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Community Diagnosis

Published on May 2016 | Categories: Documents | Downloads: 61 | Comments: 0

A group project in CHN



Universidad de Manila
(Formerly City College of Manila)
Palma St. Arroceros St. Mehan garden, Manila

Community Diagnosis of City Manila
Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI
Pandacan, Manila

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement in
Nursing Care Management (NCM 102)

A Community Study Presented to the faculty
Of the Universidad De Manila,
Department of Nursing

Presented by:
Level II Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Batch 2016

Group Members
Antalan, Chamie B. Horwitz, Kimberly F.
Aragon, Nichole B. Ramos, Joenessa Mae G.
Bautista, Karmella B. Rodriguez, Colleen I.
De Guzman, Valentino D. Saballa, Devy C.
Domingo, Alexandria S. Sapiandante, Sherina Brenda R.
Hilario, Sharmaine S. Tuazon, Jennah Ricci J.


We deeply acknowledge the help of the barangay Captain of Obesis, Pandacan , District
VI, Manila, Hon. Eddie S. Tojon and the Brgy. Council for their support and cooperation for this
survey as part of the partial requirement in.
Our Clinical Professor and also the secretary of our College, Mrs. Evelyn F. Tadena that
gave us guidance throughout the community activities;
The families interviewed for not hesitating to cooperate with us; our parents, for their
encouragement and their never-ending willingness to give in times of need, be it financial or
To Almighty God for the gift of perseverance and knowledge, with Him, EVERYTHING
IS POSSIBLE. To all those who contributed for the completion of this project, your help are
deeply acknowledged.

A community is a cluster of people with at least one common characteristic (geographic
location, occupation, ethnicity, housing condition, etc.). A group of people with a common
characteristic or interest living together within a larger society comprises a community.
Community diagnosis is a comprehensive assessment of health status of the community
in relation to its social, physical and biological environment. The purpose of community
diagnosis is to define existing problems, determine available resources and set priorities for
planning, implementing and evaluating health action, by and for the community.
Nursing is a profession that serves needs a society in the area of health. According to
Nightingale it is the act of utilizing the environment if the patient to assist in his recovery.
Nursing is a line work requiring academic and practical preparation. Virginia Henderson state
that nursing is to assist individual sick or well in the performance of those activities contributing
to health or its recovery that he would perform undecided if he had the necessary strength, will or
knowledge and to do his such a way to nap him again independent as rapidly as possible.
Community Diagnosis is done using a tool called "Health Indicators" which are the
variables used for the assessment of community health. Indicators must be valid, reliable,
sensitive, specific, feasible and relevant.
We group 4 of Universidad de Manila College of Nursing immersed at barangay 844,
Obesis compound, Pandacan, District VI of Manila for two (2) days, collected and documented
the data and information gathered.


Community organizing is a process by which
communities and organizations work together to identify common problems and
objectives, acquire and mobilize resources, and create and implement actions to
achieve their goals. In these studies, students will learn the bases of facilitating
community organizing processes in health promotion and education contexts. These
include research and evaluation of community organizing processes.


A community diagnosis was assigned as a partial fulfillment of the
requirements in Community Health Management (NCM102). As a part of the said
activity, students were assigned to different areas in Pandacan, Manila.

Consisting of 12 members, group 4 was assigned in Barangay 844, Zone 92, Distrcict VI,
Pandacan, Manila. The group used the survey and interview method in conducting this
community diagnosis. Each member should survey and interview 10 families but since there is
not enough time to conduct an interview, the members only interviewed 5-8 families. The total
number of families interviewed by the group is 74 and consisting of 417 individuals. From the
gathered data, the members made a tabular form and graphical form of the frequency and
percentage of each question in the survey tool.


In terms of population, the collection of data is limited to 74 families consisting of 417
which are roughly only 12 % of the total population of Obesis which is 3,487 as of 2010. In this
case, the reliability of the information gathered was not complacent enough in reference to the
totality of the community population.

The prioritization of the problems observed and stated by the researchers focused more
on the data gathered from the families interviewed residing in Barangay 844, Zone 92, District
VI of Pandacan, Manila. This content of data gathered from the random sample may not be
reliable enough to represent the whole community of Obesis considering the fact that Barangay
844 may be different to all of the others in terms of population density and socio-economic and
health status. However, the study may post significance in the sense that it may be useful in
determining the problems of Barangay 844 per se.

The family structure, socio-economic status, home and environment, knowledge of the
concept of health care and health problems were obtained only from the statement of the 74
families’ representatives.


Community diagnosis is the process of assessing and defining the needs, opportunities
and resources involved in initiating community health action programs.

This study intends to improve the capability of the group in giving out comprehensive
health care services.

Studies have underscored some key elements of the community which may be activated
to bring social and behavioral changes. This process of change aims to build the capability of
people to act on themselves for future community problems regarding both health and socio-
cultural and environmental factors.

TABLE 1. Percentage distribution of the age and gender of the families surveyed in Barangay
844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.
<1 1 0.46 2 0.98
1-4 years old 14 6.54 16 7.88
5-9 years old 19 8.87 18 8.86
10-14 years old 21 9.81 19 9.35
15-19 years old 28 13.08 24 11.82
20-24 years old 22 10.28 25 12.31
25-29 years old 16 7.47 18 8.86
30-34 years old 14 6.54 16 7.88
35-39 years old 16 7.47 9 4.43
40-4 4 years old 15 7.00 10 4.92
45-49 years old 10 4.67 12 5.91
50-54 years old 12 5.60 11 5.41
55-59 years old 12 5.60 10 4.92
60> 14 6.54 13 6.40
TOTAL: 214 99.9 203 99.9


1 to 4
5 to 9
10 to 14
15 to 19
20 to 24
25 to 29
30 to 34
35 to 39
40 to 44
45 to 49
50 to 54
55 to 59

FIGURE 1. This shows the age and sex distribution of male and female at range of <1 to 60> in
the population of this study.
According to the surveyed 214 girls and 201 boys, there are a total of 417 persons
included in Barangay 844, Zone 92, Pandacan, Manila, that belongs to this study. The main
results are drawn above (Table 1). This is to know the main average of the independent variables
of the study.
Since the total respondents are 74 families, the researchers mainly used raw frequency to
describe the biographic section of the table. Frequency distribution table help the researchers to
be able to see the spread of the said average or to describe the table. In other words, the
researchers become familiar with the demographic variable through the use of frequency
distribution tables.
Age rates and sex rates determine the growth or decline of population in Obesis. In social
and demographic studies attention to the age and sex of the population in absolutely essential in
order that comparisons may be valid that apparent differences may be understood.

TABLE 2. Percentage distribution of the highest academic qualification among the 417
respondents of the families surveyed in Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in
September 2013.
12.31 8.86
1 to 4
5 to 9
10 to 14
15 to 19
20 to 24
25 to 29
30 to 34
35 to 39
40 to 44
45 to 49
50 to 54
55 to 59
Not Studying 33 7.91 %
No formal Education - -
Student 124 29.74 %
Vocational 11 2.64 %
Elementary Graduate 14 3.36 %
Elementary Under Graduate 4 0.96 %
High-School Graduate 21 5.03 %
High-School Under Graduate 100 23.98 %
College Graduate 60 14.38 %
College Under Graduate 50 11.99 %
TOTAL: 417 100 %

FIGURE 2. This shows the educational attainment distribution of not studying to college
graduate in the population of this study.

According to the survey, only 33 persons are not studying because they are below 4 years
old. In such away all 283 persons have educational attainment.
Not Studying
No Formal Education
Elem. Graduate
Elem. Undergraduate
High School Graduate
High School Undergraduate
College Graduate
College Undergraduate
Education is also aimed at developing new social patterns that will bring about different
specialties in life. Non-formal education consists of sets of definite learning goals and objectives,
generally making use of a more flexible curriculum, less rigid admission procedures and more
participating teaching methods. Formal education on the other hand, is synonymous with school
it sets, definite and objectives and goals reached through systematized, formal instruction and
methods. The researchers aim to know why some of the respondents don’t have formal

TABLE 3. Percentage distribution of the civil status of the families surveyed in Barangay 844,
Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.
Single 304 72.90 %
Married 81 19.42 %
Live-in 20 4.80 %
Separated 3 0.72 %
Widow 9 2.16 %
TOTAL: 417 100 %

FIGURE 3. Shows the civil status of the people surveyed in Barangay. 844 Obesis St., Zone 92,
Pandacan, Manila.

0.85 2.55
The table is about the civil status of the individual resides in Barangay. 844 Obesis St.,
Zone 92, Pandacan, Manila. The data shows the majority of the residents are single. Followed by
married then live in partners, separated and widow are almost in the same status.
The table indicates that many people are not yet engaged but more on pre-marital
relationship. Single have the highest percentage with 67.89% and prefer not to be in a
relationship because their priority is their studies that they dedicate for their family and others’
priority is their work for them to eat every day.

TABLE 4. Percentage distribution of the head of the family of the families surveyed in Barangay
844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.
Father 36 48.65 %
Mother 21 28.38 %
Grand Father 5 6.76 %
Grand Mother 4 5.40 %
Sister 4 5.40 %
Brother 4 5.40 %
Total 74 99.9 %

According to the surveyed families, most head of the family is the father, followed by the
mother. In a family the father has to be the head of the family, because in simple terms we can
say that since the days of evolution, men used to go out of the house in search of livelihood and
women cares for their caves, now home, and their family. In this modern days also, though many
changes has taken place, but some traditional regulations are still there. There are so many clans,
communities and societies in the world which are categorized as matriarchal family system. In
matriarchal family system mothers are used to be the head of the family. In many cultures,
especially in a traditional western one, a mother is usually the wife in a married couple. Her role
in the family is celebrated on Mother's Day. Mothers frequently have a very important role in
raising offspring and the title can be given to a non-biological mother that fills this role. This is
common in stepmothers (female married to biological father). In most family structures the
mother is both a biological parent and a primary caregiver. In East Asian and Western traditional
families, fathers were the heads of the families, which meant that his duties included providing
financial support and making critical decisions, some of which must have been obeyed without
question by the rest of the family members. "Some Asian American men are brought up under
stringent gender role expectations such as a focus on group harmony and filial piety, carrying on
their family name and conforming to the expectations of the parents. Grandparents are an
important resource for both parents and children. They routinely provide child care, financial
assistance and emotional support. Occasionally they are called upon to provide much more
including temporary or full time care and responsibility for their grandchildren. Grandparent
headed households have a significantly higher poverty rate than other kinds of family units.

Many grandparents in this care taking role underestimate or are unaware of the added
burdens their new role as "parents" will place upon them. Grandparents often assume their role
will be to nurture and reward children without having to set limits. When grandparents serve as
primary caregivers, however, they must learn to set limits and establish controls as they did with
their own children.

Many children living with grandparents arrive with preexisting problems or risk factors
including abuse, neglect, prenatal exposure to drugs and alcohol, or loss of parents (due to death,
abandonment or incarceration). This situation can create risks for both children and grandparents.
Caring for your grandchild can also be very positive and rewarding. Grandparents bring the
benefit of experience and perspective. They can also provide important stability and
predictability for their grandchildren.


