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Child and Maternal Health report

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Child and Maternal Health report

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Healthy Communities:
Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
National Health Performance Authority
Healthy Communities:
Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
National Health Performance Authority
National Health Performance Authority
GPO Box 9848
Sydney, NSW 2001 Australia
Telephone: +61 2 9186 9210
www.nhpa.gov.au
© National Health Performance Authority 2014
The National Health Performance Authority licenses use of this report under Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-
No Derivatives Licence 3.0, Australia and the terms of this notice.
You are permitted to make fair use of the report consistent with the terms of the licence. You must not make use of the report in
a misleading or deceptive manner or in a manner that is inconsistent with the context of the report.
Permissions beyond the scope of the licence may be available at [email protected]
Disclaimer
This report is produced for health research, health care and health advocacy purposes. This report is not intended to provide
guidance on particular health care choices. You should contact your medical advisors on particular health care choices.
ISSN: 2201-8212
Print ISBN: 978-1-74186-152-5 
Online ISBN: 978-1-74186-153-2
Suggested citation: National Health Performance Authority 2014, Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in
2009–2012.
Further copies of this document can be downloaded from www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
Published July 2014.
Please note that there is the potential for minor revisions of this report.
Please check www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au for any amendments.
i National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
Key fndings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
Next steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
About this report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Why information on maternal and child health matters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
About the data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Fair comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Key fndings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Infant and young child mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Low birthweight and smoking during pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Antenatal visits in the frst trimester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Health status and outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Infant and young child mortality rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Infant mortality rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Low-birthweight babies, all women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Low-birthweight babies, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Smoking during pregnancy, all women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Smoking during pregnancy, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Use of health services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Antenatal visits in the frst trimester, all women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Antenatal visits in the frst trimester, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women . . . . . . . . . . 36
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
About the Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Additional document
Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012, Technical Supplement
Table of contents
ii National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
iii National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
Summary
The numbers of infants and children who die
prematurely has fallen rapidly in recent years on
a population basis. Nevertheless, Australia has
infant mortality rates three times higher than the
best-performing countries.
1
Even within Australia,
there is a marked difference in infant and young
child death rates between the areas where the
rates are lowest, and areas where they are highest.
Identifying these differences may help to inform
improvements in access to or delivery of services
that could in time lead to reductions in avoidable
deaths among infants and young children.
This is the frst report from the National Health
Performance Authority (the Authority) that
presents data at the local level for infant and
young child mortality, low birthweight, smoking
during pregnancy and access to antenatal care.
There is a strong relationship between antenatal
care that commences within the frst 13 weeks
(frst trimester) of pregnancy and positive child
health outcomes.
2
Accordingly, in 2011 the
Council of Australian Governments (COAG)
identifed the number of women with at least one
antenatal visit in the frst trimester as an important
indicator of access to care in communities.
COAG also agreed that infant and young child
mortality rates, the proportion of babies born
with low birthweight and prevalence of smoking
are important population health outcome measures
that provide context for the interpretation of local
health system performance.
For example, low-birthweight babies are at greater
risk of poor health outcomes including death and
disability, particularly in the frst year of life, and have
an increased risk in adulthood of diabetes type 2,
high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease.
3
Measuring access to antenatal care and the health
outcomes of children at the local level, including
premature death, low birthweight and smoking
during pregnancy, allows us to begin to identify the
communities where programs such as antenatal
services are needed or have achieved success.
Other factors such as the quality of antenatal care
provided and broader social determinants of health
also impact on infant and child heath outcomes.
This report shows variation across local areas that
is not seen when reporting at national or state and
territory level. Data in the report cover all children and
mothers and, where the data are available, Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander mothers and their babies.
Data are presented for the period from
January 2009 to December 2012, for 61 local
areas across Australia called Medicare Local
catchments. For measures regarding Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander mothers and their
babies, data are presented for the period from
January 2007 to December 2011.
Key fndings
Infant and young child mortality rate
In 2010–2012, the national rate of infant and young
child mortality was 4.4 deaths per 1,000 live births
(1,344 deaths).
Across local areas, the infant and young child
mortality rate was more than three times higher
in the catchment with the highest rate compared
to the catchment with the lowest rate.
iv National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
The infant and young child mortality rate ranged
as follows:
Highest: Northern Territory – 9.2 deaths per
1,000 live births
Lowest: Bayside (Vic) – 2.6 deaths per
1,000 live births
(Figure 3, page 7 and pages 18 to 19).
To allow fairer comparisons, the Authority
compared local areas across Australia that have
similar characteristics such as remoteness,
socioeconomic status and distance to hospitals.
These catchments are grouped into one of seven
‘peer groups’ (page vi).
The report shows there are differences in
infant and young child mortality rates across
catchments in peer groups that have similar
geographic characteristics.
Across the metropolitan catchments, the highest
infant and young child mortality rate was more
than double in the local area with the highest rate
(6.1 deaths per 1,000 live births in Greater Metro
South Brisbane) compared to the local area with
the lowest rate (2.6 deaths per 1,000 live births
in Bayside (Vic)).
There were also differences across similar
local areas within the same peer group, even
after accounting for geographic and
socioeconomic characteristics.
• Across lower-income metropolitan
communities (Metro 2 peer group), the infant
and young child mortality rate was more than
double in Greater Metro South Brisbane
(6.1 deaths per 1,000 live births) compared
to South Western Melbourne (2.9 deaths per
1,000 live births)
• Across middle-income regional communities
(Regional 2 peer group), the infant and young
child mortality rate was 86% higher in Country
South SA (6.5 deaths per 1,000 live births)
compared to Goulburn Valley (Vic) (3.5 deaths
per 1,000 live births) (Table 1, page 6).
While this report shows higher rates in many regional
and rural areas compared to metropolitan areas,
and in lower-income compared to higher-income
areas, there are some areas that do not follow this
trend. These areas demonstrate what is possible to
achieve for other similar areas.
For example, Nepean-Blue Mountains (NSW),
Barwon (Vic) and Goulburn Valley (Vic) are middle-
to lower-income regional areas that have infant and
young child mortality rates similar to or better than
many higher-income metropolitan communities
(Figure 4, page 12).
Low-birthweight babies
The national percentage of all liveborn singleton
babies that were of low birthweight was 4.8%
for babies born to all women in 2009–2011 and
11.0% for babies born to Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander women in 2007–2011.
Across local areas, the percentage of all live
births that were of low birthweight was more
than double in the catchment with the highest
percentage compared to the catchment with the
lowest percentage.
The percentage of low-birthweight babies ranged
as follows:
Highest: Northern Territory – 7.7%
Lowest: Sydney North Shore & Beaches – 3.3%
(Figure 4, page 12 and pages 22 to 23).
v National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
Differences were found across similar local
areas even after accounting for geographic and
socioeconomic characteristics.
Across middle-income metropolitan communities
in the Metro 2 peer group, the percentage of
low-birthweight babies was 41% higher in South
Western Melbourne (5.2%) compared to Fremantle
(WA) (3.7%).
The report also found that among Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander mothers there was a greater
proportion of low-birthweight babies compared
with other mothers in Australia.
Across local areas, the percentage of low-
birthweight babies to Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander women ranged from 17.5% in Gippsland
(Vic) to 6.7% in Frankston-Mornington Peninsula (Vic)
(Figure 5, page 13 and pages 24 to 25).
Smoking during pregnancy
The national percentage of women who smoked
during pregnancy was 13.9% for all women for
2009–2011 and 51.7% for Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander women for 2007–2011.
Across local areas, the percentage of women
who smoked during pregnancy was 18 times
higher in the catchment with the highest
percentage compared to the catchment with
the lowest percentage.
The percentage of women who smoked during
pregnancy ranged as follows:
Highest: Far West NSW – 33.1%
Lowest: Sydney North Shore & Beaches – 1.8%
(Figure 4, page 12 and pages 28 to 29).
There were differences found across similar local
areas even after accounting for geographic and
socioeconomic characteristics.
Across high-income metropolitan communities
(Metro 1 peer group), the percentage of women
who smoked during pregnancy was more than fve
times higher in Australian Capital Territory (10.2%)
compared to Sydney North Shore & Beaches (1.8%).
The percentage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander women who smoked during pregnancy
ranged from 66.4% in Goulburn Valley (Vic) to
29.4% in Macedon Ranges & North Western
Melbourne (Figure 5, page 13 and pages
30 to 31).
Antenatal visits in the frst trimester
In 2010–2011, the national percentage of women
who had at least one antenatal visit in the frst
trimester of pregnancy was 67.2% for all women
and 50.3% for Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander women.
Across local areas, the percentage of women who
had at least one antenatal visit in the frst trimester
was more than double in the catchment with the
highest percentage compared to the catchment
with the lowest percentage.
The percentage of women who had at least one
antenatal visit in the frst trimester ranged as follows:
Highest: Western Sydney – 87.7%
Lowest: Grampians (Vic) – 36.6%
(Figure 4, page 12 and pages 34 to 35).
Differences were found across similar local
areas even after accounting for geographic and
socioeconomic characteristics.
vi National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
Across higher-income regional communities
(Regional 1 peer group), the percentage of
women who had at least one antenatal visit in
the frst trimester of pregnancy was double in
Nepean-Blue Mountains (NSW) (85.5%) compared
to Frankston-Mornington Peninsula (Vic) (41.7%).
While this report shows higher rates in many regional
and rural areas compared to metropolitan areas,
and in lower-income compared to higher-income
areas, there are some that do not follow this trend.
These areas demonstrate what is possible to
achieve for other similar areas.
For example, Western Sydney is a lower-income
metropolitan area that has a lower rate of smoking
during pregnancy than most higher-income
metropolitan communities, and has the highest rate
of antenatal visits in the frst trimester than all other
metropolitan communities for all women, and the
second-highest rate for Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander women.
The percentage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander women who had at least one antenatal visit
in the frst trimester ranged from 80.5% in Nepean-
Blue Mountains (NSW) to 21.8% in Grampians (Vic).
State and territory differences in defnitions and
methods used for data collection affect the
comparability of data relating to smoking during
pregnancy, low-birthweight babies and antenatal
visits in the frst trimester across state and territory
jurisdictions and lower levels of geography within
these jurisdictions.
Next steps
This is the frst report from the Authority that
presents data at the local level for infant and
child mortality rates, low birthweight, smoking
About the peer groups
To enable fairer comparisons, the Authority
allocated each Medicare Local catchment
to one of seven peer groups, based on
socioeconomic status, remoteness and
distance to hospitals.
• Metro 1: High urban density, higher
socioeconomic status
• Metro 2: Medium urban density, medium
socioeconomic status
• Metro 3: Low urban density, lower
socioeconomic status
• Regional 1: Outer urban areas, middle
socioeconomic status
• Regional 2: Mostly non-metro urban and
regional areas, middle socioeconomic
status
• Rural 1: Distant from metro cities, with
diverse socioeconomic status
• Rural 2: Mostly large remote areas, middle
or lower socioeconomic status.
To fnd more information about peer groups,
see Healthy Communities: Child and maternal
health in 2009–2012, Technical Supplement
at www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
during pregnancy and access to antenatal care
across Australia.
Future reports will allow trends to be monitored
across local communities and may explore other
factors that contribute to poorer health outcomes
for infants and young children.
1 National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
Introduction
About this report
The National Health Performance Authority (the
Authority) bases its performance reports on
indicators agreed by the Council of Australian
Governments (COAG). This report focuses on the
following indicators:
• Infant and young child mortality rate
• Proportion of babies with low birthweight
• Prevalence of smoking
• Number of women with at least one antenatal
visit in the frst trimester.
The report provides information broken down
by 61 Medicare Local catchments. The national
network of Medicare Local organisations was
established between 2011 and 2012 to improve the
responsiveness, coordination and integration of local
health services. These organisations are due to be
replaced in 2015 with Primary Health Networks.
Data are presented for the period from January
2009 to December 2012. For some measures
regarding Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
mothers and their babies, data are presented for
the period from January 2007 to December 2011.
Presentation of the fndings in this report aims to
help clinicians, health managers, administrators
and the public see how rates of infant and child
mortality, low birthweight, maternal smoking and
antenatal care differ across local areas. They are
also intended to provide Medicare Locals, Primary
Health Networks and Local Health Networks
with information they need to plan and deliver
community and hospital care.
Why information on maternal and
child health matters
Infant and child mortality is a broad measure
of the overall health of a population. In Australia,
infant mortality rates have declined by 33%
from 2005 to 2012, from 4.9 deaths to 3.3 deaths
per 1,000 live births.
4
Australia is currently ranked
14 of 30 OECD countries for which infant
mortality rates were reported for 2012. Australia
had an infant mortality rate (3.3 deaths per
1,000 live births) three times higher than that of
the best-performing country, Iceland (1.1 deaths
per 1,000 live births), and twice that of Slovenia
(1.6 deaths per 1,000 live births).
1
Figure 1: Infant and young child deaths measured in this report
Birth 28 days 1 year
At least 20 weeks or 400 grams 0 to 27 days 28 days to <1 year
Perinatal deaths
Infant deaths (0 to <1 year)
Fetal deaths Neonatal deaths
5 years
1 year to <5 years
Infant and young child deaths (0 to <5 years)
Post-neonatal deaths
Measured in this report
Young child deaths
2 National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
Infant and young child mortality rates are
reported as the number of deaths among children
aged less than 5 years per 1,000 live births during
the three calendar years from 1 January 2010 to
31 December 2012. The number of infant and
young child deaths are reported as the average
number of deaths per year during the same time
period. The majority of these deaths (84%) occur
in infancy (before 1 year of age).
In this report, infant mortality rates are reported
as the number of deaths of liveborn infants aged
less than 1 year per 1,000 live births during the
three calendar years from 1 January 2010 to
31 December 2012. In 2010–2012, 70% of infant
and young child deaths occurred before 28 days
of life (neonatal death) (Figure 1, page 1).
Three years of data were combined to create
stable estimates for reporting mortality rates at
the local area level.
In 2011, there were 297,126 women who gave
birth to 299,588 liveborn and 2,220 stillborn
babies in Australia. Of these women, 11,729 were
identifed on the National Perinatal Data Collection
(NPDC) as being Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander women who gave birth to 11,737 liveborn
and 158 stillborn babies.
