&com.broadvision.session.n ailed_Page=%2fwebportal "TEN CITY SCAN" TM ! Copyright 2007 Integer Research & Consulting,ew=Yes&Failed_Page=%2fwebportal LLC %2fportalEntityHomeActi

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I

City

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



City Web Pages Reviewed

City Web Pages Reviewed in the "Ten-City Scan" TM

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

Concordance of Links

Subject

URL

Home Page

http://www.houstontx.gov/

Department of Health and Human Services

http://www.houstontx.gov/health/index.html

City of Houston link to Harris County Area Agency on Aging

http://www.houstontx.gov/health/Aging/index.html

Department of Health and Human ServicesHealth Centers

http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HealthCenters/index.html

Houston

Department of Health and Human ServicesMedical Centers

http://www.houstontx.gov/health/MedicalServices/index.html

Department of Health and Human ServicesAIDS/HIV Prevention and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HIV-STD/index.html

Department of Health and Human ServicesWomen, Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Program

http://www.houstontx.gov/health/WIC/index.html

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I

City

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



City Web Pages Reviewed

City Web Pages Reviewed in the "Ten-City Scan" TM

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

Concordance of Links

Philadelphia

Subject

URL

Home Page

http://www.phila.gov/

Department of Human Services

http://dhs.phila.gov/intranet/PGintrahome_pub.nsf 

Department of Human ServicesChildren and Youth Division

http://dhs.phila.gov/intranet/pgintrahome_pub.nsf/content/cydhomepage

Department of Human ServicesDivision of Juvenile Justice Services

http://dhs.phila.gov/intranet/pgintrahome_pub.nsf/content/jjshomepage

Department of Human ServicesDivision of Community Based Prevention Services

http://dhs.phila.gov/intranet/pgintrahome_pub.nsf/content/prevention+-+home

Department of Human ServicesFoster Care and Adoption

http://dhs.phila.gov/intranet/pgintrahome_pub.nsf/content/Adoption

Mayor’s Commission on People with Disabilities

http://www.phila.gov/mcpd/

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I

City

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



City Web Pages Reviewed

City Web Pages Reviewed in the "Ten-City Scan" TM

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

Concordance of Links

Phoenix

Subject

URL

Home Page

http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/

Resources for ResidentsSocial Services

http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/RESIDENTS/SOCSERV/index.html

Social ServicesParents and Families Programs and Information

http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/menu/ressocparprog.html

Social ServicesTraining and Employment

http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/menu/ressocythtrain.html

Social ServicesSenior Centers

http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/menu/ressocsrcntrs.html

Social ServicesVictim Services

http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/menu/ressocvicsvcs.html

Social ServicesAdditional Programs-Programs for Women Women

http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/menu/ressocaddwomen.html