TABLE 5. Percentage distribution of the religion of the families surveyed in Barangay 844,
Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.
Religion Frequency Percentage
Roman Catholic 343 82.01 %
Born Again 55 13.18 %
Iglesia ni Cristo 20 4.79 %
Total 417 99.9 %

FIGURE 4. Graphical presentation showing the religion of the people surveyed in Barangay 844
Zone 92 district 6 Pandacan.

According to surveyed families in Pandacan, It clearly shows the religion of the family
residing in Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI, the majority of the residents per family are
Roman Catholic with a percentage of 82.01 followed by Born Again with a percentage of 13.18
then Iglesia ni Cristo. The Philippines proudly boasts to be the only Christian nation in Asia.
More than 86 percent of the population is Roman Catholic, 6 percent belong to various
nationalized Christian cults, and another 2 percent belong to well over 100 Protestant
denominations. In addition to the Christian majority, there is a vigorous 4 percent Muslim
minority, concentrated on the southern islands of Mindanao, Sulu, and Palawan. Scattered in
isolated mountainous regions, the remaining 2 percent follow non-Western, indigenous beliefs
and practices. The Chinese minority, although statistically insignificant, has been culturally
influential in coloring Filipino Catholicism with many of the beliefs and practices of Buddhism,
Taoism, and Confucianism.
Born Again evangelists employ the basic principles of human psychology in order to lure
people into their fold. Their method is both manipulation and deception, let me explain why.
There are two principles that worked behind their method, emotion and common ground (music).
Born Again evangelist realized that music is a common ground among youths, so they utilized
music to attract young adults into their churches. If you attend the service of one of these Born
Again Churches you can see that their music ministry is like a rock and roll band, they
Roman Catholic
Born Again
Iglesia ni Cristo
intentionally composed alternative type gospel songs in order to add attraction to their service. In
this way those people whom they invited will experience a pleasurable feeling and will come
back for more. Aside from music they add into their arsenal the appeal to the emotions of the
people. The sermons of their pastors are directed to stir up the emotions of the listeners and
sometimes they would even come to the point of crying in the pulpit that is the reason why their
pastors must be a good public speaker. Born Again evangelist knew that once they were able to
touch the person’s emotion it will be very easy to manipulate him. Through music they grant
pleasure and through emotional manipulation they control the people, this is a classical example
of psychological conditioning (this is also used to train dogs). Clearly Born Again evangelization
has deception as its chief foundation and they even used selected passages from the Bible to
deceive people.

TABLE 6. Percentage distribution showing the place of origin of families surveyed in Barangay
844, Zone 92, and District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.

Place of Origin Frequency Percentage
Luzon 45 60.81%
Visayas 29 39.18%
Mindanao - -
Total 74 99.9%


According to the survey there are 74 families in the community. 60% of the family are
originally from Luzon provinces and decided to migrate here in Manila. Probably because they
think that City of Manila can give them a lot of opportunities such as a better job. The survey
also shown that many of them are students from rural areas transferred here in Manila due to
they think that Universities here is much better and famous international schools are in the
Philippines to cater to the flourishing number of international students. Philippines has always
been recognized as a country which speaks fluent English as its second language. English is
known to be the basic mode of instruction in the Philippine education system. This is one core
reason for foreigners to send their kids or themselves to study here and develop their English

Philippines have a long queue of qualified teachers to teach English as a basic foundation.
Our Filipino teachers are graduates from top universities and have vast experiences in the field of
teaching English as a Second language. Learning English for students is even easier because
Filipino teachers know how hard it is to study a second language.

The country also offers cheap labor cost which makes it all the more enticing. Cheap but
quality English tutoring is just the right combination in achieving the goal for a better and
brighter future.

In this new era, foreign language learners go to the Philippines to study and trustingly allow
Filipino teachers to help them build their Basic English education foundation. It is also of great
pride for the country to have top caliber universities, which are world renowned and which are
almost free and accessible to local and foreign students alike. The Philippine top universities are
all accredited by universities in different countries such as the United States of America, The
United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada.

The benefits of living in the Philippines can vary by the individual. I think that one the word
that applies to most is ―opportunities.‖ Your opportunities in business can also be increased. The
wages you will pay will be significantly lower. Also, the government offers generous tax
incentives. There is more risk associated with business here though. There are a lot of regulations
regarding foreigners doing business in the Philippines. The investment required for foreign
corporations is substantial. However you can lower those requirements by sharing control of
your business with Filipinos. These are a few of the benefits of living in the Philippines. Many of
the other benefits revolve around the benefits mentioned in this article.
http://mlpcenter.com/junior-training/the-advantages-of-studying-in-the Philippines-early


Dependency Ratio

No. of population 0-14 to 65 years old
---------------------------------------------------- 100 Dependency Ratio
No. of population 15-64 years old

Dependency Ratio = 50 %
Dependency Ratio of the families surveyed in Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI in
September 2013.


A measure of portion of population which is composed of dependent people who are too
young or too old to work the dependency ratio equal to the number of individuals below 15 or 64
divided by the number of individuals aged 15 to 64 expressed as percentage. Dependency ratio is
a concern in many barangays, cities and countries facing an aging population, since it becomes
difficult for pensions and Social Security System to provide for a significantly older non-
working population.

According to survey, out 74 families with 417 population, dependency ratio is half of the
population is relying one someone else. Data are shown as the proportion of dependents per one
hundred working age population, and the survey says that 139 is the number of people aged 0 to
14 added to the number of the people who is range 15 to 64 years old. And the result was half or
50 of the total population.

TABLE 1. Percentage distribution showing the average income of every family surveyed in
Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.

1 1.3
1,000 -2,999 6 8.1
3,000-4,999 3 4.05
5,000-6,999 16 21.62
7,000-8,999 4 5.4
9,000-10,999 8 10.8
11,000-12,999 2 2.7
13,000-14,999 6 8.1
28 37.8
TOTAL 74 100


The importance of monthly income analysis, using this statement of analysis to calculate
expenses, earnings financial ratio of the family, to a family that only earn an exact amount of
money for their expenses monthly or daily. They really need to know the percentage of their
income ,and their income that they bring in their home and family. It will help them to control
the expenses to have saving for emergencies unexpected, the monthly income statement is was
just like a report card of earning and expenses of the family example is the list of the price that
they need to pay every month or their daily expenses.

According to the survey in the barangay 844 zone 92 with participation of 74 families
with the population of 417 in the table list, how much those families earn in every month 37.8
of the family sure that they meet their basic needs in their living because of the high profit of
income follow 21.62 families of 74 families participant to the survey they earn 5000 thousand
up, in every month 10.8 earn 9000-10,999 81 can earn 13,000-14,999 8.1 1000-2,999,
5.4 7,000-8,999 4.05 earn 11,000-12,999 and last is 1.3 can earn less than 1000 and this
statement reveals the different types of the families participate in the survey.

TABLE 2. Percentage distribution of the average monthly expenses of families surveyed in
Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013

1 4.1
1,000 -2,999 3 4.0
3,000-4,999 2 2.7
5,000-6,999 9 12.2
7,000-8,999 2 2.7
9,000-10,999 15 20.3
11,000-12,999 6 8.0
13,000-14,999 9 12.2
27 36.5
TOTAL 74 100


According to the data, it shows how the family typically spends money. There are two
types of expenses, the fixed expenses and the flexible expenses. In the data collected, most
respondents say that they prefer fixed expenses because they save only a little in flexible
expenses. Fixed expenses are the expenses that the family must pay regularly as part of their
basic needs and expenses occur every month but the amount varies from month to month.
According to the data gathered, 1 family or 1.35 of the total population only has expenses of
less than 1000 pesos a month.

FIGURE 1. Percentage distribution showing the allotment of family income of families
surveyed in Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.


According to the data gathered, almost half or 45.73 % of the total family income is
allotted for food, 15.83 % or P199,850 out of P1,262,864 are saved for the education, P149,875
or 11.87 % are for health, they save these money for their vitamins and drug maintenance to
those who are sick, P107,650 or 8.52 % is for electricity, though some of them are not paying bill
for the electricity they are using. Their barangay still has this large amount that they saved for
the electricity bill, P97,912 or 7.75 % of the total savings is for the water bill they paid in
Maynilad, which was the only one water source in the barangay, P77,090 or 6. 10 % of the
monthly savings goes to the monthly transportation, not all of them consuming their income for
transportation because some of the place they need to go are just walking distance from their
house. The P41,847 or 3.31 % of the total monthly income in Obesis, is for telephone use and
P5,240 or 0.41 % is for cable and the left percentage which is 4.7 % is for the other things the
respondents allot their income.

FIGURE 2. Graph of source of health information of the families surveyed in Barangay 844,
Zone 92, District VI.

6% 2%


According to the survey listed on the graph of the social variables 33.5 of the total
population rate can access in. can be updated about health by the use of TV. 30.6 population
are using our health center just be updated, 13.9 are using radio to the health update, 9. are
reading news paper and be updated by use of it 6.4 using other reference.

FIGURE 3. Percentage distribution of other sources for health of the families surveyed in
Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013


From the data that gathered, listed there that the funds that they can rely in terms of their
health. More than a half or 58.11 percentage of the overall population had their SSS\GSIS that
they can be use in many health things 37.84.

TABLE 3. Percentage distribution of the modes of transportation of families surveyed in
Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.

Single motor 6 5.94
Jeep 62 61.39
Bus 22 21.78
Others 11 10.89
Total 101 100 %


According to the survey, the people of barangay Obesis have a choice to choose what
kind of vehicle they want to use for transportation when they go to work or in school or other
situation that they need to. Whenever they want to go, but the other choose to because walk the
place they want to go is not too far, and according to the survey, out of 417 population, 101 uses
vehicles and 316 does not use vehicle because their destination can be walking distance or they
are too young nor too old to travel. The graph shows that 5.94 of 417 chose to use a single
motor cycle for their transportation, 61.39 uses jeep, 5.2 use bus, and 2.63 using other
transportation vehicles just like LRTs and MRTs.

Transportation is needed to us to go in the place we want to go easy and comfortable and
important is suitable to the budget and safety, to go in the place on time. Transportation is a
movement of the people, animals and goods from one location to another mode of transportation
include air pipeline and space the field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operation.
Transport is important since it enables trade between people which in turn establishes installation
necessary for transport including road, railways, airways canals and pipelines and terminals
refueling depots (including fueling docks and fuel station) and seaports. Terminals may be used
both for interchange of passenger and cargo and for maintenance vehicles traveling on these
network may include automobiles, bicycles, buses, train, trucks people, helicopters and aircraft
operation deal with the way the vehicles are operated, and the producers set for this purpose
including financing, legalities and policies in the transport industry operation and ownership of
infrastructure can be either private or public on the country and mode of transportation.


TABLE 1. Percentage distribution of the types of housing of the surveyed families in Barangay
844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.

Makeshift - -
Light 7 9.46 %
Strong 48 64.86 %
Mixed 19 25.68 %
Total: 74 100%


According to the survey 65% of the community used strong materials to build their
houses, 9% are light materials and 26% uses both light and strong materials.

