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Airways Reservation System - DFD

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Submitted By: Vishaldeep Singh Section: A1811 Roll No. : B15 Reg. No.: 10802706 Sub. Code: CSE 364

Problem
Design an Airways Reservation System with cancelling facility. Elaborate the system using Date Flow Diagram (DFD) at the 1st and 2nd Level.

Expectation from Students:  Software should able to find the best Airlines, airlines having maximum bookings.  Customer satisfaction / feedback form should be there  Draw the 1st and 2nd level DFDs.  Design Class Diagram for Database  Write the Stored Procedure also.

AIRWAYS RESERVATION SYSTEM

Air Travel is the quickest and the most hassle free mode of travel. We can cover a distance in a couple of hours in a flight which would take a couple of days in train or five to six days in an automobile.

No wonder there are hordes of Airlines in India which cater to the Indian public. I am going to list ten top airline companies in India, their policies and airfares. So to make your travel experience smoother you can take help of this to get in touch with one of these airlines. All these airlines strive incessantly to give you the best flight fares, warmest customer the of service

and great value added services like the frequent fliers benefits. So don’t waste times just read below to get detailed information about the top airlines of India.

VARIOUS AIRLINES IN INDIA

1.INDIAN AIRLINES
Indian airlines is the oldest airline company in India which came into being as early as 1959. This is a company which has since been providing untiring services to the Indian population. That is the reason of its enduring popularity among the air passengers in India.

2.FLY KINGFISHER
This is an airlines that claims to offer the ultimate creature comforts in air travel. They want to make air travel in India an experience to remember and not merely a journey from a place to another place. Stylish and comfortable this airlines boasts of having highly trained personnel. The aim of the airlines is to provide safe, value based and comfortable air travel to the public

3.AIR INDIA
If we are thinking or air travel in India then the name of Air India immediately crops up. This is a company which provides international flights in and out of India. This is one of the most trusted airlines companies in India. We can find out about their route network, their flight schedules, and even the vacancies for personnel they have in this company from this website.

4.FLYAIRDECCAN
Air Deccan though is a relatively new player among the private airline companies in India but it has already carved a niche in the hearts of hordes of air passengers. The main USP of this private airline company is that they provide air tickets in throw away prices. This no frills added airline tries to give you maximum value for your money. So if we want to travel from one place to another place in India in a modest budget give Air Deccan a thought.

5.LUFTHANSA
Lufthansa is an international airline which provides flight services in India too. Lufthansa is one of the most favored airline companies in India because of their highly professional and sophisticated services which they provide. They have both domestic and international flights. We can get information about their flights from this web page .We can also avail from them various exciting offers and benefits for frequent fliers.

6.AIR SAHARA
Air Sahara is another formidable airline of India. It can boast of having a fleet of twenty seven Boeing aircrafts. Sahara Airlines or Air Sahara as it is known has wooed the Indian public with their pocket friendly flight ticket prices and their excellent service. They also have domestic and international flights.

7.INDIGO
If we are interested in having a budget air travel experience which won’t deprive you of the minimum creature comforts then Indigo could be a great

choice for you. This airline only undertakes domestic flights all over India.

8.ALLIANCE AIRLINES
Air travel in India is growing increasingly popular with the increasing pace of today’s life style. People don't want to spend hours together in tedious train journey. They now would rather opt for the much comfortable Air travel. That is the very reason that a lot of new private airline companies have cropped up in India to cater to the growing needs of the Indian public. An Alliance airline is a reputed airline company in India which has made its mark in the arena of domestic air travel in India.

9.PARAMOUNT AIRLINES
Ak airlines is a reliable name if you are thinking of domestic air flights across the length and breadth of India. Paramount Airline has the potential to be India’s most favorite Airline. It is starting to be the indispensable first choice for both business and leisure travelers. Flying with us would be a truly great and enjoyable experience at affordable fares. To get an unparalleled air travel experience this is one airline we should try out once.