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I

City

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



City Web Pages Reviewed

City Web Pages Reviewed in the "Ten-City Scan" TM

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

Concordance of Links

San Antonio

Subject

URL

Home Page

http://www.sanantonio.gov/?res=1024&ver=true

Community Initiatives and Related Links

http://www.sanantonio.gov/comminit/

Community InitiativesBasic Needs

http://www.sanantonio.gov/comminit/BasicNeeds/basicneeds.asp

Community InitiativesHomeless Services Division

http://www.sanantonio.gov/comminit/cad/cadmain.asp

Community InitiativesSenior Services Division

http://www.sanantonio.gov/comminit/eds/edsmain.asp

Community InitiativesYouth Youth Services Division

http://www.sanantonio.gov/comminit/youthsrv/ysmain.asp

Community InitiativesChild Care Delivery System

http://www.sanantonio.gov/comminit/crd/crdmain.asp

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I

City

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

City Web Pages Reviewed

City Web Pages Reviewed in the "Ten-City Scan" TM

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

Concordance of Links

San Diego

Subject

URL

Home Page

http://www.sandiego.gov/

Community Directory

http://www.sandiego.gov/directories/community.shtml

Community ServicesChild Care Services

http://www.sandiego.gov/communityservices/childcare/cityempchildcare.shtml

Community ServicesCommunity Service Centers

http://www.sandiego.gov/servicecenters/

Homeless Services

http://www.sandiego.gov/homeless-services/

Social Services

http://www.sandiego.gov/socialservices/

Disability Services

http://www.sandiego.gov/oei/disabilityservices/index.shtml



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City

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



City Web Pages Reviewed

City Web Pages Reviewed in the "Ten-City Scan" TM

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

Concordance of Links

Dallas

Subject

URL

Home Page

http://www.dallascityhall.com/

Environmental and Health Services and Related Links

http://www.dallascityhall.com/ehs/human_services.html

Environmental and Health ServicesOffice of Senior Affairs and Related Links

http://www.dallascityhall.com/ehs/senior_services.html

Environmental and Health ServicesChild Services

http://www.dallascityhall.com/ehs/child_services.html

Environmental and Health ServicesFamily Violence

http://www.dallascityhall.com/ehs/family_violence.html

Environmental and Health ServicesHomeless Services

http://www.dallascityhall.com/ehs/homeless.html

Environmental and Health ServicesProject Reconnect (Ex-Offender Reentry)

http://www.dallascityhall.com/ehs/project_reconnect.html

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City

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



City Web Pages Reviewed

City Web Pages Reviewed in the "Ten-City Scan" TM

   Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

Concordance of Links

Subject

URL

Home Page

http://www.sanjoseca.gov/

City Service Links

http://www.sanjoseca.gov/services.html

Homeless Services

http://www.sjhousing.org/homeless.html

City Services-Human Services Links

http://www.sanjoseca.gov/services.html

Parks, Recreation & Neighborhood ServicesOffice on Aging

http://www.sanjoseca.gov/prns/OOA.asp

Youth Services

http://www.sanjoseca.gov/prns/ts.asp#YS

Parks, Recreation & Neighborhood ServicesCommunity Centers

http://www.sanjoseca.gov/prns/Centers.asp

San Jose

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

City Websites - Accessibility Accessibili ty Factor 1: Ease of Finding City

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



Technique

URL

Philadelphia

Human Service Directory

http://www.phillysos.org/

New York

Website Website Search Engine

http://search1.nyc.gov/search?access=p&output=xml_no_dtd&sort=date%3AD%3AL %3Ad1&site=default_collection&ie=UTF-8&client=default_frontend&oe=UTF-8&pro xystylesheet=default_frontend&q=&proxycustom=%3CADVANCED/%3E

Website Website Search Engine (all searches) (top right of Home Page)

http://phoenix.gov/

Website Website Search Engine (service directory)

http://phoenix.gov/APPINTRO/ssd.html

Website Search Engine (calendar)

http://phoenix.gov/haht-nsapi/hsrun.hse/payf/ECCCITZP/ ECCCITZ.htx;start=HS_CalSel

Website Website Search Engine (maps - neighborhoods)

http://copwww05.phoenix.gov/WebPMO/Portal/Residents.asp

Los Angeles

City-Level Service Finder

http://publiccsd.lacity.org/CSD/index.cfm?QTP=A8ED394F-064D-C75FEA16DB2DE71D3D45

Dallas

City-Level Service Finder

http://www.dallascityhall.com/services/services.html

New York

Department-Level Service Finder

http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/dc/daycaremn.shtml

Chicago

Department-Level Service Finder

http://programs.chicagoparkdistrict.com/programBrowser/

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

Concordance of Links

City Websites Good Practice Examples

Phoenix

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

City Websites - Accessibility Accessibili ty Factor 1: Ease of Finding City

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

Technique

URL

Houston

Place-Based Finding Aid

http://www.houstontx.gov/health/MedicalServices/index.html

New York

Place-Based Finding Aid

http://gis.nyc.gov/doitt/cm/CityMap.htm

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

Concordance of Links

City Websites Good Practice Examples

City Websites Websites - Accessibility Accessibili ty Factor 2: Information Organization City

Technique

URL

Chicago

Consumer-Focused Content

http://egov.cityofchicago.org/city/webportal/home.do

San Diego

Consumer-Focused Content

http://www.sandiego.gov/index.shtml

New York

Hierarchical Organization of Subject Matter

http://www.nyc.gov/portal/site/nycgov/menuitem. 743f4d965e39ade6a62fa24601c789a0/

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



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Concordance of Links

City Websites Good Practice Examples

City Websites Websites - Accessibility Accessibil ity Factor 3: Information Linkage City

Technique

URL

New York

Internal LinkageLinkage with Sister Agencies

http://www.nyc.gov/portal/site/nycgov/menuitem. 12383c1cbb72dee6a62fa24601c789a0/

Phoenix

Internal LinkageLinks for Target Populations

http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/YOUTHSEN/SENIORS/index.html

