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c10 Computer Networking

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When two or more objects are connected they form a network. For example in our Vidyalaya all teachers form a network of teachers, all students form a network network of students and also in our home there is a family family network. Similarly Similarly in case of computer computer networks it is a collection collection of two or more computers. Network 


It is a col colle lect ctio ion n of of int inter erco conne nnect cted ed auto autonom nomou ouss com compu pute ters rs..

Internet or Internetwork  Abbreviation ! bbre!iation "# W# $# F%& S$%& I$& $'()$ WW W * &+  #FS %$" (%$ %%& %+& I& I& S"I& &&& SI$ /0 S$S )(0) )-mail  #FS W""


It is a co ll llection of network s. s.

Full Form "ocal rea #etwork   Wider rea #etwork   $etropolitan rea #etwork   File %ransfer &rotocol Simple $ail %ransfer &rotocol Internet $ail ccess &rotocol $odulator nd (emodulator   World Wide Web *emote &rocedure +all #etwork File System yper %ext $arkup "anuae (ynamic yper %ext $arkup "anuae ypertext %ransfer &rotocol %ransmission +ontrol &rotocol Internet &r &rotocol Serial "ine Internet &rotocol &oint %o &oint &rotocol Subscribers Identification $odule /rd 0eneration of $obile +ommunication %echnoloy Short $essae Ser!ice )nhanced (ata rates for 0lobal )!olution Sendin 1 recei!in messaes el electronically #etwork File System Wireless "ocal "oop

+($ F* 0S$ *&#)% 2$" %$" 3*" IS& (#S VS#" $%#" WIS S"I& %+& %($ W($ F($ /0


+ode (i!ision $ultiple ccess Fixed *adio ccess 0lobal Switchin For $obile +ommunication d!anced *e *esearch &r &roject  ency #e #etwork   )xtensible $arkup "anuae ypertext $arkup "anuae 3niform *esource "ocater   Internet Ser!ice &ro!ider   (omain #ame System Videsh Sanchar #iam "imited $ahanaar #iam %elephone "imited Wide rea Information Ser!er   Serial "ine Internet &rotocol %ransmission +ontrol &rotocol %ime (i!ision $ultiplexin Wa!elenth (i!ision $ultiplexin Fre4uency (i!ision $ultiplexin %hird 0eneration

$% No No "&e "&et tio ion' n'

 company in *eliance has 5 wins of buildins as shown in the diaram6

+enter to center distances distances between between !arious 7uildins6 W/ to W8 W8 to W; W; to W5 W5 to W/ W/ to W; W8 to w5

9:m <:m ;9m 8=:m 8;9m >:m


#umber of computers in each of the win6 W8 W8 89: W; 89 W/ 89 W5 ;9

+omputers in each win are networked but wins are not networked. %he company has now decided to connect the wins also. i? Suest a most suitable cable layout of the connection between the wins. ii? Suest the most suitable win to house the ser!er of this company with a suitable reason. iii? Suest the placement of the followin de!ices with justification6 8? Internet connectin de!ice1modem ;? Switch 1 ub i!? %he company is plannin to link its head office situated in India with the offices at *eliance. *eliance. Suest an an economic economic way way to connect [email protected] the the company company is ready to compromise on the speed of connecti!ity. Austify your answer.

Mot I)*ortant Note A**+i,ab+e to A++ "&etion bae on t.e above *atern/ w.i,. )a be ke*t in )in   i? ii? iii? i!?