A House is the most important thing in our daily life; it's a basic need for people to have a
place to stay. Selecting the material to build your house is one of the most important aspect in
building your home if we don't have any materials we cannot build a house, so that's why we are
choosing the best materials for constructing a home in order for us to have a durable and strong
structure. There are many materials that are needed to build houses materials such as wood,
metal, glass, bricks, concrete, rocks and stones. Many other requirement materials to build a
house but some comes in handy an example for that is fabric,mud,clay,plastic iron and foam. In
the Philippines one of the natural resources there is wood and it used also for construction
purposes especially when cut or pressed into a lumber or timber such as planks, boards and other
materials that is similar for construction. The requirements in building houses here in the
Philippines are mostly a wood. Wood is very flexible especially on under loads, bending and
keeping their strength and is incredibly strong when compressed vertically. Type of structure in
most climates that is a tested material for constructing houses .Even on calamities such as
earthquakes and typhoons wood is very strong and durable it doesn't easily break that is the
advantage when you are using wood for building a house. Cement that is mixed up with
aggregate is a result for a concrete. After you combine the cement and the aggregate it will
hydrates and eventually hardens into a stone-like material. Modern houses used concrete for their
home. But mostly concrete has a rather low strength for constructing houses. Steel rods and rods
are usually the one who strengthens the foundation of the concrete. In calamities, concrete is
more weak to handle especially on earthquakes they are only depending on steel rods or bars in
order to have a strong built. Concrete has been the predominant building material in this modern
age due to its longevity, form-ability, and ease of transport. In conclusion, concrete is
recommendable for constructing a house in the Philippines. More convenient, readily available
and practically less.

Materials have advantage and disadvantage too, such as the glass it is transparent, can be
coated to block specific wavelengths of light or to resist damage but shatters easily when
stressed. Concrete it is extremely strong in compression, can be poured into a form on-site, or
pre-fabricated. Wood it is easy to shape and work with hand tools, can be "bent" to fit but burns
easily, and can be infested by insects.


TABLE 2. Percentage distribution of the types of house ownership of the surveyed families in
Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.
Rent Free 2 2.70 %
Owned 56 75.68 %
Rented 16 21.62 %
Total: 74 100 %

According to the survey 76% owned their houses 21% are renting and 3% of them are
rent free. One of the greatest benefits of owning your own home is the freedom it can give you.
If you live in an apartment, you have to deal with thin walls and noisy neighbors, and the task of
keeping your own household relatively noise free. Your landlord may come and go, and there are
many rules that limit everything from whether you can have pets to the color of your walls.

For many people, the privacy and freedom that come with home ownership are a strong
incentive to purchase, and for good reason. If you own your home, you can do whatever you
want with it. You can hang pictures or paint the walls as you please. You're free to make
permanent renovations, and you don't have to worry as much about disturbing the neighbors
when you do. Your own space to relax, Supporting a family, having a secure base to call home.
Homeownership gives you a sense of independence, privacy and security. The satisfaction of a
place you can call your own truly is priceless. Your own home is a place to raise your family and
be a part of your community. And it can be passed down to provide security for your children
and grandchildren.

On other hand, renting a home can be great in some situations, especially if you need
freedom from home maintenance and ties to property. Although there are benefits to renting,
there are two sides to every story: not surprisingly, there are certain disadvantages associated
with renting a home instead of owning one. Such as, Personal Choices Unlike owning your own
home, renting often means you can't decorate the home exactly as you'd like. Many landlords
prohibit renters from painting walls and even driving nails into walls to hang decor. You don’t
have the freedom to replace worn-out carpeting, choose flooring for your bathroom or even redo
your kitchen cabinets if the desire hits. If you have pets, you may have trouble finding a rental
unit that allows them. And some rentals, even if they do allow pets, require an additional security
deposit to cover the risk of damage from the animals. When you own your own home, every
house payment you make typically builds up a little more equity in your home. It's an
investment, and over time, you own a greater and greater share of your home. When you rent a
home, you get a place to live, but you don't own anything at the end. Your rent simply pays for a
roof over your head. When you own your own home, you have much greater control over your
living environment. If a problem arises, you can fix it as quickly as you like, according to your
own schedule. When you rent, the owner pays for repairs, which means he also controls who
does the repairs and when. You might have to put up with an unlicensed handyman rather than a
contractor, or the landlord might arrange for repairs at an inconvenient time. Some landlords are
slow to make repairs, especially small ones that they don't consider important. For example, you
might have to live with small inconveniences like squeaky doors and leaky faucets unless you fix
them yourself.


TABLE 3. Percentage distribution of the types of house ownership of the surveyed families in
Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.
Adequate 61 82.43 %
Inadequate 13 17.57 %
Total 74 100 %

According to the survey, 82% of the community has adequate ventilation Good-quality
housing is a key element for ensuring a healthy village. Poor housing can lead to many health
problems, and is associated with infectious diseases (such as tuberculosis), stress and
depression. Everyone should therefore have access to good-quality housing and a pleasant
home environment that makes them happy and content. Cramped and crowded conditions give
rise to poor hygiene by providing places for vermin to breed and transmit diseases via fleas,
ticks and other vectors. Poor household hygiene leads to food and water contamination within
the home. Poor indoor air quality leads to respiratory problems and inadequate lighting leads to
eyesight problems. Stress is higher for individuals living in poor housing and poverty.
Adequate home ventilation is particularly important where wood, charcoal and dung are used
for cooking or heating, since these fuels give off smoke that contains harmful chemicals and
particulate matter. This can lead to respiratory problems, such as bronchitis and asthma, and
make tuberculosis transmission easier. Women and small children are particularly at risk from
poor ventilation if they spend long periods within the home or in cooking areas. Where
cooking is done indoors, it is essential that smoke and fumes be removed from the house
quickly and efficiently. Ventilation may be improved by constructing houses with a sufficient
number of windows, particularly in cooking areas.
Inadequate ventilation has following effects on the occupants of the room Lack of oxygen
leads to early fatigue. It reduces alertness and working capacity of a person. The behaviour
changes, person becomes frustrated, rough and loses interest in his work. Inadequate
Ventilation increases the temperature resulting in sweating, heat exhaustion, and faintness.
Foul odour from skin, mouth, stomach and clothes spreads in the environment which produces
uneasiness, sickness etc. Living for a longer duration in inadequately ventilated environment
leads to digestive disorder, loss of appetite, anaemia, metabolic disturbances, Cold, cough,
infectious diseases, influenza, pneumonia etc. are some of the problems of inadequate
ventilation. Some of the gases are injurious to health, which are generally released from
exhaust of vehicles and industries. Inhalation of these gases damages the eyes and trachea. It
also causes respiratory diseases. There are many sources of indoor air pollution in any home.
These include combustion sources such as oil, gas, kerosene, coal, wood, and tobacco
products; building materials and furnishings as diverse as deteriorated, asbestos-containing
insulation, wet or damp carpet, and cabinetry or furniture made of certain pressed wood
products; products for household cleaning and maintenance, personal care, or hobbies; central
heating and cooling systems and humidification devices; and outdoor sources such as radon,
pesticides, and outdoor air pollution.


TABLE 4. Percentage distribution of the water supply of the surveyed families in Barangay 844,
Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.
Point Source - -
Communal Faucet System 1 1.35 %
Maynilad 73 98.65 %
Total 74 100 %


According to the survey, 98.65 % of the community utilizes waterworks system or
Maynilad. Point source refers to a protected well (improved dug or shallow/deep well),
developed spring, or rain water cistern with an outlet, but without a distribution system. Water
can be taken from sources to a reservoir with an outlet. A level I facility normally serves around
15 to 25 households. The example of point source is the deep well system is also a versatile
predenaige de watering system which can pump high and low volumes of ground water. Deep
well systems are suitable for water table or confined aquifers and will lower the water table 100
feet or more in a single lift without staging. While communal faucet system or stand post no one
prefer to use it 99% prefer using water work systems.

Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities, commercial organizations,
community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes. Irrigation is
covered separately.

EMWASS FACT: The Angat Dam provides nearly 97% of Metro Manila’s water supply,
a total 4,000 million liters per day to 15 million people. The main sources of Metro Manila’s
water supply are the Angat, Ipo, and La Mesa Dams. The water from these dams is then
processed by the La Mesa and Balara Treatment Plants, which converts it from a raw state to
clean and potable water. The water from the Angat Dam, the major supply source for the
metropolis, is funneled directly to Ipo Dam. It then flows a distance of 6.4 kilometers to Bicti,
after which it passes through five aqueducts—each about 16 kilometers long—to the La Mesa
Dam and the La Mesa Portal. From the La Mesa Portal, 60% of the flow goes to the nearby La
Mesa Treatment Plant, out of which another 40% again travels a distance of 6.8 kilometers to the
Balara Treatment Plant. The La Mesa Water Treatment Plant, with very minimal
electromechanical equipment, relies mostly on water’s hydraulic properties to backwash its filter
and gravity to convey raw water from the source into the plant and out into the distribution
system. It can only process 2,400 MLD (million liters per day) of raw water, while the Balara
Treatment Plant, which has a full production capacity of 1,600 MLD, can supply more than 6
million people throughout the metropolis. When both Balara and La Mesa Treatment Plants are
operation, the total processing capacity will be 4,000 mld. The La Mesa Water Treatment Plant
serves the western half of Metro Manila, while the existing Balara Water Treatment Plant
supplies the eastern half.

Water supply and sanitation in the Philippines is characterized by achievements and
challenges. Among the achievements are a high access to an improved water source of 92% in
2010; the creation of financially sustainable water service providers ("Water Districts") in small
and medium towns with the continuous long-term support of a national agency (the "Local Water
Utilities Administration" LWUA); and the improvement of access, service quality and efficiency
in Manila through two high-profile water concessions awarded in 1997.

The challenges include limited access to sanitation and in particular to sewers; high
pollution of water resources; often poor drinking water quality and poor service quality; a
fragmentation of executive functions at the national level among numerous agencies; and a
fragmentation of service provision at the local level into many small service providers.

Peri-urban water and Sanitation Services
Policy, planning and Method JSBN 978-90-481-9427-7

TABLE 5. Percentage distribution of the human waste disposal methods of the surveyed families
in Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.
Pit Latrines (Hukay Palikuran) - -
Pour-Flush Toilet 73 98.65 %
Flush Toilet 1 1.35 %
Wrap and Throw - -
Others - -
Total 74 100 %

According to the survey, 99% in the community use pour-flush toilet. A pour flush toilet
is like a regular flush toilet except that instead of the water coming from the cistern above, it is
poured in by the user. When the water supply is not continuous, any cistern flush toilet can
become a pour flush toilet. Because there are no mechanical parts, pour flush toilets are quite
robust and rarely require repair. Despite the fact that water is used continuously in the toilet, it
should be cleaned regularly to prevent the buildup organics and or/stains. To prevent clogging of
the pour flush toilet, it is recommended that dry cleansing materials be collected separately and
not flushed down the toilet. The advantages of pour flush toilet are the water seal effectively
prevents odors; the excreta of one user are flushed away before the next users arrive. Suitable for
all types of users (sitter, squatters, wipers and washers), low capital costs operating costs depend
on the price of water.

A pour–flush latrine is a type of pit latrine where small volumes of water (commonly 1–3
liters) are used to flush feces into the pit. They are most appropriate where people use water to
clean themselves after defecating (e.g. in Muslim cultures) and where people have access to
reliable water supplies close to the home. Solid materials should not be disposed of into pour–
flush latrines, as this could block the pipe and even cause it to break. A pour–flush latrine has a
small collection pan set in a slab. Wastes are disposed of through a section of pipe bent into a U
shape (a U-bend) to maintain a water seal for reducing fly and odor problems. A vent pipe may
also be added to the pit to help with fly and odor problems. The pit of a pour–flush latrine may
be located directly beneath the slab or set to one side, but offset pits may require more water to
prevent blockages.

