Given that Buddhahood is frequently described as a state of limitless
compassion that is completely free of negative and afflictive emotions, it might
seem strange that we have decided to write a post addressing the question of
whether it is possible for a Buddha to become angry. However, believe it or not,
the answer to this question is not a straightforward ‘no’. In today’s post, we begin
by exploring some Buddhist and psychological perspectives on anger and then
provide our view on the above question.
Within Buddhism, in addition to attachment and ignorance, anger is known as
one of the three root poisons (Sanskrit: trivisa). Anger can be thought of as a form
of aversion towards another person, situation, or even ourselves. Because we see,
hear, smell, taste, or touch something that we don’t like or that we perceive as a
threat to our wellbeing or sense of self, we quickly want to remove or destroy it so
that things return to normal. Basically, anger manifests because we are trying to
keep things orderly and under control – people or situations that threaten to
disturb or interfere with the world that we have created for ourselves make us feel
angry and afraid.
Although in the Buddhist teachings anger is often described as a form of
aversion, it can actually also be thought of as a form of attachment. Indeed, the
reason we have aversion towards a particular situation is because we have allowed
ourselves to become attached to what we deem to represent the ‘opposite’ of that
situation. For example, imagine that for some time everything was cushy at work
and things were going really well with the career. But then along comes a work
colleague who makes us angry and who starts to create problems – it seems that
they deliberately go out of their way to cause us trouble. However, if we stop and
think about it, the anger and aversion that we experience arises because we have
become attached to the idea of everything being cushy and comfortable at work –
the perfect environment where we will always be recognised and rewarded for our
efforts and where we can swiftly move up the career ladder.
If we didn’t harbour attachments or have unrealistic ideas in the first place,
then we wouldn’t become so angry when our plans and ideas are disrupted.
Buddhism asserts that a person’s propensity for anger is closely associated with
how much attachment they harbour. A person that becomes very attached to their
possessions – which in some people’s minds can also include family members,
partners, and friends – is likely to be quick to anger. In a paper that we recently
published in the American Psychological Association journal Psychology of Religion and
Spirituality, we defined the Buddhist notion of attachment as “the over-allocation of
cognitive and emotional resources towards a particular object, construct, or idea to the extent that
the object is assigned an attractive quality that is unrealistic and that exceeds its intrinsic worth”.
As demonstrated by our definition, attachment takes on a very different meaning in
Buddhism compared to its use in Western psychology where attachment (e.g., in
the context of relationships) is generally considered to exert a protective influence
over mental health problems.
In the same way that the Buddhist root poisons of attachment and anger (or
aversion) are closely related to each other, they are also both closely related to the
other root poison that we mentioned – ignorance. Ignorance is described as one of
the three root poisons, but it is actually the primary cause of each of the other
poisons and of suffering more generally. Ignorance in the context that we are
discussing it here refers to the extent to which a person views themselves as an
independently or inherently-existing entity. The more a person is caught up in
themselves and thinks that they possess a definite self, the more ignorant they
become – and the larger their ego inflates itself. Thus, aversion or anger is a direct
result of attachment, and attachment is a direct result of ignorance or ego.
When a person becomes angry, it basically means that the ego-monkey that
we talked about in our last post has decided to raise its head. Although ego
underpins all of our emotions and behaviours, this is particularly the case when
anger is ravaging the mind. In fact, you only have to look at an angry person and it
is as though their ego is trying to burst through their skin. We touched on this in
our post on the Top Five Beauty Tips for Men and Women where we made reference to
research demonstrating that anger is associated with physiological responses such
as contraction of the brow muscles, facial flushing (i.e., turning red), flared nostrils,
clenched jaws, increased perspiration, increased heart rate, and general tension in
the skeletal musculature of the facial and neck regions.
Anger has a tendency to overrun the mind and body and it is generally
accepted by Western psychologists that anger can distort a person’s perspective of a
situation and reduce their ability to make wise decisions. As we discussed in a paper
that we published in the psychology journal Aggression and Violent Behaviour, in
addition to causing people to say and do unpleasant things, anger can also cause
people to behave irrationally. For example, a few years ago we were guiding a
meditation retreat in the Snowdonia Mountains of North Wales where one of the
participants was a middle-aged lady who was very angry because she couldn’t get her
mind to relax. Part way through one of the meditations, it became apparent that one
of the male participants in the group was a ‘breather’. ‘Breathers’ are those people
that breathe really deeply and loudly during meditation so that everybody else can
hear them and so that everybody knows they are ‘serious’ about their practice.