In a Win Win 1 7lock 7lock 1 "ab "ab conne connect ct all all comput computers ers usin usin  a 37 37 or SWI% SWI%+. +. %his %his is known known as as "# connec connecti! ti!ity ity.. 7ut now now a day day we use SWI%+ only as it transmits data to the re4uired destination only and thus faster in transmission. +omputers +omputers in a 7lock 7lock are connected connected to the SWI%+ SWI%+13 137 7 usin usin +at 9 +able. +able. In place place of of +at 9 +able +able we can also also use use Fibre Fibre 'ptics 'ptics cable cable if we re4uire more speed and can afford cost. Ser!er Ser!er is placed placed where where there there is is maximum maximum number number of computers computers as as maximum maximum traffic traffic will be be in this this block only. n addition additional al switch switch may also also be used used to connec connectt the blocks blocks switch switches es for faster faster transmissi transmission on of data data and this this is also also placed placed in the block block where we ha!e put the ser!er. ser!er. %hese switches can be connected connected to the additional switch usin fibre optics since it will will increase speed but cost has to be born. If the comp company any desir desires es to ha!e ha!e connect connecti!i i!ity ty to the Inter Internet net,, Interne Internett connect connection ion is taken taken and and connect connected ed to switch switch.. From From here all all other other  buildins and further computers can access the Internet connection. If the +ompany wants to connect these blocks to their office in some other distant place then we can connect these blocks with that office usin an Internet +onnection, *adio Wa!e +onnection Bif office is in hilly area?, W# connection connection if company can afford cost and re4uires re4uires security of data also. When W# connecti!ity is established, established, switch


is further further connected connected to a *'3%)*. *'3%)*. *outer is costly costly and filters filters the network traffic traffic.. It routers routers the data to the destinations destinations usin most optimal path. +onnecti!i +onnecti!ity ty between between the the blocks blocks switche switchess is done done usin +at 9 cable cables. s. If there there is a distance distance of more than than 8:: m between between any any two blocks blocks then a suitable *)&)%)* has to be placed to join +at 9 cables as in a "# we can use +at 9 cable up to a maximum lenth of 8:: m as the sinal power attenuates with more distances. So *)&)%)* is used to reenerate the sinal.

#o kee*in2 in )in t.e above *re&)*tion we anwer i? C we will use +at 9 cable to connect all the wins but in addition to this we will use a *)&)%)* in between the cable when connectin W5 to W/ as distance is 8=:m and W/ to W; as distance is 8;9m. ii? $ost suitable win to house the ser!er is Win W8as number of computers in this win is more. Blways remember that Ser!er Ser!er is placed in the Win where there is maximum number of computers?. iii? +omputer 1 nodes 1 workstations in a "ab 1 Win are not connected to each other directly. directly. %hey are first connected to either a SWI%+ SWI%+ or 37 usin +at 9 cable. %hen this SWI%+ 1 37 is i!en power supply and then "# works. +onnectin of computers 1 nodes 1 workstations workstations in a "ab is known as "# B"ocal rea #etwork?. 7ut always connect these de!ices with a SWI%+ since its performance is better than a 37 with reference to transmission of data. Internet connectin de!ice 1 modem is to be connected to SWI%+ only in that "ab 1 Win where there is a maximum number of computers. From this switch Internet Internet connectin can work in all the other labs. Internet connection can can also be connected to Ser!er Ser!er but then we ha!e to use the Windows Share proram to share Internet connection amon other computers. i!? +ompanys offices can be connected C Ba? Ba? Bb? Bb?

by Inte Interne rnett conne connecti ction on but but then then it will will ha!e ha!e to compro compromis misee on securi security ty of of data data and speed speed of tra transmi nsmissi ssion. on. %he %he oth other er way way is is usi usin n a W# W# conn connec ecti tion on.. It will will be cost costly ly,, secu secure re and and spe speed edie ier. r.

In our case the company can compromise on speed. So it can use Internet +onnection as it can be cheaper cheaper as its chares could be fixed or as per usae. "3( Dnowlede supplement 'raniEation has set up its new center at $analore for its office and web based acti!ities. It has 5 7locks of buildins as shown in the diaram below6

7loc k

7loc k+ 7loc k(

7lock 7

+ent +enteer to to ce cente nter di distan stancce bet betwe ween en !ar !arious ious bloc blocks ks

#um #umber ber of of +om +ompu putters ers

7lock  to 7lock 7

9: m

7lock 7 to 7lock +

89: m

7lock + to 7lock (

;9 m

7lock  to 7lock (

8=: m

7lock 


7lock 7 to 7lock (

8;9 m

7lock 7


7lock  to 7lock +

>: m

7lock +


7lock (


i. ii.

Suest a most suitable cable layout of connections between the 7locks. Sues Suestt the the most most suitab suitable le plac places es Bi.e Bi.e.. 7lock 7lock?? to to house house the ser!er ser!er of this this orani oraniEa Eatio tion n with with a suitab suitable le reason reason..


