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Adult Nursing 2

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1. The burden of cancer in low- and mediumincome countries just like the Philippines is expected to increase in the next decades.

2. The application of current knowledge and results of research in key areas would contribute to limit the impact of this phenomenon.

3. A key element of this programme involves novel, early cancer prevention strategies to increase healthy life potential since cancer is more curable when detected at an early stage.

After the seminar the participants will be able to: 1.To be able to identify and avoid carcinogens. 2.Tobecome aware of the Common lifestyle associated to the causes of cancer. 3.Identify 10 simple ways to prevent/ reduce cancer risk. 4. Know the steps in cancer development. 5. List the environmental factors that influence cancer development.

Describe the relationship between lifestyle and cancer.

6. Describe the relationship between lifestyle and cancer. 7. Describe some of the characteristics of more well-known cancers.

The program will be a seminar-video type where in before the starting lectures there will be a video presented to inspire the participants which involves cancer survival stories/testimonies, followed by This program is 3 video-seminar type several interactive seminar with a sessions discussing where in participants will cancer topics. be able to view a simple movie about testimonials of cancer survivors and how they live their life after the illness, and followed by discussions about chosen topics in cancer, how to avoid them and its relationship with lifestyle.







Is a general term that is used for a group of disease that affects multiple system of the body. A group of disease characterized by the abnormal growth and spread of cells. Cancer affects one in three people in the U.S. and kills one in four; each year more than 200,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer alone. Diagnosed early, most cancers are treatable, and many curable.


‡ Alkylating agents
o Acute myeloid leukemia, bladder cancer

‡ Androgens
o Prostate cancer

‡ Aromatic amines (dyes)
o Bladder cancer

‡ Arsenic
o Cancer of the lung, skin

‡ Asbestos
o Cancer of the lung, pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma

‡ Benzene o Acute myeloid leukemia ‡ Chromium o Lung cancer ‡ Diethylstilbestrol (prenatal) o Vaginal cancer (clear cell) ‡ Epstein²Barr virus o Burkitt·s lymphoma, nasal T-cell lymphoma, post-transplantation lymphoma, AIDS-associated lymphoma, perhaps some cases of Hodgkin·s disease, nasopharyngeal carcinoma in China.

‡ Estrogens

o Cancer of the endometrium, liver, breast ‡ Ethyl alcohol o Cancer of the liver, esophagus, head and neck ‡ Helicobacter pylori o Gastric cancer ‡ Hepatitis B or C virus o Liver cancer o Non-Hodgkin·s lymphoma, Kaposi·s sarcoma, squamous-cell carcinomas (especially of the urogenital tract)

‡ Estrogens o Cancer of the endometrium, liver, breast ‡ Ethyl alcohol o Cancer of the liver, esophagus, head and neck ‡ Helicobacter pylori o Gastric cancer ‡ Hepatitis B or C virus o Liver cancer o Non-Hodgkin·s lymphoma, Kaposi·s sarcoma, squamous-cell carcinomas (especially of the urogenital tract)

‡ Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type1 o Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma ‡ Immunosuppressive agents (azathioprine, cyclosporine, glucocorticoids) o Non-Hodgkin·s lymphoma ‡ Nitrogen mustard gas o Cancer of the lung, head and neck, nasal sinuses

‡ Nickel dust o Cancer of the lung, nasal sinuses ‡ Phenacetin o Cancer of the renal pelvis and bladder ‡ Polycyclic hydrocarbons o Cancer of the lung, skin (especially squamous-cell carcinoma of scrotal skin)

‡ Schistosomiasis o Bladder cancer (squamous-cell carcinoma) ‡ Sunlight (ultraviolet) o Skin cancer (squamous-cell carcinoma and melanoma) ‡ Tobacco (including smokeless) o Cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, bladder ‡ Vinyl chloride o Liver cancer (angiosarcoma)

Lifestyle Associated to Cancer

SMOKING: The most avoidable risk factor for cancer ‡ Smoking causes diffuse epithelial injury in the head, neck, esophagus, and lung. ‡ Smoking cessation may halt early stages of the carcinogenic process (e.g., metaplasia); it may have no effect on late stages of carcinogenesis.

‡ The risk of tobacco smoke is not necessarily limited to the smoker. o Studies suggest environmental tobacco smoke may cause lung cancer and other pulmonary diseases in nonsmokers. ‡ Health risks of cigars similar to cigarettes o 2 cigars per day doubles the risk for oral and esophageal cancer. o 3²4 cigars per day increases risk of oral cancer 8-fold and esophageal cancer 4-fold.


May have significant potential for lowering cancer risk in western culture o Studies suggest that diets high in fat increase the risk for cancers of the breast, colon, prostate, and endometrium. o Highest incidence and mortality rates in western countries, where fat comprises an average of 40²45% of the total calories consumed. o In populations at low risk for these cancers, fat accounts for <20% of calories.