Safe disposal of excreta, so that it does not contaminate the environment, water, food or
hands, is essential for ensuring a healthy environment and for protecting personal health. This
can be accomplished in many ways, some requiring water, others requiring little or none.
Regardless of method, the safe disposal of human feces is one of the principal ways of breaking
the fecal–oral disease transmission cycle. Sanitation is therefore a critical barrier to disease

Plans for locating sanitation facilities, and for treating and removing waste, must consider
cultural issues, particularly as sanitation is usually focused on the household. Excreta disposal
may be a difficult subject for a community to discuss: it may be taboo, or people may not like to
discuss issues they regard as personal and unclean. In some cases, people may feel that sanitation
facilities are not appropriate for children, or that children’s feces are not harmful. In others,
separate facilities may be required for men and women, and it may be necessary to locate the
facilities so that no one can be seen entering the latrine building. If the disposal facilities smell
and are a breeding ground for flies, people may not use them.

Health improvement comes from the proper use of sanitation facilities, not simply their
physical presence, and they may be abandoned if the level of service does not meet the social and
cultural needs of community members at an affordable cost. Within a community, several
different sanitation options may be required, with varying levels of convenience and cost
(sometimes called a sanitation ladder). The advantage of this approach is that it allows
households to progressively upgrade sanitation facilities over time.

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Volume 158,Issue 1-4, pp 519-533
Author: Ming-Lang Tseng & Yuan Hsu Lin
Author Affiliations: Ming-Dao University, Changhua, Taiwan, Republic of China

TABLE 6. Percentage distribution of the garbage collecting methods of the surveyed families in
Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.
Open Dumping - -
Burning - -
Tossed in the River - -
Collected by Gov’t Truck 74 100 %
Total 74 100 %

According to the survey, all respondents’ garbage is collected by the government truck.

Garbage problem is a major problem in the Philippines due to poor disposal of water
products. The problem can be solved by setting up public disposal to the city and other areas and
educate the people on the benefits of proper waste disposal.

The Philippines is looming with garbage problems despite the passage of the ecological
Solid Waste Management Act or the Republic Act (RA) 9003. 2007 first quarter data from the
National Solid Waste Management Commission shows that there are 677 open dump sites are
subject for closure or rehabilitation plans but without definite schedules for enforcements. About
215 additional landfills are being proposed to be set up Nationwide. About 1,000 open a
controlled dump sites exist in the country.

Burning garbage is much more harmful to your health and the environment than you may
think. Burning garbage materials like paper, cardboard, yard waste, and construction debris
release a hazardous mixture of cancer causing compounds and other toxic substances. It poses
health risks to those exposed directly to the smoke. It especially affects people with sensitive
respiratory system as well as the children and elderly.

Exposure to smoke can cause headaches nausea and rashes. Overtime it can increase the
risk of developing heart disease.
Based on the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) has urged Local
Government Units (LGU’s) in Metro Manila to formulate Solid Waste Management (SWM)
plans to improved waste disposal in the metropolis. The inadequate financial capacity of LGU’s
and the perceived low willingness of LGU continuants to pay for SWM services are main
reasons we scored low in achieving the objectives of the Ecological Solid Waste Management
Act (ESWMA) and Philippine Development Plan (PDP): 2011-2016

This paper presents the differential impacts of flood hazards among street children, the
urban poor and residents of wealthy neighborhoods in Metro Manila, Philippines. It argues that
being poor is not the only reason why certain sectors are more vulnerable to floods or any
environment hazards spatial isolation and lack of participation indecision making intensify their
present and future vulnerability, as well.

Archival research, interviews, focused group discussion, participant observation and
surveys of populations at risk are employed to delineate the flood experiences and coping
strategies of street children and residents of poor urban settlements and wealthy neighborhoods
in Metro Manila at the Household and community levels.

The concept of entitlement, the contextual hazards model, and the Access Model are used
in the data analysis and interpretation. Several policy recommendations on hazard management
and disaster mitigation are identified to reduce flood losses in Metro Manila.

Author: Doracie B. Zoleta-Nantes Author Affiliations: 1. Department of Geography, College of
Social Sciences and Philosophy, University of the Philippines, Philippines


TABLE 1. Percentage distribution showing the considered leader of the families surveyed in
Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.
Chairman 60 56.6 %
Secretary 5 4.7 %
Barangay Officials 17 16 %
Treasurer 6 5.7 %
Elders 9 8.5 %
Religious Group 3 2.8 %
NGO 6 5.7 %
Total 106 100 %


A barangay also known as barrio in its former home is the smallest local government
unit in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for village or district. Municipalities and
cities are composed of barangays. The word "barangay " is sometimes abbreviated as "brgy".
The punong barangay, commonly known as the Barangay Captain, is the highest elected official
in a barangay, the smallest of the elected administrative division of the Philippines. According to
this survey, the punong barangay or the barangay chairman is the overall trusted person in the
barangay 844, he's the executive head of the smallest unit of the government. He is in charge of
the governance, developing, planning, basic services and facilities, compliance to directives,
barangay legislation and fiscal administration. People on barangay 844 are required to respect the
barangay head's decision and rules implemented. On the other hand, a barangay chairman may
have the power to lead one but he power, people can complain to the COMELEC and get him
terminated in due process. Secondly, as for the seven barangay councilors, they all have their
specific tasks that will be assigned by their chairman. They must be on the barangay hall once a
week to accommodate the people coming every now and then in their office. Thirdly, the elders
are the automatically respected and followed by NGO and treasurer. On the other hand, the third,
treasurer is responsible of all of the funds of the barangay. From the budget for properties,
budget for projects, and the budget for the salary of the officials, he must take care of it. Then, is
the barangay secretary liable in all of the barangay's paperworks. He must always take down
notes all of the discussions and plans that has been made in their meeting. She automatically re-
read his/her report on the next barangay meeting. Last trusted person in the barangay 844 was
religious group, namely Iglesia ni Cristo and Born Again.

http//www.cdf.Org.uk/Site/UPLOAD/DOCUMENT/Community development challenge .pdf

TABLE 2. Percentage distribution showing the community programs known in Barangay 844,
Zone 92, District VI, September 2013
Programs for Peace and Order 22 13.3 %
Health Programs 39 23.6 %
Cleanliness Programs 42 25.5 %
Educational Program 28 17 %
Livelihood Program 22 13.3 %
Others (Feeding Program etc.) 12 7.3 %
Total 165 100 %

According to this survey, the respondents are more familliar with the programs for
keeping thie community clean. It shows that they give more value to thei environment. By
holding durbars in the selected communities, through the use of drama and choreography, HFFG
strives to get members of the community to understand better the issue of sanitation and its
benefits. Also, it believes in bringing members together to deliberate on the negative effects of
living in a filthy environment and the need to curb it. According to Mrs. Joana Ansong, Project
Manager, HFFG, changing bad sanitation behaviors is very essential hence the use of drama and
choreography to create a community –led approach to issues of sanitation and hygiene. She
believed that school outreach in some public schools, forming of women groups and community
support groups consist of the many ways by which they continue to disseminate information
about sanitation and improve sanitation conditions. She believed that if sensitization is taken
seriously, it would reduce the risk of illness as well as deaths, hence the need to live in a healthy
environment ―If you want to be healthy, ensure sanitation in your environment,‖ she advised.
Speaking at one of the durbars held at Avenor, Mrs. Ansong stressed that communities as well as
their leaders must come together to ensure that cleanliness is sustained in communities since they
are the ones who will be directly affected in case of any disorders. She urged the community
members to take the durbars very seriously especially the drama and choreography because they
communicate exactly what goes on in various households. There is a criterion for selecting best
households which includes sanitized and clean compounds, gutters, water storage facilities,
household latrines and bathrooms. The durbar which attracted people from all environs of
Avenor as well as supported by members from the other selected communities stressed on the
need to use soap in washing one’s hand especially after attending nature’s call and before eating;
the need for use of clean water in domestic facilities and keeping a clean environment to
eliminate diseases like cholera and malaria. HFFG is a non-governmental organization that
focuses on giving equal opportunities for women and children Roberta Dzifa Kodzitse, the
Public Agenda 24th September, 2010.
Then, they secondly know the programs for health. Next is the educational programs that
provides educational financial support to the students of barangay 844. Next in line are the
programs for peace and order due to social conflict of the barangay. Together with livelihood
programs that helps residents in barangay to cope up their needs in everyday life. And last,
averaging 7.3 % is feeding program and etc. Feeding program is usually done if there's someone
of the particular organization such as church, Red Cross, etc. It only shows that they give more
value to their environment and their health status.

TABLE 3. Percentage distribution showing the community organizations known in Barangay
844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.
Barangay Council 48 25 %
Sangguning Kabataan 37 19.3 %
Senior Citizen 47 24.5 %
Samahan ng Kababaihan 30 15.6 %
Barangay Health Workers 30 15.6 %
Total 192 100 %

According to the survey, in terms of organization that they know and comfortable with is
barangay council, barangay councilors they have specific tasks that will be assigned by their
chairman. They must be on the barangay hall once a week to accommodate the people coming
every now and then in their office. Thirdly, sangguniang kabataan or SK is a youth council in the
each barangay in the Philippines. The council represents teenager from 15 to17 years old who
have resided in there barangay for atleast six months and registered to vote. It is the local youth
program and projects of the government. The sangguniang kabataan is an off-shoot of the KB or
The Kabataang Barangay (village youth) which was abolished when the Local Government Code
of 1991 was enacted. Secondly, the senior citizen is a common euphemism for an elderly person
in both UK and US English and it implies or means that the person is retired. This in turn
usually implies orin fact means that the person is over the retirement age, which varies according
to country. Synonyms include pensioner in UK English and retiree and Senior in US English.
Some dictionaries described widespread usage of "senior citizen" for people over the age of 65.
"senior citizen" is replacing the term old-age pensioner traditionally used in UK English Senior
Citizen is often used for legal or policy - related reasons in determining who is eligible for
certain benefits available to the age group . It is General usage instead of traditional terms such
as old person, old age pensioner or elderly as a courtesy and to signify continuing relevance of
and respect for this population group as "citizens" of society of senior rank apparently coined in
1938 during a political campaign. It has come into widespread use in recent decades in
legislation, commerce and common speech. Especially in less formal contents. In commerce,
some businesses offer customers of a certain age a "senior discount". The age at which these
discounts are available vary between 55, 60 or "senior discount card" or other proof of age needs
to be obtained and produced to show entitlement.
The last are samahan ng mga kababaihan and barangay health workers or volunteer is a category
of health care providers in the Philippines. They undergo a basic training program under an
accredited government or non-government organization, and render primary care services in the
community. They provide services for barangays (neighborhood) in areas such as maternal,
newborn and child health.

http://www.oup.com/oald-bin/web-getald7index 1a.p1

TABLE 4. Percentage distribution showing the festivities celebrated in the community in
Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.
Fiesta 70 34.5 %
Holy Week 65 32 %
Others 68 33.5 %
Total 203 100 %

