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Chapter 14

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Question Bank for Chapter 14 corp tax

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Chapter 14
True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. ____ ____ ____ ____ 1. If a corporation has no subsidiaries outside the U.S., its book and taxable income are identical. 2. Only U.S. corporations are included in a combined GAAP financial statement. 3. Domestic and foreign entities owned more than 80% are included in a consolidated group’s U.S. tax return. 4. Giant uses the “equity method” to account for the operations of its 40% owned subsidiary Little. A portion of Little’s profits for the year are included in Giant’s GAAP book income. 5. The operations of an 80% or more owned domestic subsidiaries must be included in the parent corporation’s consolidated tax return. 6. Yahr, Inc., is a domestic corporation with no subsidiaries. It operates in almost every U.S. state. Yahr records no permanent or temporary book-tax differences this year. Yahr’s tax expense on its GAAP financial statements and its tax liability reported on its Federal income tax return are identical. 7. “Temporary differences” are book-tax income differences that eventually appear in both the financial statements and the income tax return, but not in the same reporting period. 8. Schedule M-3 of the tax return Form 1120 reconciles financial statement net income after tax with a large corporation’s taxable income. 9. “Permanent differences” include items that appear in the Federal income tax return as income or deduction, and in the GAAP financial statements as revenue or expense, but in different reporting periods.

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____ 10. In general, the purpose of ASC 740 (SFAS 109) is to compute and disclose the actual taxes paid by a business entity to state, local, Federal, and foreign governments for the current year. ____ 11. The current tax expense reported on the GAAP financial statement generally represents the taxes actually payable to domestic or foreign governmental authorities. ____ 12. A deferred tax liability represents a potential future tax benefit associated with income reported in the current year GAAP financial statements. ____ 13. A deferred tax liability represents a current tax liability associated with income or expense to be reported in future year GAAP financial statements. ____ 14. A deferred tax asset is the expected future tax benefit (savings) associated with income reported in the current year GAAP financial statements. ____ 15. A deferred tax asset is the current tax benefit (savings) associated with income or expense to be reported in future year GAAP financial statements. ____ 16. The valuation allowance can reduce either a deferred tax asset or a deferred tax liability.

____ 17. If a valuation allowance is increased in the current year, the corporation’s effective tax rate is higher than if the valuation allowance had not increased. ____ 18. If a valuation allowance is decreased (released) in the current year, the corporation’s effective tax rate is higher than if the valuation allowance had not increased. ____ 19. Under GAAP, a corporation can defer a disclosure of the future U.S. tax expense related to the earnings of foreign subsidiaries, by taking into account its repatriation plans for these earnings. ____ 20. One can describe the benefits of ASC 740-30 (APB 23) as “all or nothing.” If it is elected, APB 23 applies to the earnings from all foreign subsidiaries, in the current year and thereafter. ____ 21. Repatriating prior year earnings from a foreign subsidiary located in a low-tax country where ASC 740-30 (APB 23) benefits were previously adopted will cause an increase in a corporation’s current year effective tax rate. ____ 22. The taxpayer should use the technique of ASC 740-30 (APB 23) income deferral only when the tax rates that apply to the subsidiary are less than those of the applicable U.S. income tax rate. ____ 23. The income tax note to the GAAP financial statements includes a reconciliation of a corporation’s hypothetical tax on book income to its book tax expense as if it were taxed at the applicable U.S. income tax rates. ____ 24. In the “rate reconciliation” of GAAP tax footnotes, temporary book-tax differences are reconciled between book income as if taxed at U.S. tax rates and the actual book income tax expense. ____ 25. A $50,000 cash tax savings that is temporary has the same effect on a corporation’s current year effective tax rate as a $50,000 cash tax savings that is a permanent difference. ____ 26. ASC 740 (FIN 48) allows companies to choose their own level of certainty in reporting uncertain tax positions in their financial statements. ____ 27. ASC 740 (FIN 48) replaced FAS 5, Accounting for Contingencies, with regard to accounting for uncertain tax positions. ____ 28. The major purpose of ASC 740 (SFAS 109) is to build a cushion into currently reported income tax expense in order to insure that the financial statements are conservative. ____ 29. Current tax expense always totals the amount a taxpayer actually paid all Federal, state, and foreign tax authorities in a particular year. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. Purple, Inc., a domestic corporation, owns 100% of Blue, Ltd., a foreign corporation and Yellow, Inc., a domestic corporation. Purple also owns 40% of Green, Inc., a domestic corporation. Purple receives no distributions from any of these corporations. Which of these entities’ net income are included in Purple’s GAAP income statement for current year financial reporting purposes?

a. b. c. d. ____

Purple, Blue, Yellow, and Green. Purple, Blue, and Yellow. Purple, Blue, and Green. Purple, Yellow, and Green.

2. Create, Inc., a domestic corporation, owns 100% of Vinyl, Ltd., a foreign corporation and Digital, Inc., a domestic corporation. Create also owns 12% of Record, Inc., a domestic corporation. Create receives no distributions from any of these corporations. Which of these entities’ net income are included in Create’s income statement for current year financial reporting purposes? a. Create, Vinyl, Digital, and Record. b. Create, Vinyl, and Record. c. Create, Vinyl, and Digital. d. Create, Digital, and Record. e. None of the above. 3. Purple, Inc., a domestic corporation, owns 80% of Blue, Ltd., a foreign corporation and Yellow, Inc., a domestic corporation. Purple also owns 50% of Green, Inc., a domestic corporation. Purple receives no distributions from any of these corporations. Which of these entities’ net income are included in Purple’s Federal tax return for the current year assuming Purple elects to include all eligible entities in its consolidated Federal income tax return? a. Purple, Blue, Yellow, and Green. b. Purple, Blue, and Yellow. c. Purple, Blue, and Green. d. Purple and Yellow. 4. Create, Inc., a domestic corporation, owns 90% of Vinyl, Ltd., a foreign corporation and Digital, Inc., a domestic corporation. Create also owns 60% of Record, Inc., a domestic corporation. Create receives no distributions from any of these corporations. Which of these entities’ net income are included in Create’s Federal tax return for the current year assuming Create elects to include all eligible entities in its consolidated Federal income tax return? a. Create and Digital. b. Create, Vinyl, and Digital. c. Create, Vinyl, and Record. d. Create, Vinyl, Digital, and Record. 5. Which of the following taxes are included in the total income tax expense of a corporation as reported on its financial statements? a. State income taxes. b. Local income taxes. c. Foreign income taxes. d. Federal income taxes. e. All the above taxes are included. 6. Which of the following taxes are included in the total income tax expense of a corporation reported on its Federal tax return? a. State income taxes. b. Local income taxes. c. Foreign income taxes. d. Federal income taxes. e. All the above taxes are included 7. Which of the following items represents a temporary book-tax difference?

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a. b. c. d. ____

Municipal bond interest. Compensation-related expenses. Meals and entertainment expense deduction. Nondeductible penalties.

8. Phyllis, Inc., earns book net income before tax of $600,000. Phyllis puts into service a depreciable asset this year, and first year tax depreciation exceeds book depreciation by $120,000. Phyllis has recorded no other temporary or permanent book-tax differences. Assuming that the U.S. tax rate is 35%, what is Phyllis’s total income tax expense reported on its GAAP financial statements? a. $252,000. b. $210,000. c. $168,000. d. $42,000. 9. Gravel, Inc., earns book net income before tax of $600,000. Gravel puts into service a depreciable asset this year, and first year tax depreciation exceeds book depreciation by $120,000. Gravel has recorded no other temporary or permanent book-tax differences. Assuming that the U.S. tax rate is 35%, what is Gravel’s current income tax expense reported on its GAAP financial statements? a. $252,000. b. $210,000. c. $168,000. d. $42,000.

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____ 10. Clipp, Inc., earns book net income before tax of $600,000. Clipp puts into service a depreciable asset this year, and first year tax depreciation exceeds book depreciation by $120,000. Clipp has recorded no other temporary or permanent book-tax differences. Assuming that the U.S. tax rate is 35%, what is Clipp’s deferred income tax liability reported on its GAAP financial statements? a. $252,000. b. $210,000. c. $168,000. d. $42,000. ____ 11. Jogg, Inc., earns book net income before tax of $600,000. Jogg puts into service a depreciable asset this year, and first year tax depreciation exceeds book depreciation by $120,000. Jogg has recorded no other temporary or permanent book-tax differences. Assuming that the U.S. tax rate is 35%, and that this is Jogg’s first year of operations, what is Jogg’s balance in its deferred tax asset and deferred tax liability accounts at year end? a. $42,000 and $0. b. $0 and $42,000. c. $42,000 and $42,000. d. $0 and $0. ____ 12. Qute, Inc., earns book net income before tax of $500,000. In computing its book income, Qute deducts $50,000 more in warranty expense for book purposes than is allowed for tax purposes. Qute records no other temporary or permanent book-tax differences. Assuming that the U.S. tax rate is 35% and no valuation allowance is required, what is Qute’s total income tax expense reported on its GAAP financial statements? a. $192,500. b. $175,000. c. $157,500. d. $17,500.