Suest the placement of the followin de!ices with justification6 a. *epeat *epeater er b. ub1Sw ub1Switc itch h i!. %he ora oraniE niEati ation on is plann plannin in to to link link its head head offi office ce situa situated ted in in +ity +ity in a hilly hilly rei reion on where where cabl cablee connec connectio tion n is not feas feasibl ible, e, sue suest st an economic way to connect it with reasonably hih speed

AN# - i? +at 9 +able for connectin 7locks and usin a *)&)%)* *)&)%)* between 7 and +, 7 and (,  and ( and also between  and + Bsince it is just near to 8::? *)&)%)*S for reeneratin sinal and +at 9 for transferrin data between blocks and it is n etworkin cable.

ii? Suitable place to house ser!er is 7lock + where 8;9 +omputers are to be placed. iii? *)&)%) *)&)%)* * between between blocks 7 and +, 7 and (,  and ( and  and + for reenerat reeneratin in sinal. sinal. SWI%+)S SWI%+)S 1 37 in each block to connect connect the +omputers on "#. i!? *(I' WV) transmissi transmission on link to connect to office in hilly area as these wa!es can tra!el lon distance, penetrate penetrate in buildins and also omni directional.  #'%) C for layout etc you ha!e draw a diaram of the blocks also and place suitable *)&)%)*S in between the blocks ha!in lon distance and also  place SWI%+ 1 37 in the 7locks.


Indian Industries has the followin four buildins buildins in +hennai. (istance between !arious wins is i!en below6 below6 II8 II ;

II /

Wins "ayout &lans Win II8 to Win II / =:m Win II8 to Win II ; ;:m Win II II 8 to Wi Win II II 5 88 9m 9m Win II / to Win II 5 /:m Win II ; to Win II/ ;9m

II 5

#o of +omputers in each Win

Win II 8 Win II ; Win II / Win II 5

i? ii? iii? i!? AN# 

/9 ;9 H: <:

Suest Suest suitable suitable +7") +7") "G'3%S "G'3%S F'* %)S) %)S) 73I"( 73I"(I#0S I#0S.. #ame the win where the Ser!er Ser!er is to be installed. Austify your answer. Suest the placement placement of ub1Switch ub1Switch in the network. $ention an economic technoloy technoloy to pro!ide Internet Internet accessibility to all all wins. i? (raw diaram of the wins with +at 9 +able placin *)&)%)*S between Wins II8 and II5 as there is more than 8:: m distance. ii? Ser!er to be installed in Win II/ as it has maximum number of computers. iii? SWI%+ 1 37 is to be placed in each Win to connect them in "# and further these SWI%+)S are to be connected to another SWI%+. %his may be placed in Win II/. i!? 7roadband connection as it is cheaper in the SWI%+ which is connectin all Wins Switches and from here all the wins can access it.


Fi 6 #)%W'*DI#0 +'#+)&% +'#+)&%


+onnection of ; or more distinct Bpossibly dissimilar? networks. *e4uires some kind of network de!ice to facilitate faci litate facili tate the connection.


"# C "ocal rea #etwork  $# C $etropolitan rea #etwork  W# C Wider rea #etwork  5o,a+ Area Network  connects computers that are physically close toether B  8 mile?.  Chih speed  Cmulti-access

%echnoloies6  C)thernet 8: $bps, 8::$bps  C%oken *in 8< $bps  CF((I 8:: $bps Wier Area Network  connects computers that are physically far apart. Jlon-haul networkK. -typically slower than a "#.  Ctypically less reliable than a "#. "#.  Cpoint-to-point

%echnoloies6  Ctelephone lines  CSatellite communications -microwa!e 1 radio wa!e links Metro*o+itan Area Network 

"arer than a "# and smaller than a W# - example6 campus-wide network  - multi-access network  %echnoloies6  Ccoaxial cable  Cmicrowa!e