According to the survey, 34.5 % of the survey celebrates fiesta, fiesta is traditionally
activities of the Filipinos that yearly celebrated. They provide activities and games such as
"pukpok palayok", "agawan buko", "bingo", and etc. and the most important fiesta is "kainan",
and usually serves "lechon baboy", "kaldereta", "adobong manok/baboy", "kare-kare",
"barbeque", and the desserts are "salad", "leche plan", "ube", "gelatin", "mango graham",
together with drinks namely coke, and juices. But never forget the liquior, namely Emperador,
Red horse, Tanduay, gin, vodka, wine, and mixers. But the most unforgettable highlights in fiesta
are "pikunan effect" and any conflict with neighborhood. Fiestas in the Philippines are held to
celebrate a patron saint (the Philippines is the only majority-Christian country in Southeast Asia)
or to mark the passage of the seasons, depending on which part of the country you're in. The sole
exception is Christmas, where the whole country breaks out in celebrations that can begin long
before December. The roots of Philippine fiestas go back even further - back to before the
Spanish conquistadores arrived in the 1500s. In the old animistic culture, regular ritual offerings
were made to placate the gods, and these offerings evolved into the fiestas we know today. A
wonderful fiesta season means good luck for the rest of the year.
For individual Filipinos, fiestas can be a way of supplicating the heavens or to make
amends for past wrongs. In one place, penitents lash themselves with whips; in another, childless
women dance on the streets hoping for the blessing of a child. Every town and city in the
Philippines has a fiesta of its own; whatever time of the year it is, there's sure to be a fiesta going
on somewhere. Then, holy week averaged 33.5 % in the survey. Holy week is the Filipino
important event during month of April that celebrates of the memory of Jesus Christ. Jesus died
on the cross for us. Usually, 3rd week of April celebrates "Siete Palabras" and prayer. Then, the
Filipinos traditionally cannot eat meat of giving respect of sacrifices of the Lord Jesus Christ or
"fasting". And secondly, are birthdays, New Year, Christmas and etc. Not all residents in
barangay 844 are catholic so they not celebrate holy week, new year, and Christmas. It shows
that even if not all of them are catholic, all of them celebrate on their own.

TABLE 5. Percentage distribution showing the type of election systems in Barangay 844, Zone
92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.
Political Dynasty 75 48.1 %
Appointment 11 7.1 %
Kamag-anak System 18 11.5 %
COMELEC 52 33.3 %
Total 156 100 %

According to the survey, the respondent’s opinions’ about the election system is political
dynasty as the reason why they win in elections. Politics in the Philippines has been under the
control of a few notable families. It is normal for a politician's son, wife, brother, or other
kinsman, to run for the same or other government office. The term coined by Filipinos to
describe this practice is "Political dynasty", the equivalent of an oligarchy in political science.
LET’S say it one more time: Yes, the 1987 Constitution has a provision that says the State shall
prohibit political dynasties. But that will happen only when Congress finally crafts and passes
the implementing law that will also define what a political dynasty is. Hold your breath over that
one and you may just end up in the emergency ward. Twenty years after the so-called EDSA
constitution was hammered together, in fact, our politics seem to have gone the way of ABS-
CBN. That is to say, puro kapamilya, or with members of just a few families running for public
office or already occupying positions in government. For sure, the old political families seem to
have lost steam or are no longer as strong as before. But in their place are ―new‖ clans — e.g.
Binay, Cayetano, Lagman, Defensor, et al. — that have gained considerable political ground
since Edsa I and are not about to let go of that anytime soon.Next is Kamag anak system because
some of the candidates is the one who have a many family or " kamag - anak " in a barangay,
some are still believing that Appointment and COMELEC is still the reason why a candadate
win. Secondly, the COMELEC or Commission on Elections is one of the three constitutional
commissions of the Philippines. Its principal role is to enforce all laws and regulations relative to
the conduct of elections, initiatives, and referendums and recall elections. While the third is
appointment may refer to the Law, power of an government official or executive to select
persons to fill an honorary position or employment in the government. Lastly is kamag - anak


TABLE 6. Percentage distribution showing the types of political influences in Barangay 844,
Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.
Religion 17 16.0 %
Popularity 44 41.5 %
Culture 8 7.5 %
Educational Attainment 19 17.9 %
Political Dynasty 18 17 %
Total 106 99.9 %

According to the survey, the highest political influences is Popularity which is a social
phenomenon that dictates who or what is best liked, sometimes referred as in vogue. Through
peer influence, target objects can quickly skyrocket in how pervasive they are in society. The
more pervasive something is, the more people have access to it. Since popularity is judged in a
social context, the more popular it will then be judged. Interpersonally, people can alter their
appearance to change how others perceive them, causing popularity to increase or decrease in the
form of individual likability or group consensus. Secondly, averaging 17.9 % is Educational
Attainment which a term commonly used by statisticians to refer to the highest degree of
education an individual has completed. In the summary, people of barangay 844 think also for
the educational background of particular candidates. The third is Political Dynasty which has
been under the control of a few notable families. It is normal for a politician’s son, wife, brother,
or other kinsman to run for the same or other government office. The term coined by Filipinos to
describe this practice is ―Political Dynasty‖. Then, we have the fourth political influences is
Religion, averaging 16 % of the total percentage. Religion is an organized collection of beliefs,
cultural systems and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence. Many religions
have narrative, symbols and sacred histories that are intended to explain the meaning of life and
to explain the origin of life or the universe. From their beliefs about the cosmos and human
nature, people drive morality, ethics, religious laws or a preferred lifestyle. According to some
estimates, there are roughly 4,200 religions in the world. Many religions may have organized
behaviors, clergy a definition of what constitutes adherence or membership, holy places and
scriptures. Lastly is the culture, averaging 7.5 % of the total percentage. Culture is an evolved
human capacity to classify and represent experiences with symbols, and to act imaginatively and
creativity and the distinct ways that people living differently classified and represented their
experiences and acted creativity. Distinctions are currently made between the physical artifacts
created by society, its so-called material culture and etc. The intangibles such as language,
customs, etc. that are main referent of the term ―culture‖. It shows that they do not prioritize their
culture related to political influences. In general, residents at barangay 844 choose by popularity
of the candidates, think also for the educational background of a particular candidates and its
shows that they not priority their religion and their culture related to political influences.

US Cencus Bureau glossay(2006-06-30)

TABLE 7. Percentage distribution showing the types of social conflicts in Barangay 844, Zone
District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013
Health Problems 13 18.3 %
Peace and Order 18 25.4 %
Religion 2 2.8 %
Culture 3 4.2 %
Politics 26 36.6 %
Others 9 12.7 %
Total 71 100 %

According to our survey, Politics is the highest percentage of the total survey which is the
practice and theory of influencing other people on a civic or individual level. More narrowly, it
refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance — organized control over a human
community, particularly at state. A variety of methods are employed in politics, which include
promoting its own political views among people, negotiation with other political subjects,
making laws, and exercising force, including warfare against adversaries. Politics is exercised on
a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local
governments, companies and institutions up to sovereign states, to international level.

A political system is a framework which defines acceptable political methods within a
given society. History of political thought can be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal
works such as Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics and opus of Confucius.

Modern political discourse focuses on democracy and the relationship between people
and politics. It is thought of as the way we "choose government officials and make decisions
about public policy". And secondly is Peace and order Programs. Then, Health Programs
Culture is a evolved human capacity to classify and represent experiences with symbols, and to
act imaginatively and creativity and the distinct ways that people living differently classified and
represented their experiences and acted creativity. Distinctions are currently made between the
physical artifacts created by society, its so-called material culture and etc. The intangibles such
as language, customs, etc. that are main referent of the term ―culture‖. Lastly, Religion is an
organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems and world views that relate humanity to an order
of existence. Many religions have narrative, symbols and sacred histories that are intended to
explain the meaning of life and to explain the origin of life or the universe. From their beliefs
about the cosmos and human nature, people drive morality, ethics, religious laws or a preferred
lifestyle. According to some estimates, there are roughly 4,200 religions in the world. Many
religions may have organized behaviors, clergy a definition of what constitutes adherence or
membership, holy places and scriptures.


TABLE 1. Percentage distribution showing the awareness of surveyed families of the health
programs in the health center in Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in
September 2013.
Aware 68 91.89 %
Unaware 6 8.11 %
Total: 74 100%
Utilizes 57 77%
Total: 57 77.03 %


Immunization - is the process by which vaccines are introduced into the body before
infections sets in. Vaccines are introduced to induce immunity thereby causing the recipient’s
immune system to react to the vaccine that produces antibodies to fight infection. Vaccinations
promote health and protect children from disease - causing agents.

Family Planning - is the foremost intervention in attaining reproductive health. It allows
couples to freely decide on the number and proper spacing of births. It is one of the 10 elements
selected as a response to the needs of men and women of reproductive age. The horizontal
approach to the RH program ensures that client is given health care and services in a holistic
manner thus, making the patient or client - centered taking into a consideration or particular
Prenatal care - is a program of care for a pregnant woman before she gives birth to her
baby. Most women begin their prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. Visits to the
doctor occur about once a month during the first six months. The frequency of visits increases to
every two or three weeks for the remainder of the pregnancy. Several tests are performed during
these visits. Tests performed during the first visit include blood tests to check blood type, Rh
factor, anemia, and immunity to several diseases including rubella (German measles) and
hepatitis B. Urine tests to check for sugar and protein as signs of diabetes and kidney changes,
respectively, are also performed. A Pap test may be done to detect changes in the cervix that
could be forerunners to cancer. Subsequent visits will include the collection of urine samples to
continue to check for sugar and proteins, measuring blood pressure, measuring weight to make
sure the expectant mother is gaining enough, listening to the fetal heartbeat (typically after 12
weeks) and checking the size and position of the uterus and fetus. The doctor can also perform
various tests to check the fetus for birth defects. Prenatal care consists of much more than just
monitoring the mother's diet and weight. Keep in mind that during pregnancy it is not just the
health of the pregnant woman that must be watched, but also the health of the unborn baby.
Maternal difficulties such as diabetes (which can develop as a result of being pregnant even if
diabetes was not present before), insufficient weight gain, and high blood pressure, if gone
untreated, can be harmful to the fetus. A doctor can also monitor the baby's well being directly
by listening to the fetal heartbeat, checking the size and positioning of the uterus and fetus, and
testing for various abnormalities. Some conditions, if detected prenatally, can be treated in-utero
(i.e., before the baby is born). In other instances, early detection can allow the proper medical
facilities to be present at the time of birth to allow the baby full access to the help it needs. It is
very important to receive proper prenatal care in order to ensure the health of both you and your

Health consultation - is a written report that provides advice on a specific public health
issue related to real or possible human exposure to toxic material. Most health consultations
concern exposure specific to a hazardous waste site or facility that handles hazardous substances.
Compared with a health assessment, a Health Consultation is a way to respond quickly to a need
for health information on toxic substances and make recommendations for actions to protect the
public's health. A Health Consultation is produced by the EHIB for the Agency for Toxic
Substances and Disease Registry. A Health Consultation is not the same thing as a medical
exam, a community health study, public health assessment, risk assessment, or exposure
investigation. It can sometimes result in one of those activities things, as well as other public
health activities, such as community environmental health education or professional health care

Well-child - Childhood is a time of rapid growth and change. You will have pediatric
well-child visits most often when your child is developing the fastest. Each visit includes a
complete physical examination. At this exam, the health care provider will check the infant or
young child's growth and development and try to find problems early. The health care provider
will record your child's height, weight, and other important information. Hearing, vision, and
other tests will be part of some visits. Preventive care is important to keep children healthy.
Well-child visits are key times for communication. Expect to be given information about normal
development, nutrition, sleep, safety, diseases that are "going around," and other important
topics. Make the most of these visits by writing down important questions and concerns to bring
with you. Special attention is paid to whether the child is meeting normal developmental
milestones. The height, weight, and head circumference are recorded on a growth chart, which
the health care provider keeps with the child's medical record. This can be a great start for a
discussion about your child's health. Ask your doctor about the body mass index (BMI) curve,
which is the most important tool for identifying and preventing obesity. There are several
schedules for routine well-child visits.