____ 13. Morrisson, Inc., earns book net income before tax of $500,000. In computing its book income, Morrisson deducts $50,000 more in warranty expense for book purposes than is allowed for tax purposes. Morrisson records no other temporary or permanent book-tax differences. Assuming that the U.S. tax rate is 35% and no valuation allowance is required, what is Morrisson’s current income tax expense reported on its GAAP financial statements? a. $192,500. b. $175,000. c. $157,500. d. $17,500. ____ 14. Never, Inc., earns book net income before tax of $500,000. In computing its book income, Never deducts $50,000 more in warranty expense for book purposes than is allowed for tax purposes. Never records no other temporary or permanent book-tax differences. Assuming that the U.S. tax rate is 35% and no valuation allowance is required, what is Never’s deferred income tax asset reported on its GAAP financial statements? a. $192,500. b. $175,000. c. $157,500. d. $17,500. ____ 15. South, Inc., earns book net income before tax of $400,000 in 2010. South acquires a depreciable asset in 2010, and first year tax depreciation exceeds book depreciation by $50,000. At the end of 2010, South’s deferred tax liability account balance is $17,500. In 2011, South earns $500,000 book net income before tax, and its book depreciation exceeds tax depreciation by $20,000. South records no other temporary or permanent book-tax differences. Assuming that the U.S. tax rate is 35%, what is South’s total income tax expense reported on its GAAP financial statements for 2011? a. $182,000. b. $175,000. c. $168,000. d. $7,000. ____ 16. South, Inc., earns book net income before tax of $400,000 in 2010. South acquires a depreciable asset in 2010, and first year tax depreciation exceeds book depreciation by $50,000. At the end of 2010, South’s deferred tax liability account balance is $17,500. In 2011, South earns $500,000 book net income before tax, and its book depreciation exceeds tax depreciation by $20,000. South records no other temporary or permanent book-tax differences. Assuming that the U.S. tax rate is 35%, what is South’s current income tax expense reported on its GAAP financial statements for 2011? a. $182,000. b. $175,000. c. $168,000. d. $7,000. ____ 17. South, Inc., earns book net income before tax of $400,000 in 2010. South acquires a depreciable asset in 2010, and first year tax depreciation exceeds book depreciation by $50,000. At the end of 2010, South’s deferred tax liability account balance is $17,500. In 2011, South earns $500,000 book net income before tax, and its book depreciation exceeds tax depreciation by $20,000. South records no other temporary or permanent book-tax differences. Assuming that the U.S. tax rate is 35%, what is South’s balance in its deferred tax liability account at the end of 2011? a. $17,500. b. $10,500. c. $7,000. d. $0.

____ 18. Larson, Inc., hopes to report a total book tax expense of $160,000 in the current year. This $160,000 expense consists of $240,000 in current tax expense and an $80,000 tax benefit related to the expected future use of an NOL by Larson. If the auditors determine that a valuation allowance of $30,000 must be placed against Larson’s deferred tax assets, what is Larson’s total book tax expense? a. $160,000. b. $130,000. c. $190,000. d. $240,000. ____ 19. Cold, Inc., reported a $100,000 total tax expense for financial statement purposes in 2010. This total expense consisted of $150,000 in current tax expense and a deferred tax benefit of $50,000. The deferred tax benefit consisted of $90,000 in deferred tax assets reduced by a valuation allowance of $40,000. In 2011, Cold reports $600,000 in book net income before tax. Cold records no other permanent or temporary book-tax differences for 2011. At the end of 2011, Cold’s auditors determine that the existing valuation allowance of $40,000 should be reduced to zero. What is Cold’s total tax expense for 2011? a. $210,000. b. $170,000. c. $250,000. d. $40,000. ____ 20. Beach, Inc., a domestic corporation, owns 100% of Mountain, Ltd., a manufacturing facility in Ireland. Mountain has no operations or activities in the United States. The U.S. tax rate is 35% and the Irish tax rate is 10%. For the current year, Beach earns $500,000 in taxable income. Mountain earns $300,000 in taxable income from its operations, pays $30,000 in taxes to Ireland, and makes no distributions to Beach. What is Beach’s effective tax rate for GAAP book purposes, assuming that Beach does not make the permanent reinvestment assumption of ASC 740-30 (APB 23)? a. 38.75%. b. 31.25%. c. 35%. d. 25.63%. ____ 21. Beach, Inc., a domestic corporation, owns 100% of Mountain, Ltd., a manufacturing facility in Ireland. Mountain has no operations or activities in the United States. The U.S. tax rate is 35% and the Irish tax rate is 10%. For the current year, Beach earns $500,000 in taxable income. Mountain earns $300,000 in taxable income from its operations, pays $30,000 in taxes to Ireland, and makes no distributions to Beach. What is Beach’s effective tax rate for GAAP book purposes, assuming that Beach makes the permanent reinvestment assumption of ASC 740-30 (APB 23)? a. 38.75%. b. 31.25%. c. 35%. d. 25.63%. ____ 22. Which of the following items are not included in the GAAP financial statement income tax note’s effective tax rate reconciliation? a. Hypothetical tax on book income at U.S. Federal corporate tax rate. b. Tax effect of permanent differences. c. Tax effect of temporary differences. d. Total tax expense per financial statements. e. None of the above is included in the note. ____ 23. Which of the following items are not included in the income tax note for a publicly traded company? a. Breakdown of income between foreign and domestic.

b. c. d. e.

Analysis of deferred tax assets and liabilities. Breakdown of income among States. Rate reconciliation. Analysis of total tax expense components.

____ 24. How are deferred tax liabilities and assets categorized on the balance sheet? a. Capital and ordinary. b. Domestic and foreign. c. Current and non-current. d. Positive and negative. ____ 25. Hot, Inc.’s primary competitor is Cold, Inc. When comparing relative deferred tax asset and liability accounts with Cold, which of the following benchmarking activities should Hot undertake? a. Scale the deferred tax assets and liabilities by total sales or total assets. b. Compare raw dollar amounts of deferred tax assets and liabilities. c. Ignore deferred tax assets and liabilities and focus on overall effective tax rate. d. Ignore all tax information other than the current tax expense. ____ 26. Collins, Inc., reports an effective tax rate in its income tax footnote of 14%. The only reconciling item with regard to the hypothetical tax at 35% is a valuation allowance reversal of negative 21%. Which of the following statements is true concerning comparing Collins, Inc.’s effective tax rate with its competitors, all of whom have an effective tax rate between 32 and 36%? a. Collins Inc. is managing its tax burden in a more efficient manner than its competitors. b. Collins Inc. earned more cash profits because of its lower effective tax rate. c. Collins Inc.’s structural effective tax rate is actually quite close to its competitors. d. Collins Inc. is likely to be engaged in tax shelter activities. ____ 27. Which of the following statements best describes considerations regarding a company’s tax expense that may be made by users of GAAP financial statements? a. The breakdown of tax expense between current and deferred may provide useful information regarding the comparison of tax burdens between companies. b. An analysis of earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization (EBITDA) is often a better approach to comparing operating results of two companies. c. One-time effects within a company’s effective tax rate should be removed before comparing effective tax rates across companies (or across years for the same company). d. All the above observations are correct. Problem 1. Kooler, Inc., is a domestic corporation. It owns 100% of Texas, Inc., a domestic corporation, 100% of Paris, a foreign corporation, and 45% of Iowa, Inc., a domestic corporation. a. Which entities’ incomes are included in Kooler’s combined GAAP financial statements? b. How would your answer change if Kooler instead owned 15% of Iowa? 2. Bunker, Inc., is a domestic corporation. It owns 100% of Texas, Inc., a domestic corporation, 100% of Paris, a foreign corporation, and 35% of Iowa, Inc., a domestic corporation. a. Which entities’ incomes are included in Bunker’s Federal consolidated income tax return?

b. How would your answer change if Bunker instead owned 15% of Iowa? 3. Rochelle, Inc., reported the following results for the current year. Book income (before tax) Tax depreciation in excess of book Non-tax-deductible warranty expense Municipal bond interest income $500,000 25,000 17,500 20,000

Determine Rochelle’s taxable income for the current year. Identify any temporary or permanent book-tax differences. 4. PaintCo Inc., a domestic corporation, owns 100% of BrushCo Ltd., an Irish corporation. Assume that the U.S. corporate tax rate is 35% and the Irish rate is 10%. PaintCo is permanently reinvesting BrushCo’s earnings outside the United States under ASC 740-30 (APB 23). The corporations’ book income, permanent and temporary book-tax differences, and current tax expense are as follows. Determine PaintCo’s total tax expense reported on its financial statements, its current tax expense (benefit), and its deferred tax expense (benefit). PaintCo $600,000 40,000 (100,000) (100,000) 20,000 BrushCo $400,000 –0– –0– –0– –0–

Book income before tax Permanent differences Meals & entertainment expense Municipal bond interest income Temporary differences Tax > book depreciation Book > tax bad debt expense

5. PaintCo Inc., a domestic corporation, owns 100% of BrushCo Ltd., an Irish corporation. Assume that the U.S. corporate tax rate is 35% and the Irish rate is 10%. PaintCo is permanently reinvesting BrushCo’s earnings outside the United States under ASC 740-30 (APB 23). The corporations’ book income, permanent and temporary book-tax differences, and current tax expense are as follows. Provide the income tax footnote rate reconciliation for PaintCo using both dollar amounts and percentages. PaintCo $600,000 40,000 (100,000) (100,000) 20,000 BrushCo $400,000 –0– –0– –0– –0–

