of 64

Conservation Management Plan for Christchurch Castle, Dorset, UK

Published on 5 days ago | Categories: Documents | Downloads: 1 | Comments: 0
176 views

Comments

Content

 C  u Christchurch l   t    u Castle and r   a Constable’s l   H  House  e r  i   t    a  g  e Cultural Heritage Baseline Study B   a  s   e l   i   n  e  S  t    u  d   y December 2011

Client: English Heritage

Issue No:1

OA Job No: 13477

NGR: SZ 16013 92573

Oxford Archaeology

LIST OF CONTENTS 1

INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................. 1

2

LOCATION, GEOLOGY AND TOPOGRAPHY ........................................................................... 1

3

METHODOLOGY AND SOURCES ................................................................................................ 2 ��� ���

4

DESIGNATED SITES AND SENSITIVITY ................................................................................... 2 ���

5

��� ��� ��� ��� ��� ��� ���

��� ��� ��� ���

��� ��� ��� ��� ��� ���

��� ���

������������  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �� ��� ���� ��� ����� ����� ������� ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �� ��� ����������� ����� ��� ��� ������ ����� ������� ��������������������������������������������������������������������� �� ������ ����� ������ ������� ����� ������� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �� ��� ����� ����� �������� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ �� ������ ����� ������ ������� ����� ������� �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �� ��� ���� ��� ����� ����� ������� ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ ��

�������������� ���������  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ �� �������������� ��������  �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �� ���� �����������  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ ��

RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................................................................. 26 ��� ��� ��� ��� ��� ��� ��� ���

10

�� �� �� �� ��

ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTENTIAL AND SURVIVAL ............................................................. 25 ���

9

��� ���� ��� ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ��� ������ ����  ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ��� ������� �����  ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ��� ����������� �����   ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �������� �������  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS ........................................................................................................... 19 ���

8

������� �� ��� ��������� ��������  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� � ������� ������� �� ��� ����  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ � ��� ����� ��� ����   ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� � ��� ����������� �����   ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� � ��� ������ ����  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ � ������ �����  �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� � ��� ������� �����  ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �� ��� ������ �� �������   ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ��

THE EXISTING ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCE ................................................................ 11 ���

7

���������� �����  ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �

ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND .............. ............. ............ .............. 3 ���



������� ���������  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� � ����������� ��� ��������� �������� �����������  �������������������������������������������������������������������������� �

������������  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �� ��� ����� ��� ��� ����   ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �� ��� ������ �����  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �� ��� ������  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ �� ��� ������� �����  ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �� ��� ����������� �����   ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �� �������  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� �� ������������ �� ��� ��������� ����  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ��

CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................................................................... 29

19/12/2011

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Ch ristchurch, Dorset

APPENDICES

Appendix One: Gazetteer of Study Area. Appendix Two: Bibliography and List of Sources Consulted. FIGURES

Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8:

Site Location Map Wider context of the Site Main Elements of the Site Heritage Assets within Study Area Tithe Map of Christchurch (east) 1843 Ordnance Survey 1 st Edition 1870 Sheet 86.12.6 Ordnance Survey 1924 Edition Sheet 86.12 Estate Map c 1790

PLATES

Plate 1: Plate 2: Plate 3: Plate 4: Plate 5: Plate 5a: Plate 6: Plate 7: Plate 8: Plate 9: Plate 10: Plate 11: Plate 12: Plate 13: Plate 14: Plate 15: Plate 17: Plate 18: Plate 19: Plate 20:

The motte and keep viewed from the NE Possible casement in SW corner of tower The Constable’s House viewed from the SE The Bailey Area The Mill Stream to the south of the Constable’s House Church Hatch gardens to the rear of Church Hatch house Demolished north and south walls of the keep, viewed from the south. The entranceway in the east wall can be seen i n the right foreground. Unopposed windows in east and west walls of keep, viewed from west Window of the Great Hall; internal view Window of the Great Hall; external view The fireplace and chimney of the Constable’s House Remains of staircase in NW corner of Constable’s House SW wall of Constable’s House, showing chamfered line and entrances to first and ground floors as well as windows on first floor Garderobe viewed from the SW. Former basement window, blocked in the 13th century South wall of Constable’s House, viewed from the SE Plate 16: Geophysical north – south section through motte (after TAC, 2004) Estimated location of castle ditch (after TCA, 2004) Location of ironstone rubble around motte (after TCA, 2004) Estimated position of castle ditch beneath Church Hatch (after TCA, 2004) Trees blocking view of keep from Constable’s House, from the east

©Oxford Archaeology

ii

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

C HRISTCHURCH C ASTLE AND C ONSTABLE ’ S H OUSE G UARDIANSHIP S ITES , C HRISTCHURCH , D ORSET CULTURAL HERITAGE BASELINE STUDY FOR