Preventive Health Care Schedule is a visit with a health care provider before the baby is
born is important for first-time parents, those with high-risk pregnancies, and any other parent
who wishes to discuss common issues such as feeding, circumcision, and general questions.
After the baby is born, the next visit should be 2-3 days after bringing the baby home (for breast-
fed babies) or when the baby is 2-4 days old (for all babies who are released from a hospital
before they are 2 days old). For experienced parents, some health care providers will delay the
visit until the baby is 1-2 weeks old. After that, visits should occur at the following ages:
By 1 month (although experienced parents can wait until 2 months)
2 months
4 months
6 months
9 months
1 year
15 months
18 months
2 years

In addition to these visits, call and visit a health care provider any time your baby or child
seems ill or whenever you are worried about your baby's health or development.

According to the survey, 91 % are aware, 8 % unaware and 77 % are utilized the health
programs written above. Being aware in the following programs are very beneficial because its
important that we are alert in our health not just only know the illnesses utilizing the programs
on health not very expensive because this is provided by the government for us to have a healthy

DOH Book

TABLE 2. Percentage distribution showing usual foods eaten by the families surveyed in
Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.

Fish - -
Vegetables - -
Chicken - -
Pork - -
Combination 74 100%
Total: 74 100%


Vegetables - grouped foods representing practically every part of the plant - leaves,
stems, seeds, pods, flowers, fruits, roots and tubers. They vary as widely in composition as they
do in function in the plant and may contain anywhere from 3 to 35 % of carbohydrate in the
forms of starch, sugars, cellulose and nemicellulose. Obviously, theb calorie value of vegetables
varies with the percentage of carbohydrate present but in general, the high water and cellulose
content of leaf, flower and stem vegetables puts them in the low calories class. These include all
the green leafy vegetables, plus celery, asparagus, cauliflower, brocoli and brussels sprouts. The
roots the tubers and the needs of plants haved higher starch and sugar content and less water and
therefore, provide more calories per unit of weight. These include all kinds of potatoes, beefs,
carrots, turnips, parships, peas, beans and letuce.

Meat, poultry and fish - all forms of animals tissue protein synthesized by each species to
meet its specific needs for growth and maintenance. Such proteins are remarkable similar in
amino acid content to the amino acid requirements of man. Fish, good sources of protein and in
many countries are the chief of animal protein, (Linea Anderson, M.P.H, 1972). The usual foods
eaten such as fish, vegetables, chicken and pork are needed for us to have an ideal health
condition. This foods having a nutrients needed by our body. It is obviously in the table that all
that we have surveyed, we are meeting the nutrients like protein, carbohydrates, vitamins and
minerals in their everyday life.

TABLE 3. Percentage distribution showing meal frequency of the families surveyed in Barangay
844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.

1 - -
2 - -
3 45 60.81 %
4-up 29 39.19 %
Total 74 100 %


According to many "gurus" - eating breakfast jump starts fat burning and 5-6 small meals
a day prevent a slowed metabolism. Breakfast is the most important meal of the day.
Conventional wisdom dictates that breakfast is a necessity, that it jump starts your metabolism
for the day and helps you lose weight. Obvertional studies consistently show that breakfast
skippers are more likely to be obese than people who eat breakfast but correlation does not equal
causation. This data does not prove that breakfast helps you lose weight; just that eating
breakfast is associated with a lower risk of being obese. This is most likely due to the fact
breakfast skippers tend to be less health conscious overall, perhaps opting for a doughnut at work
and then having a big meal at McDonald’s at lunch. Everyone "knows" that breakfast is good for
you, therefore people who have healthy habits overall are more likely to eat breakfast. The fact is
that there is NO physiological need for breakfast. It does not "jump start" metabolism and there
is nothing special about breakfast compared to other meals, "if you're hungry in the morning, eat
breakfast. If not, don't just make sure to eat healthy for the rest of the day." The idea that eating
more frequent, smaller meals raises metabolism is a persistent myth. It is true that digesting a
meal raises metabolism slightly and this phenomenon is known as the thermic effect of food.
However, it is the total amount of food consumed that determines the amount of energy
expended during digestion. Eating 3 meals of 800 calories will cause the same thermic effect as
eating 6 meals of 400 calories. There is literally no difference. Multiple studies have compared
eating many smaller vs. fewer larger meals and concluded that there is no significant effect
metabolic rate or total amount of fat lost. One argument I see a lot is that people should eat often
to balance blood sugar levels. Eating big meals is thought to lead to rapid rises and falls in blood
sugar, while eating smaller and more frequent meals should stabilize blood sugar levels
throughout the day. This, however, is not supported by science. Studies show that people who eat
fewer, larger meals have lower blood glucose levels on average. They may have bigger "spikes"
in blood sugar but overall their levels are much lower. This is especially important for people
with blood sugar issues because elevated blood sugars can cause all sorts of problems. Less
frequent has also been shown to improve satiety and reduce hunger compared to more frequent
meals. There are some observational studies showing that more frequent eating is associated with
unalleviated risk of colon cancer which is the 4th most cause cancer death. The numbers are as
high as 90% increased risk for 4 meals per day, compared to 2 meals.

According to the survey 60.81% of families are eating 3 times a meal in each day while
the 39% is 4 times above. Based on this, it shows that the families meet their normal meal
frequency but it depends on what they eat or they achieved the right nutrition on their every
meal. Regarding to this is the V.2. question "What they usually eat in each day". All of them
answered combination which means eat a variety of foods such as chicken, pork, vegetables were
in it is most good sources of nutrients needed by our body.


TABLE 4. Percentage distribution showing food storage of the families surveyed in Barangay
844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.

Refrigerated 36 41.38 %
Not Refrigerated
a. covered 40 45.98 %
b. exposed 11 12.64 %
Total 87 100 %


Importance of food storage for human it is economical, leftover foods do not have to go
to waste. Throwing food is throwing away your money. These leftovers can be stored and eaten
in the future with food stored at home you can make your own meals and avoid eating out.
Cooking your own meals at home is cheaper than buying prepared meals from fast food chains
and restaurants. Preserve food, proper food storage helps lengthen the shelf life of foods. Invest
in good quality food storage products. When you are storing leftovers food make sure that you
have choose an airtight container. Canned goods should be placed in a dry area, away from
moisture to avoid rust. Vegetables and fruits should be placed in the crisper to maintain their
freshness. Meat should always be frozen and thawed only when about to be cooked. Convenient,
when you feel hungry you don’t have to go out to buy some food or call to a fast food chain for
home delivery. You can always open canned and preserved food, eat yesterday's leftover or
prepare yourself a meal. If you have stored foods, condiments and ingredients at home you can
easily cook your own meal. Industrial purposes, farmers should be able to know how to properly
store their harvest. Improper storage of their crops may result to spoilage. Damaged and spoilage
crops can greatly affect their profits. Food manufacturers should also keep their warehouses
clean and pest-free. It is healthier people pile up their meals by themselves. For people who are
following a strict diet, they can prepare their own meals from the food they stored. Also, home
cooked meals are healthier compare to fast foods. Protection from insects and pests improperly
stored foods can attract pests and insects. Pests such as rats have a strong sense of smell hence, it
is important that foods are kept and stored properly. Once pests infest you foods, you must throw
them as soon as possible before someone in your family eats them. For emergencies, it is always
better to have survival food storage at home just in case calamities such as typhoons, hurricanes,
tsunamis and earthquake hit your region. It may be difficult to buy foods when calamities strike
your neighborhood. People have the tendency to hoard preserved and canned goods. Always
make sure that you have enough canned goods, rice, cereals, salts, sugar, milk, etc. for
emergency. Your emergency food storage should not include highly perishable goods such as
fresh meat, vegetables and fruits. Any expired goods are not fit for human consumption and must
be thrown away. Eating expired foods can lead to food poisoning.
The importance of proper food storage is to avoid contamination. By the help of it, it can
lessen the possibility of the food to become spoiled quickly or get contaminated. For the
leftovers and to stay fresh for the raw ones like the vegetables, fruits, beefs, pork, poultry, and
others specially when the food is placed on the refrigerator. Leftover food needs to be placed in a
cool and as much as possible dry area because it can become spoiled easily. For raw ones it
should be place in refrigerators also for it to stay fresh and to avoid food contamination but once
you remove it from the refrigerator for at least 30 minutes. You can't put it back because some
bacteria may be or was attached in it already and that bacteria grows in a cold places and can’t
prevent the spread of the said bacteria by applying heat or in other word you have to cook it.
According to the survey 41% of the 74 families compose of 417 people store their leftovers and
others foods on their refrigerators. They have their proper food storage, 46% of it don’t have
their own refrigerator so they just left their leftovers covered and for the raw ones they only buy
exact ingredients for their dishes so that they don’t need to store it and 13% were exposed but
most of the time they only prepare the exact amount of food they going to eat so in that case they
tend to have no leftovers of their food.

In general, 87% of the total 417 population meet their proper food storage although there
are still 13% that was not properly stored the still have normal health and body figure of a
normal person.

www.thereadyproject.com by readyprojects on Jan15,2013

TABLE 5. Percentage distribution showing the first person consulted bythe families surveyed
when experiencing illnesses in Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in
September 2013.

Doctor 53 71.6 %
Midwife 4 5.4 %
Nurse 12 16.2 %
Quack Doctor 4 5.4 %
Family 1 1.3 %
Total 74 100 %


Doctor - A Doctor/Physician is a professional who practices medicine, which is
concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis
and treatment of disease, injury and other physical and mental impairments. They may focus
their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients or methods of treatment or assume
responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical care to individuals,
families and communities.
Midwife - are specialists in childbirth, postpartum and well-woman health care. They are
educated and trained to recognize the variations of normal progress of labor and deal with
deviations from normal to discern and intervene in high risk situations.

Nurse - Nurses may be differentiated from other health care providers by their approach
to patient care, training and scope of practice. Nurses practice in a wide diversity of practice
areas with a different scope of practice and level of prescriber authority in each. Many nurses
provide care within the ordering scope of physicians and this traditional role has come to shape
the historic public image of nurses as care providers. However, nurses are permitted by most
jurisdictions to practice independently in a variety of settings depending on training level.

Quack doctor (albularyo) - is a herbalist; In the Philippines, albularyo is a person who
cure person using herbal medicines but some herbs they use has no scientific basis that it can
really cure some disease but people say that it can cure.

Family - can only give some advice based on their experience in the said disease. They
can only give an advice because they don’t have any medical knowledge or medical professional
to further explain the said disease. Sometimes they provide some hospital bills.