5

The leading causes of infant and young child
mortality in Australia are shown below in Figure 2.
Low-birthweight babies are defned in this
report as liveborn singleton babies who weigh less
than 2,500 grams at birth. A baby’s birthweight is
a key indicator of health status and may refect the
health of a mother during her pregnancy, including
her smoking status and the quality of antenatal
care received.
3
In this report, the percentage of babies who
were of low birthweight is the number of liveborn
singleton babies who weighed less than 2,500
grams at birth, divided by the total number of live
singleton babies born.
Figure 2: Most common causes and percentage of infant and young child deaths by category, in Australia,
2010–2012
Source: National Health Performance Authority analysis of Australian Bureau of Statistics Causes of Death Collection 2010–2012.
Infant and young child deaths
0 to <1 year 1 to <5 years
Infant Young child
T
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1
2
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4
5
Fetus and newborn affected by maternal factors and
by complications of pregnancy, labour and delivery
26.6% Accidental drowning and submersion 10.5%
Ill-defned and unknown causes of mortality
(including SIDS)
11.1% Pedestrian injured in transport accident 6.7%
Congenital malformations of the circulatory system 6.7% Ill-defned and unknown causes of mortality 5.7%
Disorders related to length of gestation and
fetal growth (including low birthweight)
6.5% Malignant neoplasms of eye, brain and other parts
of central nervous system
4.4%
Congenital malformations of the nervous system 4.7% Car occupant injured in transport accident 4.3%
3 National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
Smoking during pregnancy is the most
common preventable risk factor for complications
in pregnancy and is associated with poorer
outcomes for babies such as low birthweight and
perinatal death
5
, including sudden infant death
syndrome (SIDS).
In this report, the percentage of women who
smoked during pregnancy is the number of
women who self-reported having smoked at
any time during pregnancy, divided by the total
number of women who gave birth.
Antenatal visits within the frst trimester of
pregnancy are important for monitoring the
health of mothers and babies and identifying
pregnancy complications early so that appropriate
treatment can be provided. Antenatal care within
the frst trimester is within the frst 13 weeks
of pregnancy and involves assessment,
appropriate advice and treatment during
pregnancy either in hospital, in primary health
care or specialist practices, or in the home. An
antenatal visit in the frst trimester represents an
opportunity for appropriate care to be provided
early on in pregnancy.
During an antenatal visit, a GP, midwife or other
health professional provides care to monitor the
health of the mother and fetus. This care may
include taking a medical history, assessing the
woman’s specifc health needs, screening tests,
providing advice on pregnancy and delivery, and
referral to a medical specialist if necessary.
5,6
Australian clinical guidelines recommend that
the frst antenatal visit is arranged at the frst
contact with a woman during pregnancy. This
visit requires a long appointment and should
occur within the frst 10 weeks. Guidelines
recommend for a woman’s frst pregnancy without
complications, a schedule of 10 visits and seven
visits for subsequent uncomplicated pregnancies.
6
In this report, the percentage of women who had
at least one antenatal visit within the frst trimester
is the number of women who self-reported or who
had a medical record that showed an antenatal
visit occurred within the frst trimester, divided by
the total number of women who gave birth.
About the data
Infant and young child mortality rates were
calculated using data from the Australian Bureau
of Statistics (ABS) Death Registrations Collection
and the ABS Birth Registrations Collection for the
calendar years 2010, 2011 and 2012.
ABS births and deaths data contain administrative
information supplied by the births, deaths and
marriages registries in each state and territory.
Deaths are attributed to the catchment in which
a baby usually resided, irrespective of where they
died. Live births are attributed to the catchment in
which the mother usually resided, irrespective of
where the birth occurred.
Information on low birthweight, smoking during
pregnancy and antenatal visits are from the
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare’s (AIHW)
National Perinatal Data Collection (NPDC).
The NPDC is a national population-based cross-
sectional data collection of pregnancy and
childbirth. Information is collected from the mother
and the hospital, as well as records taken by a
midwife or other health professional at the time of
birth. The data are based on births reported to the
perinatal data collection in each state and territory
and are compiled and reported on annually by
the AIHW’s National Perinatal Epidemiology and
Statistics Unit.
4 National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
For the measures presented in this report, the
NPDC data are attributed to the local area where
the mother usually resided, rather than the place
where the birth occurred and exclude Australian
non-residents, residents of external territories and
women who could not be allocated to a Medicare
Local catchment because their Statistical Local
Area of usual residence was not stated or was
not valid.
Results for smoking during pregnancy exclude
women whose smoking status during pregnancy
was not stated.
Results for antenatal visits in the frst trimester
exclude women whose gestation at the frst
antenatal visit was not stated.
State and territory differences in defnitions and
methods used for collection of data related to
smoking during pregnancy and antenatal visits in
the frst trimester affect the comparability of these
data across state and territory jurisdictions and
lower levels of geography within these jurisdictions.
In particular, as data on smoking during pregnancy
are not available for women who gave birth
in Victoria in 2007 or 2008, the percentage of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who
gave birth and smoked during pregnancy during
the fve calendar years from 1 January 2007 to 31
December 2011 does not include Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander women who usually resided
and gave birth in Victoria in 2007 or 2008. In WA
and ACT, frst antenatal visits that occur outside of
the hospital may not be included.
Results for each measure in this report are
presented on maps from pages 17 to 37
and on www.myhealthycommunities.
gov.au
Fair comparisons
To enable fairer comparisons, the Authority has
allocated each Medicare Local catchment to one
of seven peer groups, based on socioeconomic
status, remoteness, and distance to hospitals:
three in metropolitan areas, two in regional areas,
and two in rural areas (page vi).
For further information see Healthy Communities:
Child and maternal health in 2009–2012, Technical
Supplement at www.myhealthycommunities.
gov.au
The data presented on Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander mothers and their babies are
infuenced by the quality and completeness of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identifcation,
which may vary across local areas.
5 National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
Infant and young child mortality in this report
refers to the death of a liveborn child before the
age of 5 years. The majority of these deaths (84%)
occur in infancy (before 1 year of age).
In 2010–2012, the national rate of infant and young
child mortality was 4.4 deaths per 1,000 live births
(1,344 deaths).
Variation across local areas
Across local areas, the infant and young child
mortality rate was more than three times higher
in the catchment with the highest rate compared
to the catchment with the lowest rate.
The infant and young child mortality rate ranged
as follows:
Highest: Northern Territory – 9.2 deaths per
1,000 live births
Lowest: Bayside (Vic) – 2.6 deaths per
1,000 live births
(Figure 3, page 7 and pages 18 to 19).
The percentage of infant deaths compared with
young child deaths also varied across local areas.
Of the 59 local areas reported, infant deaths
accounted for the vast majority (90% or more) of all
infant and young child deaths in fve Medicare Local
catchments – Central Coast NSW, Eastern Sydney,
Macedon Ranges & North Western Melbourne,
Inner East Melbourne and Northern Sydney.
In contrast, infant deaths accounted for less than
75% of all infant and young child deaths in South
West WA, Great South Coast (Vic), Frankston-
Mornington Peninsula (Vic) and Country South SA.
Variation across peer groups
There were differences found in infant and young
child mortality rates across local areas with similar
geographic characteristics.
• Across metropolitan areas, the infant
and young child mortality rate was more than
double in the lower-income urban catchment
of Greater Metro South Brisbane (6.1 deaths
per 1,000 live births, Metro 2) compared
to the wealthier inner-city catchment of Bayside
(Vic) (2.6 deaths per 1,000 live births, Metro 1)
• Across regional areas, the infant and young
child mortality rate was almost double in the
lower-income catchment of Country South
SA (6.5 deaths per 1,000 live births, Regional
2) compared to the wealthier catchment of
Nepean-Blue Mountains (NSW) (3.3 deaths per
1,000 live births, Regional 1)
• Across rural areas, the infant and young child
mortality rate was almost double in the Rural
2 catchment of Northern Territory (9.2 deaths
per 1,000 live births) compared to 4.9 deaths
per 1,000 live births in Country North SA
(Rural 1) and Goldfelds-Midwest (WA) (Rural 2).
Variation within peer groups
There were differences across similar local areas
even after accounting for broad geographic and
socioeconomic circumstances. For example:
• Within the Metro 2 peer group, the infant and
young child mortality rate was more than
double in Greater Metro South Brisbane
(6.1 deaths per 1,000 live births) compared
to South Western Melbourne (2.9 deaths per
1,000 live births).
• Within the Regional 2 peer group, the infant
and young child mortality rate was 86% higher
in Country South SA (6.5 deaths per 1,000
live births) compared to Goulburn Valley (Vic)
(3.5 deaths per 1,000 live births) (Table 1,
page 6).
Key fndings: Infant and young child mortality
6 National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
While this report shows higher rates of infant and
young child deaths in regional and rural compared
to metropolitan areas and in lower-income
compared to higher-income areas, there are some
areas that do not follow this trend. These areas
demonstrate what can be achieved for other
similar areas.
Peer group Highest rate Lowest rate Difference
Metro 1 4.2 2.6 62% (1.6 times higher)
Metro 2 6.1 2.9 110% (2.1 times higher)
Metro 3 5.0 3.3 52% (1.5 times higher)
Regional 1 5.8 3.3 76% (1.8 times higher)
Regional 2 6.5 3.5 86% (1.9 times higher)
Rural 1 7.3 4.9 49% (1.5 times higher)
Rural 2 9.2 4.9 88% (1.9 times higher)
Table 1: Highest and lowest infant and young child mortality rates across Medicare Local catchments,
by peer group, 2010–2012
For example, Nepean-Blue Mountains (NSW),
Barwon (Vic) and Goulburn Valley (Vic) are middle-
to lower-income regional areas that have infant
and child mortality rates similar to or better than
many higher-income metropolitan communities.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infant and young child mortality
Infant and young child mortality rates for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have
declined over the past decade with 42% of the decline in infant mortality rates due to a decrease
in sudden infant deaths syndrome (SIDS) and 25% due to a fall in deaths from certain conditions
originating in the perinatal period.
7
External causes (injury and poisoning) account for just over half
of all deaths of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infant and young children.
The recent Australian Government report on Closing the Gap (2014) showed that changes in the
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infant and young child mortality rate are currently within
range to meet the target of halving the gap in mortality rates by 2018.
8
However, between 2006
and 2010 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infant and young child mortality rates were still
double the non-Indigenous rate, as were infant mortality rates (8 deaths per 1,000 live births
compared with 4 deaths per 1,000 live births). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infant mortality
rates also varied across states and territories, from 6 deaths per 1,000 live births in SA, to
13 deaths per 1,000 live births in the NT.*
9

* Reliable data on child mortality for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are available for NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT.
7 National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
Infant
(< 1 year)
mortality rate
Infant and
young child
(< 5 years)
mortality rate
Figure 3: Infant and young child mortality rates, by Medicare Local catchment, 2010–2012
Medicare Local catchments
Infant and young child deaths per
1,000 live births
* The number of deaths may vary across Medicare Local catchments with similar rates due to differences in the number of live births.
NP Not available for publication.
Notes: Deaths are attributed to the Medicare Local catchment in which the infant or young child usually resided, irrespective of where they died.
Births are attributed to the Medicare Local catchment in which the mother usually resided, irrespective of where the birth occurred.
Sources: National Health Performance Authority analysis of Australian Bureau of Statistics Death Registrations Collection 2010–2012 and Australian Bureau of
Statistics Birth Registrations Collection 2010–2012.
NATIONAL RESULT 3.7 4.4 1,344
Infant mortality rate
Average
annual no.
deaths
children
< 5 years*
Metro 1
Bayside (Vic)
Sydney North Shore & Beaches
Eastern Sydney
Northern Sydney
Inner East Melbourne
Inner West Sydney
Australian Capital Territory
Inner NW Melbourne
2.9
2.3
2.3
2.7
2.8
3.0
3.2
3.2
3.7
3.3
2.6
2.8
3.0
3.1
3.3
3.6
3.8
4.2
164
19
18
15
13
21
33
20
24
Metro 2
South Western Melbourne
Perth North Metro
South Eastern Sydney
Perth Central & East Metro
Central Adelaide & Hills
Fremantle (WA)
Bentley-Armadale (WA)
Eastern Melbourne
Sthn Adelaide-Fleurieu-Kangaroo Is.
Metro North Brisbane
Gold Coast (Qld)
Greater Metro South Brisbane
3.6
2.4
2.4
2.7
2.6
2.9
2.6
3.0
3.3
3.2
4.1
4.4
5.5
4.1
2.9
3.0
3.0
3.2
3.4
3.4
3.6
3.7
3.9
4.7
5.0
6.1
333
13
22
20
18
19
10
21
19
18
56
34
83
Metro 3
Northern Melbourne
Northern Adelaide
Macedon Ranges & NW Melb
West Moreton-Oxley (Qld)
Western Sydney
South Eastern Melbourne
South Western Sydney
3.6
2.7
2.9
3.6
3.7
3.8
4.0
4.4
4.3
3.3
3.4
3.9
4.3
4.4
4.8
5.0
272
31
20
29
25
63
37
67
Regional 1
Nepean-Blue Mountains (NSW)
Barwon (Vic)
Central Coast NSW
Perth South Coastal
Illawarra-Shoalhaven (NSW)
Frankston-Mornington Peninsula (Vic)
Hunter (NSW)
Sunshine Coast (Qld)
3.6
2.6
2.8
3.7
3.5
3.5
3.2
4.0
4.8
4.3
3.3
3.6
3.9
3.9
4.3
4.7
4.8
5.8
158
16
12
15
13
20
16
42
24
Regional 2
Goulburn Valley (Vic)
Southern NSW
Gippsland (Vic)
Hume (Vic/NSW)
Great South Coast (Vic)
Grampians (Vic)
Tasmania
South West WA
North Coast NSW
Loddon-Mallee-Murray (Vic/NSW)
Darling Downs-SW Qld
Murrumbidgee (NSW)
Western NSW
New England (NSW)
Wide Bay (Qld)
Country South SA
4.1
2.8
3.4
3.5
3.7
2.9
3.3
4.1
3.1
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.9
4.5
5.3
5.0
4.6
5.0
3.5
4.0
4.0
4.1
4.3
4.4
4.7
4.9
5.0
5.1
5.3
5.7
5.7
6.1
6.2
6.5
241
7
9
12
10
5
11
30
19
28
13
23
14
20
15
15
10
Rural 1
Country North SA
Townsville-Mackay (Qld)
Far West NSW
Lower Murray (Vic/NSW)
Central Qld
4.6
3.8
4.0
NP
NP
6.1
5.6
4.9
5.0
5.3
5.7
7.3
75
12
31
3
5
24
Rural 2
Goldfelds-Midwest (WA)
Kimberley-Pilbara (WA)
Central & NW Qld
Far North Qld
Northern Territory
6.5
3.7
5.7
6.9
7.0
7.6
7.9
4.9
6.7
8.1
8.5
9.2
101
10
11
7
36
37
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
8 National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
Low birthweight, all women
Nationally, the percentage of liveborn babies* of
low birthweight was 4.8% for babies born to all
women in 2009–2011 and 11.0% for babies born
to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women in
2007–2011.