ENGLISH HERITAGE

Summary

Oxford Archaeology was commissioned by English Heritage to compile a Cultu ral Heritage  Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle, Christchurch in Dorset (formerly Hampshire) centred on SZ 16013 92573. The aim of this study was to collate all existing data on the two monuments within the castle grounds (The motte /keep and the Constable’s House), to place them in their historical and archaeological context and then collate all available information on previous studies and survey work carried out within the castle. This information would then be used to address what research questions could be addressed by further works and to inform future management of the Site. The study reported that the motte and keep, along with the Constable’s House, are the only elements of the former castle that survive as above gro und features. These features are all Grade I Listed Structures and are located withi n a Scheduled Monument (no: 2292) that also includes Church Hatch Gardens and Christchurch Priory to the sout h. The castle appears to be early 12th century in origin with t he motte, keep and Constable’s  House all dating from the mid to late part of this century. The motte and the bailey were surrounded by a curtain wall and a substantial ditch that was fed with water from the artificial waterway known as the Mill Stream that runs north – south in the east of the Site. A  partially surviving stone-built keep sits on the motte, while the Constable’s House is the only surviving building within the bailey area, although a number of ancillary buildings are suspected to have also existed here in the past. The castle was besieged during the Civil War during the reign of Stephen in the mid-12th century and again during the civil war of the 17 th th th century. The Site went through periods of decline and rebuilding throughout the 14  and 15 centuries, before being partly demolished and abandoned after the Civil War in 1650. Geophysical survey work by The Christchurch Antiquarians, a local h istory group, in the 2000s established the position and dimensions of the former castle ditch and suggested that the motte has been constructed in a number of separate phases, including expansions to the north and south during the Civil War in the 17 th century. These surveys have also indicated the presence of former buildings to the south and south west of the Constable’s House. The study suggests that further documentary and no n-intrusive work should be carried out to clarify some of the questions raised by this study. Further clarifications through limited excavation have been suggested but should not be in conflict with the preferred option of  preservation in situ. It was also noted that the pollarding of mature trees close to the centre of the Site would improve lines of sight between the motte and the Constable’s House, thus improving the public enjoyment of the monument.

©Oxford Archaeology

iii

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

Acknowledgements Oxford Archaeology would like to thank The Christchurch Antiquarians (TCA) for all their help in the preparation of this Study, in particular, Roger Donne, Davis Eels, Mike Tizzard, Adrian Tattersfield, Peter Fenning and Suzanne Popesco, all of whom kindly took the writer on an extensive tour of the Site on 3 rd October 2011. Special thanks are due to Roger Donne, the Secretary of the TCA for arranging the site meeting and setting up various introductions, David Eels for his extensive knowledge of the history of the Site that was so readily and enthusiastically supplied, Mike Tizzard for doing the same with archaeology and Adrian Tattersfield for information on the geophysical surveys and the lithology of the castle. Thanks also to Hugh Beamish, Inspector of Ancient Monuments, English Heritage (South West Region) and Heather Sebire, Properties Curator (West Territory). Hampshire and Dorset County Council Record Offices were visited to view historic mapping and unpublished sources, including sketches of the Site. Roger Mills of the Dorset Castles Research Group (DCRG) also supplied much useful information on the Anglo-Saxon history of Christchurch.

©Oxford Archaeology

iv

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House Guardianship Sites, Christchurch, Dorset CULTURAL HERITAGE BASELINE STUDY FOR

ENGLISH HERITAGE

1

INTRODUCTION

1.1.1

This report has been written in response to the need to collate and enhance data on Christchurch Castle, in Christchurch, Dorset. Principally this constitutes the motte, keep and the Constable’s House (the Site). The main aim of the work is to produce a detailed baseline study that will enable informed decisions to be made on the future management of the resource. This study has been undertaken in accordance with a brief provided by English Heritage (July 2011), who are funding this work.

1.1.2

This study begins with a general summary discussion of the prehistory and early history of the Christchurch area, followed by more detailed background sections on the history of the motte, keep, the bailey and the Constable’s House. The existing condition of the Site is then described, followed by an analysis of the Site’s archaeological potential. Suggestions for future work that can answer some of the questions raised during the previous sections are then followed by a conclusion.

2

LOCATION , GEOLOGY AND TOPOGRAPHY

2.1.1

The area to be considered in this Baseline Study is delineated in Figure 2. The Site includes the remains of Christchurch Castle, partly owned by The Meryck family and Dorset County Council and the section of Church Hatch Gardens that remains in private ownership.

2.1.2

The remains of Christchurch Castle are located c 50 metres to the south east of the centre of the medieval town of Christchurch, Dorset (formerly Hampshire), centred on SZ16013 92573 (Figure 1). These remains consist of a partially surviving tower keep constructed from stone blocks of varying types, located at the centre of a roughly circular motte constructed from earth and rubble. The Constable’s House is made up of the former Great Hall of the castle, located c 60 metres to the north east of the motte on the west bank of an artificial waterway known as the Mill Stream. Between these two monuments is an open area covered with mature trees, a bowling green and several public footpaths that occupy the area of the former castle bailey. The bailey is an open area to the east of the motte originally surrounded by a curtain wall and ditch, which once contained a series of buildings of which the Constable’s House is the only surviving element. The only other standing building within the Site is the clubhouse on the south west corner of the bowling green that dates from the th 20  century.

2.1.3

th Church Hatch (Figure 3) is a large 18   century dwelling (OA 18) c10 metres to the south of the motte. This building had a formal garden to the east that once extended as far as Mill Stream. Around two-thirds of this garden is now a public park to the south of the Site, while the western third remains a private garden but lies within the Site.

