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Battery

Published on July 2016 | Categories: Types, Presentations | Downloads: 4 | Comments: 0
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Battery

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Content

Battery

Outline





Why is this important?
Brief history of batteries
Basic chemistry
Battery types and characteristics

Introduction
There are many kinds of batteries which consist of
different materials in order to produce an electric
charge
A battery is a device which converts chemical
energy into electrical energy

Introduction
The primary battery converts chemical energy to
electrical energy directly, using the chemical materials
within the cell to start the action.
The secondary battery must first be charged with
electrical energy before it can convert chemical energy to
electrical energy.
The secondary battery is frequently called a storage
battery, since it stores the energy that is supplied to it.

Battery (Ancient) History
1800
1836
1859
1868
1888
1898
1899

Voltaic pile: silver zinc
Daniell cell: copper zinc
Planté: rechargeable lead-acid cell
Leclanché: carbon zinc wet cell
Gassner: carbon zinc dry cell
Commercial flashlight, D cell
Junger: nickel cadmium cell

Battery History
1946
1960s
1970s
1990
1991
1992
1999

Neumann: sealed NiCd
Alkaline, rechargeable NiCd
Lithium, sealed lead acid
Nickel metal hydride (NiMH)
Lithium ion
Rechargeable alkaline
Lithium ion polymer

Battery Nomenclature

Duracell batteries

9v battery

Two cells

A real battery

More precisely

6v dry cell
Another battery

Battery Characteristics
• Size
– Physical: button, AAA, AA, C, D, ...
– Energy density (watts per kg or cm3)

• Longevity
– Capacity (Ah, for drain of C/10 at 20°C)
– Number of recharge cycles

• Discharge characteristics (voltage drop)

Further Characteristics
• Cost
• Behavioral factors
– Temperature range (storage, operation)
– Self discharge
– Memory effect

• Environmental factors
– Leakage, gassing, toxicity
– Shock resistance

Primary (Disposable) Batteries







Zinc carbon (flashlights, toys)
Heavy duty zinc chloride (radios, recorders)
Alkaline (all of the above)
Lithium (photoflash)
Silver, mercury oxide (hearing aid, watches)
Zinc air

Secondary (Rechargeable)
Batteries







Nickel cadmium
Nickel metal hydride
Alkaline
Lithium ion
Lithium ion polymer
Lead acid

The Electrochemical Cell
HAZARDOUS
CONSTITUENT

POSSIBLE EFFECTS

SULFURIC ACID

Corrosive, causes severe skin burns, and can cause blindness.

LEAD

Causes nerve and kidney damage, suspected carcinogen

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