Variation across local areas
Across local areas, the percentage of all live
births that were of low birthweight was more
than double in the catchment with the highest
percentage compared to the catchment with the
lowest percentage.
The percentage of all live births that were of low
birthweight ranged as follows:
Highest: Northern Territory – 7.7%
Lowest: Sydney North Shore & Beaches – 3.3%
(Figure 4, page 12 and pages 22 to 23).
Variation across peer groups
There were differences in the percentage of babies
born of low birthweight across local areas with
similar geographic characteristics.
• Across metropolitan areas, the percentage of
all liveborn babies of low birthweight was 73%
higher in the lower-income urban catchment of
Northern Adelaide (5.7%, Metro 3) compared
to the wealthy inner-city catchment of Sydney
North Shore & Beaches (3.3%, Metro 1)
• Across regional and rural areas, the percentage
of all liveborn babies of low birthweight was
higher in most lower-income catchments
(Regional 2 and Rural 2) compared to higher-
income catchments (Regional 1 and Rural 1).
Key fndings: Low birthweight and smoking
during pregnancy
Variation within peer groups
There were differences across similar catchments
even after accounting for geographic and
socioeconomic circumstances.
• Within the Metro 2 peer group, the percentage
of all live births that were of low birthweight was
41% higher in South Western Melbourne (5.2%)
compared to Fremantle (WA) (3.7%)
• Within the Regional 2 peer group, the
percentage of all live births that were of low
birthweight was 27% higher in Country South
SA, New England (NSW) and Tasmania (5.6%)
compared to South West WA (4.4%) (Table 2,
page 9).
Smoking during pregnancy,
all women
Nationally, the percentage of women who smoked
during pregnancy was 13.9% for all women for
2009–2011 and 51.7% for Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander women for 2007–2011.
Variation across local areas
Across local areas, the percentage of women who
smoked during pregnancy was 18 times higher in
the catchment with the highest compared to the
catchment with the lowest percentage.
The percentage of women who smoked during
pregnancy ranged as follows:
Highest: Far West NSW – 33.1%
Lowest: Sydney North Shore & Beaches – 1.8%
(Figure 4, page 12 and pages 28 to 29).
* Multiple births are excluded for the results for low birthweight in this report.
9 National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
Variation across peer groups
There were differences in the percentage of
women who smoked during pregnancy across
local areas with similar geographic characteristics.
• Across metropolitan areas, the percentage
of women who smoked during pregnancy
was 12 times higher in the lower-income
urban catchment of Northern Adelaide (22.4%,
Metro 3) compared to the wealthier inner-city
catchment of Sydney North Shore & Beaches
(1.8%, Metro 1)
• Across regional areas, the percentage of
women who smoked during pregnancy was
higher in most lower-income catchments
compared to higher-income catchments.
For example, the percentage of women
who smoked during pregnancy was almost
double at 26.5% in Wide Bay (Qld) (Regional
2) compared to 14.0% in Barwon (Vic) and
Illawarra-Shoalhaven (NSW) (Regional 1).
However across rural areas this trend of lower
rates of smoking during pregnancy in higher-
income areas compared to lower-income areas
was not apparent.
Variation within peer groups
There were differences across similar catchments
even after accounting for geographic and
socioeconomic circumstances.
• Within the Metro 1 peer group, the percentage
of women who smoked during pregnancy was
more than fve times higher in Australian
Capital Territory (10.2%) compared to Sydney
North Shore & Beaches (1.8%)
• Within the Metro 2 peer group, the percentage
of women who smoked during pregnancy was
three times higher in Southern Adelaide-
Fleurieu-Kangaroo Island (SA) (14.5%)
compared to South Eastern Sydney (4.7%)
(Table 3).
Table 2: Highest and lowest percentage of low-birthweight babies of all women across Medicare Local
catchments, by peer group, 2009–2011
Table 3: Highest and lowest percentage of smoking during pregnancy among all women across Medicare
Local catchments, by peer group, 2009–2011
Peer group Highest percentage Lowest percentage Difference
Metro 1 4.4% 3.3% 33% (1.3 times higher)
Metro 2 5.2% 3.7% 41% (1.4 times higher)
Metro 3 5.7% 4.7% 21% (1.2 times higher)
Regional 1 4.9% 4.3% 14% (1.1 times higher)
Regional 2 5.6% 4.4% 27% (1.3 times higher)
Rural 1 7.5% 5.0% 50% (1.5 times higher)
Rural 2 7.7% 5.8% 33% (1.3 times higher)
Peer group Highest percentage Lowest percentage Difference
Metro 1 10.2% 1.8% 467% (5.7 times higher)
Metro 2 14.5% 4.7% 209% (3.1 times higher)
Metro 3 22.4% 8.0% 180% (2.8 times higher)
Regional 1 18.8% 14.0% 34% (1.3 times higher)
Regional 2 26.5% 15.5% 71% (1.7 times higher)
Rural 1 33.1% 19.5% 70% (1.7 times higher)
Rural 2 27.6% 21.2% 30% (1.3 times higher)
10 National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
* The results do not include data for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who usually resided in Victoria and gave birth in Victoria in 2007 and 2008.
Low birthweight, Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander women
Variation across local areas
Across local areas, the percentage of live births to
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women that
were of low birthweight was 2.6 times higher in
the catchment with the highest compared to the
catchment with the lowest percentage.
The percentage of live births to Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander women that were of low
birthweight ranged from:
Highest: Gippsland (Vic) – 17.5%
Lowest: Frankston-Mornington
Peninsula (Vic) – 6.7%
(Figure 5, page 13 and pages 24 to 25).
Variation across peer groups
Across the three metropolitan peer groups,
there was no apparent trend of lower rates of
low-birthweight babies in higher-income areas
compared to lower-income areas. Similarly, no
trend was seen across regional areas or across
rural areas.
Variation within peer groups
There were differences across similar
catchments after accounting for geographic and
socioeconomic circumstances.
• Within the Metro 2 peer group, the percentage
of all live births that were babies of low
birthweight born to Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander mothers was twice as high in
Bentley-Armadale (WA) (14.3%) compared to
Metro North Brisbane (7.1%)
• Within the Regional 2 peer group, the
percentage of all live births that were babies of
low birthweight born to Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander mothers was more than twice
as high in Gippsland (Vic) (17.5%) compared to
Wide Bay (Qld) (7.6%) (Table 4).
Smoking during pregnancy,
Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander women
Variation across local areas
Across local areas, the percentage of Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander women who smoked
during pregnancy* was more than double in
the catchment with the highest compared to the
catchment with the lowest percentage.
The percentage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander women who smoked during pregnancy
ranged as follows:
Highest: Goulburn Valley (Vic) – 66.4%
Lowest: Macedon Ranges & North Western
Melbourne – 29.4%
(Figure 5, page 13 and pages 30 to 31).
Variation across peer groups
There were differences in the percentage of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women
who smoked during pregnancy across regional
peer groups with higher rates of smoking during
pregnancy in almost all lower-income areas
compared to middle-income areas.
Across metropolitan areas and across rural areas,
this trend of lower rates of low-birthweight babies
in higher-income areas compared to lower-income
areas was not apparent.
11 National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
Table 5: Highest and lowest percentage of smoking during pregnancy among Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander women across Medicare Local catchments, by peer group, 2007–2011*
Table 4: Highest and lowest percentage of low-birthweight babies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
women across Medicare Local catchments, by peer group, 2007–2011
Variation within peer groups
There were differences across similar catchments
even after accounting for geographic and
socioeconomic circumstances.
• Within the Metro 3 peer group, the percentage
of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women
who smoked during pregnancy was more
than double in Northern Adelaide (62.0%)
compared to Macedon Ranges & North
Western Melbourne (29.4%)
• Within the Regional 2 peer group, the
percentage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander women who smoked during
pregnancy was almost double in Goulburn
Valley (Vic) (66.4%) compared to Grampians
(Vic) (34.7%) (Table 5).
* The results do not include data for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who usually resided in Victoria and gave birth in Victoria in 2007 and 2008.
Peer group Highest percentage Lowest percentage Difference
Metro 1 13.5% 8.0% 69% (1.7 times higher)
Metro 2 14.3% 7.1% 101% (2.0 times higher)
Metro 3 13.5% 7.0% 93% (1.9 times higher)
Regional 1 13.0% 6.7% 94% (1.9 times higher)
Regional 2 17.5% 7.6% 130% (2.3 times higher)
Rural 1 13.6% 9.1% 49% (1.5 times higher)
Rural 2 13.3% 10.3% 29% (1.3 times higher)
Peer group Highest percentage Lowest percentage Difference
Metro 1 53.7% 35.1% 53% (1.5 times higher)
Metro 2 56.7% 34.4% 65% (1.6 times higher)
Metro 3 62.0% 29.4% 111% (2.1 times higher)
Regional 1 48.9% 42.0% 16% (1.2 times higher)
Regional 2 66.4% 34.7% 91% (1.9 times higher)
Rural 1 62.2% 51.5% 21% (1.2 times higher)
Rural 2 55.6% 46.7% 19% (1.2 times higher)
12 National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
* Women who usually resided in the Australian Capital Territory and gave birth in New South Wales were not counted in the results for the Australian
Capital Territory Medicare Local catchment for antenatal visits in the frst trimester, smoking during pregnancy and low birthweight.
# Interpret with caution. In WA and ACT, frst antenatal visits that occur outside of the hospital may not be included.
Notes: Jurisdictional differences in defnitions and methods used for data collection affect the comparability of these data across jurisdictions and lower levels
of geography within jurisdictions. For data limitations and exclusions, see this report’s Technical Supplement.
Sources: Customised data report prepared for the NHPA from the AIHW National Perinatal Data Collection 2009–2011 (birthweight, smoking during pregnancy) and
2010–2011 (antenatal visits) and NHPA analysis of ABS Death Registrations Collection 2010–2012 and ABS Birth Registrations Collection 2010–2012.
Figure 4: Percentage of all women who had at least one antenatal visit in the frst trimester, by measures of
child and maternal health, by Medicare Local catchment, 2009–2012
Medicare Local catchments
Infant &
young child
mortality rate
per 1,000
Antenatal
visit in frst
trimester
Smoking
during
pregnancy
Low birth-
weight
Western Sydney ...................................
Nepean-Blue Mountains (NSW) ............
Sydney North Shore & Beaches ............
Northern Sydney ..................................
Central Adelaide & Hills .........................
Central Coast NSW ..............................
Western NSW .......................................
Northern Adelaide .................................
Eastern Sydney ....................................
New England (NSW) .............................
Murrumbidgee (NSW) ...........................
North Coast NSW .................................
Hunter (NSW) .......................................
Metro North Brisbane ...........................
Illawarra-Shoalhaven (NSW) ..................
Country North SA .................................
Country South SA .................................
West Moreton-Oxley (Qld) .....................
Inner East Melbourne ............................
Bayside (Vic) .........................................
Sthn Adelaide-Fleurieu-Kangaroo Is. .....
Far West NSW ......................................
Perth South Coastal .............................
Northern Territory ..................................
Inner West Sydney ................................
Eastern Melbourne ...............................
Great South Coast (Vic) ........................
Southern NSW .....................................
Lower Murray (Vic/NSW).......................
Sunshine Coast (Qld) ............................
South West WA ....................................
South Eastern Sydney ..........................
Tasmania ..............................................
Inner NW Melbourne .............................
Townsville-Mackay (Qld) ........................
Barwon (Vic) .........................................
Northern Melbourne .............................
Darling Downs-SW Qld .........................
Gippsland (Vic) .....................................
Hume (Vic/NSW)...................................
Central Qld ...........................................
Bentley-Armadale (WA) .........................
South Western Melbourne ....................
Gold Coast (Qld) ...................................
Greater Metro South Brisbane ..............
Goldfelds-Midwest (WA) .......................
Loddon-Mallee-Murray (Vic/NSW) .........
Central & NW Qld .................................
South Western Sydney .........................
South Eastern Melbourne .....................
Perth North Metro .................................
Far North Qld ........................................
Fremantle (WA) .....................................
Perth Central & East Metro ...................
Macedon Ranges & NW Melb ...............
Kimberley-Pilbara (WA) .........................
Australian Capital Territory* ...................
Frankston-Mornington Peninsula (Vic) ...
Goulburn Valley (Vic) .............................
Wide Bay (Qld)......................................
Grampians (Vic) ....................................