2.1.4

The Site is generally flat and is located at c 2.5m OD, with the exception of the motte, which rises c 9m above the surrounding area. The Site is located on a spur of gravel terrace between the River Avon to the east and the River Stour to the west. The underlying geology of the Site is Quaternary Valley Gravel (BGS, 1947, Sheet 329).

©Oxford Archaeology

1

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

3

METHODOLOGY AND SOURCES

3.1

Sources Consulted

3.1.1

Data for a c 1km radius around the Site was collected from the sources below where applicable in order order to put the Site into its overall overall context. Data for a more detailed study area, c  100 metres from the centre point of the castle, has been plotted on Figure 4 to aid aid the more detailed detailed analysis of the castle itself. This data has been been captured through GIS and associated databases. Each asset identified has been given an individual OA number, plotted on the GIS and discussed in the text where relevant. The relative heritage sensitivity of each asset is also listed in the gazetteer (Appendix 1).

3.1.2

The Dorset Historic Environment Record (DHER; held by Dorset County Council) and the National Monument Record (NMR; held by English Heritage) are the main repositories of archaeological archaeological data for the t he Site. Both were contacted and supplied data on known heritage assets within the study area. Aerial photographs of the Site were viewed at the NMR Air Photo Library in Swindon on 6 th  October 2011. Dorset and Hampshire County Record Offices were visited to obtain historic maps and to review unpublished sources. TCA, a local history group, who have carried out a number of studies on the Site, including several geophysical surveys, were also consulted and supplied their own data on the Site. Roger Mills from The Dorset Castles Research Group (DCRG) also provided much useful data. English Heritage made all data relating to the Site freely available from the NMR. A full list of sources consulted can be found in Appendix Two.

3.2

Methodology for assessing monument sensitivity

3.2.1

4

The sensitivity of the heritage assets within the Site has been assessed according to each asset’s susceptibility to changes in structure and setting, guided by the English Heritage document entitled The Setting of Heritage Assets  (October 2011). The results of this assessment are presented in full in Appendix One.

DESIGNATED SITES AND SENSITIVITY

4.1

Designated Sites

4.1.1

The Site constitutes the northern half of a larger Scheduled Monument (SM no:22962) (Figures 2 and 3). The Site includes the motte, keep (OA 2) and Constable’s House (OA 1. The motte and keep are also Grade I Listed Buildings (no: 101451), as is the Constable’s House (no: 101453). The remaining part of the Scheduled area 70 m to the south of the motte, which is not part of the Site, includes the Augustan Priory of Christchurch. Christchurch.

4.1.2

There are three other Scheduled Monuments within the wider study area (OA 10, 11 and 42). The Saxon Cemetery (OA 10, SM no: 1018277) is located adjacent to Christchurch Priory and immediately to the south of the Site. The north west corner of the former Saxon  Burgh ditch of Twinham (OA 11, SM no: 1002371) c 135 metres to the north west of the Site is scheduled, while the Town Bridge (OA 42, SM no: DO830) is located c 20 metres to the north east. This bridge is also a Grade I Listed Structure (no: 101454). 101454). These are shown shown of Figure 2.

4.1.3

There are a further 30 Listed Structures within the study area (OA 12-41). Of these three (OA 15, 17 and 18) are Grade II* and the remainder are Grade II.

4.1.4

The Site is located in the Christchurch Central Conservation Area, designated by Dorset County Council in September 2005. This is defined by the Planning (Listed Building and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 as ‘an area of special architectural or historic interest, the character and appearance of which it is desirable to preserve or enhance’ (DCC, 2005).

©Oxford Archaeology

2

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

5

ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

5.1

Summary of pre-medieval activity

5.1.1

The Site is located on the northern edge of Christchurch Harbour where the rivers Stour and Avon empty into the English Channel (Figure 2). This location would always have been a good strategic location and attractive to settlement.

5.1.2

Christchurch Harbour was the site of a substantial settlement from the Bronze Age onwards with the development of the promontory settlement at Hengistbury Head on the south side of the harbour. This site developed throughout the Iron Age into a major trading port trading between the south coast of Britain and the continent (Cunliffe, 1987). Bronze Age settlement and the remains of a number of round barrows have also been recorded on the north side of the harbour at Bargates c 800 metres to the north west of the Site (Jarvis, 1978), while stray finds from the Bronze and Iron Ages have been made up to 1 km to the north of the Site over the past century. These include an Iron Age bronze bowl (OA 7) which was recorded as having been found by workmen digging along Castle Street, c 10 metres to the north west of the Site in c 1909 and later sold by a local antique dealer to OGS Crawford. Due to the nature of the find’s recovery, it is not known whether this bowl was found within an archaeological feature.

5.1.3

Hengistbury declined in importance during the Roman period (AD43-AD410) as other ports such as Portchester were developed at its expense. There is little evidence for Roman activity within the Study Area. Some fragments of Romano-British material have been recorded during excavations at the Town Hall Car Park c  250 metres to the north of the Site (DHER, MDO8708 and 19388).