‡ Dietary fat has not been proven to cause cancer. o Diet is a highly complex exposure to many nutrients and chemicals. o Low-fat diets may offer some protection through anticarcinogens found in vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, and grains. Protective substances include phenols, sulfur-containing compounds, flavones, and fiber.

Evidence points to a preventive effect of vegetable and fruit consumption. o Specific protective factors remain uncertain. o Best evidence of benefit is for cancers of mouth, pharynx, esophagus, larynx, lung, stomach, kidney, colon and rectum, ovary (vegetables only), and bladder (fruit only).

Dietary fiber appears protective against colonic polyps and invasive cancer of the colon. Mechanisms involved are complex and speculative. Binding of oxidized bile acids Generation of soluble fiber products, such as butyrate, that may have differentiating properties

SUN AVOIDANCE: ‡ Nonmelanoma skin cancers (basal cell and squamous cell) are induced by cumulative exposure to ultraviolet radiation. ‡ Intermittent acute sun exposure and sun damage have been linked to melanoma. o Sunburns, especially in childhood and adolescence, are associated with an increased risk of melanoma in adulthood. ‡ Recommendations include wearing hats and long sleeves and use of sunblock with at least SPF 15.

Environmental factors associated to Cancer According to the American Cancer Society, factors in the environment account for half of all cancers; these factors include UV light, radiation, and industrial and agricultural chemicals. Roughly 40% of the food in supermarkets in the U.S. contains pesticide residues; some of these pesticides are banned in the U.S., but come in on imports.

More exposure come from pesticides used in community and home spraying. The Ames test, developed by biochemist Bruce Ames, uses bacteria to test for the mutagenic potential of various chemicals.

Processes of Cancer Development
DIAGNOSING CANCER: Early and accurate diagnosis of cancer is important for maximizing the success of treatment.

There are seven general warning signs of cancer (CAUTION):

Various tests can be performed to confirm or rule out cancer. Blood tests can detect tumor markers, such as HCG or PSA (prostate-specific antigen). Radioactively labeled monoclonal antibodies are useful in pinpointing the location and size of certain tumors; medical imaging techniques such as MRI, X rays, ultrasound, and CT are also used to locate tumors.

The definitive detection tool is biopsy, removal of a small piece of tissue for microscopic examination. A snippet of radioactively labeled DNA, called a DNA probe, can be used to locate gene mutations; however, it is expensive and usually not covered by insurance.

Recommended Cancer Screening Tests

Malignant VS. Benign Tumors

Some tumors are cancer, others are not. Overgrowth of cells in a tissue (hyperplasia) results in the formation of a defined mass called a tumor, or neoplasm.

Benign tumors are often enclosed in a capsule of connective tissue. The cells are organized in orderly array. The cells grow slowly and are well differentiated. Because they do not affect surrounding tissue (there are exceptions), they usually are not considered a threat to health.

© 2007 Thomson Higher Education

Dysplasia is an abnormal change in the sizes, shapes, and organization of cells in a tissue. It is often a precursor to cancer. Microscopically, the edges of the tumor look ragged and the cells are clumped. Functionally the cells have many characteristics that alter their behavior from that of normal cells.

Cancer cells have abnormal structure. A cancer cell has a large nucleus, less cytoplasm, and is poorly differentiated. The cytoskeleton shrinks and becomes disorganized; proteins of the plasma membrane also become altered. Cellular division of transformed cells results in cancerous daughter cells.

non-Hodgkin lymphoma 29,070

Cancer cells lack normal controls over cell division. In a cancerous tumor, more cells are dividing than dying, so growth continues unaffected by the usual contact inhibition provided by crowding. Cancer cells lack strong cell-tocell junctions and so tend to move about (metastasis) and become malignant.

Top 10 Ways to Prevent Cancer

Cancer... either you have had it, will develop it at some time, or know someone who has had it or has it. Whether we like it or not, cancer affects each one of us directly or indirectly. Preventing cancer is easier than you may think. Through simple lifestyle changes, we can reduce our risk of developing many types of cancer.

1) Avoid smoking, whether it be actual smoking or secondhand smoke. We hear a dozen times a day how bad cigarettes are for us and the risk of lung cancer. Why? Because smoking is the most significant risk factors for cancers that we can reduce. Did you know that smoking can increase your risk of many other cancers?

2) Practice sun safety and recognize when skin changes occur. Skin cancer is becoming more common, especially among young people. Wear sunscreen when outdoors, even if it is shady, and try to avoid the outdoors during the sun's peak time,which is 10 am - 2 pm. Knowing your skin's moles and spots is essential. Any changes need to be reported to your doctor ASAP.