Dallas

Internal LinkageConsumer Action Links

http://www.dallascityhall.com/government/council/contact_mcc.html

San Diego

External LinkageIntegrated Government Linkages

http://www.sandiego.gov/directories/services.shtml

New York

External LinkageExtensive External Linkages

http://www.nyc.gov/portal/site/nycgov/ menuitem.a7457a08f5001607a62fa24601c789a0/

Houston

External Linkage-Linkages to Specialized Search Engines

http://www.houstontx.gov/govt/index.html

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



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   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



Concordance of Links

Online Human Service Directories

Websites Studied in the "Ten-City Scan" TM City

Online Directory Website URL

New York

http://www.unitedwaynyc.org/?id=66

Los Angeles

http://www.healthycity.org/

Chicago

http://www.communityresourcenetwork.org/content/search/Login.asp

Houston

https://www.211texas.org/211/

Philadelphia

http://www.phillysos.org/

Phoenix

http://az211.gov/

San Antonio

https://www.211texas.org/211/

San Diego

http://www.infoline-sd.org/

Dallas

https://www.211texas.org/211/

San Jose

http://www.211scc.org/

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M

Online Human Service Directories - Accessibility Accessibil ity Factor 1: Ease of Finding Directory

Healthy City (Los Angeles)

   S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C

Arizona 2-1-1 (State of Arizona)

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

Philly SOS (City of Philadelphia)

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



Concordance of Links

Online Directory Good Practice Examples

2-1-1 Texas (State of Texas)

Technique 1 Categorical Search

URL

AIRS categories

http://www.healthycity.org/c/fs

Categorical browse facility

http://www.healthycity.org/c/help/sc/cat_dict_f 

Online documentation

http://www.healthycity.org/c/help/sc/data_guide

Customized categorical search

http://az211.gov/index.php?option=content&task=view&id=19&Itemid=48

Hierarchical AIRS-based service category list

http://az211.communityos.org/tax/serviceoutline.taf?function=detail&core=1

Hierarchical AIRS-based service category list

http://www.phillysos.org/catdrilldown.asp?level=1&hz=1&ty=ct

AIRS-based target population category list

http://www.phillysos.org/catdrilldown.asp?level=2&code=Y&ctText=Target http://www.phillysos.org/catdrilldown.asp?level=2&code=Y&ctT ext=Target %20Groups&hz=1&ty=tg

List of most-frequently searched categories

http://www.phillysos.org/topcatsdisp.asp

Categorical search for Child Care and Education Services

https://www.211texas.org/211 https://www.21 1texas.org/211/search/childservices/index.jsp?expandCCSM /search/childservices/index.jsp?expandCCSMenu=true enu=true

Online help to inform users about program content and eligibility

https://www.211texas.org/211 https://www.21 1texas.org/211/search/childservices/typesChildServices.jsp /search/childservices/typesChildServices.jsp - EHS

Search process linked to electronic service referral

https://www.211texas.org/211 https://www.21 1texas.org/211/search/childservices/referralSearch.do /search/childservices/referralSearch.do

Diagram to depict the search/referral  process

https://www.211texas.org/211/search/childservices/referralProcess.jsp? expandCCSMenu=true

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   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



Concordance of Links

Online Directory Good Practice Examples

Online Human Service Directories - Accessibility Accessibil ity Factor 1: Ease of Finding Directory Arizona 2-1-1 (State of Arizona)

2-1-1 Texas (State of Texas)

Healthy City (Los Angeles)

Directory

Healthy City (Los Angeles)

Technique 2 Keyword Search

URL

Basic keyword search

http://az211.gov/default.php

Hybrid simple search

http://az211.gov/index.php?option=content&task=section&id=14&Itemid=41

Hybrid advanced search

http://az211.communityos.org/tax/framestax.taf?function=advance

Service keyword OR agency keyword AND Location search

https://www.211texas.org/211/search/modifySearch.do? https://www.211texas.org/211 /search/modifySearch.do? searchId=307569&searchDisplayText=Food+Pantries

Interim results provide categories to narrow search

https://www.211texas.org/211 https://www.21 1texas.org/211/search/searchType /search/searchTypesResults.do?searchId=307571 sResults.do?searchId=307571