5.1.4

In the late 9   century Alfred The Great rebuilt the harbour as a defence against Danish incursions. Alfred decided to base the new defended settlement or  Burgh on the north side of the harbour, controlling the mouths of the Avon and Stour Rivers (Keen, 1984). This early medieval settlement was called Twinham, a corruption of the Anglo-Saxon ‘betweon eam’ meaning’ between the waters’ due to its location in between the two rivers (Eels, 2005). Control of the Avon was seen as particularly important at this time as it led to the regionally important town of Salisbury. Twinham formed part of a system of  Burghs positioned along the south coast and is listed in the ‘Burghal Hidage’ (c.AD 915-920), a catalogue of defended settlements across the south of England.

5.1.5

Excavations within Christchurch in the late 1970s and early 1980s (Jarvis, 1982 and 1985 and Davies, 1983) have established the position of the former  Burgh ditch (OA 11). The known and predicted line of this ditch has been plotted on Figure 2. It appears from this that the Site was located in the south east corner of the Burgh. This assumes that the Burgh ditch merges with the Mill stream to form the eastern edge of the Site, but if its true line is followed then it may run through the east of the Site, although this is less likely. A lack of evidence from this period means that the nature and use of the Site itself within Twinham is not known, although it is suggested that an earlier wooden castle inhabited the Site as part of the Burgh defences. However, no documentary or physical evidence for this has been found.

5.1.6

Stone fragments found in the ditch fill during the excavations mentioned above suggest that the ditch was accompanied by a bank which may have had a wall built on top of it, as was the case at Wareham to the west (Keen, 1984, 153). Further traces of a ditch were noted during a watching brief at The King’s Arms Hotel c15 metres to the north of the Site (OA 8), in 1987 (Jarvis, 1987). It was suggested that this ditch was a part of the Burgh defences, but no firm evidence was available to support this theory.

5.1.7

The settlement itself appears to have been relatively small when compared to nearby towns such as Wareham. Its importance appears to have stemmed from the presence

th

©Oxford Archaeology

3

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

of a royal mint, attested to by the multiple finds of Anglo-Saxon coins during the various excavations across the town in the 1980s (Jarvis, 1985, Davies, 1983). Twinham may also have been the site of a Saxon royal residence at the time of King Alfred at the end of the 9 th century. This residence is mentioned during the revolt of Alfred’s son Ethelwold, who seized Twinham during his dispute with Alfred’s successor, Edward The Elder (Coulstock, 1993, 62). However, no archaeological evidence for a residence has been found to date (Davies, 1983, 21) and its location remains unknown. 5.1.8

There is indirect evidence of an early medieval church at Twinham on the site of the 11th century Christchurch Priory that currently stands to the south of the Site (Keen, 1984, 214-5). Randulph Flambard is recorded as having demolished a number of ecclesiastical buildings, including a possible Minster church, to make way for the current Priory in the late 11th century. There are also three Anglo-Saxon Charters of 956, 985 and 1053, all of which deal with the granting of lands to the church ( ibid ). ).

5.1.9

Domesday lists the manor of Twinham as being a royal possession and makes no mention of any castle, nor of the Priory mills or indeed, the Mill Stream. After the beginning of construction of Christchurch Priory in 1094, the town became known as Christchurch rather than Twinham, although this change in name appears to have been a gradual process (Keen, 1984). Saxo-Norman pits and the remains of timberframed houses were recorded at the Dolphin Development (OA 9),  c 30 metres west of the Site, in the mid-1970s (Jarvis, 1983).

5.2

General History of the Site

5.2.1

Christchurch Castle was constructed by the De Redvers family, probably in the early 12th century, although the exact date is unclear. Certainly the castle appears to have been in existence by 1107 (Eels, 2005). The De Redvers family had been granted the manor of Twinham in c 1100 by Henry I, probably following their support for Henry in a dispute with his two elder brothers (Eels, letter to English Heritage, September 2010).

5.2.2

The castle was located within the boundaries of the original Saxon  Burgh, at the shortest crossing point over the River Avon, utilising the island that is located immediately to the east of the Site at the mouth of the Avon, reducing it to two narrow channels. It was situated to control the harbour, the river crossing of the Avon and inland access via the Rivers Avon and Stour. Due to this riverside location, the castle was founded on a relatively r elatively low-lying site, c  2.5 metres OD and lower than the site of Christchurch Priory to t he south.

5.2.3

The castle was occupied in the winter of 1147/8 by supporters of King Stephen, while the then Lord, Baldwin De Redvers, was involved in the Second Crusade ( ibid ). ). Stephen’s forces appear to have been driven out by those loyal to De Redvers, who was an opponent of Stephen during the civil war with Matilda (1139-1148). The castle appears to have gone through a period of decline prior to the granting of the manor to William De Montagu in 1331, for a series of restorative works were carried out during his tenure, including the building of a bridge over the southern moat to allow his wife easy access to Christchurch Priory. The castle was in a period of th decline again in the 15   century and was described by John Leland in 1540 as ‘far gone into decay’. Some sections of the moat to the north appear to have been in-filled at this time and covered by housing from the town (TCA, 2003, 3-9).

