Case Study On Term Paper Topic:
Submitted By: Lokesh Ranjan
INTRODUCTION: Microsoft released this new Windows version 5.0, Build 2195 in February 2000. It is the desktop operating system of the new Windows 2000 platform for x86 architecture and be completed by the versions Windows 2000 Server, Windows 2000 Advanced Server and Windows 2000 Datacenter Server. As a minimum requirement for the installation a Pentium processor, 32 mega byte main memory and 650 mega byte of free hard disk storage are needed. Microsoft had planned to develop a operating system version for the Alpha architecture, the plans were stopped after an announcement of Compaq. Compaq restricted the support to Windows NT 4.0 with service pack 6 and not higher at 1999-08-25. Microsoft stopped the development plans for the Windows 2000 32- bit of Alpha version after that. Windows 2000 unites defined roughly the userfriendliness, plug & play and USB device support of Windows 98 and the safety and stability of the Windows NT family. The update to this new operating system is possible from Windows 95, 98 and Windows NT 3.51, 4.0. It is a multitasking, multiprocessing operating system and supports up to 2 processors of the x86 32- bit and 64 bit architecture with SMP. Threads or processes can choose between the available processors. Beside the complete revision new features and many improvements are integrated. The result is high compatibility, simplified administration, increased hardware support with over
7,000 devices, files administration and extended security functions. Applications for Windows 9x are only supported restrictedly. The installation is possible from CD-ROM or over the network from a file server. The virtual addressable storage is 4 gbyte and is managed by the Virtual Memory manager (VMM). VMM assigns the addressable storage on the actually available physical memory and the memory page file (pagefile.sys) on hard disk. The field of application of this operating system is suitable as a single user computer or as a client in company networks. The operating system is enhanced with the game interface DirectX 7.0, the Internet Explorer 5.0 made access to the Internet possible. Windows 2000 authenticates the user first at the access to files, printers or other computers. Networks are supported with the protocols TCP/IP, NWLink and AppleTalk. Windows 2000 supports the data interchange in decentralized working groups and central domains. Furthermore the Registry consists as in Windows NT 4.0 before of the system files SAM, SECURITY, SOFTWARE and SYSTEM. The hierarchical database saves information of the hardware and applications as well as configuration settings. The following basic services are in Windows 2000 Prof. installed. The SFC (System File Protection) offers protection from overwrite of Windows system files. It is possible to create hardware profiles for different hardware configurations with the settings of all devices and services. NTFS is used as file system in the new
version 5. The specification of user rights is possible for files and directories on file system level, file compression in real time, disk storage quotas (Quotas) and encrypting with EFS (Encrypting File System) can also be used. At the specification of rights the Access Control List (ACL) is stored with every file and every directory. The compression and encoding exclude each other, only one of the options on the same object can be used. Furthermore the FAT/FAT32 file system is supported. Windows 2000 Prof. is also suitable for mobile use on notebook computers. With the complete support of the technologies APM and ACPI an effective energy management and thus lower electricity consumption is possible. With the Suspend to Disk function the computer can be put into a power saving mode and is in the same condition as before after short reactivation time. An assistant supports the user at the administration of the network connections, with use of VPN (Virtual Private Network) and IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) secure mobile access to company networks is possible. The printer administration was simplified with an assistant. 2004-02-13 announced Microsoft that parts of the source code of Windows 2000 has leaked on the Internet. The source code appeared illegally in peer-to-peer file sharing networks, Microsoft said to use the full law to protect the stolen property. 2003-06-25 the Service Pack 4 eliminates 675 bugs appeared since the last service pack. New is the support for USB 2.0 device connections.