%opoloies refer to the techni4ues techni4ues 1 ways of inter connectin connectin computers or networks. $eans how the computers computers and networks are connected connected to each other. %hese can be connected in the followin followin ways C Rin2 To*o+o2 i? +omm +ommun unic icat atio ion n is is one one way way in this this topo topolo loy y.. %he %he spe speed ed is is slow slow.. ii?  token token which carries carries the data carry carry on runnin runnin in the rin. 'nly one node communicat communicates es at at a time. iii? #ode for for which which the data data is is attached attached to the token token capture capturess the token token and and after after usin data relea releases ses it on on the rin. rin. i!? i!? "ike "ike this this the the rin rin carr carry y on on mo! mo!in in. . !? If one node node becom becomes es unse unser!i r!icea ceable ble,, the the whol wholee rin rin #W #W is crashe crashed. d. 9& 7 #eria+ To*o+o2 i? ll nodes nodes are are conn connect ected ed to to a strai straiht ht wire wire Bthin Bthinnet net of coax coaxial ial cable? cable?.. Speed Speed is is slow. slow. ii? ii? 'nly 'nly one one node node can can com commu muni nica cate te at a tim time. e. iii? +ommunicat +ommunication ion is both both directi directional onal but at a time time data data can pass pass only in in one direct direction. ion. t the other end of the bus the sinal sinal is discarded. discarded. i!? If one one node is is unser!i unser!icea ceable ble,, network network past past of that that node node become becomess unser!i unser!icea ceable ble..

#tar 7 Raia+ To*o+o2 i? #odes odes are atta attacched hed to to a 37 1 SWI SWI% %+ ii? #etwork is faster. iii? iii? It is most most wide widely ly used used topo topolo loy y i!? If one node becomes becomes unser! unser!icea iceable, ble, the other nodes in in the network network are are not affec affected ted all other nodes nodes carry carry on on recei!in recei!in inform information ation.. 'nly that node is out of network.

$esh %opoloy %ree %opoloy &oint to &oint 0raph

NETWORKING TECHNI"UE# Peer to Peer  C )ach node in the network is ha!in its own resources 1 processin capabilities. It may sh are information amon others. #odes may not ha!e to depend upon others for carryin out their work. )ach node its own master i.e. has no boss. %hey are independent independent and work the way they like. C+ient #erver $C7#'  C In this techni4ue there is one dedicated dedicated boss that is known as ser!er. Whole the network works under the ser!er and it has full control on all all the nodes. 7oss is is known as $aster $aster 1 Ser!er. %he other nodes which are controlled controlled by Ser!er are are known as Sla!es 1 +lients. +lients send re4uest to the ser!er and the ser!er recei!es their re4uests and reply.


i? ii? iii? i!?

ub Switch *epeater   7rides

!? !i ? !ii? !iii? ix?

*outer   0ateways *A 59 59 +onnector   #I+ C #etwork #etwork Interface Interface +ard +ard 1 )thernet )thernet +ard 1 "# +ard B5H bit $+ $+ ddr '3I-'ra '3I-'raniEat niEational ionally ly 3ni4ue Identifi Identifier? er? $odem

MODE O8 COMMUNICATION# $8U55 DUP5E; :# HA58 DUP5E;' 8&++-D&*+e< ser!ices support the transfer of data in both directions.

Ha+=-D&*+e< ser!ices support the transfer of data in a sinle direction.


-%o share resources in network  -(ecrease costs of transfer  -Increase speed in transferrin -Impro!es communication Tran)iion Meia 7 C.anne+ o= Co))&ni,ation

%ransmission media is used to establish connecti!ity between computers or networks. %wo %ypes of transmission media G&ie Meia - in this type connectin cables are the communication communication channels between the different different works stations. Na)e Ientit

Twite Pair Cab+e Coa<ia+ Cab+e 'rdin rdinaary )lectr ectric ical al +abl +ablee %V wire wire

O*ti,a+ 8ibre Cab+e  hih hih spee peed wire ire ha!i ha!in n thin hin la lass

Conne,tor #*ee Ditan,e Cot T*e

Wire *A 59 8:: C 8::: mbps 8:: meters +heapest S%& L 3&%

Un2&ie Meia sinal.


7#+ 8: mbps 9:: meters +heaper %hinnet 1 %hicknet

pipe in it. S+ 1 S% 8::: mbps - i iabits 8:: km +ostly S$ 1 $$

in this this there there is no no direct direct conne connecti ction on betwee between n the sourc sourcee 1 destina destinatio tion n worksta workstatio tions ns and some some wa!e wa!ess are used used to to transm transmit it the

$icrowa!e *adio Wa!e Satellite Infrared wa!es Data Co))&ni,ation Ter)ino+o2ie

(ata +hannel C is a medium used to carry information 1 data from one point to another point. 7aud 1 7aud 7aud *ate C it the measure measurement ment unit unit of data carry carryin in capacity capacity of a data channel channel  bps bps is bits per second transmitted on a data channel channel 7ps 7ytes per second transmitted. 7andwidth C it is amount of information tra!elin throuh a sinle channel at any point of time.