5.2.4

The manor was in the possession of the Arundell family of Wardour during the English Civil War (1642 -1651) and was held for the King by Sir John Mills. In 1644 the town was captured by parliamentary forces. These were in turn forced out in January 1645 by Lord Goring. During the Civil War the motte appears to have been re-fortified and possibly used as an artillery platform. The motte has fl attened areas to the north and south of the keep, each extending c  10 metres with upturns at the

©Oxford Archaeology

4

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

extremities (Eels, 2005). These extensions may be related to this Civil War activity. It appears that many of the houses that had encroached over the in-filled moat were cleared away at this time and the ditch around the motte re-established (TCA, 2003, 3-10). 5.2.5

In 1650 the castle was ordered to be demolished by parliament, although this order does not seem to have been carried out at once. The north and south walls of the keep were demolished and the other two walls were reduced in height. The Constable’s House may have continued to be used as a dwelling after the demolition of the keep tower, but is known to have been roofless and abandoned by 1776.

5.2.6

A sketch dated 1783 (Hodges, 1978) looking from the north east towards the Constable’s House, shows a timber-framed lean-to building attached to its north wall that covers a large percentage of the large ornate window at this end of the building. It also shows a timber-framed building to the north west of the Constable’s House which may be the same building as that labelled ’Brew House’ on the estate map of 1790 (Figure 8).

5.2.7

Four buildings, including the Old Courthouse, and associated yards are shown to exist along the south side of Castle Street, on the northern edge of the Site, on an estate map of 1790 (Figure 8). These buildings may be former elements from within the castle bailey that, like the Constable’s House, continued to be used after the demolition of the keep. The map also shows a Sparks Yard to the north of the Constable’s House and an area labelled Garden between the bowling green and the Road and a further garden to the south of the Constables House (TCA, 2003, 3-11). The Old Courthouse is seen to be still surviving on the 1843 Tithe map (Figure 5).

5.2.8

The Ordnance Survey (OS) Map of 1870 clearly shows the Old Courthouse in the north of the Site, set back from the road (Figure 6). Its position has led to the speculation that it may lie very close to, or above, the castle gate (TCA, 2003, 5-3). The map also labels ‘Ditch’ (site of)’ to the north of the motte alongside Castle Street and to the west along Church Street, just outside the Site as defined. The map shows the Gardens to the north of the bowling green in detail and show that they have extended to the north abutting Castle Street in the area previously occupied by the buildings and yards. A later edition of the OS map from 1924 (Figure 7) shows no details within Church Hatch Gardens but does show the former bowling club pavilion in the north east corner of the Site, along with a dot labelled ‘SD’ which represents the location of a former sundial.

5.2.9

The keep and The Constable’s House appear to have remained in a ruined state up to the 1950s when the Department of the Environment began a programme of stabilisation and consolidation on the two structures. Although little documentation on these works survives, it appears that they were still in progress when the Site was photographed from the air in July 1957 (OS/57R1/015).

5.3

The motte and keep

5.3.1

The date of the current keep tower has not been established with any certainty. It has been suggested (Wood, 1956) that the original motte was enlarged c  1300 to accommodate the stone-built keep when the castle came into the possession of William De Montagu. The chamfered corners of the tower however are of a late 12 th century style, with parallels found at other castles of the period, such as Orford, Chilham and Odiham (Eels, letter to EH, September 2010). The Christchurch Antiquarians (TCA, 2003, 3-7) suggest that the keep may be post-1179 in origin and a report on a survey of the castle undertaken in August 1300, indicates that the keep was in existence then and had in fact been in existence for some time before (Eels, letter to EH, September 2010). Stuart Rigold suggested that the chamfered corners may be later additions to a much older t ower (Renn, 1987, 59). It is unclear as to what preceded the stone keep. It has been suggested that the original structure may have

©Oxford Archaeology

5

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

been of timber (Wood, 1956, 1), but no archaeological evidence has yet been found to support this theory.

Plate 1: The motte and keep viewed fro m the NE

5.3.2

The relative histories of the motte and the keep are also uncertain. Evidence of a partially buried casement on the outside of the west keep wall (Plate 2) and an absence of a battered plinth at the base of the tower, which is often found at other sites, suggests that the motte was heightened after the keep was completed (TCA, 2005, 11). TCA have suggested ( ibid ), that this may mean the keep was constructed before the motte, which was then built up around it and that the buried casement may suggest the presence of a basement room. Rigold (Arch. Journal, 1966) also makes this suggestion following some limited excavation at the base of the tower in the mid1960s (Cathcart King , 1983).

©Oxford Archaeology

6

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

Plate 2: Possible casement in SW corner of tower 5.4

The Constable’s House

5.4.1

The great hall of the castle, known as ‘The Constable’s House’ seems to have been constructed between 1160 and 1180 (Wood, 1956, 1). This building appears to have largely retained its original structure, leaving it as one of the best preserved Norman Halls in England. A garderobe was added to the south east corner of the building in the 13th century, followed by a watergate  c 1260.