In general, 72% of the surveyed people prefer a Doctor/Physician as their first to consult
person in every illness it is because Physician has the knowledge to cure the said illness 2nd is
the Nurses because they have the skills to perform or to cure the said illness to the patient in
Midwife also, for maternal cases but some still stick to their traditional way consulting an
albularyo and some prefer their family first.

www.wikipedia.org by : wikipedia

TABLE 6. Percentage distribution showing the illnesses experienced by the families surveyed in
Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in the year 2012.
Cough 24 26.67 %
Colds 16 17.78 %
Fever 42 46.67 %
Stroke 3 3.33 %
Tonsillitis 1 1.11 %
Hypertension 3 3.33 %
Heart Disease 1 1.11%
Total 90 100 %


Fever - A body temperature above the usual range is called pyrexia, hyperthermia or
fever. A very high fever, such as 41 c is called hyperpyrexia. The client who has a fever is
referred to as febrile and the one who does not afebrile.

Hypertension - or high blood pressure is defined as a sustained elevation in mean arterial
pressure. It is not a single disease but a disorder with many causes a variety of symptoms and a
range of responses to therapy. Hypertension is also a major risk factor for the development of
CVDs like coronary heart disease and stroke. Risk factor there is no single cause for primary
hypertension, but several risk factors have been implicated in its development.
Cause- In terms of etiology, hypertension is classified into primary and secondary hypertension.
Primary hypertension has no definite cause. It is also called essential hypertension idiopathic
hypertension. About 90% of all hypertensive have primary (diseases) hypertension. Secondary
hypertension is usually the result of some other primary diseases leading to hypertension such as
renal disease.

Stroke – is a cerebrovascular disease. Almost all strokes are caused by occlusion of
cerebral vessels by either thrombi or emboli. Thrombi usually occur in atherosclerotic blood
vessels. This is usually seen in older people and may occur in a person at rest. An emboli stroke
is caused by a moving blood clot usually from a thrombiss in the left quart that becomes hedged
in a small artery through which it cannot pass. Its onset is usually sudden. The most fatal type of
stroke is due to intracerebral hemorrhage that is rupture of intracerebral blood vessels. The most
common predisposing factor is hypertension other causes of hemorrhage are aneurysms, trauma,
erosion of vessel of tumors and blood diseases. It usually occurs suddenly; usually when the
person is active like coronary artery disease, the common cause of strokes is also atherosclerosis.

Heart Disease - coronary artery disease is a heart disease caused by impaired coronary
blood flow. It is also known as ischemic heart disease. When the coronary arteries became
narrowed or lagged, supply of blood and oxygen to the heart muscle is affected. The most
common cause is atherosclerosis. This is the thickening narrow the space through whish blood
can flow, decreasing and sometimes completely cutting off the supply of oxygen and nutrients to
the heart it affects large and medium-sized arteries like the aorta, coronary arteries and ear large
vessels that supply the brain. Atherosclerosis usually occurs when a person ha high levels of
cholesterol in the blood. When the level of cholesterol in the blood is high, there is a greater
chance that it will be deposited onto the artery walls. This process begins in most people during
childhood and teenage years but weaken as they get older. In diabetes, atherosclerosis is
accelerated, often resulting in coronary artery disease, myocardiac infection and stroke.

Cough - is the body's way of removing foreign material or mucus from the lungs and
upper airway passages or of reacting to an irritated airway. Coughs have distinctive traits you can
learn to recognize. A cough is only a symptom, not a disease and often the importance of your
cough can be determined only when other symptoms are evaluated. A productive cough produces
phlegm or mucus (sputum). The mucus may have drained down the back of the throat from the
nose or sinuses or may have come up from the lungs. Viral-illness- it is normal to have a
productive cough when you have a common cold. Coughing is often triggered by mucus that
drains down the back of the throat. Infections - an infection of the lungs or upper airway
passages can cause a cough. A productive cough may be a symptom of pneumonia, bronchitis,
sinusitis, tuberculosis. Chronic lung disease a productive cough could be the sign that you have
an infection.

Colds - It is called common cold for good reason. Colds are the most common reason that
children miss school and parent miss work. Parents often get colds from their children. Cold
symptoms usually start about 2-3 days after you came in contact with the virus, although it could
take up to a week, nasal congestion, runny nose, sneezing.

Tonsillitis - is inflammation of the tonsils most commonly caused by viral or bacterial
infection. Symptoms may include sore throat and fever. When caused by a bacterium belonging
to a group A streptococcus, it is typically referred to as strep throat.

In general, people in barangay 844 suffered some illness like cough, colds, fever, etc. but
some also suffered various diseases that is very dangerous to a person’s health but they are all
healthy and alive now.

DOH book
www.wikipedia.org by : Del Mar CB,Glasziou PP,Spinks AB on October 2006

TABLE 7. Percentage distribution showing health threats of families surveyed in Barangay 844,
Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.

1. Cigarette Smoking 44 40.4 %
2. Alcohol Drinking 65 59.6 %
Total 105 100 %


Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Smoking causes many diseases and
reduces the health of smokers in general. It also increased health risk, compared with non-
smokers, smoking is estimated to increase the risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, lung cancer
and dying from chronic obstructive lung diseases. Cigarette smoke contains thousands of
different chemicals, or 'smoke constituents,' also referred to as 'smoke emissions. The most
commonly known smoke constituents are tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide.

After conducting a survey at barangay 844, 44% of them are cigarette smokers while 65
of 417 people in the community were alcohol drinkers, families are often affected when someone
in home abuses alcohol. Violence and conflict in the home is much more likely when a family
member is abusing alcohol. Drinking too much on a single occasion or over time can take a
serious health condition. Alcohol interferes with the brain’s communication pathways, and can
affect the way the brain looks and works. These disruptions can change mood and behavior, and
make it harder to think clearly and move with coordination. Some major causes of alcohol are
bleeding from the esophagus, swelling and damage to the pancreas, damage to the liver and poor
nutrition. But based on the people that we survey, according to them they only drink

Smoking is the largest single risk factor for premature death in developed countries.
Approximately one fifth of the deaths in the United States are attributable to smoking, and 28%
of the smoking-attributable deaths involve lung cancer, 37% involve vascular disease, and 26%
involve other respiratory diseases. More than 400 000 deaths per year and 30% of all cancers in
the United States are attributable to smoking. Lung cancer is the largest single cause of cancer-
associated mortality and is the most common cause of smoking-related mortality in the United
States. The attributable risk from smoking for oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal cancers is
substantial, although less than that for lung cancer. The attributable risk from both smoking and
alcohol consumption accounts for the majority of both oral and pharyngeal cancers and of
esophageal cancer. Morbidity and mortality attributable to smoking would decline in the future if
reductions in smoking prevalence were to be observed. However, despite dramatic declines in
adult male smoking prevalence in the United States observed from the 1960s through the 1990s,
the declines in current adult smoking prevalence slowed by about 1990, and recent surveys of
current smoking in youth, defined as cigarette use on at least one of the last 30 days preceding
the survey, show a statistically significant increase.

Excessive drinking is typically described as binge drinking, which the National Institute
of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism defines as five or more drinks on a single occasion for men
and four or more drinks on a single occasion for women. A drink is equivalent to a 12-ounce
beer, a 5-ounce glass of wine, or a 1.25-ounce shot of liquor. ―This definition of a binge one
drink is roughly equivalent to the amount of alcohol needed to bring the blood alcohol
concentration level to at least 0.08 percent,‖ Scott Carlson, Season Johnson, and Pauline Jacobs
wrote in a 2010 issue of Addictive Behaviors. ―Research reveals that approximately 70 percent
of today’s college students drink alcohol and 40 percent report drinking five or more drinks in
one sitting,‖ Brian Dietz stated in his 2004 Bulletin article. Further, a 2007 Brown University
Digest of Addictive Theory & Application article reported that many students have consumed
significantly more than five drinks on a single occasion—closer to 10 drinks for some students—
indicating that excessive drinking is a potentially more serious problem on college campuses
than is recognized in most.


TABLE 8. Percentage distribution showing family planning methods of families surveyed in
Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.

A. Natural
Rhythm/Calendar Method 11 17.2 %
Withdrawal 12 18.8 %
Cervical Mucus Method 1 1.6 %
Basal Temperature 2 3 %
B. Artificial
Condom 2 3 %
Pills 21 32.8 %
IUD 1 1.6 %
Injectable 1 1.6 %
C Permanent
Vasectomy - -
Tubal Ligation 13 20.3 %
Total 64 99.9 %


There are different types of family planning methods used to prevent pregnancy. Family
planning aims to contribute to reduce infant and neonatal mortality, under five deaths and
maternal deaths.

Family planning involves the use of all techniques, practices and medical devices that
help a couple plan their family. It’s not only helps in deciding the number of children to have but
also when to have and how to space their births.

There are 3 methods of family planning natural, artificial and permanent methods.

Natural Method- means preventing pregnancy without using pills or devices. It is based
on being able to predict your fertile time; this is the time you are likely to conceive.

There are 4 types of natural method first is basal temperature method were the lowest
temperature attained by the body during. It is generally measured immediately after awakening
and before any physical activity has been undertaken, although the temperature measured at that
time is somewhat higher than the true basal body temperature only 3% based on the survey use
this method. Then the cervical mucus method the color consistency and the fell of cervical
mucus can help in determining the safe and unsafe days to have sex 1.6% in the barangay use
this method. Calendar or rhythm method requires to an individual to be aware of your menstrual
cycle, based on the survey 17.2% in the community use this kind of method. The withdrawal
method is a method of birth-control in which a man, during intercourse withdraws his penis from
a woman's vagina prior to orgasm. The man then directs his ejaculate away from his partner's
vagina in an effort to avoid insemination; according to the survey only 18% of them use this

Artificial Method it includes use of condom, pills, IUD and injectable.

The use of pills is for birth control use hormones to prevent pregnancy by stopping the
release of an ovum and keeping the sperm from getting through the cervix. They also keep the
ovum from making it down the fallopian tube, and make the uterine unreceptive. Morning after
pills also use hormones and work the same way to prevent pregnancy, but are designed to be
used after having sex when you don't use birth control or your birth control method fails. A
condom is a barrier contraceptive - it blocks the route a sperm would take to fertilize an egg.

UDs prevent pregnancy by inhibiting fertilization of the egg. Although not entirely
known, it is believed that the IUDs affect the way the sperm and egg move and/or affect the
lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of the egg. Injectable is drug that is drug
administered to prevent pregnancy every 3 months with each injection.

Then, the permanent family planning method includes vasectomy and tubal ligation.

Vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilization and/or permanent birth control.
During the procedure, the vas deferens of a man is severed, and then tied/sealed in a manner such
to prevent sperm from entering into the seminal stream (ejaculate). Vasectomies are usually
performed in a physician's office or medical clinic. Tubal ligation or tubectomy (also known as
having one's "tubes tied" is a surgical procedure for sterilization in which a woman's fallopian
tubes are clamped and blocked, or severed and sealed, either method of which prevents eggs
from reaching the uterus for fertilization.

Based on the survey, artificial method there are 3% condom user, 32.8% taking pills IUD
method with 1.6% and injectable user of 1.6%. However in the permanent method there was
20.3% tubal ligated and 0% in vasectomy.