10.JET AIRWAYS
If we are thinking of private airlines in India we can’t afford to miss the name of Jet Airway. It has charmed millions of people across the length and breadth of India with its great value added service, huge route network and their immense fleet of aircrafts. This is a name to be reckoned with in Indian air travel. This is one among the top airlines of India.

DATA FLOW DIAGRAM
Data Flow Diagrams are basically the tools that are used to represent the basic data flow among different processes/activities.  Physical data flow diagrams  Logical data flow diagrams Before preparing the Data flow diagrams processes/activities should be explored in greater detail.

Deriving the logical view
 Show actual data needed in a process, not the document that contains them.  Remove routing information (i.e.) show the flow between procedures/processes, not between people, offices or locations.  Remove tools and devices from the diagram.  Remove control information.  Consolidate redundant data stores.  Remove the unnecessary processes that do not change the data or dataflow.

General rules for dfd’s
 Any data flow leaving a process must be based on data that are input to the process.  All dataflow are named, the name reflects the data flowing between processes, data stores or sources .  Only data needed to perform the process should be an input to the process.  A process be independent of any other process in the system and should depend only on its own input and output.  It is assumed that processes are always ready to function or perform necessary work.  Outputs from process can take one of the following forms.  An Input data flow with information added by the process.  A response or change of data form.  Change in status of information.  Change in contents of information.  Change in organization of information.

KEY POINTS REGARDING DFD’S

1. Maintain consistency between processes 2. Follow meaning full leveling conventions 3. Assign meaning full labels 4. Evaluate data flow diagrams for correctness      Are there any unnamed components? Are there any processes that do not receive input? Are there any data store that are input but never referenced? Are there any processes that do not produce any output? Are there any processes that serve multiple purposes?

It is common practice to draw a context-level data flow diagram first, which shows the interaction between the system and external agents which act as data sources and data sinks. On the context diagram (also known as the 'Level 0 DFD') the system's interactions with the outside world are modelled purely in terms of data flows across the system boundary. The context diagram shows the entire system as a single process, and gives no clues as to its internal organization.

DATA FLOW DIAGRAM SYMBOLS
Data Flow diagrams in general are usually designed using simple symbols such as a rectangle, an oval or a circle depicting a processes, data stored or an external entity, and arrows are generally used to depict the data flow from one step to another.

COMPONENTS OF DFD’S
A DFD usually comprises of four components. These four components can be represented by four simple symbols. These symbols can be explained in detail as follows:

External entities:
squares.

(source/destination of data) are represented by

A data flow diagram's boundary is the imaginary boundary of the system. This is conventionally drawn on the diagram as a continuous line going through all the data flows from external entities to processes and back. Note: It is a bad practice to have external entities have direct access to data stores. External entities and data stores can be duplicated in the system for more clearity, while processes cannot. External entities that have been replicated are marked by * in the lower right part of the oval that represents that entity. Data stores have a double line of the left side of their box.

Processes:

(input-processing-output) are represented by rectangles

with rounded corners. A process shows a transformation or manipulation of data flows within the system. The symbol used is a rectangular box which

contains 3 descriptive elements:

1. Firstly an identification number appears in the upper left hand corner.
This is allocated arbitrarily at the top level and serves as a unique reference.

2. Secondly, a location appears to the right of the identifier and describes
where in the system the process takes place. This may, for example, be a department or a piece of hardware. Finally, a descriptive title is placed in the centre of the box. This should be a simple imperative sentence with a specific verb, for example 'maintain customer records' or 'find driver'.