87.7%
85.5%
85.5%
85.1%
84.7%
83.0%
82.7%
82.3%
81.2%
81.2%
79.9%
79.7%
77.1%
75.6%
75.4%
75.2%
74.9%
74.2%
72.7%
72.7%
72.5%
72.1%
72.0%
#
71.2%
70.5%
69.3%
68.5%
68.5%
67.9%
67.8%
67.3%
#
67.1%
67.1%
64.1%
63.9%
63.7%
63.1%
62.3%
61.2%
59.5%
58.8%
58.5%
#
58.3%
57.8%
56.3%
55.9%
#
55.5%
55.2%
55.0%
54.0%
53.9%
#
53.5%
50.4%
#
50.1%
#
49.8%
45.2%
#
45.2%
#
41.7%
41.3%
40.9%
36.6%
8.0%
14.8%
1.8%
2.2%
10.8%
15.8%
23.2%
22.4%
2.5%
22.7%
18.2%
18.2%
16.9%
13.0%
14.0%
26.7%
25.6%
19.6%
3.9%
5.5%
14.5%
33.1%
18.8%
27.0%
6.3%
11.3%
19.1%
19.2%
22.3%
15.6%
17.1%
4.7%
22.2%
6.8%
19.5%
14.0%
9.5%
23.9%
21.2%
19.2%
22.1%
12.8%
11.1%
12.6%
13.7%
21.2%
20.9%
27.6%
14.4%
15.4%
8.5%
27.3%
7.4%
9.6%
10.7%
25.4%
10.2%
18.5%
24.4%
26.5%
15.5%
4.8%
4.4%
3.3%
3.6%
4.8%
4.9%
4.9%
5.7%
3.5%
5.6%
4.7%
4.8%
4.7%
4.6%
4.3%
5.6%
5.6%
4.9%
4.3%
4.0%
4.7%
7.5%
4.3%
7.7%
4.2%
4.7%
5.0%
5.2%
5.8%
4.9%
4.4%
4.0%
5.6%
4.4%
5.2%
4.4%
4.9%
4.6%
5.5%
5.0%
5.0%
5.1%
5.2%
4.2%
4.7%
5.8%
5.2%
7.6%
4.7%
5.1%
4.7%
6.2%
3.7%
4.6%
4.9%
6.5%
4.3%
4.3%
5.4%
5.3%
5.2%
4.4
3.3
2.8
3.1
3.4
3.9
5.7
3.4
3.0
6.1
5.7
5.0
4.8
4.7
4.3
4.9
6.5
4.3
3.3
2.6
3.9
5.3
3.9
9.2
3.6
3.7
4.3
4.0
5.7
5.8
4.9
3.0
4.7
4.2
5.0
3.6
3.3
5.3
4.0
4.1
7.3
3.6
2.9
5.0
6.1
4.9
5.1
8.1
5.0
4.8
3.0
8.5
3.4
3.2
3.9
6.7
3.8
4.7
3.5
6.2
4.4
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%
13 National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
* Women who usually resided in the Australian Capital Territory and gave birth in New South Wales were not counted in the results for the Australian
Capital Territory Medicare Local catchment for antenatal visits in the frst trimester, smoking during pregnancy and low birthweight.
# Interpret with caution. In WA and ACT, frst antenatal visits that occur outside of the hospital may not be included. Data on smoking during pregnancy
were not available for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who usually resided in Victoria and gave birth in Victoria in 2007 and 2008.
Notes: Jurisdictional differences in defnitions and methods used for data collection affect the comparability of these data across jurisdictions and lower levels
of geography within jurisdictions. For data limitations and exclusions, see this report’s Technical Supplement.
Source: Customised data report prepared for the NHPA from the AIHW National Perinatal Data Collection 2007–2011 (birthweight, smoking during pregnancy)
and 2010–2011 (antenatal visits).
Medicare Local catchments
Antenatal
visit in frst
trimester
Smoking
during
pregnancy
Low birth-
weight
Nepean-Blue Mountains (NSW) ............
Western Sydney ...................................
Central Coast NSW ..............................
North Coast NSW .................................
Illawarra-Shoalhaven (NSW) ..................
Murrumbidgee (NSW) ...........................
Western NSW .......................................
New England (NSW) .............................
Perth South Coastal .............................
Tasmania ..............................................
Hunter (NSW) .......................................
West Moreton-Oxley (Qld) .....................
Far West NSW ......................................
Southern NSW .....................................
Country South SA .................................
Northern Adelaide .................................
Hume (Vic/NSW)...................................
Lower Murray (Vic/NSW).......................
South Western Sydney .........................
Country North SA .................................
Sunshine Coast (Qld) ............................
Central Adelaide & Hills .........................
Inner West Sydney ................................
Australian Capital Territory* ...................
Northern Territory ..................................
Sthn Adelaide-Fleurieu-Kangaroo Is. .....
Gippsland (Vic) .....................................
Darling Downs-SW Qld .........................
Metro North Brisbane ...........................
Northern Melbourne .............................
South West WA ....................................
Townsville-Mackay (Qld) ........................
Far North Qld ........................................
Loddon-Mallee-Murray (Vic/NSW) .........
Central Qld ...........................................
Kimberley-Pilbara (WA) .........................
Central & NW Qld .................................
Gold Coast (Qld) ...................................
Macedon Ranges & NW Melb ...............
Goulburn Valley (Vic) .............................
Goldfelds-Midwest (WA) .......................
Wide Bay (Qld)......................................
Greater Metro South Brisbane ..............
Grampians (Vic) ....................................
Bentley-Armadale (WA) .........................
Perth North Metro .................................
Perth Central & East Metro ...................
Barwon (Vic) .........................................
Bayside (Vic) .........................................
Eastern Melbourne ...............................
Eastern Sydney ....................................
Frankston-Mornington Peninsula (Vic) ...
Fremantle (WA) .....................................
Great South Coast (Vic) ........................
Inner East Melbourne ............................
Inner NW Melbourne .............................
Northern Sydney ..................................
South Eastern Melbourne .....................
South Eastern Sydney ..........................
South Western Melbourne ....................
Sydney North Shore & Beaches ............
80.5%
74.7%
73.5%
70.0%
69.9%
68.1%
67.9%
66.6%
65.3%
#
64.5%
64.2%
60.8%
60.8%
60.6%
57.1%
57.1%
57.1%
56.8%
55.3%
55.0%
52.9%
51.9%
50.9%
50.8%
#
49.8%
48.8%
48.1%
46.8%
45.5%
44.8%
44.4%
#
42.5%
41.6%
41.2%
38.7%
38.7%
#
38.5%
38.1%
37.9%
36.2%
32.8%
#
28.6%
27.6%
21.8%
21.6%
#
19.9%
#
19.0%
#
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
46.4%
49.4%
42.0%
52.5%
46.9%
52.1%
53.1%
55.1%
48.3%
52.7%
48.9%
53.9%
60.8%
55.6%
64.6%
62.0%
51.8%
#
56.6%
#
47.0%
62.2%
42.8%
55.3%
49.0%
53.7%
52.2%
56.7%
52.1%
#
60.4%
47.1%
35.7%
#
51.8%
51.5%
55.6%
54.4%
#
52.4%
52.9%
53.1%
35.0%
29.4%
#
66.4%
#
46.7%
50.4%
43.5%
34.7%
#
52.5%
44.3%
51.4%
NP
NP
NP
35.1%
NP
47.6%
NP
NP
NP
NP
43.4%
#
34.4%
NP
NP
10.3%
11.6%
9.9%
10.6%
7.8%
7.8%
8.9%
11.5%
10.8%
8.3%
10.3%
8.0%
12.4%
14.7%
10.7%
13.5%
10.9%
13.6%
9.7%
13.0%
8.1%
10.6%
13.1%
11.6%
13.0%
8.9%
17.5%
9.3%
7.1%
10.0%
14.0%
10.9%
10.3%
12.1%
9.1%
13.3%
12.3%
8.3%
7.0%
9.7%
12.5%
7.6%
9.1%
11.9%
14.3%
11.9%
12.9%
13.0%
NP
NP
8.0%
6.7%
13.0%
16.4%
NP
13.5%
NP
7.2%
7.2%
NP
NP
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%
Figure 5: Percentage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who had at least one antenatal
visit in the frst trimester, by measures of child and maternal health, by Medicare Local
catchment, 2007–2011
14 National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
Key fndings: Antenatal visits in the frst trimester
All women
In 2010–2011, the national percentage of women
who had at least one antenatal visit in the frst
trimester of pregnancy was 67.2% for all women
and 50.3% for Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander women.
Variation across local areas
Across local areas, the percentage of women who
had at least one antenatal visit in the frst trimester
in 2010–2011 was more than double in the
catchment with the highest percentage compared
to the catchment with the lowest percentage.
The percentage of women who had at least one
antenatal visit in the frst trimester ranged as follows:
Highest: Western Sydney – 87.7%
Lowest: Grampians (Vic) – 36.6%
(Figure 4, page 12 and pages 34 to 35).
Variation across peer groups
There were differences in the percentage of
women who had at least one antenatal visit in
the frst trimester across local areas with similar
geographic characteristics.
Across rural areas, the percentage of women who
had at least one antenatal visit in the frst trimester
was 41% higher in the Rural 1 catchment of
Country North SA (75.2%) compared to the Rural 2
catchment of Far North Queensland (53.5%).
However, across metropolitan areas and across
regional areas this trend of higher rates of women
who had at least one antenatal visit in the frst
trimester in higher-income areas compared to
lower-income areas was not apparent, with some
local areas demonstrating what can be achieved
for other similar areas.
For example:
• Across metropolitan areas, the percentage of
women who had at least one antenatal visit in
the frst trimester was 37% higher in the lower-
income urban catchment of Western Sydney
(87.7%, Metro 3) compared to wealthier inner-
city catchment of Inner North West Melbourne
(64.1%, Metro 1)
• Across regional areas, the percentage of
women who had at least one antenatal visit in
the frst trimester was almost double in the
lower-income catchment of Western NSW
(82.7%) compared to the wealthier catchment of
Frankston-Mornington-Peninsula (Vic) (41.7%).
Variation within peer groups
There were differences across similar catchments
even after accounting for geographic and
socioeconomic circumstances.
• Within the Metro 1 peer group, the percentage
of women who had at least one antenatal visit
in the frst trimester was 33% higher in Sydney
North Shore & Beaches (85.5%) compared to
Inner North West Melbourne (64.1%)
• Within the Regional 1 peer group, the
percentage of women who had at least one
antenatal visit in the frst trimester was double
in Nepean-Blue Mountains (NSW) (85.5%)
compared to Frankston-Mornington-Peninsula
(Vic) (41.7%) (Table 6, page 15).
15 National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
Table 6: Highest and lowest percentage of all women who had at least one antenatal visit in the frst trimester
across Medicare Local catchments, by peer group, 2010–2011
Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander women
Variation across local areas
Across local areas, the percentage of Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander women who had at
least one antenatal visit in the frst trimester in
2010–2011 was almost four times higher in
the catchment with the highest compared to the
catchment with the lowest percentage.
The percentage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander women who had at least one antenatal
visit in the frst trimester ranged as follows:
Highest: Nepean-Blue Mountains (NSW) – 80.5%
Lowest: Grampians (Vic) – 21.8%
(Figure 5, page 13 and pages 36 to 37).
Variation across peer groups
There were differences in the percentage of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women
who had at least one antenatal visit in the
frst trimester across local areas with similar
geographic characteristics.
• Across regional areas, the percentage of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women
who had at least one antenatal visit in the
frst trimester was almost four times higher
in the wealthier catchment of Nepean-
Blue Mountains (NSW) (80.5%, Regional 1)
compared to the lower-income catchment of
Grampians (Vic) (21.8%, Regional 2)
• Across rural areas, the percentage of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women
who had at least one antenatal visit in the
frst trimester tended to be higher in the Rural
1 peer group compared to the Rural 2 peer
group. The percentage was 58% higher in
Far West NSW (60.8%, Rural 1) compared to
Central & North West Queensland (38.5%,
Rural 2).
However, across metropolitan areas this trend
of higher rates of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander women who had at least one antenatal
visit in the frst trimester in higher-income areas
compared to lower-income areas was not
apparent, with some local areas demonstrating
what can be achieved for other similar areas.
Peer group Highest percentage Lowest percentage Difference
Metro 1 85.5% 64.1% 33% (1.3 times higher)
Metro 2 84.7% 56.3% 50% (1.5 times higher)
Metro 3 87.7% 49.8% 76% (1.8 times higher)
Regional 1 85.5% 41.7% 105% (2.1 times higher)
Regional 2 82.7% 36.6% 126% (2.3 times higher)
Rural 1 75.2% 58.8% 28% (1.3 times higher)
Rural 2 71.2% 53.5% 33% (1.3 times higher)
Note: Results for Medicare Local catchments that are to be interpreted with caution are not included.
16 National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
For example, across metropolitan areas, the
percentage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
women who had at least one antenatal visit in the
frst trimester was almost three times higher in
the lower-income urban catchment of Western
Sydney (74.7%, Metro 3) compared to Greater
Metro South Brisbane (27.6%, Metro 2).
Variation within peer groups
There were differences across similar catchments
even after accounting for geographic and
socioeconomic circumstances.
• Within the Metro 2 peer group, the percentage
of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women
who had at least one antenatal visit in the
frst trimester was almost double in Central
Adelaide & Hills (51.9%) compared to Greater
Metro South Brisbane (27.6%)
Table 7: Highest and lowest percentage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who had at least one
antenatal visit in the frst trimester across Medicare Local catchments, by peer group, 2010–2011
• Within the Regional 2 peer group, the
percentage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander women who had at least one antenatal
visit in the frst trimester was more than three
times higher in North Coast NSW (70.0%)
compared to Grampians (Vic) (21.8%) (Table 7).
Peer group Highest percentage Lowest percentage Difference
Metro 1* - - -
Metro 2 51.9% 27.6% 88% (1.9 times higher)
Metro 3 74.7% 37.9% 97% (2.0 times higher)
Regional 1 80.5% 52.9% 52% (1.5 times higher)
Regional 2 70.0% 21.8% 221% (3.2 times higher)
Rural 1 60.8% 38.7% 57% (1.6 times higher)
Rural 2 49.8% 38.5% 29% (1.3 times higher)
* Data were only available for two Medicare Local catchments in this peer group.
Note: Results for Medicare Local catchments that are to be interpreted with caution are not included.
17
Health status and outcomes
Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012 18
111
113
114
115
116
117
118
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
306
307
308
309
310
311
404
405
506
507
508
601
701
501
502
503
504
505
506
401
402
403
404
405
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
214
215
216
217
117
801
CANBERRA
ROCKINGHAM
MELBOURNE
GEELONG
PERTH
i.
vi.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
ADELAIDE
Results for Medicare Local catchments
were ranked from highest to lowest and
then split into fve equal-sized groups.