Book income before tax Permanent differences Meals & entertainment expense Municipal bond interest income Temporary differences Tax > book depreciation Book > tax bad debt expense

6. Gator, Inc., is a domestic corporation with the following balance sheet for book and tax purposes at the end of the year. Assume a 34% corporate tax rate and no valuation allowance. Tax Debit/(Credit) Assets Book Debit/(Credit)

Cash Accounts Receivable Buildings Acc. Depreciation Furniture & Fixtures Acc. Depreciation Total Assets Liabilities Accrued Litigation Expense Note Payable Total Liabilities Stockholder Equity Paid in Capital Retained Earnings Total Liabilities and Stockholders Equity

300 5,000 300,000 (150,000) 40,000 (21,000) $174,300

$

$

300 5,000 300,000 (80,000) 40,000 (15,000) $250,300

$

–0–

($ 27,000) (116,000) ($143,000)

(116,000) ($116,000)

($ 1,000) (57,300) ($174,300)

($ 1,000) (106,300) ($250,300)

Gator Inc.’s gross deferred tax assets and liabilities at the beginning of Gator’s year are listed below. Beginning of Year Accrued Litigation Expense Subtotal Applicable Tax Rate Gross Deferred Tax Asset Building – Acc. Depreciation Furniture & fixtures – Acc. Depreciation Subtotal Applicable tax rate Gross deferred tax liability $21,000 $21,000  34% $ 7,140 ($61,000) (3,200) ($64,200)  34% ($21,828)

Gator Inc.’s book income before tax is $6,300. Gator records two permanent book-tax differences. It earned $250 in tax exempt municipal bond interest and $460 in nondeductible meals and entertainment expense. Determine the change in Gator’s deferred tax assets for the current year. 7. Gator, Inc., is a domestic corporation with the following balance sheet for book and tax purposes at the end of the year. Assume a 34% corporate tax rate and no valuation allowance. Tax Debit/(Credit) Assets Cash Accounts Receivable Buildings Acc. Depreciation Furniture & Fixtures Acc. Depreciation 300 5,000 300,000 (150,000) 40,000 (21,000) $ Book Debit/(Credit) $ 300 5,000 300,000 (80,000) 40,000 (15,000)

Total Assets Liabilities Accrued Litigation Expense Note Payable Total Liabilities Stockholder Equity Paid in Capital Retained Earnings Total Liabilities and Stockholders Equity

$174,300

$250,300

$

–0–

($ 27,000) (116,000) ($143,000)

(116,000) ($116,000)

($ 1,000) (57,300) ($174,300)

($ 1,000) (106,300) ($250,300)

Gator Inc.’s gross deferred tax assets and liabilities at the beginning of Gator’s year are listed below. Beginning of Year Accrued Litigation Expense Subtotal Applicable Tax Rate Gross Deferred Tax Asset Building – Acc. Depreciation Furniture & fixtures – Acc. Depreciation Subtotal Applicable tax rate Gross deferred tax liability $21,000 $21,000  34% $ 7,140 ($61,000) (3,200) ($64,200)  34% ($21,828)

Gator Inc.’s book income before tax is $6,300. Gator records two permanent book-tax differences. It earned $250 in tax exempt municipal bond interest and $460 in nondeductible meals and entertainment expense. Determine the net deferred tax asset or net deferred tax liability at year end. 8. Gator, Inc., is a domestic corporation with the following balance sheet for book and tax purposes at the end of the year. Assume a 34% corporate tax rate and no valuation allowance. Tax Debit/(Credit) Assets Cash Accounts Receivable Buildings Acc. Depreciation Furniture & Fixtures Acc. Depreciation Total Assets Liabilities Accrued Litigation Expense Note Payable 300 5,000 300,000 (150,000) 40,000 (21,000) $174,300 $ Book Debit/(Credit) $ 300 5,000 300,000 (80,000) 40,000 (15,000) $250,300

$

–0–

($ 27,000) (116,000)

(116,000)

Total Liabilities Stockholder Equity Paid in Capital Retained Earnings Total Liabilities and Stockholders Equity

($116,000)

($143,000)

($ 1,000) (57,300) ($174,300)

($ 1,000) (106,300) ($250,300)

Gator Inc.’s gross deferred tax assets and liabilities at the beginning of Gator’s year are listed below. Beginning of Year Accrued Litigation Expense Subtotal Applicable Tax Rate Gross Deferred Tax Asset Building – Acc. Depreciation Furniture & fixtures – Acc. Depreciation Subtotal Applicable tax rate Gross deferred tax liability $21,000 $21,000  34% $ 7,140 ($61,000) (3,200) ($64,200)  34% ($21,828)

Gator Inc.’s book income before tax is $6,300. Gator records two permanent book-tax differences. It earned $250 in tax exempt municipal bond interest and $460 in nondeductible meals and entertainment expense. Determine the change in Gator’s deferred tax liabilities for the current year. 9. Gator, Inc., is a domestic corporation with the following balance sheet for book and tax purposes at the end of the year. Assume a 34% corporate tax rate and no valuation allowance. Tax Debit/(Credit) Assets Cash Accounts Receivable Buildings Acc. Depreciation Furniture & Fixtures Acc. Depreciation Total Assets Liabilities Accrued Litigation Expense Note Payable Total Liabilities Stockholder Equity Paid in Capital Retained Earnings $ –0– ($ 27,000) (116,000) ($143,000) 300 5,000 300,000 (150,000) 40,000 (21,000) $174,300 $ Book Debit/(Credit) $ 300 5,000 300,000 (80,000) 40,000 (15,000) $250,300

(116,000) ($116,000)

($ 1,000) (57,300)

($ 1,000) (106,300)

Total Liabilities and Stockholders Equity

($174,300)

($250,300)

Gator Inc.’s gross deferred tax assets and liabilities at the beginning of Gator’s year are listed below. Beginning of Year Accrued Litigation Expense Subtotal Applicable Tax Rate Gross Deferred Tax Asset Building – Acc. Depreciation Furniture & fixtures – Acc. Depreciation Subtotal Applicable tax rate Gross deferred tax liability $21,000 $21,000  34% $ 7,140 ($61,000) (3,200) ($64,200)  34% ($21,828)

Gator Inc.’s book income before tax is $6,300. Gator records two permanent book-tax differences. It earned $250 in tax exempt municipal bond interest and $460 in nondeductible meals and entertainment expense. Determine Gator’s change in net deferred tax asset or net deferred tax liability for the current year and provide the journal entry to record this amount. 10. Gator, Inc., is a domestic corporation with the following balance sheet for book and tax purposes at the end of the year. Assume a 34% corporate tax rate and no valuation allowance. Tax Debit/(Credit) Assets Cash Accounts Receivable Buildings Acc. Depreciation Furniture & Fixtures Acc. Depreciation Total Assets Liabilities Accrued Litigation Expense Note Payable Total Liabilities Stockholder Equity Paid in Capital Retained Earnings Total Liabilities and Stockholders Equity 300 5,000 300,000 (150,000) 40,000 (21,000) $174,300 $ $ 300 5,000 300,000 (80,000) 40,000 (15,000) $250,300 Book Debit/(Credit)

$

–0–

($ 27,000) (116,000) ($143,000)

(116,000) ($116,000)

($ 1,000) (57,300) ($174,300)

($ 1,000) (106,300) ($250,300)

Gator Inc.’s gross deferred tax assets and liabilities at the beginning of Gator’s year are listed below.

Beginning of Year Accrued Litigation Expense Subtotal Applicable Tax Rate Gross Deferred Tax Asset Building – Acc. Depreciation Furniture & fixtures – Acc. Depreciation Subtotal Applicable tax rate Gross deferred tax liability $21,000 $21,000  34% $ 7,140 ($61,000) (3,200) ($64,200)  34% ($21,828)

Gator Inc.’s book income before tax is $6,300. Gator records two permanent book-tax differences. It earned $250 in tax exempt municipal bond interest and $460 in nondeductible meals and entertainment expense. Calculate Gator’s current tax expense. 11. Gator, Inc., is a domestic corporation with the following balance sheet for book and tax purposes at the end of the year. Assume a 34% corporate tax rate and no valuation allowance. Tax Debit/(Credit) Assets Cash Accounts Receivable Buildings Acc. Depreciation Furniture & Fixtures Acc. Depreciation Total Assets Liabilities Accrued Litigation Expense Note Payable Total Liabilities Stockholder Equity Paid in Capital Retained Earnings Total Liabilities and Stockholders Equity $ –0– ($ 27,000) (116,000) ($143,000) 300 5,000 300,000 (150,000) 40,000 (21,000) $174,300 $ Book Debit/(Credit) $ 300 5,000 300,000 (80,000) 40,000 (15,000) $250,300

(116,000) ($116,000)

($ 1,000) (57,300) ($174,300)

($ 1,000) (106,300) ($250,300)