Diagram:- >>>

FUNCTION

FILE/DATABASE

INPUT/OUTPUT FLOW

Data Flows: (physical or electronic data) are represented by arrows.
A data flow shows the flow of information from its source to its destination. A data flow is represented by a line, with arrowheads showing the direction of flow. Information always flows to or from a process and may be written, verbal or electronic. Each data flow may be referenced by the processes or data stores at its head and tail, or by a description of its contents

Data Stores:(physical or electronic like XML files) are represented by
open-ended rectangles. A data store is a holding place for information

within the system: It is represented by an open ended narrow rectangle. Data stores may be long-term files such as sales ledgers, or may be short-term accumulations. For example: Batches of documents that are waiting to be processed. Each data store should be given a reference followed by an arbitrary number.

STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING DFD

Top-down strategy:

Create the high-level diagrams (Context

Diagram), then low-level diagrams (Level-0 diagram), and so on

Bottom-up strategy: Create
level diagrams

the low-level diagrams, then higher-

AIRLINES LIST WRITTEN IN DFD
S.No Plane Source Destination Departure Arrival Time Time

DOMESTIC

1 2 3

AAD01 AAD02 AAD03

Chennai Kolkatta Delhi

Mumbai Chennai

10.00 12.00

11.00 13.00 12.30

Bangalore 11.15

INTERNATIONAL

1 2 3

AAI01 AAI02 AAI03

Mumbai Delhi Chennai

London Paris Colombo

00.30 03.20 19.30

10.30 13.20 20.30

STEPS FOR CREATING DFD’S
1. Create list of activities. 2. Construct context level DFD. It identifies the source and sink. 3. Construct Level 0 DFD.it identifies manageable sub processes. 4. Construct Level 1- n DFD .it identifies actual data flows and data stores.

DFD’s DIAGRAMS FOR AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM
These are explained as given below: 1)Create a list of activities: Reservation Display Cancellation Best Airline Feedback

2) CONSTRUCT CONTEXT LEVEL DFD: It basically tells about the “source” and the “destination” (sink) of the desired project by showing or displaying it in the diagram.

DIAGRAM:

3. Level 0 DFD CONSTRUCTION: On Level 0, a DFD shows all the data flows from the system to the external entities, with the whole system being represented as one large process. A Level 0 diagram is sometimes created to show the interaction of the system with external entities, some of which may also be systems. DIAGRAM:

4. LEVEL 1 DFD FOR AIRLINE RESRVATION: A Level 1 DFD normally shows very few (8 - 10) processes, and is intended to explain the basic functioning of the system. A Level 1 diagram should show all the processes of the system and the external entities that the system actively interacts with (and in some rare cases exchange of data between those external entities, when absolutely necessary).

DIAGRAM FOR LEVEL -1 DFD:

5. LEVEL- 2 DFD FOR TICKET RESERVATION: In the level 2 data flow diagrams we make the diagrams at more atomic level. We pick each activity individually from the level 1 and we goes in sub operations and more details i.e. in more atomic level is of a given activity is the basic goal of the level 2 data flow diagram.

DIAGRAM:

6. LEVEL 2 DFD FOR TICKET Cancellation:

Diagram:

7. LEVEL 2 DFD FOR TICKET DISPLAY

INFORMATION:
Diagram:

7. LEVEL 2 DFD FOR BEST AIRLINE

INFORMATION:

FEEDBACK FORM FOR USER TO ESTIMATE USER SATISFACTION
The product, we have made on the subject of airline reservation with cancellation facility then in the end we must incorporate the more feature into the software for the feedback survey to estimate the user’s satisfaction and for checking the reliability of the system. GOALS OF FEEDBACK: 1. To check the user satisfaction. 2. To check the reliability of the system developed and its efficiency in the market. Here in the entire project of airline reservation system I have discussed feedback in two possible and most common ways. These ways are Given as below: QUESTIONAIRE. ONLINE FORM FILLING.