1

The range within each of the
fve groups was as follows:
L
o
w
e
s
t
g
r
o
u
p
H
i
g
h
e
s
t
g
r
o
u
p
Medicare Local
catchment boundary
Numbers on map are
Medicare Local reference codes
211
ii. Adelaide and
surrounding areas
i. Perth and
surrounding areas
iii. Melbourne and
surrounding areas
iv. Canberra and
surrounding areas
1. Each Medicare Local has been assigned to a quintile group.
2. For more information on peer groups and the calculation of peer group results refer to this report’s Technical Supplement.
Notes: Deaths are attributed to the Medicare Local catchment in which the infant or young child usually resided, irrespective of where they died.
Births are attributed to the Medicare Local catchment in which the mother usually resided, irrespective of where the birth occurred.
Sources: National Health Performance Authority analysis of Australian Bureau of Statistics Death Registrations Collection 2010–2012 and Australian Bureau of
Statistics Birth Registrations Collection 2010–2012.
Data can be downloaded from www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
Years of data: 2010–2012
Infant and young child mortality rate
During 2010–2012, the infant and young child mortality rate varied across Medicare Local catchments
and across peer groups, ranging from 2.6 deaths per 1,000 live births in Bayside (Vic) to 9.2 deaths
per 1,000 live births in the Northern Territory.
Number of deaths among infants and young
children aged less than 5 years per 1,000 live
births, 2010–2012
5.4 – 9.2
4.8 – 5.3
4.0 – 4.7
3.4 – 3.9
2.6 – 3.3
National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
National overviews
Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012 19
Health status and outcomes
0 2 4 6 8 10
Metro 1 3.3
Bayside .................................. 202
Sydney Nth Shore & Beaches . 108
Eastern Sydney....................... 101
Northern Sydney ..................... 107
Inner East Melbourne .............. 206
Inner West Sydney .................. 102
Australian Capital Territory ....... 801
Inner NW Melbourne ............... 201
2.6
2.8
3.0
3.1
3.3
3.6
3.8
4.2
0 2 4 6 8 10
Metro 2 4.1
South Western Melbourne ...... 203
Perth North Metro ................... 502
South Eastern Sydney ............ 103
Perth Central & East Metro ...... 501
Central Adelaide & Hills ........... 402
Fremantle ............................... 503
Bentley-Armadale ................... 504
Eastern Melbourne .................. 207
Sthn Adelaide-Fleurieu-Kang. Is. 403
Metro North Brisbane .............. 301
Gold Coast ............................. 303
Greater Metro South Brisbane . 302
2.9
3.0
3.0
3.2
3.4
3.4
3.6
3.7
3.9
4.7
5.0
6.1
0 2 4 6 8 10
Metro 3 4.3
Northern Melbourne ................ 205
Northern Adelaide ................... 401
Macedon Ranges & NW Melb . 204
West Moreton-Oxley ............... 305
Western Sydney...................... 105
South Eastern Melbourne........ 208
South Western Sydney ........... 104
3.3
3.4
3.9
4.3
4.4
4.8
5.0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Regional 1 4.3
Nepean-Blue Mountains .......... 106
Barwon ................................... 210
Central Coast NSW ................. 109
Perth South Coastal ................ 505
Illawarra-Shoalhaven ............... 110
Frankston-Mornington Peninsula 209
Hunter .................................... 111
Sunshine Coast ...................... 304
3.3
3.6
3.9
3.9
4.3
4.7
4.8
5.8
0 2 4 6 8 10
Regional 2 5.0
Goulburn Valley ....................... 215
Southern NSW ........................ 117
Gippsland ............................... 217
Hume ..................................... 216
Great South Coast .................. 212
Grampians .............................. 211
Tasmania ................................ 601
South West WA ...................... 506
North Coast NSW ................... 113
Loddon-Mallee-Murray ............ 214
Darling Downs-SW Qld ........... 306
Murrumbidgee ........................ 116
Western NSW ......................... 115
New England .......................... 114
Wide Bay ................................ 307
Country South SA ................... 404
3.5
4.0
4.0
4.1
4.3
4.4
4.7
4.9
5.0
5.1
5.3
5.7
5.7
6.1
6.2
6.5
0 2 4 6 8 10
Rural 1 5.6
Country North SA ................... 405
Townsville-Mackay .................. 310
Far West NSW ........................ 118
Lower Murray ......................... 213
Central Qld ............................. 308
4.9
5.0
5.3
5.7
7.3
0 2 4 6 8 10
Rural 2 7.9
Goldfelds-Midwest ................. 507
Kimberley-Pilbara .................... 508
Central & NW Qld ................... 309
Far North Qld .......................... 311
Northern Territory .................... 701
4.9
6.7
8.1
8.5
9.2
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
101
113
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
SYDNEY
BRISBANE
NEWCASTLE
SUNSHINE
COAST
GOLD
COAST
WOLLONGONG
Fair comparisons
To compare Medicare Locals more fairly, each
Medicare Local catchment has been grouped
into one of seven peer groups
2
, based on
remoteness and socioeconomic status.
This allows:
• Medicare Local catchments to be compared
within the same metropolitan, regional or
rural peer group, and
• Medicare Local catchments to be compared
with the average for their peer group.
It also allows variation to be seen across peer
groups that may be associated with remoteness
and socioeconomic status.
v. Sydney and
surrounding areas
vi. Brisbane and
surrounding areas
Peer groups
Map
Ref.
More information can be found at www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
and in this report’s Technical Supplement.
National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012 20
111
113
114
115
116
117
118
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
306
307
308
309
310
311
404
405
506
507
508
601
701
501
502
503
504
505
506
401
402
403
404
405
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
214
215
216
217
117
801
CANBERRA
ROCKINGHAM
MELBOURNE
GEELONG
PERTH
i.
vi.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
ADELAIDE
Results for Medicare Local catchments
were ranked from highest to lowest and
then split into fve equal-sized groups.
1

The range within each of the
fve groups was as follows:
L
o
w
e
s
t
g
r
o
u
p
H
i
g
h
e
s
t
g
r
o
u
p
Medicare Local
catchment boundary
Numbers on map are
Medicare Local reference codes
507
ii. Adelaide and
surrounding areas
i. Perth and
surrounding areas
iii. Melbourne and
surrounding areas
iv. Canberra and
surrounding areas
1. Each Medicare Local has been assigned to a quintile group.
2. For more information on peer groups and the calculation of peer group results refer to this report’s Technical Supplement.
Notes: Deaths are attributed to the Medicare Local catchment in which the infant usually resided, irrespective of where they died.
Births are attributed to the Medicare Local catchment in which the mother usually resided, irrespective of where the birth occurred.
Sources: National Health Performance Authority analysis of Australian Bureau of Statistics Death Registrations Collection 2010–2012 and Australian Bureau of
Statistics Birth Registrations Collection 2010–2012.
Data can be downloaded from www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
Years of data: 2010–2012
Infant mortality rate
During 2010–2012, the infant mortality rate varied across Medicare Local catchments and across
peer groups, ranging from 2.3 deaths per 1,000 live births in Sydney North Shore & Beaches
and Bayside (Vic) to 7.6 deaths per 1,000 live births in the Northern Territory.
Number of deaths among infants aged less
than 1 year per 1,000 live births, 2010–2012
4.6 – 7.6
3.8 – 4.5
3.3 – 3.7
2.9 – 3.2
2.3 – 2.8
Not available
for publication
National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
National overviews
Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012 21
Health status and outcomes
0 2 4 6 8 10
Metro 1 2.9
Bayside .................................. 202
Sydney Nth Shore & Beaches . 108
Eastern Sydney....................... 101
Northern Sydney ..................... 107
Inner East Melbourne .............. 206
Inner West Sydney .................. 102
Australian Capital Territory ....... 801
Inner NW Melbourne ............... 201
2.3
2.3
2.7
2.8
3.0
3.2
3.2
3.7
0 2 4 6 8 10
Metro 2 3.6
Perth North Metro ................... 502
South Western Melbourne ...... 203
Perth Central & East Metro ...... 501
Fremantle ............................... 503
South Eastern Sydney ............ 103
Central Adelaide & Hills ........... 402
Bentley-Armadale ................... 504
Sthn Adelaide-Fleurieu-Kang. Is. 403
Eastern Melbourne .................. 207
Metro North Brisbane .............. 301
Gold Coast ............................. 303
Greater Metro South Brisbane . 302
2.4
2.4
2.6
2.6
2.7
2.9
3.0
3.2
3.3
4.1
4.4
5.5
0 2 4 6 8 10
Metro 3 3.6
Northern Melbourne ................ 205
Northern Adelaide ................... 401
Macedon Ranges & NW Melb . 204
West Moreton-Oxley ............... 305
Western Sydney...................... 105
South Eastern Melbourne........ 208
South Western Sydney ........... 104
2.7
2.9
3.6
3.7
3.8
4.0
4.4
0 2 4 6 8 10
Regional 1 3.6
Nepean-Blue Mountains .......... 106
Barwon ................................... 210
Frankston-Mornington Peninsula 209
Perth South Coastal ................ 505
Illawarra-Shoalhaven ............... 110
Central Coast NSW ................. 109
Hunter .................................... 111
Sunshine Coast ...................... 304
2.6
2.8
3.2
3.5
3.5
3.7
4.0
4.8
0 2 4 6 8 10
Regional 2 4.1
Goulburn Valley ....................... 215
Great South Coast .................. 212
South West WA ...................... 506
Grampians .............................. 211
Southern NSW ........................ 117
Gippsland ............................... 217
Hume ..................................... 216
Tasmania ................................ 601
Loddon-Mallee-Murray ............ 214
North Coast NSW ................... 113
Darling Downs-SW Qld ........... 306
Western NSW ......................... 115
Country South SA ................... 404
Murrumbidgee ........................ 116
Wide Bay ................................ 307
New England .......................... 114
2.8
2.9
3.1
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.7
4.1
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.5
4.6
4.9
5.0
5.3
0 2 4 6 8 10
Rural 1 4.6
Country North SA ................... 405
Townsville-Mackay .................. 310
Central Qld ............................. 308
Far West NSW ........................ 118
Lower Murray ......................... 213
3.8
4.0
6.1
NP
NP
0 2 4 6 8 10
Rural 2 6.5
Goldfelds-Midwest ................. 507
Kimberley-Pilbara .................... 508
Central & NW Qld ................... 309
Far North Qld .......................... 311
Northern Territory .................... 701
3.7
5.7
6.9
7.0
7.6
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
101
113
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
SYDNEY
BRISBANE
NEWCASTLE
SUNSHINE
COAST
GOLD
COAST
WOLLONGONG
Fair comparisons
To compare Medicare Locals more fairly, each
Medicare Local catchment has been grouped
into one of seven peer groups
2
, based on
remoteness and socioeconomic status.
This allows:
• Medicare Local catchments to be compared
within the same metropolitan, regional or
rural peer group, and
• Medicare Local catchments to be compared
with the average for their peer group.
It also allows variation to be seen across peer
groups that may be associated with remoteness
and socioeconomic status.
v. Sydney and
surrounding areas
vi. Brisbane and
surrounding areas
Peer groups
Map
Ref.
NP Not available for publication.
More information can be found at www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
and in this report’s Technical Supplement.
National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012 22
111
113
114
115
116
117
118
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
306
307
308
309
310
311
404
405
506
507
508
601
701
501
502
503
504
505
506
401
402
403
404
405
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
214
215
216
217
117
801
CANBERRA
ROCKINGHAM
MELBOURNE
GEELONG
PERTH
ADELAIDE
i.
vi.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
Results for Medicare Local catchments
were ranked from highest to lowest and
then split into fve equal-sized groups.
1

The range within each of the
fve groups was as follows:
L
o
w
e
s
t
g
r
o
u
p
H
i
g
h
e
s
t
g
r
o
u
p
Medicare Local
catchment boundary
Numbers on map are
Medicare Local reference codes
402
ii. Adelaide and
surrounding areas
i. Perth and
surrounding areas
iii. Melbourne and
surrounding areas
iv. Canberra and
surrounding areas
Years of data: 2009–2011
Low-birthweight babies, all women
During 2009–2011, the percentage of liveborn babies of low birthweight varied across Medicare Local
catchments and across peer groups, ranging from 3.3% in Sydney North Shore & Beaches to 7.7% in
Northern Territory.
Percentage of live births that were of low
birthweight, all women, 2009–2011
1. Each Medicare Local has been assigned to a quintile group.
2. For more information on peer groups and the calculation of peer group results refer to this report’s Technical Supplement.
Notes: Multiple births and stillbirths are excluded. Births are attributed to the Medicare Local catchment in which the mother usually resided, irrespective of
where the birth occurred. Data exclude births to Australian non-residents, residents of external territories and women who could not be allocated to a
Medicare Local catchment because their Statistical Local Area of usual residence was not stated or was not valid.
Source: Customised data report prepared for the National Health Performance Authority from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare National Perinatal
Data Collection 2009–2011.