Hardware Requirements Of Windows2000: System
Windows 2000 Professional
650 MB free (2 G recommended)
Windows 2000 Server
128Mb (256Mb Recommended)
1 GB free (2 G recommended)
Windows 2000 Advanced Server
1 Gb free (2 G recommended)
Windows 2000 Datacenter Server
1 GB free (2 G recommended)
Editions Of Windows2000 Windows 2000 combination of features designed in the Windows 98 and NT 4.0. Like previous versions of Windows, it uses a Graphical User Interface (GUI) format, Plug-and-Play compatibility, and USB support. What makes Windows 2000 significantly different is the formats it is available in. There are 4 products that compose the Windows 2000 family. Windows 2000 Professional This version of Windows 2000 is equivalent to the Windows 98/NT 4.0 workstation clients. It is designed to
offer basic peer-to-peer networking services and client services in a client-server network. It is designed to integrate the ease of usability of Windows 98 with the reliability and security of Windows NT 4.0. Basic improvements include a more reliable user interface, enhanced Plug-and-Play compatibility, increased power management options, and extended hardware compatibility, including direct USB and FireWire support. It also uses a new file encryption system that increases security on the network when integrated with Active Directory Services. Finally, it has a host of new application management tools that simplify and extend administrative and user control over the network. Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 Server is a network-enhanced version of Windows 2000 Professional. It contains all the same aspects as Windows 2000 Pro, but adds network serving ability, enhanced file and print sharing services, application server technology, and Web-Server utilities. It is designed to allow small-to-medium-sized businesses network their systems efficiently at a lower cost than traditional NT 4.0 methods by stripping out un-used tools. Windows 2000 integrates Active Directory Services into several existing services such as Domain Name System (DNS), Dynamic Host Control Service (DHCP), and WINS (Windows Internet Name Service) allowing central control over management of users, groups, security, and network resources. It supports single-processor systems as well as four-way symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) systems. It supports up to 4 GB of physical memory.
Windows 2000 Advanced Server Advanced server is essentially the same as Windows 2000 Server with enhanced scalability and advanced high availability required for larger enterprise servers and departmental solutions. It focuses more on application and departmental networking, with support for eight-way symmetric multiprocessing and two-way clustering. It also integrates Intel's Physical Address Extensions (PAEs) technology to allow for support for larger physical memory quantities. Is is meant for larger businesses with database-intensive requirements. Windows 2000 Datacenter Server Datacenter is a highly specialized version of Windows 2000 designed for large-scale enterprise solutions. It integrates technologies optimized for large data warehouses, econometric analysis, large-scale simulations in science and engineering, online transaction processing (OLTP) and server consolidation projects. It adds elements to enhance Internet Service Provider (ISP) support and Web Hosting services. It supports 4-way clustering, and sixteen-way Symmetric multiprocessing (Upgradeable to 32-way SMP).
Windows Directory Services Active Directory, the directory service for Windows 2000, is both the directory that stores the user and resource information and the service provider for administering the network. The users and resources on a network are called objects, and Active Directory provides several
advancements in Windows 2000 to make it more functional. These advancements include; Simplified Administration - Active Directory uses Microsoft's Domain model for storing objects. A domain is a grouping of servers, workstations, and other resources on a single network, or under a single domain name. Each domain has at least one domain controller, which is the server that manages user access to resources, as well as authentication and log-on services. In Windows NT 4.0, there were Primary Domain Controllers and Backup Domain Controllers. This has been eliminated in Windows 2000. All domain controllers are now equal, and any changes made to a single domain controller are replicated through all the domain controllers in the domain. This means that all administrative tasks can occur from a single spot, rather then having to be at the Primary Domain Controller in order to administer objects on the network. Scalability - Scalability is referred to as the ability for an operating system or component to allow for growth over time in the size and nature of the requirements put upon that OS or component. The directory in Active Directory is actually a series of directories instead of one large directory. This allows very small organizations to upgrade their systems to very large networks without worrying about losing directory information. You can even spread the information in a directory service across several computers, making this information more faulttolerant. Open Standards Support - Windows 2000 uses the internet concept of name space with it's directory service. This means it must be compatible with many of the internet services and standards to manage the
domain efficiently. Some of these services include; Domain Name Service (DNS), Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), and Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol. (HTTP) It is also compatible with other LDAP version 2 and 3-compatible directory services, such as Novell Directory Service. (NDS) DNS - Windows 2000 integrates DNS with Active directory, making it's domain names DNS names. This allows Windows 2000 to use Dynamic DNS (DDNS) to dynamically assign IP addresses and maintain the DNS database. This eliminates the need for the use of other internet naming services such as WINS. LDAP and HTTP - Windows 2000 also integrates the LDAP and HTTP services for information exchange and display. LDAP allows simple communications between applications and directories, while HTTP allows all directories to be viewed in the common HTML format, making it easier for users to identify with the o/s format. Standard Name Formats - Active Directory continues the Internet integration by providing several common name formats, including; • RFC 822 - [email protected]
• Uniform Resource Locator (URL) http://domain/location-in-directory • Universal Naming Convention \\sharedirectory\path (For naming network resources) • LDAP URL - Used to define the path to the Active Directory services as well as the name of the object.