Plate 3: The Constable’s House viewed from the SE

©Oxford Archaeology

7

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

5.5

The Bailey Area

5.5.1

The bailey would have been surrounded by a defensive wall that enclosed the Site with a ditch set along its outer face. The assumed line of the wall has been plotted on Figure 3. None of this wall survives, while the ditch appears to have been in-filled since at least the 18th  century. It is likely that there were numerous other ancillary buildings within the bailey, although no traces of these structures survive, nor have any remains been clearly identified. A survey of the castle in 1300 describes the Site as being in a very poor condition and lists some of the buildings that existed within it, namely the keep and the Constable’s House, along with a chapel and small cellar ‘beyond the gate’. It has been suggested that ‘Presuming ‘beyond the gate’ to mean ‘just inside the gate’, this would support an assumption that the Castle had a chapel built onto its outer wall, which is a feature of the construction of other castles, such as Durham Castle’ (TCA 2003, 5-4).

5.5.2

Archaeological investigations within the bailey have been limited, mainly due to the presence of the bowling green, however, a watching brief was conducted at the new Bowls Clubhouse in the south west of the bailey in 1987 (OA 5  - seen on Figure 4). These limited observations made during the excavation of foundation trenches th th identified sherds of 13  / 14  century pot and a possible floor surface. Deposits that may have been from within the castle ditch were also recorded, although the geophysical survey (TCA, 2004) appears to suggest that the route of the ditch took it to the south of the clubhouse and therefore away from the excavated area (Plate 19).

Plate 4: The Bailey Area

5.5.3

A gatehouse also appears to have once existed on Castle Street (TCA, 2004, 3-9). The Borough accounts mentions rents paid for properties ‘..at the castle gate..’ while a list of materials refers also to ‘ III loads of clay for the house at the castle gate..’(TCA, 2004, 5-2). The property referred to in these documents was known to be located along the south side of Castle Street ( ibid ). Documents from the Civil War period state that the castle ditch was re-excavated through the garden of this property, following Castle Street down to the Mill Stream. An Old Courthouse is shown on the estate map of 1790 (Figure 8). This building appears to be located at the base of the motte, set back from Castle Street and at a slight angle to it, suggesting that it may

©Oxford Archaeology

8

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

have occupied the position of this former gatehouse. There are al so newspaper reports from 1889 (TCA, 2003, 5-3) that report surviving visible remains of a gatehouse or castle retaining wall along Castle Street. The presence of a courthouse within the castle complex would suggest that the Site was functioning in a similar way to a country manor house; being the recognised location of local assizes. 5.5.4

The Mill Stream is a stone-lined waterway than runs from the second meander in the River Avon, southwards past the castle and the Priory, before emptying into the mouth of the River Stour. The origins of this stream are unknown, although it seems likely that it is at least as old Christchurch Priory, serving the Priory’s two mills (Eels, 2005). These mills are mentioned in documents relating to the Priory, but have not been excavated. There is some suggestion (Eels, pers.com.) that the stream could be a good deal older and that it may have powered mills associated with the Saxon ecclesiastical site that pre-dated the priory, although there is no direct evidence for this and there is no mention of the stream in Domesday.

Plate 5: The Mill Stream to the south of the Constable’s House 5.6

5.6.1

Church Hatch

The origin of the formal gardens to the rear of Church Hatch, a domestic dwelling located at the entrance to Christchurch Priory Grounds dating from 1741, is unclear. They are not shown on the estate map of  c 1790 (Figure 8), but are very well detailed on the First Edition OS map of 1870 (Figure 6). The gardens stretched eastwards from the rear of Church Hatch (OA 18), to the Mill Stream and included two oval plan paths and shorter cross paths with formal avenues and small copses of trees. At some point in the 20th century the gardens were split with t he western third remaining as the back garden to Church Hatch (Plate 5a) and the eastern two-thirds becoming a public park. This public garden does not r etain the pathways of the formal garden and was extensively remodelled, when this remodelling took place is currently unclear.

©Oxford Archaeology

9

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

Plate 5a: Church Hatch gardens to the rear of Church Hatch house 5.7

The Bowling Green

5.7.1

The date of the bowling green has not been established here but it is plotted on the estate map of 1790, which makes it a relatively early example of its kind, despite the fact that the existing bowling club itself was not established until 1925. Bowls are known to have been played from at least the 13th century, with the world's oldest surviving bowling green located at Southampton Old Bowling Green, dating to 1299.

5.7.2

The game was banned in the early 14th century due to the fear by the monarchy that it might jeopardise the practice of archery, then so important in battle. However, it is unlikely that the prohibition was taken too seriously, as the format of the game was radically developed in the following centuries (http//www.talkbowls. co.uk/guides/history_of_bowls.html, http//www.tradgames.org.uk/ games/Bowls.htm)

5.7.3

In 1845, the ban was lifted, and people were again allowed to play bowls. In 1864 William Wallace Mitchell, published his "Manual of Bowls Playing" which became the basis of the rules of the modern game and in the late 1880s the National Bowling Associations were established (ibid ). Most bowling greens date to this later Victorian period although there are a number of examples of surviving 18th century bowling greens, including those at Chiswick House (http://www.chgt.org.uk/?PageID=14), Palace Green Pavilion (http://www.palacegreenpavilion.btck.co.uk/Architecture), and Hurst Bowling Club (http://www.hurstbowlingclub.co.uk/club-history.php).