Data can be downloaded from www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
5.6 – 7.7%
5.0 – 5.5%
4.8 – 4.9%
4.4 – 4.7%
3.3 – 4.3%
National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
National overviews
Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012 23
Health status and outcomes
0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10%
Metro 1 4.0%
Inner NW Melbourne ............... 201
Inner East Melbourne .............. 206
Australian Capital Territory* ..... 801
Inner West Sydney .................. 102
Bayside .................................. 202
Northern Sydney ..................... 107
Eastern Sydney....................... 101
Sydney Nth Shore & Beaches . 108
4.4%
4.3%
4.3%
4.2%
4.0%
3.6%
3.5%
3.3%
0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10%
Metro 2 4.6%
South Western Melbourne ...... 203
Bentley-Armadale ................... 504
Central Adelaide & Hills ........... 402
Sthn Adelaide-Fleurieu-Kang. Is. 403
Eastern Melbourne .................. 207
Greater Metro South Brisbane . 302
Perth North Metro ................... 502
Perth Central & East Metro ...... 501
Metro North Brisbane .............. 301
Gold Coast ............................. 303
South Eastern Sydney ............ 103
Fremantle ............................... 503
5.2%
5.1%
4.8%
4.7%
4.7%
4.7%
4.7%
4.6%
4.6%
4.2%
4.0%
3.7%
0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10%
Metro 3 4.9%
Northern Adelaide ................... 401
South Eastern Melbourne........ 208
West Moreton-Oxley ............... 305
Macedon Ranges & NW Melb . 204
Northern Melbourne ................ 205
Western Sydney...................... 105
South Western Sydney ........... 104
5.7%
5.1%
4.9%
4.9%
4.9%
4.8%
4.7%
0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10%
Regional 1 4.6%
Central Coast NSW ................. 109
Sunshine Coast ...................... 304
Hunter .................................... 111
Barwon ................................... 210
Nepean-Blue Mountains .......... 106
Frankston-Mornington Peninsula 209
Perth South Coastal ................ 505
Illawarra-Shoalhaven ............... 110
4.9%
4.9%
4.7%
4.4%
4.4%
4.3%
4.3%
4.3%
0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10%
Regional 2 5.1%
Country South SA ................... 404
New England .......................... 114
Tasmania ................................ 601
Gippsland ............................... 217
Goulburn Valley ....................... 215
Wide Bay ................................ 307
Loddon-Mallee-Murray ............ 214
Southern NSW ........................ 117
Grampians .............................. 211
Hume ..................................... 216
Great South Coast .................. 212
Western NSW ......................... 115
North Coast NSW ................... 113
Murrumbidgee ........................ 116
Darling Downs-SW Qld ........... 306
South West WA ...................... 506
5.6%
5.6%
5.6%
5.5%
5.4%
5.3%
5.2%
5.2%
5.2%
5.0%
5.0%
4.9%
4.8%
4.7%
4.6%
4.4%
0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10%
Rural 1 5.4%
Far West NSW ........................ 118
Lower Murray ......................... 213
Country North SA ................... 405
Townsville-Mackay .................. 310
Central Qld ............................. 308
7.5%
5.8%
5.6%
5.2%
5.0%
0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10%
Rural 2 6.8%
Northern Territory .................... 701
Central & NW Qld ................... 309
Kimberley-Pilbara .................... 508
Far North Qld .......................... 311
Goldfelds-Midwest ................. 507
7.7%
7.6%
6.5%
6.2%
5.8%
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
101
113
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
SYDNEY
BRISBANE
NEWCASTLE
SUNSHINE
COAST
GOLD
COAST
WOLLONGONG
Fair comparisons
To compare Medicare Locals more fairly, each
Medicare Local catchment has been grouped
into one of seven peer groups
2
, based on
remoteness and socioeconomic status.
This allows:
• Medicare Local catchments to be compared
within the same metropolitan, regional or
rural peer group, and
• Medicare Local catchments to be compared
with the average for their peer group.
It also allows variation to be seen across peer
groups that may be associated with remoteness
and socioeconomic status.
v. Sydney and
surrounding areas
vi. Brisbane and
surrounding areas
Peer groups
Map
Ref.
* In 2009–2011, there were 202 liveborn babies of women who
usually resided in the Australian Capital Territory and gave birth
in New South Wales who were not counted in the result for the
Australian Capital Territory Medicare Local catchment.
More information can be found at www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
and in this report’s Technical Supplement.
National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012 24
111
113
114
115
116
117
118
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
306
307
308
309
310
311
404
405
506
507
508
601
701
501
502
503
504
505
506
401
402
403
404
405
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
214
215
216
217
117
801
CANBERRA
ROCKINGHAM
MELBOURNE
GEELONG
PERTH
i.
vi.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
ADELAIDE
Results for Medicare Local
catchments were ranked from
highest to lowest and then split
into fve equal-sized groups.
1

The range within each of the
fve groups was as follows:
L
o
w
e
s
t
g
r
o
u
p
H
i
g
h
e
s
t
g
r
o
u
p
Medicare Local
catchment boundary
Numbers on map are
Medicare Local reference codes
402
ii. Adelaide and
surrounding areas
i. Perth and
surrounding areas
iii. Melbourne and
surrounding areas
iv. Canberra and
surrounding areas
Years of data: 2007–2011
Low-birthweight babies, Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander women
During 2007–2011, the percentage of liveborn babies of low birthweight born to Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander women varied across Medicare Local catchments and across peer groups, ranging from
6.7% in Frankston-Mornington Peninsula (Vic) to 17.5% in Gippsland (Vic).
Percentage of live births that were of low
birthweight, Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander women, 2007–2011
1. Each Medicare Local has been assigned to a quintile group.
2. For more information on peer groups and the calculation of peer group results refer to this report’s Technical Supplement.
Notes: Multiple births and stillbirths are excluded. Births are attributed to the Medicare Local catchment in which the mother usually resided, irrespective of
where the birth occurred. Data exclude births to Australian non-residents, residents of external territories and women who could not be allocated to a
Medicare Local catchment because their Statistical Local Area of usual residence was not stated or was not valid.
Source: Customised data report prepared for the National Health Performance Authority from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare National Perinatal
Data Collection 2007–2011.
Data can be downloaded from www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
13.1 – 17.5%
11.7 – 13.0%
10.1 – 11.6%
8.2 – 10.0%
6.7 – 8.1%
Not available
for publication
National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
National overviews
Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012 25
Health status and outcomes
0% 4% 8% 12% 16% 20%
Metro 1 10.3%
Inner NW Melbourne ............... 201
Inner West Sydney .................. 102
Australian Capital Territory* ..... 801
Eastern Sydney....................... 101
Northern Sydney ..................... 107
Sydney Nth Shore & Beaches . 108
Bayside .................................. 202
Inner East Melbourne .............. 206
13.5%
13.1%
11.6%
8.0%
NP
NP
NP
NP
0% 4% 8% 12% 16% 20%
Metro 2 10.2%
Bentley-Armadale ................... 504
Fremantle ............................... 503
Perth Central & East Metro ...... 501
Perth North Metro ................... 502
Central Adelaide & Hills ........... 402
Greater Metro South Brisbane . 302
Sthn Adelaide-Fleurieu-Kang. Is. 403
Gold Coast ............................. 303
South Eastern Sydney ............ 103
Metro North Brisbane .............. 301
South Western Melbourne ...... 203
Eastern Melbourne .................. 207
14.3%
13.0%
12.9%
11.9%
10.6%
9.1%
8.9%
8.3%
7.2%
7.1%
NP
NP
0% 4% 8% 12% 16% 20%
Metro 3 10.3%
Northern Adelaide ................... 401
Western Sydney...................... 105
Northern Melbourne ................ 205
South Western Sydney ........... 104
West Moreton-Oxley ............... 305
South Eastern Melbourne........ 208
Macedon Ranges & NW Melb . 204
13.5%
11.6%
10.0%
9.7%
8.0%
7.2%
7.0%
0% 4% 8% 12% 16% 20%
Regional 1 9.7%
Barwon ................................... 210
Perth South Coastal ................ 505
Nepean-Blue Mountains .......... 106
Hunter .................................... 111
Central Coast NSW ................. 109
Sunshine Coast ...................... 304
Illawarra-Shoalhaven ............... 110
Frankston-Mornington Peninsula 209
13.0%
10.8%
10.3%
10.3%
9.9%
8.1%
7.8%
6.7%
0% 4% 8% 12% 16% 20%
Regional 2 10.5%
Gippsland ............................... 217
Great South Coast .................. 212
Southern NSW ........................ 117
South West WA ...................... 506
Loddon-Mallee-Murray ............ 214
Grampians .............................. 211
New England .......................... 114
Hume ..................................... 216
Country South SA ................... 404
North Coast NSW ................... 113
Goulburn Valley ....................... 215
Darling Downs-SW Qld ........... 306
Western NSW ......................... 115
Tasmania ................................ 601
Murrumbidgee ........................ 116
Wide Bay ................................ 307
17.5%
16.4%
14.7%
14.0%
12.1%
11.9%
11.5%
10.9%
10.7%
10.6%
9.7%
9.3%
8.9%
8.3%
7.8%
7.6%
0% 4% 8% 12% 16% 20%
Rural 1 11.4%
Lower Murray ......................... 213
Country North SA ................... 405
Far West NSW ........................ 118
Townsville-Mackay .................. 310
Central Qld ............................. 308
13.6%
13.0%
12.4%
10.9%
9.1%
0% 4% 8% 12% 16% 20%
Rural 2 12.2%
Kimberley-Pilbara .................... 508
Northern Territory .................... 701
Goldfelds-Midwest ................. 507
Central & NW Qld ................... 309
Far North Qld .......................... 311
13.3%
13.0%
12.5%
12.3%
10.3%
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
101
113
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
SYDNEY
BRISBANE
NEWCASTLE
SUNSHINE
COAST
GOLD
COAST
WOLLONGONG
Fair comparisons
To compare Medicare Locals more fairly, each
Medicare Local catchment has been grouped
into one of seven peer groups
2
, based on
remoteness and socioeconomic status.
This allows:
• Medicare Local catchments to be compared
within the same metropolitan, regional or
rural peer group, and
• Medicare Local catchments to be compared
with the average for their peer group.
It also allows variation to be seen across peer
groups that may be associated with remoteness
and socioeconomic status.
v. Sydney and
surrounding areas
vi. Brisbane and
surrounding areas
Peer groups
Map
Ref.
* In 2007–2011, there were eight liveborn babies of Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander women who usually resided in the
Australian Capital Territory and gave birth in New South Wales
who were not counted in the result for the Australian Capital
Territory Medicare Local catchment.
NP Not available for publication.
More information can be found at www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
and in this report’s Technical Supplement.
27
Prevention
Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012 28
111
113
114
115
116
117
118
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
306
307
308
309
310
311
404
405
506
507
508
601
701
501
502
503
504
505
506
401
402
403
404
405
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
214
215
216
217
117
801
CANBERRA
ROCKINGHAM
MELBOURNE
GEELONG
PERTH
i.
vi.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
ADELAIDE
Results for Medicare Local catchments
were ranked from highest to lowest and
then split into fve equal-sized groups.
1

The range within each of the
fve groups was as follows:
L
o
w
e
s
t
g
r
o
u
p
H
i
g
h
e
s
t
g
r
o
u
p
Medicare Local
catchment boundary
Numbers on map are
Medicare Local reference codes
506
ii. Adelaide and
surrounding areas
i. Perth and
surrounding areas
iii. Melbourne and
surrounding areas
iv. Canberra and
surrounding areas
1. Each Medicare Local has been assigned to a quintile group.
2. For more information on peer groups and the calculation of peer group results refer to this report’s Technical Supplement.
Notes: Data exclude women whose smoking status was not stated, Australian non-residents, residents of external territories and women who could not be
allocated to a Medicare Local catchment because their Statistical Local Area of usual residence was not stated or was not valid.
Source: Customised data report prepared for the National Health Performance Authority from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare National Perinatal
Data Collection 2009–2011.
Data can be downloaded from www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
Years of data: 2009–2011
Smoking during pregnancy, all women
During 2009–2011, the percentage of women who gave birth and smoked during pregnancy varied
across Medicare Local catchments and across peer groups, ranging from 1.8% in Sydney North Shore
& Beaches to 33.1% in Far West NSW.
Percentage of women who gave birth and
smoked during pregnancy, 2009–2011
22.5 – 33.1%
18.9 – 22.4%
14.1 – 18.8%
9.6 – 14.0%
1.8 – 9.5%
National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
National overviews
Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012 29
Prevention
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%
Metro 1 5.0%
Australian Capital Territory* ..... 801
Inner NW Melbourne ............... 201
Inner West Sydney .................. 102
Bayside .................................. 202
Inner East Melbourne .............. 206
Eastern Sydney....................... 101
Northern Sydney ..................... 107
Sydney Nth Shore & Beaches . 108
10.2%
6.8%
6.3%
5.5%
3.9%
2.5%
2.2%
1.8%
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%
Metro 2 11.3%
Sthn Adelaide-Fleurieu-Kang. Is. 403
Greater Metro South Brisbane . 302
Metro North Brisbane .............. 301
Bentley-Armadale ................... 504
Gold Coast ............................. 303
Eastern Melbourne .................. 207
South Western Melbourne ...... 203
Central Adelaide & Hills ........... 402
Perth Central & East Metro ...... 501
Perth North Metro ................... 502
Fremantle ............................... 503
South Eastern Sydney ............ 103
14.5%
13.7%
13.0%
12.8%
12.6%
11.3%
11.1%
10.8%
9.6%
8.5%
7.4%
4.7%
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%
Metro 3 13.2%
Northern Adelaide ................... 401
West Moreton-Oxley ............... 305
South Eastern Melbourne........ 208
South Western Sydney ........... 104
Macedon Ranges & NW Melb . 204
Northern Melbourne ................ 205
Western Sydney...................... 105
22.4%
19.6%
15.4%
14.4%
10.7%
9.5%
8.0%
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%
Regional 1 16.1%
Perth South Coastal ................ 505
Frankston-Mornington Peninsula 209
Hunter .................................... 111
Central Coast NSW ................. 109
Sunshine Coast ...................... 304
Nepean-Blue Mountains .......... 106
Barwon ................................... 210
Illawarra-Shoalhaven ............... 110
18.8%
18.5%
16.9%
15.8%
15.6%
14.8%
14.0%
14.0%
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%
Regional 2 21.0%
Wide Bay ................................ 307
Country South SA ................... 404
Goulburn Valley ....................... 215
Darling Downs-SW Qld ........... 306
Western NSW ......................... 115
New England .......................... 114
Tasmania ................................ 601
Gippsland ............................... 217
Loddon-Mallee-Murray ............ 214
Hume ..................................... 216
Southern NSW ........................ 117
Great South Coast .................. 212
North Coast NSW ................... 113
Murrumbidgee ........................ 116
South West WA ...................... 506
Grampians .............................. 211
26.5%
25.6%
24.4%
23.9%
23.2%
22.7%
22.2%
21.2%
20.9%
19.2%
19.2%
19.1%
18.2%
18.2%
17.1%
15.5%
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%
Rural 1 22.2%
Far West NSW ........................ 118
Country North SA ................... 405
Lower Murray ......................... 213
Central Qld ............................. 308
Townsville-Mackay .................. 310
33.1%
26.7%
22.3%
22.1%
19.5%
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%
Rural 2 26.0%
Central & NW Qld ................... 309
Far North Qld .......................... 311
Northern Territory .................... 701
Kimberley-Pilbara .................... 508
Goldfelds-Midwest ................. 507
27.6%
27.3%
27.0%
25.4%
21.2%
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
101
113
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
SYDNEY
BRISBANE
NEWCASTLE
SUNSHINE
COAST
GOLD
COAST
WOLLONGONG
Fair comparisons
To compare Medicare Locals more fairly, each
Medicare Local catchment has been grouped
into one of seven peer groups
2
, based on
remoteness and socioeconomic status.