3) Eat your fruits and veggies. Fruits and vegetables are rich in antioxidants, which help repair our damaged cells. Green veggies and orange and yellow fruits and veggies are your best bet. Learn more about antioxidants in this great article, "Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention"

4) Watch the meats you eat, especially smoked or cured foods. Research suggests that a diet high in animal fat can lead to the development of certain cancers. A diet high in smoked foods, salted fish and meat, and pickled vegetables increases your risk factor for cancer.

5) Limit your alcohol intake. Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol regularly increases your risk factor for cancer. Studies suggest that men who consume 2 alcoholic drink per day and women who have 1 alcoholic drink per day significantly increase their risk factors for certain types of cancer.

6) Exercise for cancer prevention. Being overweight greatly increases your risk factor for developing cancer. So, exercising to maintain or reach your ideal weight is one of the best defenses against cancer. Exercising doesn't have to be a bore, check out Top 10 Best Ways to Prevent Cancer Through Exercise for some fun ways to exercise.

7) Know your personal and family history of cancer. Research tells us that some types of cancers can be genetic. Knowing your family history of cancer can help you make more informed decisions about your healthcare. It can also aid in genetic testing and counseling, to assist you in finding out if you carry a mutated gene that increases your risk factor for cancer. Check out "Genetic Cancers" for more information about genetic cancer, testing and counseling.

8) Know what chemicals you are being exposed to in your work environment. If you are exposed to fumes, dust, chemicals, etc in the workplace, you have a right to know what you are being exposed to. Gasoline, diesel exhaust, arsenic, beryllium. vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, and chloromethyl ethers are all carcinogens and can be found in some work environments. Talk to your employer about limiting exposure.

9) Practice safe sex. Unsafe sex can result in the infection of the HPV virus, a known cause for cervical cancer and a risk factor for many other cancers. HPV is a virus transmitted through sexual intercourse. Learn more about HPV in "HPV: What is HPV and How Do You Get It?"

10) Be sure to keep up on screening tests like the Pap, mammograms, and DREs. Make sure you have regular screening tests like the Pap smear and mammogram if you are a woman, and a DRE (digital rectal exam) if you are a man. The Pap and DRE can detect cellular changes before they become cancerous, and the mammogram may be able to detect breast cancer early. A rectal exam should be part of a woman's yearly gyn exam.

RESOURCE SPEAKER: Dennis M. Tudtud, MD Philippine Society of Medical Oncology PARTICIPANTS:
The Administration, Faculty, Alumni, and Nursing Students of the Cagayan State University at Aparri.

Ampi Theater Andrews College,CSU-Caritan Tuguegarao City

July 25, 2010 at 7:30 am to 4:00 pm

FUNDING SOURCE: Registrations: Professionals---------P150.00 Students----------------P50.00 Solicitation from Alumni-------------------P20,000 Administration------P15,000 LENGTH OF THE PROGRAM: 1 day; 8 hours and 30 minutes.

Unit Invitation Poster Certificates Physical Set-up Seminars materials Snacks/Lunch Honorarium (Speaker) Total Quantity 300 50 300 1 300 300 1 Amount/Unit P5 P100 P20 P1000 30 P80 10,000 Total P1,500 P5, 000 P6, 000 P1, 000 P9,000 P24, 000 P10,000 P56,500

Unit Invitation Poster Certificates





7:30-8:00 P1,500 8:00-8:15 P5, 000 8:15-8:20 8:20-8:40 P6, 000 8:40-9:00 P1, 000 9:00-9:15 P9,000 P24, 000 9:15-10:15 10:15-10:30 P10,000 10:30-11:30 1:30-12:30 P56,500 12:45-1:15 1:15-2:30 2:30-3:30 3:30-4:00

BREAK Physical Set-up 1 P1000 INTRO. (SPEAKER) Richelle Correa, RN 30 Seminars materials 300 Intro, Carcinogens, Common Lifestyle Dr. Dennis Tudtud Snacks/Lunch 300 P80 ICE BREAKER Environmental factors, Cancer Development Honorarium 1 10,000 Dr. Dennis Tudtud (Speaker) Total LUNCH ICE BREAKER Malignant vs. Benign, Ways to Prevent cancer Dr. Dennis Tutud OPEN FORUM CLOSING REMARKS Feronald Bayag, RN

ITEMS Excellent 5 Very Good 4 Good 3 Fair 2 Poor 1

A. SPEAKER Objectives are relevant to the needs and interest of the participants. 1. 1. The discussions are clear and precise The objectives were attained

B.FACILITATORS/PARTICIPANTS 1. 1. 1. The activities are useful and interesting to the participants Time allotment for each activity is sufficient The moderators, facilitators, and other responsible persons have good rapport with participants

ITEMS 1. The activities contributed to the attainment of the objectives

Excellent 5

Very Good 4

Good 3

Fair 2

Poor 1


Maximum involvement of the participants was ensured


The various activities and parts of the session were handled skillfully

A. 1. 1. 1.

VENUE & FACILITIES The venue is appropriate Necessary facilities are available Lightning and ventilation are satisfactory

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