5.8

The Castle in context

5.8.1

The history of Christchurch Castle, which is one of general decline throughout the later medieval period and into the post-medieval era, reflects its position as a minor southern English castle (Julian Munby, pers. com.).

5.8.2

The Castle was not the centre of a settlement such as at Carisbrooke on the Isle of Wight (Creighton, 2005), but a later medieval addition to a previously existing Saxon fortified settlement, similar to Wareham further to the west. Once established by the De Redvers family, the castle does not appear to have functioned as a regional centre with its own estates and instead appears to have been used more like a local manor house, acting as a centre for local tax collection and assizes. This would explain the gradual decline of the Site as a redoubt. Following the construction of the Keep and the Constable’s House in the late 12th  century it seems that this initial need for a fortified point at the mouth of the River Avon declined in the 13 th century as the Site fell into disrepair. The reconstruction of the Site in the mid-14th century comes with a change of owner, however, the renovations carried out do not appear to involve

©Oxford Archaeology

10

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

repairs to, or extensions of, the castle defences. Even this period of repair is limited, th testified by the fact that the Constable’s House retains its original 12   century characteristics with no attempt to add to, or improve, what was the main residential building within the castle complex. The Site appears to continue as a manorial seat and again slips into decline into the 15th  and 16th  centuries, as the town begins to expand over its now-in-filled moat. The fact that the castle’s defences are not r epaired or strengthened throughout this period, which is one of frequent French raids on the south coast of England and which sees castles such as Portchester and Carisbrooke strengthened considerably (Higham and Barker, 1994), also implies that the Site remains relatively unimportant as a defensive point. 5.8.3

The main military asset the Site possesses, the motte with its commanding view over the mouths of the Avon and Stour, appears to be the main reason for its refortification and occupation during the Civil War. The motte would have provided an excellent firing position for guns across both rivers, but again, following the end of the war, the Site falls into decay once the Civil War defences had been destroyed.

5.8.4

In summary, the castle appears to have been developed in a period of unrest within an existing settlement which continued to develop independently of it while it fell into decay. Its only period of significant redevelopment occurred during a second period of unrest and it rapidly returned to neglect after this. The Site does not appear to have ever been more than a manorial seat that often lacked the wealth or desire to redevelop the buildings within it, hence the survival of the Constable’s House with many of its original 12th-century features intact.



THE EXISTING ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCE

6.1

The Keep and Motte

6.1.1

The motte (OA 2) is an earth and rubble mound, sub-rectangular in shape with a roughly flattened summit and steep sides (Plate 1). It averages seven metres in height, with a maximum height of 11.3 metres above the surrounding area and measures 55 metres north to south by 45 metres east to west. At the centre of the motte is a stonebuilt keep. This is rectangular in plan with chamfered corners. Internally it measures 12.5 metres north to south by c11 metres east to west with the walls themselves  c 3 metres in thickness. The building appears to have been at least originally three storeys high (Wood, 1956, 6) with the entrance at first floor level. The north and south walls have been demolished to the surface of the motte (Plate 6), while the east and west walls survive to a height of  c 8m. There are arched windows in both the east and west walls. These are unopposed and are 2.13 and 2.05 metres wide respectively and  c 4.5 metres high (Plate 7). What appears to be an entranceway is located in the south east corner of the tower. This is 1.7 metres wide and  c 4 metres high.

©Oxford Archaeology

11

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

Plate 6: Demolished north and south walls of the keep, viewed from the south. The entranceway in the east wall can be seen in t he right foreground.

Plate 7: Unopposed windows in east and west walls of keep, viewed from west

6.1.2

The walls of the keep are roughly a mix of one brown ironstone to nine of various types of greyish-white limestone. The ironstone deposits appear to originate from

©Oxford Archaeology

12

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

Hengistbury Head (Tattersfield, pers. comm.), 2 km to the south of the Site, while most of the limestones are either Portland or Purbeck types, originating from quarries in West Dorset (TCA, 2003, 4-2). Fragments of Purbeck Shelly and Ham Hill limestones have also been identified in the walls (Site Visit, September 2011). A visual lithological survey has suggested that eight to nine different types of stones have been used (TCA, 2003, 4-3). 6.2

The Bailey Area

6.2.1

The bailey (Plate 4) is sub-rectangular in plan, measuring c 75 metres by 75 metres that is now a levelled area of grass, mostly taken up with a bowling green, but also including the new bowls clubhouse. The Mill Stream forms the eastern boundary of this area with Castle Street to the north. To the south the area is bounded by Church Hatch Gardens and to the west by a public footpath separating it from the motte. The only original building to survive within the bailey is the former great hall, now known as ‘The Constable’s House’.

6.3

The Bowling Green

6.3.1

The bowling green is located at the centre of the former bailey area, immediately to the south west of the Constable’s House. The green is square in plan, occupying an area of 1555 square metres and is c  150-300mm lower than the surrounding ground level. A French drain has been dug around the edge of the green and filled with loose gravel. The grass used for the green appears to be the close-cut Cumberland turf commonly used for flat green bowling.