This allows:
• Medicare Local catchments to be compared
within the same metropolitan, regional or
rural peer group, and
• Medicare Local catchments to be compared
with the average for their peer group.
It also allows variation to be seen across peer
groups that may be associated with remoteness
and socioeconomic status.
v. Sydney and
surrounding areas
vi. Brisbane and
surrounding areas
Peer groups
Map
Ref.
* In 2009–2011, there were 205 women who usually resided in
the Australian Capital Territory and gave birth in New South
Wales who were not counted in the result for the Australian
Capital Territory Medicare Local catchment.
More information can be found at www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
and in this report’s Technical Supplement.
National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012 30
111
113
114
115
116
117
118
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
306
307
308
309
310
311
404
405
506
507
508
601
701
501
502
503
504
505
506
401
402
403
404
405
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
214
215
216
217
117
801
CANBERRA
ROCKINGHAM
MELBOURNE
GEELONG
PERTH
i.
vi.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
ADELAIDE
Results for Medicare Local
catchments were ranked from
highest to lowest and then split
into fve equal-sized groups.
1

The range within each of the
fve groups was as follows:
L
o
w
e
s
t
g
r
o
u
p
H
i
g
h
e
s
t
g
r
o
u
p
Medicare Local
catchment boundary
Numbers on map are
Medicare Local reference codes
506
ii. Adelaide and
surrounding areas
i. Perth and
surrounding areas
iii. Melbourne and
surrounding areas
iv. Canberra and
surrounding areas
Years of data: 2007–2011
Smoking during pregnancy, Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander women
During 2007–2011, the percentage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who gave birth and smoked
during pregnancy varied across Medicare Local catchments and across peer groups, ranging from 29.4% in
Macedon Ranges & North Western Melbourne to 66.4% in Goulburn Valley (Vic).
Percentage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander women who gave birth and
smoked during pregnancy, 2007–2011
1. Each Medicare Local has been assigned to a quintile group.
2. For more information on peer groups and the calculation of peer group results refer to this report’s Technical Supplement.
Notes: Data exclude women whose smoking status was not stated, Australian non-residents, residents of external territories and women who could not be
allocated to a Medicare Local catchment because their Statistical Local Area of usual residence was not stated or was not valid.
Source: Customised data report prepared for the National Health Performance Authority from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare National Perinatal
Data Collection 2007–2011.
More information can be found at www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au and in this report’s Technical Supplement.
Data can be downloaded from www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
55.4 – 66.4%
52.5 – 55.3%
49.1 – 52.4%
43.6 – 49.0%
29.4 – 43.5%
Not available
for publication
National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
National overviews
Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012 31
Prevention
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%
Metro 1 40.3%
Australian Capital Territory* ..... 801
Inner West Sydney .................. 102
Eastern Sydney....................... 101
Northern Sydney ..................... 107
Sydney Nth Shore & Beaches . 108
Inner NW Melbourne ............... 201
Bayside .................................. 202
Inner East Melbourne .............. 206
53.7%
49.0%
35.1%
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%
Metro 2 47.3%
Sthn Adelaide-Fleurieu-Kang. Is. 403
Central Adelaide & Hills ........... 402
Bentley-Armadale ................... 504
Perth Central & East Metro ...... 501
Fremantle ............................... 503
Metro North Brisbane .............. 301
Perth North Metro ................... 502
Greater Metro South Brisbane . 302
Gold Coast ............................. 303
South Eastern Sydney ............ 103
South Western Melbourne ...... 203
Eastern Melbourne .................. 207
56.7%
55.3%
52.5%
51.4%
47.6%
47.1%
44.3%
43.5%
35.0%
34.4%
NP
NP
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%
Metro 3 50.5%
Northern Adelaide ................... 401
West Moreton-Oxley ............... 305
Western Sydney...................... 105
South Western Sydney ........... 104
South Eastern Melbourne
#
...... 208
Northern Melbourne
#
............... 205
Macedon Ranges & NW Melb
#
204
62.0%
53.9%
49.4%
47.0%
43.4%
35.7%
29.4%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%
Regional 1 46.3%
Hunter .................................... 111
Perth South Coastal ................ 505
Illawarra-Shoalhaven ............... 110
Nepean-Blue Mountains .......... 106
Sunshine Coast ...................... 304
Central Coast NSW ................. 109
Frankston-Mornington Peninsula 209
Barwon ................................... 210
48.9%
48.3%
46.9%
46.4%
42.8%
42.0%
NP
NP
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%
Regional 2 54.4%
Goulburn Valley
#
...................... 215
Country South SA ................... 404
Darling Downs-SW Qld ........... 306
Southern NSW ........................ 117
New England .......................... 114
Loddon-Mallee-Murray
#
........... 214
Western NSW ......................... 115
Tasmania ................................ 601
North Coast NSW ................... 113
Murrumbidgee ........................ 116
Gippsland
#
.............................. 217
Hume
#
.................................... 216
South West WA ...................... 506
Wide Bay ................................ 307
Grampians
#
............................. 211
Great South Coast .................. 212
66.4%
64.6%
60.4%
55.6%
55.1%
54.4%
53.1%
52.7%
52.5%
52.1%
52.1%
51.8%
51.8%
50.4%
34.7%
NP
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%
Rural 1 55.2%
Country North SA ................... 405
Far West NSW ........................ 118
Lower Murray
#
........................ 213
Central Qld ............................. 308
Townsville-Mackay .................. 310
62.2%
60.8%
56.6%
52.4%
51.5%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%
Rural 2 52.9%
Far North Qld .......................... 311
Central & NW Qld ................... 309
Kimberley-Pilbara .................... 508
Northern Territory .................... 701
Goldfelds-Midwest ................. 507
55.6%
53.1%
52.9%
52.2%
46.7%
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
101
113
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
SYDNEY
BRISBANE
NEWCASTLE
SUNSHINE
COAST
GOLD
COAST
WOLLONGONG
Fair comparisons
To compare Medicare Locals more fairly, each
Medicare Local catchment has been grouped
into one of seven peer groups
2
, based on
remoteness and socioeconomic status.
This allows:
• Medicare Local catchments to be compared
within the same metropolitan, regional or
rural peer group, and
• Medicare Local catchments to be compared
with the average for their peer group.
It also allows variation to be seen across peer
groups that may be associated with remoteness
and socioeconomic status.
v. Sydney and
surrounding areas
vi. Brisbane and
surrounding areas
Peer groups
Map
Ref.
* In 2007–2011, there were eight Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
women who usually resided in the Australian Capital Territory and
gave birth in New South Wales who were not counted in the result
for the Australian Capital Territory Medicare Local catchment.
# Interpret with caution. Data on smoking during pregnancy are
not available for women who gave birth in Victoria in 2007 or
2008. Therefore, the data presented do not include Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander women who usually resided in
Victoria and gave birth in Victoria in 2007 or 2008.
NP Not available for publication.
33
Use of health services
Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012 34
111
113
114
115
116
117
118
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
306
307
308
309
310
311
404
405
506
507
508
601
701
501
502
503
504
505
506
401
402
403
404
405
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
214
215
216
217
117
801
CANBERRA
ROCKINGHAM
MELBOURNE
GEELONG
PERTH
ADELAIDE
i.
vi.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
Results for Medicare Local catchments
were ranked from highest to lowest and
then split into fve equal-sized groups.
1

The range within each of the
fve groups was as follows:
L
o
w
e
s
t
g
r
o
u
p
H
i
g
h
e
s
t
g
r
o
u
p
Medicare Local
catchment boundary
Numbers on map are
Medicare Local reference codes
506
ii. Adelaide and
surrounding areas
i. Perth and
surrounding areas
iii. Melbourne and
surrounding areas
iv. Canberra and
surrounding areas
1. Each Medicare Local has been assigned to a quintile group.
2. For more information on peer groups and the calculation of peer group results refer to this report’s Technical Supplement.
Notes: Jurisdictional differences in defnitions and methods used for data collection affect the comparability of these data across jurisdictions and lower levels
of geography within jurisdictions. Data exclude women whose gestation at frst antenatal visit was not stated, Australian non-residents, residents of
external territories and women who could not be allocated to a Medicare Local catchment because their Statistical Local Area of usual residence was
not stated or was not valid.
Source: Customised data report prepared for the National Health Performance Authority from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare National Perinatal
Data Collection 2010–2011.
Data can be downloaded from www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
Years of data: 2010–2011
Antenatal visits in the frst trimester, all women
During 2010–2011, the percentage of women who gave birth and had at least one antenatal visit in the
frst trimester varied across Medicare Local catchments and across peer groups, ranging from 87.7% in
Western Sydney to 36.6% in Grampians (Vic).
Percentage of women who gave birth and
had at least one antenatal visit in the frst
trimester, 2010–2011
77.2 – 87.7%
70.6 – 77.1%
62.4 – 70.5%
54.1 – 62.3%
36.6 – 54.0%
National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
National overviews
Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012 35
Use of health services
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Metro 1 72.2%
Sydney Nth Shore & Beaches . 108
Northern Sydney ..................... 107
Eastern Sydney....................... 101
Inner East Melbourne .............. 206
Bayside .................................. 202
Inner West Sydney .................. 102
Inner NW Melbourne ............... 201
Australian Capital Territory*
#
.... 801
85.5%
85.1%
81.2%
72.7%
72.7%
70.5%
64.1%
45.2%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Metro 2 63.5%
Central Adelaide & Hills ........... 402
Metro North Brisbane .............. 301
Sthn Adelaide-Fleurieu-Kang. Is. 403
Eastern Melbourne .................. 207
South Eastern Sydney ............ 103
Bentley-Armadale
#
.................. 504
South Western Melbourne ...... 203
Gold Coast ............................. 303
Greater Metro South Brisbane . 302
Perth North Metro
#
.................. 502
Fremantle
#
.............................. 503
Perth Central & East Metro
#
..... 501
84.7%
75.6%
72.5%
69.3%
67.1%
58.5%
58.3%
57.8%
56.3%
53.9%
50.4%
50.1%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Metro 3 67.2%
Western Sydney...................... 105
Northern Adelaide ................... 401
West Moreton-Oxley ............... 305
Northern Melbourne ................ 205
South Western Sydney ........... 104
South Eastern Melbourne........ 208
Macedon Ranges & NW Melb . 204
87.7%
82.3%
74.2%
63.1%
55.0%
54.0%
49.8%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Regional 1 72.5%
Nepean-Blue Mountains .......... 106
Central Coast NSW ................. 109
Hunter .................................... 111
Illawarra-Shoalhaven ............... 110
Perth South Coastal
#
............... 505
Sunshine Coast ...................... 304
Barwon ................................... 210
Frankston-Mornington Peninsula . 209
85.5%
83.0%
77.1%
75.4%
72.0%
67.8%
63.7%
41.7%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Regional 2 65.9%
Western NSW ......................... 115
New England .......................... 114
Murrumbidgee ........................ 116
North Coast NSW ................... 113
Country South SA ................... 404
Great South Coast .................. 212
Southern NSW ........................ 117
South West WA
#
..................... 506
Tasmania ................................ 601
Darling Downs-SW Qld ........... 306
Gippsland ............................... 217
Hume ..................................... 216
Loddon-Mallee-Murray ............ 214
Goulburn Valley ....................... 215
Wide Bay ................................ 307
Grampians .............................. 211
82.7%
81.2%
79.9%
79.7%
74.9%
68.5%
68.5%
67.3%
67.1%
62.3%
61.2%
59.5%
55.5%
41.3%
40.9%
36.6%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Rural 1 65.2%
Country North SA ................... 405
Far West NSW ........................ 118
Lower Murray ......................... 213
Townsville-Mackay .................. 310
Central Qld ............................. 308
75.2%
72.1%
67.9%
63.9%
58.8%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Rural 2 59.3%
Northern Territory .................... 701
Goldfelds-Midwest
#
................ 507
Central & NW Qld ................... 309
Far North Qld .......................... 311
Kimberley-Pilbara
#
................... 508
71.2%
55.9%
55.2%
53.5%
45.2%
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
101
113
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
SYDNEY
BRISBANE
NEWCASTLE
SUNSHINE
COAST
GOLD
COAST
WOLLONGONG
Fair comparisons
To compare Medicare Locals more fairly, each
Medicare Local catchment has been grouped
into one of seven peer groups
2
, based on
remoteness and socioeconomic status.
This allows:
• Medicare Local catchments to be compared
within the same metropolitan, regional or
rural peer group, and
• Medicare Local catchments to be compared
with the average for their peer group.
It also allows variation to be seen across peer
groups that may be associated with remoteness
and socioeconomic status.
v. Sydney and
surrounding areas
vi. Brisbane and
surrounding areas
Peer groups
Map
Ref.
* In 2010–2011, there were 142 women who usually resided in
the Australian Capital Territory and gave birth in New South
Wales who were not counted in the result for the Australian
Capital Territory Medicare Local catchment.
# Interpret with caution. In WA and ACT, frst antenatal visits that
occur outside of the hospital may not be included.
More information can be found at www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
and in this report’s Technical Supplement.
National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012 36
111
113
114
115
116
117
118
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
306
307
308
309
310
311
404
405
506
507
508
601
701
501
502
503
504
505
506
401
402
403
404
405
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
214
215
216
217
117
801
CANBERRA
ROCKINGHAM
MELBOURNE
GEELONG
PERTH
i.
vi.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
ADELAIDE
Results for Medicare Local
catchments were ranked from
highest to lowest and then split
into fve equal-sized groups.