Data Tran)iion #wit,.in2 Te,.ni>&e 7 How t.e in=or)ation i .are 7 Tran=erre in a NW 

Information transferred from one node to another node in a network is known as switchin. Switchin takes places in the followin ways C Cir,&it #wit,.in2

- ex %elephone line. In this source is connected to destination destination from end to end.

Mea2e #wit,.in2 - ex )-mails. 3ses store and forward forward technoloy for transfer of information. information.

Source sends information that is recei!ed by its nearby switch office. office. %his switch office sends the information to another switch switch office and that further forwards to another switch office until the whole information information is reached at the switch office that is nearer to the destination. destination. %hen this switch officer forwards information to the destination. Pa,ket #wit,.in2

- %his techni4ue also uses store and forward techni4ue but the data is broken into smaller siEe parts which are known as packets.


&rotocols are the set of rules rules that o!ern the communication o!er a network. Some important protocols are C %+& 1 I& C Tran)iion Contro+ Proto,o+. %his protocol establishes reliable or unreliable connection between between the source and destination. It also breaks the data into sements. I& C Internet Proto,o+. %his protocol is responsible for pro!idin #etwork ddress 1 I& ddress of the destination network. I& ddress is /;  bit address. I& ddress is di!ided into #etwork ddress and ost ddress. %%& C ypertext %ransfer &rotocol &rotocol - It allows different types of computers 1 #etworks to establish communication between them. It has two features C re4uests re4uests and responses.

DI88ERENCE 9ETWEEN WIRE5E## 7 MO9I5E Wire+e is without use of wire Bland line 1 physical connection?. Mobi+e - %he de!ice de!ice is in touch with the data source source continuousl continuously y without without physical physical connection connection.. It satellite or laser etc.



others others

media media


:ieo Con=eren,in2 - It is sounds, !ideo, talkin and !iewin o!er internet communication. We need Internet connection, connection, &+ +amera and its its Software, !ideophone Software B#et $eetin? for !ideo conferencin. WWW C World Wide Web is a protocol that allows allows to access documents on the internet. Web Pa2e C  document on the net is called a web pae. pae.

UR5 C )ach web pae has an address that is is called 3*". 3niform *esource "ocator. "ocator. H*erte<t C %he contents of a web pae is called called ypertext. It can be audio, !ideo, text, raphic and e!en H*er+ink 


link to some other pae.

"ink "ink to some some othe otherr pa paee in in a web web pa paee is is cal calle led d yp yper erli link nk..

Te+net C %erminal )mulation. It is a proram proram that is used to remotely loin network ser!er 1 de!ices. Web 9rower- It is a proram that is used to na!iate throuh the web paes and display their contents. )x Internet )xplorer, )xplorer, #etscape #a!iator #a!iator and $oEilla etc Web #erver C  www ser!er that responds responds to the re4uests made by web browsers. Web #ite C  location on a web ser!er is called called a web site. It contains web paes and has a uni4ue address. %his address is called 3*".

used to de!elop web paes. HTM5 C ypertext $arkup "anuae C used Web Hotin2 C ostin of web ser!er application application on a computer. Network #e,&rit

s we ha!e seen that the #W offers offers a lare number of benefits. %hese benefits are prone to threats. threats. #W security means to counter such threats threats to the #W. Met.o o= NW #e,&rit

uthentication C i!in passwords etc uthoriEation C only the users loin 7iometric Systems C scan retina 1 (# etc Firewall C pre!ents unauthoriEed access to 1 from a pri!ate network. Cookie C It is a messae sent by web ser!er to the web web browser so that it can keep tract tract of users acti!ities on a specific specific web site. Cra,ker C seek entry to alien #W with the indention to harm them. them.

Ha,ker C seek entry to the alien #W with the intention intention to just ha!e entry without harmin them.

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