FEEDBACK USING QUESTIONAIRE
Q 1) How satisfied are you with the reservation system of this airline? a) Most satisfied b) satisfied c) less satisfied d)not at all satisfied

Q 2) How satisfied are you with cancellation facility of this airline? b) Most satisfied b) satisfied c) less satisfied d)not at all satisfied

Q 3) How satisfied are you with the journey of this airline a) Most satisfied b) satisfied c) less satisfied d)not at all satisfied

Q 4) How satisfied are you with the fare of this airline a) Most satisfied b) satisfied c) less satisfied d)not at all satisfied

Q 5) How satisfied are you with your security in this airline? a) Most satisfied b) satisfied c) less satisfied d)not at all satisfied

Q 6) How satisfied are you with time taken by this airline for travelling distance? a) Most satisfied b) satisfied c) less satisfied d)not at all satisfied

Q 7) How satisfied are you with meal facility of this airline? a) Most satisfied b) satisfied c) less satisfied d)not at all satisfied

Q 8) How satisfied are you with the behavior of staffs working for this airlines? a) Most satisfied b) satisfied c) less satisfied d)not at all satisfied

Q 9) How satisfied are you with our level of difficulty of our forms used in reservation and cancellation facility in case of this airlines? a) Most satisfied b) satisfied c) less satisfied d)not at all satisfied

Q 10) How will you rate your overall experience with this airlines? a) Most satisfied b) satisfied c) less satisfied d)not at all satisfied

Write your valuable “comments and suggestions” for us in space provided below:-

FEEDBACK USING ONLINE FORM

CLASS DIAGRAM
class diagrams are the mainstay of object-oriented analysis and design. UML 2 class diagrams show the classes of the system, their interrelationships (including inheritance, aggregation, and association), and the operations and attributes of the classes. Class diagrams are used for a wide variety of purposes, including both conceptual/domain modelling and detailed design modelling. Although I prefer to create class diagrams on whiteboards because simple tools are more inclusive most of the diagrams that I’ll show in this article are drawn using a software-based drawing tool so you may see the exact notation The classes in a class diagram represent both the main objects and or interactions in the application and the objects to be programmed. In the class diagram these classes are represented with boxes which contain three parts: The upper part of the diagram holds the name of the class/field. The middle part of the class diagram contains the attributes/parameter or we can say the variables of the class. The bottom part gives us the methods or operations and functions to fetch the variables and evaluates them. Basic Concepts in class diagrams are given as below: This is the main “internal” view of the system ,The focus is on static structure, things about the business policy/business process that should (effectively) always be true. A formal methods person would call these “invariants” Type/Class Attribute Association Association Role

Aggregation and Composition Association Class Generalization 1. TYPE/CLASS: Class is the descriptor for a set of objects with similar structure, behavior, and relationships - “Class” tends to be interpreted as a design and implementation concept while “Type” tends to be interpreted as an analysis concept. 2. ATTRIBUTE: An Attribute is a single, named fragment of the persistent state.

Notation:

3. ASSOCIATION: An Association exists when some number of objects are connected (linked) in some significant manner and it is necessary to remember that connection - In set theory terms, each class corresponds to a set of things, and an association corresponds to a mapping between members of these sets.

Associations permit dynamics of the form. Given some member of set A, which member or members of set B is it linked with?

NOTATION:

3.ASSOCIATION ROLE: An Association Role indicates the role
(purpose) that the class plays in the association. NOTATION:

5. AGGREGATION AND COMPOSITION: Aggregation is a kind of association that represents a whole-part relationship – The implication is that if the whole is created or deleted, the parts must also be created or deleted at the same time.

Composition is like aggregation with the added constraint that the part may be the part of exactly one whole.

It might help to think of aggregation and composition as “patterns” sfor an association and its behavior. 6. ASSOCIATION CLASS: Associations may take on the characteristics of a class. Associations may have attributes.

Associations may have important states and actions.

7. GENERALIZATION: Generalization is a way of saying at one level of abstraction, the objects in this class are all the same but at a finer level of detail, they may be different It Represents an is-a or is-a-kind-of relationship

AIRLINE RESERVATION DATABASE DIAGRAM

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