Basic (simple) search produces provider list

http://www.healthycity.org/c/searchq/sc/simple_f 

Quick search supplies hybrid search plus an alphabetical browse facility

http://www.healthycity.org/c/search/sc/advance_f 

Technique 3 Place-Based Search

URL

"Search My Neighborhood"

http://www.healthycity.org/c/mn/geo/43

"Your "Your Community Map"

http://www.healthycity.org/c/map/geo/31/zt/0644000/zl/7/x/-118.411 http://www.healthycity.org/c/map/geo/31/zt/0644000 /zl/7/x/-118.41189193726/y/ 89193726/y/ 34.020643234253/msw/436/msh/436/pm/env/c1/6719/ c2/7019,7020,7021,7022,7023,7024,70 c2/7019,7020,7021 ,7022,7023,7024,7025,7026,7027,7028, 25,7026,7027,7028,7029,7030,7031,703 7029,7030,7031,7032,7033, 2,7033, 7035,7036,7037,7034,7038,7039,7040,7041

"Create Community Profile"

http://www.healthycity.org/c/cp

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   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



Concordance of Links

Online Directory Good Practice Examples

Online Human Service Directories - Accessibility Accessibil ity Factor 2: Information Organization Directory

Technique 1: List Format Organization

http://az211.communityos.org/tax/newoverview.taf? core=1&sub=1&specific=0&final=0&fifth=0&taxlink=178946

Arizona 2-1-1 2-1-1 Texas

URL

View/Search Summary Information in List Format

Healthy City (Los Angeles)

https://www.211texas.org/211/searc https://www.21 1texas.org/211/search/searchResults.do?searchId=30846 h/searchResults.do?searchId=308464 4 http://www.healthycity.org/c/search/sc/org_b/key/a https://www.211texas.org/211/searc https://www.21 1texas.org/211/search/searchResults.do?searchId=30905 h/searchResults.do?searchId=309051 1

2-1-1 Texas Modify List Scope

https://www.211texas.org/211/searc https://www.21 1texas.org/211/search/searchResults.do?searchId=30906 h/searchResults.do?searchId=309067 7

Healthy City (Los Angeles)

http://www.healthycity.org/c/searchq/sc/simple_a/keyword/food http://www.healthycity.org/c/searchq/sc/simple_a/keyword /food stamps/so/name/so_dir/ asc/rpp/55/rp/1/geo/43

Arizona 2-1-1

http://az211.communityos.org/tax/newoverview.taf? core=6&sub=1&specific=2&final=0&fifth=0&taxlink=179194

2-1-1 Santa Clara

Sort List Results

CRN (Chicago) Philly SOS (Philadelphia)

http://search.211scc.org/uwsv/MatchList.aspx?c;;0;;;2074;Clothing,%20Food, %20Personal%20Goods%20and%20Services;Emergency% %20Personal%20Goods%20 and%20Services;Emergency%20Food%20and%20M 20Food%20and%20Meals; eals; 309;Food%20Pantries~;19670;C http://www.communityresourcenetwork.org/content/search/SearchResults.asp

Select List Results

"TEN CITY SCAN" TM

http://www.phillysos.org/programsearchresults.asp

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   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

Concordance of Links

Online Directory Good Practice Examples

Online Human Service Directories - Accessibility Accessibil ity Factor 2: Information Organization

Directory

Technique 2: Detailed Record Organization

URL

https://www.211texas.org/211/search/searchResults.do?searchId=30846 https://www.211texas.org/211/searc h/searchResults.do?searchId=308464 4 (select individual record from list)

2-1-1 Texas Content Grouping

http://search.211scc.org/uwsv/Detail.aspx?c;;0;;;2505;20146;772;3;Drug%20and %20Alcohol%20Treatment;Substance%20Abuse%20Assessment%20and%20Intake %20Services;261;Central%20Intake/Assessment%20for%20Substance%20Abuse~

2-1-1 Santa Clara

Arizona 2-1-1

Clearly Structured and Identified Content

Inform San Diego

http://az211.communityos.org/sys/profile.taf?  profiletype=service&recordid=168449&_UserReference=7F000001471ABCE11DEDF  profiletype=service&recordid=168449&_UserReference=7F00000147 1ABCE11DEDF 4C667BF473359DC

http://informsandiego.org/WebInform/ResourceDatabase/SearchEngine/ ServiceSiteDetails.asp?ServiceSiteKey=24667

Linkages between Service and Provider Detail http://az211.communityos.org/sys/profile.taf?  profiletype=agency&textonly=&recordid=64997&_UserReference=7F000001471ABC  profiletype=agency&textonly=&recordid=64997&_UserReference=7F000 001471ABC E11DEDF4C667BF473359DC