1

The range within each of the
fve groups was as follows:
L
o
w
e
s
t
g
r
o
u
p
H
i
g
h
e
s
t
g
r
o
u
p
Medicare Local
catchment boundary
Numbers on map are
Medicare Local reference codes
405
ii. Adelaide and
surrounding areas
i. Perth and
surrounding areas
iii. Melbourne and
surrounding areas
iv. Canberra and
surrounding areas
Years of data: 2010–2011
Antenatal visits in the frst trimester,
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women
During 2010–2011, the percentage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who gave birth and
had at least one antenatal visit in the frst trimester varied across Medicare Local catchments and across
peer groups, ranging from 80.5% in Nepean-Blue Mountains (NSW) to 21.8% in Grampians (Vic).
Percentage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander women who gave birth and had
at least one antenatal visit in the frst
trimester, 2010–2011
1. Each Medicare Local has been assigned to a quintile group.
2. For more information on peer groups and the calculation of peer group results refer to this report’s Technical Supplement.
Notes: Jurisdictional differences in defnitions and methods used for data collection affect the comparability of these data across jurisdictions and lower levels
of geography within jurisdictions. Data exclude women whose gestation at frst antenatal visit was not stated, Australian non-residents, residents of
external territories and women who could not be allocated to a Medicare Local catchment because their Statistical Local Area of usual residence was
not stated or was not valid.
Source: Customised data report prepared for the National Health Performance Authority from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare National Perinatal
Data Collection 2010–2011.
Data can be downloaded from www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
64.6 – 80.5%
55.1 – 64.5%
45.6 – 55.0%
38.0 – 45.5%
19.0 – 37.9%
Not available
for publication
National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
National overviews
Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012 37
Use of health services
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Metro 1 56.3%
Inner West Sydney .................. 102
Australian Capital Territory*
#
.... 801
Eastern Sydney....................... 101
Northern Sydney ..................... 107
Sydney Nth Shore & Beaches . 108
Inner NW Melbourne ............... 201
Bayside .................................. 202
Inner East Melbourne .............. 206
50.9%
50.8%
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Metro 2 32.2%
Central Adelaide & Hills ........... 402
Sthn Adelaide-Fleurieu-Kang. Is. 403
Metro North Brisbane .............. 301
Gold Coast ............................. 303
Greater Metro South Brisbane . 302
Bentley-Armadale
#
.................. 504
Perth North Metro
#
.................. 502
Perth Central & East Metro
#
..... 501
South Eastern Sydney ............ 103
South Western Melbourne ...... 203
Eastern Melbourne .................. 207
Fremantle ............................... 503
51.9%
48.8%
45.5%
38.1%
27.6%
21.6%
19.9%
19.0%
NP
NP
NP
NP
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Metro 3 58.1%
Western Sydney...................... 105
West Moreton-Oxley ............... 305
Northern Adelaide ................... 401
South Western Sydney ........... 104
Northern Melbourne ................ 205
Macedon Ranges & NW Melb . 204
South Eastern Melbourne........ 208
74.7%
60.8%
57.1%
55.3%
44.8%
37.9%
NP
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Regional 1 65.9%
Nepean-Blue Mountains .......... 106
Central Coast NSW ................. 109
Illawarra-Shoalhaven ............... 110
Perth South Coastal
#
............... 505
Hunter .................................... 111
Sunshine Coast ...................... 304
Frankston-Mornington Peninsula 209
Barwon ................................... 210
80.5%
73.5%
69.9%
65.3%
64.2%
52.9%
NP
NP
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Regional 2 58.1%
North Coast NSW ................... 113
Murrumbidgee ........................ 116
Western NSW ......................... 115
New England .......................... 114
Tasmania ................................ 601
Southern NSW ........................ 117
Country South SA ................... 404
Hume ..................................... 216
Gippsland ............................... 217
Darling Downs-SW Qld ........... 306
South West WA
#
..................... 506
Loddon-Mallee-Murray ............ 214
Goulburn Valley ....................... 215
Wide Bay ................................ 307
Grampians .............................. 211
Great South Coast .................. 212
70.0%
68.1%
67.9%
66.6%
64.5%
60.6%
57.1%
57.1%
48.1%
46.8%
44.4%
41.2%
36.2%
28.6%
21.8%
NP
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Rural 1 47.2%
Far West NSW ........................ 118
Lower Murray ......................... 213
Country North SA ................... 405
Townsville-Mackay .................. 310
Central Qld ............................. 308
60.8%
56.8%
55.0%
42.5%
38.7%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Rural 2 44.0%
Northern Territory .................... 701
Far North Qld .......................... 311
Kimberley-Pilbara
#
................... 508
Central & NW Qld ................... 309
Goldfelds-Midwest
#
................ 507
49.8%
41.6%
38.7%
38.5%
32.8%
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
101
113
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
SYDNEY
BRISBANE
NEWCASTLE
SUNSHINE
COAST
GOLD
COAST
WOLLONGONG
Fair comparisons
To compare Medicare Locals more fairly, each
Medicare Local catchment has been grouped
into one of seven peer groups
2
, based on
remoteness and socioeconomic status.
This allows:
• Medicare Local catchments to be compared
within the same metropolitan, regional or
rural peer group, and
• Medicare Local catchments to be compared
with the average for their peer group.
It also allows variation to be seen across peer
groups that may be associated with remoteness
and socioeconomic status.
v. Sydney and
surrounding areas
vi. Brisbane and
surrounding areas
Peer groups
Map
Ref.
* In 2010–2011, there were seven Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
women who usually resided in the Australian Capital Territory and
gave birth in New South Wales who were not counted in the result
for the Australian Capital Territory Medicare Local catchment.
# Interpret with caution. In WA and ACT, frst antenatal visits that
occur outside of the hospital may not be included.
NP Not available for publication.
More information can be found at www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au
and in this report’s Technical Supplement.
38 National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
Glossary
Antenatal Pertaining to, or occurring in, the period covering conception up to the time
of birth. Also known as prenatal.
Antenatal visit An appointment with a health care professional for pregnancy-related care
and advice after a pregnancy has been confrmed. An antenatal visit can be
recorded by a variety of health professionals, such as a general practitioner,
midwife or a doctor who specialises in pregnancy and birth (obstetrician).
Visits at different stages of pregnancy can involve specifc tests and health
checks to assess and improve maternal and fetal wellbeing throughout
pregnancy and prior to labour. Also referred to as antenatal care.
Birth For the purposes of this report a birth is counted when a fetus of at least
20 weeks’ gestation or weighing 400 grams or more is born. The fetus can
be liveborn or stillborn.
Birthweight The frst weight of a baby measured after birth (usually rounded to the
nearest 5 grams and recorded within 1 hour of birth).
Death The defnition in this report excludes all deaths prior to birth. For the
purposes of the ABS Death Registration collection, a death refers to any
death which occurs in or on the way to Australia and is registered with a
state or territory Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages.
Gestation The process or period of carrying a baby in the womb from conception
to delivery.
Infant A child who is aged less than 1 year.
Live birth A live birth is the birth of a child who, after delivery, breathes or shows any
other evidence of life such as a heartbeat.
Low birthweight Weight of a baby at birth that is less than 2,500 grams.
Medicare Local Medicare Locals plan and fund health services in communities across Australia.
They help to ensure patients can access the care they need, particularly when a
variety of health workers are involved in providing treatments.
Medicare Local
catchment
A Medicare Local catchment is a population that lives in a specifc
geographical area covered by a particular Medicare Local. See
Medicare Local.
39 National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
Mortality rate For the purposes of this report, the number of deaths in a specifed period
per 1,000 live births in the same period.
Multiple birth A pregnancy with multiple fetuses that remain in the womb until 20 weeks’
gestation and are subsequently delivered.
NP – Not available for
publication
This applies when data are not able to be published for reasons related to
reliability, validity and/or confdentiality. Methods used to determine whether
a statistic is published are included in each report’s technical supplement or
technical note.
Peer group For some reports the Performance Authority groups Medicare Locals into
peer groups based on factors such as remoteness, socioeconomic status
and distance to hospitals. This allows Medicare Locals to be compared to
other Medicare Locals with similar characteristics, and to the average for
their peer group. See Healthy Communities: Australians’ experiences with
primary health care in 2010–11, Technical Supplement for more information.
Perinatal Pertaining to, or occurring in, the period shortly before or after birth (usually
up to 28 days after).
Quintile Five equal parts of a distribution. For example, if 100 patients were ranked
according to the number of times they visit a doctor, the top quintile will
refer to the 20 patients with the most visits, and the bottom quintile to the
20 patients with the fewest visits.
Singleton birth A pregnancy with a single fetus that remains in the womb until 20 weeks’
gestation and is subsequently delivered.
Trimester A period of about 3 months. Pregnancy is divided into three trimesters: frst
trimester (conception to 13 weeks), second trimester (13 to 26 weeks), third
trimester (26 to 40 weeks).
Young child For the purposes of this report a young child is aged between 1 year and
less than 5 years.
40 National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
References
1. Organisation for Economic Co-operation Development (OECD) Indicators [Internet]. OECDiLibrary.
2014 Jun [cited 2014 Jul 10]. Available from: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/social-issues-migration-
health/infant-mortality_20758480-table9
2. World Health Organization (WHO). Chapter 1.6. Provision of effective antenatal care in standards
for maternal and neonatal care [Internet]. Geneva. [cited 2014 Jun 26]. Available from: http://www.
who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/maternal_perinatal_health/effective_antenatal_care.pdf
3. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Headline Indicators for children’s health, development
and wellbeing 2011 [Internet]. Cat. no. PHE 144. Canberra: AIHW. 2011 [cited 2014 Jun 26].
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4. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Deaths, Australia, 2012 [Internet]. 2013 Nov 11 [cited 2014
May 26]; ABS cat. no. 3302.0. Available from: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/
Lookup/3302.0Explanatory%20Notes12012?OpenDocument
5. Li Z, Zeki R, Hilder L & Sullivan EA. Australia’s mothers and babies 2011. National Perinatal
Epidemiology and Statistics Unit. Perinatal statistics series no. 28. Cat. no. PER 59. Canberra:
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6. Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Council 2012, Clinical Practice Guidelines: Antenatal Care –
Module 1 [Internet]. Canberra: Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Updated
2014 Jan [cited 2014 Jun 26]. Available from: http://www.health.gov.au/antenatal
7. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Timing impact assessment of COAG Closing the Gap
targets: Child mortality. Cat. no. IHW 124. Canberra: AIHW; 2014.
8. Australian Government. Closing the Gap Prime Minister’s Report 2014 [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2014
Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.dpmc.gov.au/publications/docs/closing_the_gap_2014.pdf
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Performance Framework 2012 Report. Canberra: AHMAC; 2012.
41 National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
Acknowledgements
This report has benefted from advice from a
number of individuals and organisations with
interest and expertise in child and maternal health.
The National Health Performance Authority
established a report advisory committee to provide
advice around various aspects of this work. The
group did not have a direct role in writing the
report. The committee was comprised of:
• Dr Jason Agostino
- Data Clinician, National Aboriginal Community
Controlled Health Organisation (NACCHO)
• Ms Sue Cornes
- Executive Director, Health Statistics Branch,
Health Commissioining Queensland,
Department of Health, Queensland Government
• Ms Jan Donovan
- Consumer representative nominated to bring
a consumer perspective by the Consumers
Health Forum of Australia
• Associate Professor Lynn Kemp
- Director, Centre for Health Equity Training
Research & Evaluation (CHETRE), part of
the University of New South Wales (UNSW)
Centre for Primary Health Care & Equity
• Professor Elizabeth Sullivan
- Associate Dean (Research), Professor
Public Health, Faculty of Health, University
of Technology Sydney.
The Authority also received advice from Dr Fadwa
Al-Yaman and Mr Conan Liu from the Australian
Institute of Health and Welfare’s Indigenous and
Children’s group.
This report relies on data provided by the
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and
the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
(AIHW). These data were used to calculate
the performance measures in this report. The
Authority does a number of checks to ensure data
quality, and also relies on the data quality work of
the ABS and AIHW.
Thanks are extended to all those who contributed.
42 National Health Performance Authority www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au Healthy Communities: Child and maternal health in 2009–2012
About the Authority
The National Health Performance Authority has
been set up as an independent agency under the
National Health Reform Act 2011. It commenced
full operations in 2012.
Under the terms of the Act, the Authority monitors
and reports on the performance of Local Hospital
Networks, public and private hospitals, primary
health care organisations and other bodies that
provide health care services.
The Authority’s reports give all Australians access
to timely and impartial information that allows
them to compare fairly their local health care
organisations against other similar organisations
and against national standards.
The reports let people see, often for the frst
time, how their local health care organisations
measure up against comparable organisations
across Australia.
The Authority’s activities are also guided by
a document known as the Performance and
Accountability Framework agreed by the Council of
Australian Governments. The framework contains
a set of indicators that form the basis for the
Authority’s performance reports.
The Authority’s role will include reporting on
the performance of health care organisations
against these indicators in order to identify
both high-performing Local Hospital Networks,
Medicare Locals and hospitals (so effective
practices can be shared), and Local Hospital
Networks and Medicare Local catchments that
perform poorly (so that steps can be taken to
address problems).
The Authority releases reports on a quarterly
basis, and also publishes performance data on
the MyHospitals website (www.myhospitals.
gov.au), the MyHealthyCommunities website
(www.myhealthycommunities.gov.au) and on
www.nhpa.gov.au
The Authority consists of a Chairman, a Deputy
Chairman and fve other members, appointed for
up to fve years. Members of the Authority are:
• Ms Patricia Faulkner AO (Chairman)
• Mr John Walsh AM (Deputy Chairman)
• Dr David Filby PSM
• Professor Michael Reid
• Professor Bryant Stokes AM RFD (on leave)
• Professor Paul Torzillo AM
• Professor Claire Jackson.
The conclusions in this report are those of the
Authority. No offcial endorsement from any
Minister, department of health or health care
organisation is intended or should be inferred.
National Health Performance Authority
MDP 158, GPO Box 9848
Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia
Telephone: +61 2 9186 9210
www.nhpa.gov.au

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