Gator Inc.’s gross deferred tax assets and liabilities at the beginning of Gator’s year are listed below. Beginning of Year Accrued Litigation Expense Subtotal Applicable Tax Rate Gross Deferred Tax Asset $21,000 $21,000  34% $ 7,140

Building – Acc. Depreciation Furniture & fixtures – Acc. Depreciation Subtotal Applicable tax rate Gross deferred tax liability

($61,000) (3,200) ($64,200)  34% ($21,828)

Gator Inc.’s book income before tax is $6,300. Gator records two permanent book-tax differences. It earned $250 in tax exempt municipal bond interest and $460 in nondeductible meals and entertainment expense. Provide the journal entry to record Gator’s current tax expense. 12. Gator, Inc., is a domestic corporation with the following balance sheet for book and tax purposes at the end of the year. Assume a 34% corporate tax rate and no valuation allowance. Tax Debit/(Credit) Assets Cash Accounts Receivable Buildings Acc. Depreciation Furniture & Fixtures Acc. Depreciation Total Assets Liabilities Accrued Litigation Expense Note Payable Total Liabilities Stockholder Equity Paid in Capital Retained Earnings Total Liabilities and Stockholders Equity 300 5,000 300,000 (150,000) 40,000 (21,000) $174,300 $ –0– (116,000) ($116,000) $ Book Debit/(Credit) $ 300 5,000 300,000 (80,000) 40,000 (15,000) $250,300

($ 27,000) (116,000) ($143,000)

($ 1,000) (57,300) ($174,300)

($ 1,000) (106,300) ($250,300)

Gator Inc.’s gross deferred tax assets and liabilities at the beginning of Gator’s year are listed below. Accrued Litigation Expense Subtotal Applicable Tax Rate Gross Deferred Tax Asset Building – Acc. Depreciation Furniture & fixtures – Acc. Depreciation Subtotal Applicable tax rate Gross deferred tax liability Beginning of Year $21,000 $21,000  34% $ 7,140 ($61,000) (3,200) ($64,200)  34% ($21,828)

Gator Inc.’s book income before tax is $6,300. Gator records two permanent book-tax differences. It earned $250 in tax exempt municipal bond interest and $460 in nondeductible meals and entertainment expense. What is Gator’s total provision for income tax expense reported on its GAAP financial statement and its book net income after tax? 13. Gator, Inc., is a domestic corporation with the following balance sheet for book and tax purposes at the end of the year. Assume a 34% corporate tax rate and no valuation allowance. Tax Debit/(Credit) Assets Cash Accounts Receivable Buildings Acc. Depreciation Furniture & Fixtures Acc. Depreciation Total Assets Liabilities Accrued Litigation Expense Note Payable Total Liabilities Stockholder Equity Paid in Capital Retained Earnings Total Liabilities and Stockholders Equity 300 5,000 300,000 (150,000) 40,000 (21,000) $174,300 $ –0– (116,000) ($116,000) $ Book Debit/(Credit) $ 300 5,000 300,000 (80,000) 40,000 (15,000) $250,300

($ 27,000) (116,000) ($143,000)

($ 1,000) (57,300) ($174,300)

($ 1,000) (106,300) ($250,300)

Gator Inc.’s gross deferred tax assets and liabilities at the beginning of Gator’s year are listed below. Accrued Litigation Expense Subtotal Applicable Tax Rate Gross Deferred Tax Asset Building – Acc. Depreciation Furniture & fixtures – Acc. Depreciation Subtotal Applicable tax rate Gross deferred tax liability Beginning of Year $21,000 $21,000  34% $ 7,140 ($61,000) (3,200) ($64,200)  34% ($21,828)

Gator Inc.’s book income before tax is $6,300. Gator records two permanent book-tax differences. It earned $250 in tax exempt municipal bond interest and $460 in nondeductible meals and entertainment expense. Provide the income tax footnote rate reconciliation for Gator. 14. Amelia, Inc., is a domestic corporation with the following balance sheet for book and tax purposes at the end of the year. Assume a 34% corporate tax rate and no valuation allowance.

Tax Debit/(Credit) Assets Cash Accounts Receivable Buildings Acc. Depreciation Furniture & Fixtures Acc. Depreciation Total Assets Liabilities Accrued Vacation Pay Note Payable Total Liabilities Stockholder Equity Paid in Capital Retained Earnings Total Liabilities and Stockholders Equity $ 1,200 20,000 1,200,000 (600,000) 160,000 (84,000) $ 697,200

Book Debit/(Credit) 1,200 20,000 1,200,000 (320,000) 160,000 (60,000) $1,001,200 $

$ –0– (464,000) ($464,000)

($108,000) (464,000) ($572,000)

($ 4,000) (229,200) ($697,200)

($

4,000) (425,200)

($1,001,200)

Amelia Inc.’s gross deferred tax assets and liabilities at the beginning of Amelia’s year are listed below. Beginning of Year Accrued Vacation Pay Subtotal Applicable Tax Rate Gross Deferred Tax Asset Building – Acc. Depreciation Furniture & fixtures – Acc. Depreciation Subtotal Applicable tax rate Gross deferred tax liability $84,000 $84,000  34% $28,560 ($244,000) (12,800) ($256,800)  34% ($ 87,312)

Amelia Inc.’s book income before tax is $25,200. Amelia records two permanent book-tax differences. It earned $1,000 in tax exempt municipal bond interest and $1,840 in nondeductible meals and entertainment expense. Determine the change in Amelia’s deferred tax assets for the current year. 15. Amelia, Inc., is a domestic corporation with the following balance sheet for book and tax purposes at the end of the year. Assume a 34% corporate tax rate and no valuation allowance. Tax Debit/(Credit) Assets Cash Accounts Receivable Buildings Acc. Depreciation $ 1,200 20,000 1,200,000 (600,000) Book Debit/(Credit) $ 1,200 20,000 1,200,000 (320,000)

Furniture & Fixtures Acc. Depreciation Total Assets Liabilities Accrued Vacation Pay Note Payable Total Liabilities Stockholder Equity Paid in Capital Retained Earnings Total Liabilities and Stockholders Equity

160,000 (84,000) $ 697,200

160,000 (60,000) $1,001,200

$ –0– (464,000) ($464,000)

($108,000) (464,000) ($572,000)

($ 4,000) (229,200) ($697,200)

($

4,000) (425,200)

($1,001,200)

Amelia Inc.’s gross deferred tax assets and liabilities at the beginning of Amelia’s year are listed below. Beginning of Year Accrued Vacation Pay Subtotal Applicable Tax Rate Gross Deferred Tax Asset Building – Acc. Depreciation Furniture & fixtures – Acc. Depreciation Subtotal Applicable tax rate Gross deferred tax liability $84,000 $84,000  34% $28,560 ($244,000) (12,800) ($256,800)  34% ($ 87,312)

Amelia Inc.’s book income before tax is $25,200. Amelia records two permanent book-tax differences. It earned $1,000 in tax exempt municipal bond interest and $1,840 in nondeductible meals and entertainment expense. Determine the net deferred tax asset or net deferred tax liability at year end. 16. Amelia, Inc., is a domestic corporation with the following balance sheet for book and tax purposes at the end of the year. Assume a 34% corporate tax rate and no valuation allowance. Tax Debit/(Credit) Assets Cash Accounts Receivable Buildings Acc. Depreciation Furniture & Fixtures Acc. Depreciation Total Assets Liabilities Accrued Vacation Pay Note Payable $ 1,200 20,000 1,200,000 (600,000) 160,000 (84,000) $ 697,200 Book Debit/(Credit) 1,200 20,000 1,200,000 (320,000) 160,000 (60,000) $1,001,200 $

$ –0– (464,000)

($108,000) (464,000)

Total Liabilities Stockholder Equity Paid in Capital Retained Earnings Total Liabilities and Stockholders Equity

($464,000)

($572,000)

($ 4,000) (229,200) ($697,200)

($

4,000) (425,200)

($1,001,200)

Amelia Inc.’s gross deferred tax assets and liabilities at the beginning of Amelia’s year are listed below. Beginning of Year Accrued Vacation Pay Subtotal Applicable Tax Rate Gross Deferred Tax Asset Building – Acc. Depreciation Furniture & fixtures – Acc. Depreciation Subtotal Applicable tax rate Gross deferred tax liability $84,000 $84,000  34% $28,560 ($244,000) (12,800) ($256,800)  34% ($ 87,312)

Amelia Inc.’s book income before tax is $25,200. Amelia records two permanent book-tax differences. It earned $1,000 in tax exempt municipal bond interest and $1,840 in nondeductible meals and entertainment expense. Determine the change in Amelia’s deferred tax liabilities for the current year. 17. Amelia, Inc., is a domestic corporation with the following balance sheet for book and tax purposes at the end of the year. Assume a 34% corporate tax rate and no valuation allowance. Tax Debit/(Credit) Assets Cash Accounts Receivable Buildings Acc. Depreciation Furniture & Fixtures Acc. Depreciation Total Assets Liabilities Accrued Vacation Pay Note Payable Total Liabilities Stockholder Equity Paid in Capital Retained Earnings Total Liabilities and Stockholders Equity $ –0– (464,000) ($464,000) ($108,000) (464,000) ($572,000) $ 1,200 20,000 1,200,000 (600,000) 160,000 (84,000) $ 697,200 Book Debit/(Credit) 1,200 20,000 1,200,000 (320,000) 160,000 (60,000) $1,001,200 $