Arizona 2-1-1



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Concordance of Links

Online Directory Good Practice Examples

Online Human Service Directories - Accessibility Accessibil ity Factor 3: Information Linkage Directory

Techniques

2-1-1 Texas Healthy City

https://www.211texas.org/211/aboutUs.jsp Administrative Links

2-1-1 Santa Clara County Inform San Diego

URL

http://www.healthycity.org/c/cu

http://www.211scc.org/downloads/

http://informsandiego.org/Client/InformSandiego/Links.asp Organizational Links

2-1-1 Texas

https://www.211texas.org/211/links.jsp

Inform San Diego

Service Capacity Links

Arizona 2-1-1

Informational Links

http://informsandiego.org/WebInform/ResourceDatabase/SearchEngine/Focus/ FocusTopicResults.asp?FocusTopicID=12 http://www.az211.gov/index.php?option=content&task=view&id=56

   Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

http://az211.gov/default.php

http://www.az211.gov/index.php?option=com_frontpage&Itemid=1    S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A



Arizona 2-1-1 Emergency Management Links

Inform San Diego

http://az211.gov/default.php

http://informsandiego.org/Client/InformSandiego/Links.asp

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Integer Research & Consulting, LLC

Biographical and Corporate Summaries

Integer Research & Consulting, LLC Based in Chicago, Integer has led engagements for nonprofit, corporate, and government clients in strategic business and information systems planning. Integer currently focuses on original research and strategic consulting in the area of Human Service Information Delivery Delivery (HSID). The firm  provides customized consulting services services to government and nonprofit clients clients that are defining strategies and best practices in HSID. Mark H. Neuffer, President After graduating magna cum laude from Yale Yale University with a B.A. in English, Mark Neuffer worked in the financial services industry as an office automation analyst and director. director. At a leading

computer manufacturer, manufacturer, he supported business, legal, medical, and government organizations in  professional productivity applications. As a management consultant, he led engagements in the manufacturing, publishing and financial services industries and in t he nonprofit and government sectors. After receiving a Master’s degree from the University of Chicago’s Chicago’s School of Social Service Administration, Neuffer conducted conducted special projects for the School's leaders and senior faculty. faculty. He led  projects funded by the John D. and and Catherine T. T. MacArthur Foundation to survey survey community resources in Chicago’s MidSouth area and to publish an electronic directory of human services. His work pioneered methods of surveying, acquiring, compiling, and using community resource data.

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   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D    Y    R    A    M    M    U    S

   S    E    C    I    D    N    E    P    P    A

Integer Research & Consulting, LLC

Research Reports and Seminars

Building Better Community Information A final report to the John D. and Catherine T. T. MacArthur Foundation on the Chicago MidSouth Directory Project. The report reviews project findings and envisions how better community service information can be provided to Chicago’s residents. Rethinking Human Service Service Information: An Invitation to Discussion

Integer's research has revealed fundamental deficiencies in publicly ‐available human service information with an important bearing on America's capacity to respond effectively to human needs. To address these problems, there must be a fundamental rethinking of human service information. The paper proposes a design framework—a conceptual architecture—for human service information for providing a comprehensive and unified view of human service information. "Ten-City Scan"TM Version 1.0 of this proprietary report, over 120 pages in length, was completed in December, December, 2007.

The report contains over 140 URLs of web pages reviewed in the study, including a number of "good  practices" in human service service information delivery. delivery. Findings of the report are presented to participants who enroll in a fee-based seminar.



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Integer Research & Consulting, LLC

Contact Information

   N    O    I    T    C    U    D    O    R    T    N    I    Y    G    O    L    O    D    O    H    T    E    M    S    E    T    I    S    B    E    W    Y    T    I    C    S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

Integer Research Research & Consulting, LLC Mark Neuffer, President Chicago, IL 60606 Telephone 312-504-1067 [email protected]

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 Acknowledgements

 Acknowledgements

The "Ten-City Scan" TM was conducted and documented over the months of April December, 2007. Many thanks to those whose whose support sustained the effort and whose insight sharpened the study's focus: James H. Bruhl Robert Gramillano

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Mark Hellmann Bill Kennedy Peter Freeman

   S    E    I    R    O    T    C    E    R    I    D

George Lakehomer Ray Rund

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