Anyway, about half way through this particular meditation session, it just became
too much for the lady who broke her silence and in an angry voice suddenly shouted
out ‘stop breathing’!
The point we have been trying to make above is that anger is a major obstacle to
happiness and spiritual development. It is a sign that a person’s ego is very much in
tact – which from the point of view of the meditation or spiritual practitioner –
means that there is still a tremendous amount of work to do. As a general rule, the
smaller the degree to which a spiritual practitioner’s thoughts, words, or actions are
influenced by ego (and therefore anger), the closer they are to attaining
Buddhahood. However, whilst this general rule applies for practically all stages of
the spiritual practitioner’s journey, it no longer applies when they have awoken to
For a fully enlightened Buddha, the moment a thought or feeling arises in their
mind, it is immediately liberated. The Buddhas perceive clearly that all phenomena
– including those of a psychological nature – are absent of an intrinsically—
existing self. They see that everything that manifests has no more substance than a
mental projection or a dream. As it says in the heart sutra, the Buddhas understand
that form (i.e., phenomena) is emptiness and emptiness is form. The Buddhas are
not bound by concepts such as self and other, past and future (i.e., time), or here
and there (i.e., space). Consequently, their mind is unlimited – it is free of any form
of attachment or aversion.
This ability of Buddhas to never become attached to physical or mental objects
means that they are free to manifest whatever feelings might be most skilful and
compassionate within a given situation. In effect, the Buddhas have uprooted the
causes of negative emotions to such an extent, that they are now free to use so-
called ‘negative emotions’ as they see fit. Ultimately, the Buddhas are 100%
focussed on liberating other beings from suffering. They are overflowing with
unconditional kindness, compassion, and patience, but if it is a blast of anger that
is required to jolt a person to start truly practicing spiritual development, then it
will be duly administered. This is very different than pretending to be angry (e.g., as
a parent might do) in order to communicate feelings of disapproval towards
another person. The type of anger that we are referring to here is very real – it is
primordial anger but there is absolutely no ego mixed in with it. Due to the
rawness of this anger and the fact that it is not tainted by ego, it enters deeply and
directly into the recipient’s mind and gives them a clear choice in terms of
embracing or rejecting the Dharma (truth/teachings).
There are quite a number of examples of enlightened beings using this primordial
anger to benefit others. Probably the best known example amongst Westerners is
that of Jesus Christ when he over-turned the tables and started throwing the
traders out of the temple. Buddhist practitioners might have heard about the 11
century Tibetan spiritual adept Marpa who would even administer a physical
beating where he felt it would be of some long-term benefit. Another reasonably
well-known and much more recent example is Lama Yeshe who died in 1984 –
there are reports that he once got hold of a pick-pocket (i.e., a thief) and gave them
a right good shaking in order to make them see sense. There are also examples of
Zen teachers becoming angry with their students and in some cases this actually
prompted an intuitive leap or a sudden flash of realisation.
For the everyday meditation practitioner such as you and us, anger can make it
almost impossible to stabilise the mind and it can significantly disrupt a persons’
spiritual progress. Consequently, every effort should be made to practice patience
and kindness and to never act out of anger. However, for the fully enlightened
Buddhas, although their very being overflows with joy, wisdom, and compassion, it
does seem that they can and do use primordial anger as a very skilful and effective
means of teaching. This is quite a dangerous subject to write about because some
meditation practitioners or teachers could misinterpret what we are saying and start
believing that it is acceptable to be angry. However, given that there are reports of
Buddhas exhibiting anger, then it seems appropriate to offer an explanation as to
why this might be. Another reason for writing this post is because in the event you
are one of those handful of people fortunate enough to meet a fully-enlightened
teacher – you’ll be less likely to become all haughty and self-righteous if they decide
to give you verbal kick-up the backside!
Ven. Edo Shonin & Ven. William Van Gordon
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