($ 4,000) (229,200)

($

4,000) (425,200)

($697,200)

($1,001,200)

Amelia Inc.’s gross deferred tax assets and liabilities at the beginning of Amelia’s year are listed below. Beginning of Year Accrued Vacation Pay Subtotal Applicable Tax Rate Gross Deferred Tax Asset Building – Acc. Depreciation Furniture & fixtures – Acc. Depreciation Subtotal Applicable tax rate Gross deferred tax liability $84,000 $84,000  34% $28,560 ($244,000) (12,800) ($256,800)  34% ($ 87,312)

Amelia Inc.’s book income before tax is $25,200. Amelia records two permanent book-tax differences. It earned $1,000 in tax exempt municipal bond interest and $1,840 in nondeductible meals and entertainment expense. Determine Amelia’s change in net deferred tax asset or net deferred tax liability for the current year and provide the journal entry to record this amount. 18. Amelia, Inc., is a domestic corporation with the following balance sheet for book and tax purposes at the end of the year. Assume a 34% corporate tax rate and no valuation allowance. Tax Debit/(Credit) Assets Cash Accounts Receivable Buildings Acc. Depreciation Furniture & Fixtures Acc. Depreciation Total Assets Liabilities Accrued Vacation Pay Note Payable Total Liabilities Stockholder Equity Paid in Capital Retained Earnings Total Liabilities and Stockholders Equity $ –0– (464,000) ($464,000) ($108,000) (464,000) ($572,000) $ 1,200 20,000 1,200,000 (600,000) 160,000 (84,000) $ 697,200 1,200 20,000 1,200,000 (320,000) 160,000 (60,000) $1,001,200 $ Book Debit/(Credit)

($ 4,000) (229,200) ($697,200)

($

4,000) (425,200)

($1,001,200)

Amelia Inc.’s gross deferred tax assets and liabilities at the beginning of Amelia’s year are listed below. Beginning of Year

Accrued Vacation Pay Subtotal Applicable Tax Rate Gross Deferred Tax Asset Building – Acc. Depreciation Furniture & fixtures – Acc. Depreciation Subtotal Applicable tax rate Gross deferred tax liability

$84,000 $84,000  34% $28,560 ($244,000) (12,800) ($256,800)  34% ($ 87,312)

Amelia Inc.’s book income before tax is $25,200. Amelia records two permanent book-tax differences. It earned $1,000 in tax exempt municipal bond interest and $1,840 in nondeductible meals and entertainment expense. Calculate Amelia’s current tax expense. 19. Amelia, Inc., is a domestic corporation with the following balance sheet for book and tax purposes at the end of the year. Assume a 34% corporate tax rate and no valuation allowance. Tax Debit/(Credit) Assets Cash Accounts Receivable Buildings Acc. Depreciation Furniture & Fixtures Acc. Depreciation Total Assets Liabilities Accrued Vacation Pay Note Payable Total Liabilities Stockholder Equity Paid in Capital Retained Earnings Total Liabilities and Stockholders Equity $ 1,200 20,000 1,200,000 (600,000) 160,000 (84,000) $ 697,200 Book Debit/(Credit) 1,200 20,000 1,200,000 (320,000) 160,000 (60,000) $1,001,200 $

$ –0– (464,000) ($464,000)

($108,000) (464,000) ($572,000)

($ 4,000) (229,200) ($697,200)

($

4,000) (425,200)

($1,001,200)

Amelia Inc.’s gross deferred tax assets and liabilities at the beginning of Amelia’s year are listed below. Beginning of Year Accrued Vacation Pay Subtotal Applicable Tax Rate Gross Deferred Tax Asset Building – Acc. Depreciation Furniture & fixtures – Acc. Depreciation $84,000 $84,000  34% $28,560 ($244,000) (12,800)

Subtotal Applicable tax rate Gross deferred tax liability

($256,800)  34% ($ 87,312)

Amelia Inc.’s book income before tax is $25,200. Amelia records two permanent book-tax differences. It earned $1,000 in tax exempt municipal bond interest and $1,840 in nondeductible meals and entertainment expense. Provide the journal entry to record Amelia’s current tax expense. 20. Amelia, Inc., is a domestic corporation with the following balance sheet for book and tax purposes at the end of the year. Assume a 34% corporate tax rate and no valuation allowance. Tax Debit/(Credit) Assets Cash Accounts Receivable Buildings Acc. Depreciation Furniture & Fixtures Acc. Depreciation Total Assets Liabilities Accrued Vacation Pay Note Payable Total Liabilities Stockholder Equity Paid in Capital Retained Earnings Total Liabilities and Stockholders Equity $ 1,200 20,000 1,200,000 (600,000) 160,000 (84,000) $ 697,200 $ –0– (464,000) ($464,000) Book Debit/(Credit) 1,200 20,000 1,200,000 (320,000) 160,000 (60,000) $1,001,200 $

($108,000) (464,000) ($572,000)

($ 4,000) (229,200) ($697,200)

($

4,000) (425,200)

($1,001,200)

Amelia Inc.’s gross deferred tax assets and liabilities at the beginning of Amelia’s year are listed below. Beginning of Year $84,000 $84,000  34% $28,560 ($244,000) (12,800) ($256,800)  34% ($ 87,312)

Accrued Vacation Pay Subtotal Applicable Tax Rate Gross Deferred Tax Asset Building – Acc. Depreciation Furniture & fixtures – Acc. Depreciation Subtotal Applicable tax rate Gross deferred tax liability

Amelia Inc.’s book income before tax is $25,200. Amelia records two permanent book-tax differences. It earned $1,000 in tax exempt municipal bond interest and $1,840 in nondeductible meals and entertainment expense. What is Amelia’s total provision for income tax expense reported on its financial statement and its book net income after tax?

21. Amelia, Inc., is a domestic corporation with the following balance sheet for book and tax purposes at the end of the year. Assume a 34% corporate tax rate and no valuation allowance. Tax Debit/(Credit) Assets Cash Accounts Receivable Buildings Acc. Depreciation Furniture & Fixtures Acc. Depreciation Total Assets Liabilities Accrued Vacation Pay Note Payable Total Liabilities Stockholder Equity Paid in Capital Retained Earnings Total Liabilities and Stockholders Equity $ 1,200 20,000 1,200,000 (600,000) 160,000 (84,000) $ 697,200 $ –0– (464,000) ($464,000) Book Debit/(Credit) 1,200 20,000 1,200,000 (320,000) 160,000 (60,000) $1,001,200 $

($108,000) (464,000) ($572,000)

($ 4,000) (229,200) ($697,200)

($

4,000) (425,200)

($1,001,200)

Amelia Inc.’s gross deferred tax assets and liabilities at the beginning of Amelia’s year are listed below. Beginning of Year $84,000 $84,000  34% $28,560 ($244,000) (12,800) ($256,800)  34% ($ 87,312)

Accrued Vacation Pay Subtotal Applicable Tax Rate Gross Deferred Tax Asset Building – Acc. Depreciation Furniture & fixtures – Acc. Depreciation Subtotal Applicable tax rate Gross deferred tax liability

Amelia Inc.’s book income before tax is $25,200. Amelia records two permanent book-tax differences. It earned $1,000 in tax exempt municipal bond interest and $1,840 in nondeductible meals and entertainment expense. Provide the income tax footnote rate reconciliation for Amelia. 22. At the beginning of the year, Jensen Inc., holds a net operating loss carryforward, and its balance sheet shows a related deferred tax asset of $500,000. At the end of the year, the balance in the deferred tax asset account has not changed, but Jensen’s auditors want to record a $100,000 valuation allowance against this amount, because of a persistent downturn in Jensen’s profitability. Develop the journal entry to record the valuation allowance.

23. At the beginning of the year, the balance sheet of Jensen Inc., shows a $500,000 deferred tax asset relating to a net operating loss carryforward, offset by a $100,000 valuation allowance. At the end of the year, Jensen’s auditors agree to release $40,000 of the allowance. Develop the journal entry to record this change in the valuation allowance. 24. After applying the balance sheet method to determine the GAAP income tax expense of Cutter Inc., the following account balances are found. Determine the balance sheet presentation of these amounts. Hint: Which of the accounts should you combine for the final balance sheet disclosure? Deferred tax assets, current Deferred tax liabilities, current Deferred tax assets, noncurrent Deferred tax liabilities, noncurrent $100,000 115,000 80,000 30,000

25. After applying the balance sheet method to determine the GAAP income tax expense of Poppert Inc., the following account balances are found. Determine the balance sheet presentation of these amounts. Hint: Which of the accounts should you combine for the final balance sheet disclosure? Deferred tax assets, current Deferred tax assets, noncurrent Deferred tax liabilities, current Deferred tax liabilities, noncurrent $200,000 145,000 80,000 230,000

26. You are assisting LipidCo, a U.S. corporation subject to GAAP, to determine its current-year book expense for income taxes. The following represent the steps that you will take in making this computation. Put the steps into the correct order. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Essay 1. A corporation’s taxable income almost never is the same as its GAAP financial accounting income. Explain why this occurs. Use the terms permanent and temporary book-tax differences in your answer. Give examples of each. 2. Book-tax differences can be explained in part by examining the objectives underlying financial accounting and taxable income computations. Evaluate this statement. 3. How does an auditor determine whether a valuation allowance is needed against an entity’s deferred tax asset? List some of the factors than an auditor will consider in this regard. Compute the deferred tax provision. Decide whether a valuation allowance is required, and apply or release it. Determine book income before tax effects. Determine the current tax provision. Identify and measure temporary book-tax differences. Prepare the disclosures for the financial statement footnotes. Subtract permanent book-tax difference.