According to data generated from 27 DHS surveys between 1990 and 1994, unmet need
for family planning ranges from 11 percent in Turkey to 37 percent in Rwanda (Casterline et al.,
1997). In the same period, it was found that unmet need is most prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa.
On average, the fertility level in sub-Saharan Africa could be reduced by about one birth per
woman if it were possible to meet the unmet need for family planning (Robey et al., 1996).

DOH Book

TABLE 9. Percentage distribution showing infant feeding practice of families surveyed in
Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in September 2013.

Type of Infant Feeding F %
Breastfeeding 21 31 %
a. Evaporated - -
b. Condensed - -
c. Powdered 15 22 %
Mixed 32 47 %
Total 68 100 %


Breast milk is the best food for the baby from birth up to 6 months, it meets all the food
and fluid needs helps for immunization of the infant, like the colostrum - it is
a yellowish liquid, especially rich in immune factors, secreted by the mammary gland, it also
prepares the baby’s stomach to digest milk.

According to the survey, there are 31% of infants that were breastfed and 22% of infants
in the community were formula milk fed with both breast milk and powdered milk. Although
there are 22% of infants that were fed with formula milk in combination of breast milk, infants
and children in the community are healthy.

Breast feeding of infants recommended for the first 6 months of their lives and breast
feeding with complimentary foods thereafter. Breast feeding has many psychological benefits for
children and mother as well as economic benefits for families and societies. Some important
benefits to the mother is that it can reduce the woman’s risk of excessive blood loss after birth, it
provides natural methods of delaying pregnancies, reduces the risk of woman’s breast cancer and
osteoporosis, that is why breastfeeding is the best for both babies and mothers.

Despite the documented benefits of human milk, the incidence and duration of
breastfeeding preterm infants continues to be less than that of full-term infants. In the United
States, while 69% of term infants and mothers initiate either partial or exclusive
breastfeeding, the average rate of breastfeeding for preterm infants is approximately 50% at
hospital discharge.

The incidence and duration of breastfeeding in preterm infants has been
reported in a number of studies published from 1990 to 2001. Unfortunately, the results of this
body of research are difficult to interpret because of methodological problems, differences in
breastfeeding definitions, and wide ranges in the gestational ages of the infants studied.

Since 1990, only 6 studies have investigated barriers to the successful establishment and
maintenance of breastfeeding in the low-birthweight (LBW; BW < 2500 g) and preterm
population (< 37 weeks gestational age). None of these studies used a longitudinal design to
identify barriers to breastfeeding in LBW infants up to 12 months corrected age or until weaning
from breastfeeding. This gap in knowledge may lead to clinical practice, research, and education
that does not customize interventions to the specific problems encountered by very-low-
birthweight (VLBW) infants and their mothers at various time periods throughout the
breastfeeding experience.

DOH Book

TABLE 10. Percentage distribution showing immunization status of children 0-7 years old
among the families surveyed in Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in
September 2013.

Immunization Status F %
Complete 40 81.6 %
Incomplete 9 18.4 %
Total 49 100 %

Immunization (or vaccination) protects people from disease by introducing a vaccine into
the body that triggers an antibody response as if you had been exposed to a disease naturally. The
vaccine contains the same antigens or parts of antigens that cause the disease, but the antigens in
vaccines are either killed or greatly weakened. Vaccines work because they trick your body so
that it thinks it is being attacked by a disease. Immunity through immunization happens without
the consequence of being ill and without the risk of potential life-threatening complications from
the disease. Memory cells prevent re-infection when they encounter that disease again in the
future. However, not all vaccines provide lifelong immunity. Diseases such as tetanus require
booster doses every ten years for adults to maintain immunity. At any age, vaccination provides
the longest lasting most effective protection against disease. But childhood immunization does
not provide lifelong immunity against some diseases such as tetanus (lockjaw) and diphtheria.
Adults require helper, or booster, shots to maintain immunity. As well, adults who were
not adequately immunized as children may be at risk of infection from other vaccine-preventable
diseases. They can also infect others. For example, adults who contract measles, mumps or
pertussis (whooping cough) can infect infants who may not yet be fully immunized.
After conducting a survey at barangay 844 there were 81.6% of 0-7 years old were
completely vaccinated and 18.14% of 0-7 years old did not completely vaccinated.
In response to challenges in global immunization, WHO and the United Nations
Children’s Fund (UNICEF) set up the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) in 2003.
The chief goal of GIVS is to reduce illness and death due to vaccine-preventable diseases by at
least two-thirds by 2015 or earlier. The Task Force on Immunization in Africa (TFI) recognized
from the outset the need for high vaccination coverage to counter the disproportionate burden
from vaccine-preventable diseases in the African Region, and therefore set challenging goals for
2001–2005. These goals aimed to ensure that the immunization performance of the African
Region caught up with other regions’ performance.
The findings of a 1998 review of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI)
formed the basis for of the first EPI Regional Strategic Plan (2001–2005). This plan set five key
objectives to be met by 2005:circulation of wild polio virus to be interrupted in all countries;
maternal and neonatal tetanus to be eliminated in all high-risk districts; hepatitis B vaccine to be
introduced into all countries, yellow fever vaccines to be introduced in all countries at risk,
and Haemophilus influenza type b vaccine to be introduced in at least half of the countries
offering hepatitis B vaccine; measles to be controlled in all epidemiological blocks and
eliminated in southern Africa; and 80% of the countries of the African Region to have reached at
least 80% DTP-3 coverage in all districts. This paper explores the progress made on these

DOH Book

TABLE 11. Percentage distribution showing causes of morbidity of families surveyed in
Barangay 844, Zone 92, District VI, Pandacan, Manila in the year 2012.

1. Blood Clot in the Brain 1 25 %
2. Heart Attack 1 25 %
3. Heart Failure 1 25 %
4. Pneumonia 1 25 %
Total 4 100 %

Prevalence Rate =

x F
No. of old cases = 4
Population Examined = 417
F= 4

Prevalence Rate =

x 4
Prevalence Rate = 0.04


Based on the survey conducted in barangay 844 there are 4 morbidity cases. It includes
heart attack, heart failure, pneumonia and blood clot in the brain.
A heart attack happens when the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a section of heart muscle
suddenly becomes blocked and the heart can't get oxygen. If blood flow isn't restored quickly,
the section of heart muscle begins to die. Mrs. Luzvimida Arellano 55 years old is died because
of heart attack, she have lived with her family, her husband is a 54 years old a barber, have a son
24 years old unemployed. Their family’s monthly income is 3000 just enough for them to eat
thrice a day.
Mr. Apolonio de Leon 59 years old, dead on arrival at V. Luna Hospital died because of
heart failure, their family’s monthly income is 10, 000 while their monthly expenses is 8, 800,
they usually eat twice a day. Heart failure does not mean the heart has stopped working. Rather,
it means that the heart's pumping power is weaker than normal. With heart failure, blood moves
through the heart and body at a slower rate, and pressure in the heart increases. As a result, the
heart cannot pump enough oxygen and nutrients to meet the body's needs. The chambers of the
heart respond by stretching to hold more blood to pump through the body or by becoming more
stiff and thickened. This helps to keep the blood moving for a short while, but in time, the heart
muscle walls weaken and are unable to pump as strongly. As a result, the kidneys often respond
by causing the body to retain fluid (water) and sodium. If fluid builds up in the arms, legs,
ankles, feet, lungs or other organs, the body becomes congested, and congestive heart failure is
the term used to describe the condition. Heart failure can involve the left side, right side or both
sides of your heart. Typically, heart failure begins with the left side — specifically the left
ventricle, your heart's main pumping chamber.
Mrs. Julia Rafes death cause is pneumonia, 75 years old, she have lived with her relatives
were only one of their family member is employed who is Jomel a promodiser, their monthly
income is 5,000. Pneumonia is inflammation or swelling in the lungs in which the air sacs fill
with pus and other fluids, making it difficult for oxygen to reach the blood. Pneumonia can be
typical or atypical, or may be classified as hospital-acquired, community-acquired, or aspiration.
People who are otherwise healthy tend to recover quickly when given prompt and proper care.
However, the elderly or those with chronic illnesses often develop a serious infection that needs
prompt and often aggressive treatment in hospital.
The last case is about Mrs. Ester dela Cruz 82 years old cause of death is blood clot in the
brain/ CVT. She has lived with her son a police officer and with her nurse daughter in law
together with her four grandchildren, they have enough income to provide the family needs. A
blood clot in the brain can cause an Ischemic stroke, a stroke that is caused by an artery to the
brain becoming blocked and starving a portion of the brain of oxygen and nutrients. A clot in the
brain can also cause a buildup of cellular waste and carbon dioxide because the brain will be
unable to clear this waste properly. This can cause the cells around the blockage to die, and the
neurons in this portion of the brain to stop working, which can cause damage throughout the
body. If you suspect that you have a blood clot in the brain, immediate treatment will be
necessary to avoid a life threatening condition .All of them have good type of excreta and have
enough water supply.
Blood clot in brain - CVT is an uncommon and frequently unrecognized type of stroke
that affects approximately 5 people per million annually and accounts for 0.5% to 1% of all
strokes.1 CVT is more commonly seen in young individuals. According to the largest cohort
study (the International Study on Cerebral Venous and Dural Sinuses Thrombosis [ISCVT]), 487
(78%) of 624 cases occurred in patients <50 years of age (Figure 1).1
6 Clinical features are
diverse, and for this reason, cases should be sought among diverse clinical index conditions. A
prior pathological study found a prevalence of CVT of 9.3% among 182 consecutive
autopsies.7 No population studies have reported the incidence of CVT. Very few stroke registries
included cases with CVT. This may result in an overestimation of risk associated with the
various conditions owing to referral and ascertainment biases.
Pneumonia - Rudan et al. calculated and published the first global estimate of the
incidence of clinical pneumonia for the year 2000. This estimate was based on the analysis of
data from selected 28 community-based longitudinal studies done in developing countries that
were published between 1969 and 1999. These studies were the only sources meeting the
predefined set of minimum-quality criteria for inclusion in the analysis. The estimated median
incidence for developing countries was 0.28 episodes, with an interquartile range 0.21–0.71
episodes year. The variation in incidence between the selected studies was very large, most
probably due to the distinct study designs and real differences in the prevalence of risk factors in
the various studies.
Heart attack - Thirty-six cases of heart attack or sudden death in marathon runners have
been reported in the world literature to date. The mean age of the runners was 43.8 yr (range =
18 to 70), the mean years' running was 6.8 yr (range = 0.5 to 29), and the mean best standard
42.2 km marathon time was 3 h 28 min (range = 2 h 33 min to 4 h 28 min). Coronary artery
disease was diagnosed either clinically, angiographically, or at autopsy in 27 runners (75%), two
of whom also had histological evidence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Heart Failure - Heart failure (HF) patients are reported to have twice the risk of having
cognitive deficits compared to the general population. Cognitive impairment in this population
may cause non-compliance to prescribed self-care regimens and delay in seeking care that may
potentially lead to frequent readmissions. Although cognitive deficit is common among people
with HF, cognitive screening is not routinely performed due to lack of a simple screening tool
and the misconception that cognitive changes are part of normal aging. Therefore, future
research needs to focus on identifying a simple screening tool that nurses can use to screen for
subtle changes in cognition including forgetfulness and delayed recall. Early identification of
subtle cognitive changes has the potential to guide healthcare providers to formulate feasible
strategies to understand and/or prevent a low cardiac output state before major cognitive
impairment becomes evidence.
DOH Book

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