Key Features Of Windows2000 Enhanced Security Windows 2000 Professional provides a number of security features for local and network applications. Encrypting File System (EFS) The EFS component permits encryption of folders and files. When a folder or file is encrypted, an encryption certificate and a private key are generated that are used later to perform the decryption. EFS is a particularly valuable feature for mobile systems where confidential data may be at risk should the computer be lost or stolen. EFS can be used whether the computer operates as a stand-alone system or participates on a network as a member of an Active Directory domain. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Public key cryptography is an important security mechanism for protecting Internet, intranet, and e-
commerce data. Windows 2000 Professional includes native PKI support that can take full advantage of public key cryptography. PKI provides an integrated set of tools and services for support of public key-based applications. Standard Network Authentication Protocols Windows 2000 Professional supports a number of network authentication protocols including: Kerberos 5, the default network authentication program for computers running Windows 2000 Professional. Windows NT LAN Manager version 2 (NTLMv2), which provides enhanced authentication and session security over the previous NTLM implementation included with Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 9x operating systems. Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), a new programming interface that allows third-party security protocols to be installed and used. Smart Card Support Smart cards are credit card-sized electronic cards that can provide tamper-resistant, highly portable storage for digital identification and credentials. Smart card support is integrated into Windows 2000 Professional. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) VPNs allow Windows 2000 Professional clients to use the Internet to create secure paths or pipelines over the Internet to their corporate local area networks (LANs).
VPN technology is especially useful in mobile computer applications because it enables users to dial into most local Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and set up a secure VPN session with their corporate LAN over the Internet. This can significantly reduce long-distance dial-up charges. Windows 2000 supports key VPN tunneling protocols including the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP), Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP), and Internet Protocol Security (IPSec). Manageability Windows 2000 Professional includes manageability features that make it easier for IT professionals to deploy, support, and update the OS over the network. The management tools and services described in this section are used in conjunction with Windows 2000 Server management services.
Microsoft Management Console (MMC) Designed for system managers running Windows 2000 clients, MMC is an extensible console framework that provides a common environment for specialized management applications called snap-ins. Snap-ins are ActiveX® controls that provide system management
functions or behaviors that system and network administrators can combine to create many types of administration tools. As the primary management host for Windows 2000 Professional, MMC provides a single interface for many client and server management tools. Synchronization Manager The Synchronization Manager lets users synchronize various resources. From the Items to Synchronize window, users can set the Synchronization Manager to automatically synchronize files, folders, e-mail, and offline Web pages every time they log on or off of the network. Synchronization Manager synchronizes only the resources that have changed or have been updated since the last synchronization process. Stability and Reliability Like Windows NT Workstation, the 32-bit Windows 2000 Professional OS protects itself against the failure of nonnative 16-bit Windows and 16-bit MS-DOS® programs by running those programs in a protected subsystem that has its own separate memory space. This protected kernel-mode architecture makes Windows NT Workstation and Windows 2000 Professional more stable and reliable. Windows 2000 Professional has added a number of new improvements in core-system file integrity, driver signing and authentication, reduced boot scenarios, and others, which make it more robust than previous Windows operating systems.