4. Grant, a multinational corporation based in the U.S., has used ASC 740-30 (APB 23) to avoid reporting any U.S. deferred tax expense on $70 million of the earnings of its foreign subsidiaries. All of these subsidiaries operate in countries with lower tax rates than those of the U.S. When the profits eventually are repatriated, how is Grant’s effective tax rate affected on its GAAP financial statements? 5. You are the tax adviser to a publicly traded U.S. corporation. How might you use a “benchmarking” analysis to begin your review of the entity’s tax situation and planning opportunities?

Chapter 14 Answer Section
TRUE/FALSE 1. ANS: F Permanent and temporary differences can trigger book tax differences. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 14-5 OBJ: 1 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 2. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 1 OBJ: 1 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 3. ANS: F Foreign entities are not included, without regard to the parent’s level of ownership. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 2 OBJ: 1 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 4. ANS: T Under the equity method, the owner’s share of earnings must be included in its book income. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 1 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic 5. ANS: F These subsidiaries are included only by taxpayer election. OBJ: 1 MSC: 2 min

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 2 OBJ: 1 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 6. ANS: F The financial statement tax expense (provision) includes both Federal and state income taxes. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 3 | Example 4 OBJ: 1 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 7. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 14-5 OBJ: 1 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 8. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 14-7 | p. 14-8 OBJ: 1 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 9. ANS: F The statement describes a temporary difference. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 5 OBJ: 1 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 10. ANS: F ASC 740 (SFAS 109) requires reporting both current and future tax costs (and benefits).

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 6 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 11. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 14-9 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 12. ANS: F The statement describes a deferred tax asset. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 14-10 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 13. ANS: F Deferred tax liability is a tax to be paid in the future, associated with current book income. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 14-10 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 14. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 14-10 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 15. ANS: F Deferred tax asset is a future tax benefit associated with current book income. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 14-10 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic 16. ANS: F The valuation allowance only reduces a deferred tax asset. OBJ: 2 MSC: 2 min

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 14-14 OBJ: 3 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 17. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 11 | Example 12 OBJ: 3 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 18. ANS: F The release of the valuation allowance reduces the corporation’s ETR. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 14-27 OBJ: 3 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 19. ANS: T ASC 740-30 (APB 23) allows a corporation to avoid reporting future U.S. tax costs (benefits). PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 13 | Example 14 OBJ: 4 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 20. ANS: F APB 23 can be used in some years and not others, and for some or all of the foreign earnings reported for the year. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 15 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic 21. ANS: T OBJ: 4 MSC: 2 min

The U.S. tax on these earnings is included in the current tax expense but the associated income is not included as it was previously included in the financial statements. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 16 OBJ: 4 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 22. ANS: T ASC 740-30 (APB 23) benefits occur only when the comparable U.S. tax rates are higher than those of the other country. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 15 | Example 16 OBJ: 4 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 23. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 14-19 OBJ: 5 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 24. ANS: F Only permanent differences show up in the rate reconciliation. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 21 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic 25. ANS: F Temporary differences do not affect the ETR. OBJ: 5 MSC: 2 min

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 14-19 OBJ: 5 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 26. ANS: T ASC 740 (FIN 48) imposes specific rules and procedures in determining whether a particular uncertain tax position may be “booked” for GAAP purposes. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 14-15 OBJ: 4 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 27. ANS: T The ASC 740 (FIN 48) provisions replaced FAS 5 when adopted in July 2006. This provision significantly changes the rules for accounting for uncertain tax positions. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 14-15 OBJ: 4 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 28. ANS: F The purpose is to match all the tax expenses (no matter when expected to be incurred) with the income reported in the current year financial statements. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 6 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 29. ANS: F Current tax expense may differ considerably from actual taxes paid in any given year. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 14-9 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic OBJ: 2 MSC: 2 min

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: A The income of Blue and Yellow is included in the financial statements because Purple owns more than 50% of these entities. Green’s operations are included as well, but under the equity method. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 1 OBJ: 1 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 2. ANS: C The income of Vinyl and Digital is included in Create’s financial statements because Create owns more than 50% of these entities. Record’s operations are not included because Create owned less than 20% of it, and the equity method does not apply. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 1 OBJ: 1 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 3. ANS: D Only Yellow is eligible to be included in a consolidated return. Blue is a foreign entity and Green doesn’t meet the 80% ownership test. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 2 OBJ: 1 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 4. ANS: A Only Digital is eligible to be included in a consolidated return. Vinyl is a foreign entity and Record doesn’t meet the ownership test. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 2 OBJ: 1 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 5. ANS: E The financial statement income tax expense includes the income taxes associated with all taxing jurisdictions. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 3 OBJ: 1 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 6. ANS: D Only Federal income taxes are included in the income tax expense on the Federal tax return. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 4 OBJ: 1 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 7. ANS: B Only the compensation related expenses represent a temporary difference. All the other items are permanent differences. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 14-5 | p. 14-6 OBJ: 1 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 8. ANS: B The deferred tax expense is the difference between the beginning of the year and end of the year deferred accounts. In this case the difference is $120,000  35%, producing a deferred tax liability of $42,000. Taxable income is $480,000 ($600,000 – $120,000), producing a current tax expense of $168,000. The total book tax expense is $168,000 + $42,000, or $210,000. The APB 11 shortcut method would produce the same result.

Book income after permanent differences is $600,000. Consequently, total tax expense is $210,000 ($600,000  35%) PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: Example 7 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 9. ANS: C Taxable income is $480,000 ($600,000 – $120,000), producing a current tax expense of $168,000 ($480,000  35%). PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: Example 7 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 10. ANS: D The difference in book-tax basis in Clipp’s assets at year end is $120,000. Multiplied by the tax rate, this produces a deferred tax liability needed of $42,000. The beginning of the year deferred tax liability was zero. Thus the deferred tax liability for the year is $42,000. The APB 11 short cut method produces the same result. Book income after permanent differences is $600,000. Consequently, total tax expense is $210,000 ($600,000  35%). The current portion of this total tax expense is $168,000 [($600,000 – $120,000)  35%]. The deferred tax liability is ($210,000 – $168,000 = $42,000). PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: Example 7 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 11. ANS: B The deferred tax liability is the difference in book and tax basis in the depreciable asset ($120,000) multiplied by the corporate tax rate of 35% ($42,000 = $120,000  35%). Jogg has not created any deferred tax asset in the current year. PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: Example 8 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 12. ANS: B Book income after permanent differences is $500,000. Consequently, total tax expense is $175,000 ($500,000  35%). PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: Example 9 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 13. ANS: A Book income after permanent differences is $500,000. Consequently, total tax expense is $175,000 ($500,000  35%). The current portion of this total tax expense is $192,500 [($500,000 + $50,000)  35%]. PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: Example 9 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 14. ANS: D Book income after permanent differences is $500,000. Consequently, total tax expense is $175,000 ($500,000  35%). The current portion of this total tax expense is $192,500 [($500,000 + $50,000)  35%]. The deferred tax asset is the difference in book and tax basis, in the warranty expense ($50,000) multiplied by the corporate tax rate of 35% ($17,500 = $50,000  35%). PTS: 1 OBJ: 2 DIF: 2 REF: Example 9 | Example 10 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic

MSC: 2 min 15. ANS: B Book income after permanent differences is $500,000. Consequently, total tax expense is $175,000 ($500,000  35%). The depreciation temporary difference does not affect the book tax expense. PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: Example 7 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 16. ANS: A Book income after permanent differences is $500,000. Consequently, total tax expense is $175,000 ($500,000  35%). The current portion of this total tax expense is $182,000 [($500,000 + $20,000)  35%]. The difference of $7,000 reduces the deferred tax liability from $17,500 to $10,500. PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: Example 7 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 2 min 17. ANS: B Book income after permanent differences is $500,000. Consequently, total tax expense is $175,000 ($500,000  35%). The current portion of this total tax expense is $182,000 [($500,000 + $20,000)  35%]. The difference of $7,000 reduces the deferred tax liability from $17,500 to $10,500. PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: Example 8 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 18. ANS: C $190,000 total book tax expense. The deferred tax asset of $80,000 must be reduced to $50,000 by the $30,000 valuation allowance. Accordingly, the total tax expense is $190,000 ($240,000 current tax expense less $50,000 deferred tax benefit). PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: Example 11 | Example 12 OBJ: 3 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 19. ANS: B With $600,000 of book income, the potential total book tax expense is $210,000 ($600,000  35%). However, the release of the $40,000 valuation allowance in the current year allows an additional $40,000 of future tax benefits (savings) to be considered in the current year. Accordingly, the total tax expense for 2010 is $170,000 ($210,000 – $40,000). PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 14-27 OBJ: 3 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 20. ANS: C Beach’s total book income is $800,000. Its current U.S. income tax expense is $175,000 ($500,000  35%) and its current Irish tax expense is $30,000. The deferred U.S. tax expense on the Irish earnings is $75,000 [($300,000  35%) – $30,000 FTC]. Thus, Beach’s total tax expense is $280,000 ($175,000 + $30,000 + $75,000) and its ETR is 35% ($280,000/$800,000). PTS: OBJ: MSC: 21. ANS: 2 4 10 min D DIF: 3 REF: p. 14-15 | p. 14-16 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic

Beach’s total book income is $800,000. Its current U.S. income tax expense is $175,000 ($500,000  35%) and its current Irish tax expense is $30,000. Beach is not required to book any deferred U.S. tax expense on the Irish earnings because of ASC 740-30 (APB 23). Thus, Beach’s total tax expense is $205,000 ($175,000 + $30,000) and its ETR is 25.63% ($205,000/$800,000). PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: p. 14-17 | p. 14-18 OBJ: 4 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 10 min 22. ANS: C Temporary differences do not affect the book tax expense or show up in the rate reconciliation. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 19 OBJ: 5 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 23. ANS: C The income tax note does not contain information on income earned in various U.S. states. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: p. 14-19 OBJ: 5 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 24. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 18 OBJ: 5 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 25. ANS: A To compare the tax amounts properly, it is useful to scale these numbers by total assets or revenues. Raw values may not be informative and a focus on only a portion of the tax information may be misleading. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 22 OBJ: 6 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 26. ANS: C The valuation allowance adjustment is likely a one-time event and should be backed out when comparing Collins’ effective tax rate with its peers. PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: Example 25 OBJ: 6 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 27. ANS: D All of these items are typically considered in evaluating a company’s tax expense. PTS: 1 OBJ: 6 MSC: 5 min PROBLEM 1. ANS: a. Kooler includes its own net income and the net income of both Texas and Paris. In addition, Kooler’s financial statements includes its 45% share of Iowa’s net income. Kooler’s financial statement includes the income of these subsidiaries without regard to whether Kooler receives any actual profit distributions from its subsidiaries. b. If Kooler instead owns 15% of Iowa, none of Iowa’s income is included in Kooler’s DIF: 1 REF: Example 22 to 25 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic

financial statements until Iowa makes an actual dividend distribution to Kooler. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 1 OBJ: 1 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 2. ANS: Bunker includes its own taxable income and the taxable income of Texas if Bunker elects to include Texas in its consolidated group. Paris is not included because foreign corporations are not eligible to be included. Iowa’s income is not included because, although domestic, Bunker’s ownership percentage does not meet the 80% required level for tax consolidation. If Bunker instead owns 15% of Iowa, the answer remains the same. None of Iowa’s income is included in Bunker’s consolidated Federal income tax return until Iowa makes an actual dividend distribution to Bunker. PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 2 OBJ: 1 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 3. ANS: Rochelle reports net income before tax of $425,000 on its GAAP financial statement, but it must adjust this amount for book-tax differences . Tax depreciation in excess of book is a tax deduction not deducted for book purposes, and warranty expense is deductible for book purposes but not yet deductible for tax. Both these items are temporary differences because they eventually reverse (with book depreciation eventually exceeding tax depreciation and the warranty expense ultimately deducted for tax when incurred). The municipal bond adjustment is a permanent difference because this income never is subject to Federal income tax. Book income (before tax) Tax depreciation in excess of book Non-deductible warranty expense Municipal bond interest income Taxable income (Form 1120) PTS: 2 DIF: 2 REF: Example 5 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic 4. ANS: Book income before tax Permanent differences Meals & entertainment expense Municipal bond interest income Book income after permanent differences Temporary differences Tax > book depreciation Book > tax bad debt expense Taxable income Current tax expense OBJ: 1 MSC: 10 min PaintCo $600,000 40,000 (100,000) $540,000 (100,000) 20,000 $460,000  35% $161,000 BrushCo $400,000 –0– –0– $400,000 –0– –0– $400,000  10% $ 40,000 $500,000 (25,000) 17,500 (20,000) $472,500

The total tax expense is based on book income after permanent differences taking into account the APB 23 treatment of the foreign earnings [$229,000 = ($540,000  35%) + ($400,000  10%)]. The deferred tax liability is increased by $28,000 for the year ($80,000 net temporary differences at 35%). Current tax expense

Domestic Foreign Deferred tax expense Domestic Foreign Total tax expense

$161,000 40,000 28,000 –0– $229,000

PTS: 2 DIF: 3 REF: Example 19 OBJ: 4 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 15 min 5. ANS: PaintCo’s book income is $1,000,000 (the combined book income of both PaintCo and BrushCo). The effective tax rate reconciliation is based on this book income, with the dollar amounts in the table representing the tax expense (benefit) related to the item and the percentage representing the tax expense (benefit) as a percentage of book income. Effective tax rate reconciliation Hypothetical tax at U.S. rate Disallowed meals and entertainment expense Municipal bond interest Foreign income taxed at less than U.S. rate Income tax expense (provision) $ $350,000 14,000 (35,000) (100,000) $229,000 % 35.0 1.4 (3.5) (10.0) 22.9

Note that only permanent differences appear in the rate reconciliation. Temporary differences do not affect the total book income tax expense, they simply affect the amount of the tax expense that is current versus deferred. PTS: 2 DIF: 2 REF: Example 19 OBJ: 5 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 10 min 6. ANS: Beginning of Current Year Year Difference End of Year Accrued Litigation Expense Subtotal Applicable Tax Rate Gross Deferred Tax Asset Change in Deferred Tax Asset $21,000 $21,000  34% $ 7,140 $6,000 $6,000 $27,000 $27,000  34% $ 9,180

$2,040

PTS: 3 DIF: 2 REF: Example 21 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 7. ANS: Tax Debit/(Credit) Book Debit/(Credit) Difference Assets Cash $ 300 $ 300 Accounts Receivable 5,000 5,000 Buildings 300,000 300,000 Acc. Depreciation (150,000) (80,000) ($70,000) Furniture & Fixtures 40,000 40,000 Acc. Depreciation (21,000) (15,000) (6,000) Total Assets $174,300 $250,300 ($76,000)

Liabilities Accrued Litigation Expense Note Payable Total Liabilities Stockholder Equity Paid in Capital Retained Earnings Total Liabilities & Stockholders Equity

$ –0– (116,000) ($116,000)

($ 27,000) (116,000) ($143,000)

$27,000 $27,000

($ 1,000) (57,300) ($174,300)

($ 1,000) (106,300) ($250,300)

Given these basis differences, the gross DTA and gross DTL are calculated as follows, with the net result a DTL of $16,660. Gross Deferred Tax Asset ($27,000  34%) Gross Deferred Tax Liability ($76,000  34%) Net Deferred Tax Liability $ 9,180 25,840 $16,660

PTS: 4 DIF: 2 REF: Example 21 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 10 min 8. ANS: Beginning of Current Year Year Difference End of Year Building – Acc. Depreciation Furniture & fixtures – Acc. Deprec Subtotal Applicable tax rate Gross Deferred Tax liability Change in Deferred Tax Liability ($61,000) (3,200) ($64,200) 34% ($21,828) ($ 9,000) (2,800) ($11,800) ($70,000) (6,000) ($76,000)  34% ($25,840)

($ 4,012)

PTS: 3 DIF: 1 REF: Example 21 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 10 min 9. ANS: Beginning of Current Year Year Difference End of Year Gross Deferred Tax Asset $ 7,140 $ 9,180 Change in Deferred Tax Asset $2,040 Gross deferred tax liability ($21,828) ($25,840) Change in Deferred tax liability ($4,012) Net Deferred Tax Asset/ ($14,688) ($1,972) ($16,660) (Deferred Tax Liability) The journal entry to record the deferred tax liability is as follows.

Income Tax Expense Deferred Tax Liability

$1,972 $1,972 OBJ: 2 MSC: 10 min $6,300

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: Example 21 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic 10. ANS: Pre-tax Book Income Book-Tax Adjustments Permanent Items Tax Exempt Income Nondeductible M&E Temporary Differences Building Depreciation Furniture & Fixtures Depreciation Accrued Litigation Expenses Taxable Income Current Tax Expense PTS: 2 DIF: 2 REF: Example 21 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic 11. ANS: Income Tax Expense $241 Current Income Tax Payable $241 PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 21 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic 12. ANS: Book Net Income Before Tax $6,300 Provision for Income Tax Expense* (2,213) Net Income After Tax $4,087 * $241 + $1,972 = $2,213 PTS: 2 DIF: 2 REF: Example 21 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic 13. ANS: $ Tax on Book Income at Statutory Rate 2,142 Tax Exempt Income (85) Non-deductible Meals & Entertainment 156 Provision for Income Tax Expense 2,213 PTS: 2 DIF: 2 REF: Example 21 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic 14. ANS:

(250) 460

(9,000) (2,800) 6,000 $ 710 $ 241 OBJ: 2 MSC: 10 min

OBJ: 2 MSC: 5 min

OBJ: 2 MSC: 5 min % 34.00 (1.35) 2.48 35.13 OBJ: 2 | 5 MSC: 10 min

Beginning of Year Accrued Vacation Pay Subtotal Applicable Tax Rate Gross Deferred Tax Asset Change in Deferred Tax Asset $84,000 $84,000  34% $28,560

Current Year Difference $24,000 $24,000

End of Year $108,000 $108,000  34% $ 36,720

$ 8,160

PTS: 3 DIF: 2 REF: Example 21 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 5 min 15. ANS: Tax Debit/(Credit) Book Debit/(Credit) Difference Assets Cash $ 1,200 $ 1,200 Accounts Receivable 20,000 20,000 Buildings 1,200,000 1,200,000 Acc. Depreciation (600,000) (320,000) ($280,000) Furniture & Fixtures 160,000 160,000 Acc. Depreciation (84,000) (60,000) (24,000) Total Assets $ 697,200 $1,001,200 ($304,000) Liabilities Accrued Vacation Pay Note Payable Total Liabilities Stockholder Equity Paid in Capital Retained Earnings Total Liabilities & Stockholders Equity

$ –0– (464,000) ($464,000)

($108,000) (464,000) ($572,000)

$108,000 $108,000

($ 4,000) (229,200) ($697,200)

4,000) (425,200) ($1,001,200)

($

Given these basis differences, the gross DTA and gross DTL are calculated as follows, with the net result a DTL of $66,640. Gross Deferred Tax Asset ($108,000  34%) Gross Deferred Tax Liability ($304,000  34%) Net Deferred Tax Liability $ 36,720 (103,360) ($ 66,640)

PTS: 4 DIF: 2 REF: Example 21 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 10 min 16. ANS: Beginning of Current Year Year Difference End of Year Building – Acc. Depreciation Furniture & fixtures – Acc. Deprec Subtotal ($244,000) (12,800) ($256,800) ($36,000) (11,200) ($47,200) ($280,000) (24,000) ($304,000)

Applicable tax rate Gross Deferred Tax liability Change in Deferred Tax Liability

 34% ($ 87,312) ($16,048)

 34% ($103,360)

PTS: 3 DIF: 1 REF: Example 21 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 10 min 17. ANS: Beginning of Current Year Year Difference End of Year Gross Deferred Tax Asset $28,560 $ 36,720 Change in Deferred Tax Asset $ 8,160 Gross deferred tax liability ($87,312) ($103,360) Change in Deferred tax liability ($16,048) Net Deferred Tax Asset/ ($58,752) ($ 7,888) ($ 66,640) (Deferred Tax Liability) The journal entry to record the deferred tax liability is as follows. Income Tax Expense Deferred Tax Liability $7,888 $7,888

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: Example 21 OBJ: 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 10 min 18. ANS: Pre-tax Book Income $25,200 Book-Tax Adjustments Permanent Items Tax Exempt Income Nondeductible M&E Temporary Differences Building Depreciation Furniture & Fixtures Depreciation Accrued Litigation Expenses Taxable Income Current Tax Expense (1,000) 1,840

(36,000) (11,200) 24,000 $ 2,840 $ 966 OBJ: 2 MSC: 10 min

PTS: 2 DIF: 2 REF: Example 21 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic 19. ANS: Income Tax Expense $966 Current Income Tax Payable $966 PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 21 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic

OBJ: 2 MSC: 5 min

20. ANS: Book Net Income Before Tax Provision for Income Tax Expense* Net Income After Tax * $966 + $7,888 = $8,854

$25,200 (8,854) $16,346

PTS: 2 DIF: 2 REF: Example 21 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic 21. ANS: $ Tax on Book Income at Statutory Rate 8,568 Tax Exempt Income (340) Non-deductible Meals & Entertainment 626 Provision for Income Tax Expense 8,854

OBJ: 2 MSC: 5 min % 34.00 (1.35) 2.48 35.13

PTS: 2 DIF: 2 REF: Example 21 OBJ: 2 | 5 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 10 min 22. ANS: Income tax expense (provision), current year $100,000 Valuation allowance $100,000 PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 12 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic 23. ANS: Valuation allowance Income tax expense (provision), current year PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 27 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic 24. ANS: On its balance sheet, Cutter reports the following. Deferred tax liabilities, current Deferred tax assets, noncurrent $15,000 $50,000 OBJ: 2 MSC: 5 min OBJ: 2 MSC: 5 min $40,000 $40,000 OBJ: 2 MSC: 5 min

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 18 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic 25. ANS: On its balance sheet, Poppert reports the following. Deferred tax assets, current Deferred tax liabilities, noncurrent $120,000 $ 85,000

PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: Example 18 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic 26. ANS: C. – G. – E. – D. – A. – B. - F. PTS: 1 DIF: 1

OBJ: 2 MSC: 5 min

REF: Concept Summary 14.2

OBJ: 2 MSC: 5 min ESSAY

NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic

1. ANS: Temporary differences are caused by income and expenses appearing in both the financial statement and tax return, but in different periods (i.e., a timing difference). Permanent differences are caused by items appearing in the financial statement or the tax return, but not both. Temporary differences do not affect the book total tax expense. Temporary differences merely shift tax expense (benefit) between the current and deferred accounts. Permanent differences do affect the total book tax expense and are identified in the tax footnote rate reconciliation. Examples of temporary differences include the following.   Depreciation on fixed assets. Compensation related expenses where under GAAP, corporations must accrue the future expenses related to providing postretirement benefits other than pensions (e.g., health insurance coverage) but these expenses are deductible for tax purposes only when paid. Warranty expenses accrued for book purposes but not deductible for tax purposes until incurred. Inventory write-offs accrued for book but not deductible for tax until incurred. Net operating losses where operating losses from one tax year may be used to offset taxable income in another tax year. Goodwill is not amortizable for book purposes unless and until impaired.

   

Examples of permanent differences include the following.     Municipal bond interest income. The disallowed portion of meals and entertainment expense. Certain penalties. Tax credits. DIF: 2 REF: p. 14-5 | p. 14-6 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic

PTS: 2 OBJ: 1 MSC: 15 min 2. ANS:

The purpose of the Federal tax return is to report the taxable income of an entity (or consolidated group) for the tax year following U.S. tax law. A corporation’s financial statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP. The ASC 740 (SFAS 109) approach produces a total income tax expense (also referred to as the income tax provision) for the income currently reported on a corporation’s combined financial statement. This approach follows the matching principle, where all the expenses related to earning income are reported in the same period as the income without regard to when the expenses are actually paid. The total book tax expense under ASC 740 (SFAS 109) is made up of both current and deferred components. The current tax expense theoretically represents the taxes actually payable to (or refund receivable from) the governmental authorities for the current period. The deferred component of the book tax expense is called the deferred tax expense or deferred tax benefit. This component represents the future tax cost (or savings) connected with income reported in the current period financial statement. Deferred tax expense or benefit is created as a result of temporary differences. PTS: 2 DIF: 1 REF: p. 14-7 | p. 14-8 OBJ: 1 | 2 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic MSC: 10 min 3. ANS: To determine whether a valuation allowance is required, both positive and negative evidence must be evaluated. The key issue is whether the taxpayer will generate sufficient income (and tax liability) in the future to use the deferred tax asset before any benefits expire. Examples of negative evidence (i.e., evidence suggesting that the deferred tax asset will not be realized) include the following.     History of losses. Expected future losses. Short carryback/carryforward periods. History of tax credits expiring unused.

Positive evidence (i.e., support for realizing the current benefit of future tax savings) include:      Strong earnings history. Existing contracts. Unrealized appreciation in assets. Sales backlog of profitable orders. Turnaround of temporary differences that produce future taxable income. DIF: 1 REF: p. 14-14 | p. 14-15 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic

PTS: 2 OBJ: 3 MSC: 10 min 4. ANS:

Because Grant used ASC 740-30 (APB 23) to avoid reporting any U.S. deferred tax liability for the $50 million of foreign subsidiary earnings, any repatriation of these profits back to the U.S. causes a spike (increase) in the company’s book effective tax rate. The U.S. tax on these dividends (after any allowable foreign tax credit) produces a current tax expense, but the book income will not include the dividends (as the underlying profits were reported as book income in a prior year). With the numerator of the effective tax rate fraction increasing and the denominator staying the same, the effective tax rate increases. PTS: 2 DIF: 2 REF: p. 14-15 | p. 14-16 OBJ: 4 NAT: AICPA FN-Measurement | AACSB Analytic MSC: 10 min 5. ANS: Companies may benchmark their tax situation to other years’ results or to other companies within the same industry. The starting point for a benchmarking exercise is the data from the income tax note rate reconciliation. When comparing effective tax rates it is important to consider which components of the effective rate produce one-time effects and which components represent structural (long-lasting) effects. In addition to comparing effective tax rates, companies can compare levels of deferred tax assets and liabilities. PTS: 1 OBJ: 6 MSC: 10 min DIF: 1 REF: p. 14-25 to 14-27 NAT: AICPA FN-Reporting | AACSB Analytic

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