6.4

The Constable’s House

6.4.1

The Constable’s House (OA 1) is located in what is now the gardens of The King’s Arms Hotel which is located to the north of Castle Street (OA 39) with the Mill Stream immediately to the east and the bowling green to the west. The Site is open to the public, who can access the building free of charge. The walls are constructed from the same mix of limestones and ironstone that make up the keep tower, along with fragments of tufa.

6.4.2

The hall originally contained two floors. The lower floor or basement level which measures c  22 metres long by 8 metres wide has three narrow, slit-like windows that mimic the arrow slits of Norman castles. Although these are widely splayed they would not have had a defensive purpose, but were simply used for light (Wood, 1956, 2).

6.4.3

The upper floor was subdivided into two rooms, the northerly of which was the great hall itself with a large, arched window in the north facing wall. The window bay is lined with dressed limestone with a decorated window mullion, while the arch is decorated with roll-and-groove ornament, the remains of which can be seen supported on jamb-shafts with scalloped capitals and moulded bases (Plate 8). On the external side of this window the limestone over the arch has been decorated with chevron carvings while the head of what appears to be a leopard has been placed above the top of the arch (Plate 9). Leopards are commonly used in heraldry and do not appear to be closely linked with any of the families who occupied the castle.

©Oxford Archaeology

13

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

Plate 8: Window of the Great Hall; internal view

Plate 9: Window of the Great Hall; external view

©Oxford Archaeology

14

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

6.4.4

The remains of a fireplace survive in the eastern upper floor wall of the building with a partially reconstructed chimney above (Plate 10). Above this the remains of crenulations from the castle defences can be seen. Two arched windows are located on either side of the fireplace. A newel-staircase is contained within a square turret in the north east corner of the building (Plate 11). This has mostly collapsed, although the structure of the staircase is still clearly visible.

Plate 10: The fireplace and chimney of the C onstable’s House

©Oxford Archaeology

15

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

Plate 11: Remains of staircase in NW corner of Constable’s House

6.4.5

The Hall entrance is located on the west side of the building. This has a round arch which probably opened into a passage that divided the two rooms on the first floor. The staircase that once led up to the entrance has been lost but evidence for it can still be seen in the disturbed masonry to the south of the door (Plate 12). To the north of the entrance is a line of chamfered stone that may mark where a lean-to building once existed on the western side of the hall (Wood, 1956, 3). This is not the lean-to building noted in the sketch of the Constables House dating from 1783 (para.5.2.6). The entrance to the basement floor is located halfway along this lean-to construction.

©Oxford Archaeology

16

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

Plate 12: SW wall of Constable’s House, showing chamfered line and entrances to first and ground floors as well as windows on first floor

6.4.6

A garderobe or privy tower is located in the south east corner of the building (Plate 13). The lower part of this structure is largely intact, including the arches over the Mill Stream; however, the upper section has been lost. A sub-rectangular opening immediately to the north of the garderobe is a watergate. This has a segmental arch on projecting imposts below a roughly triangular relieving arch. A third slit window originally existed in the east wall. The garderobe tower was slanted to avoid this window, which was then blocked off following the completion of the watergate in 1260 (Plate 14).

Plate 13: Garderobe viewed from the SW.

©Oxford Archaeology

17

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

th

Plate 14: Former basement window, blocked in the 13  century

6.4.7

The south wall survives to its full height with an ovoid window in the gable (Plate 15). There is another doorway at first floor level in the south west corner and one at ground floor level at the halfway point of the building that has been blocked up at some indeterminate point. The wall in the south east corner, where it adjoins the garderobe, is wider than in the rest of the building, suggesting that it may have formed a section of the castle’s east curtain wall as well as supporting the Constable’s House (Wood, 1956)

Plate 15: South wall of Constable’s House, viewed from the SE

©Oxford Archaeology

18

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

6.5

Previous Impacts

6.5.1

It is known from the estate plan of 1790 (Figure 8) and from the first edition OS map of 1870 (Figure 6) that up to four buildings once stood along the northern edge of the bailey area, fronting onto Castle Street between the late 18 th and late 19th centuries. These include the courthouse building on the north east edge of the motte, yards and a brew house to the north west of the Constable’s House. The estate map also shows a Sparks Yard to the north of the Constable’s House, an area labelled ‘Garden’ between the bowling green and the Castle Street and a further garden to the south of the Constable’s House. These previous structures would have had some impact on any surviving sub-surface deposits associated with the castle bailey, such as the foundations and floors of former buildings along with curtain wall foundations. In between these buildings the impacts of former yard surfaces, gardens and footpaths would have made far less of an impact.

6.5.2

An earlier Clubhouse for the Bowling Green was located along Castle Street on the northern edge of the Site, as seen on the 1924 OS map of the Site (Figure 7), before being moved to its current location to the south west of the Green in 1925. The green is located c 150-300mm lower than the surrounding area. If the green was excavated to this depth then its construction will have impacted on any surviving medieval deposits and structures associated with the former bailey. It is also possible however, th that taking into account its considerable age (late 18   century at least), that the surrounding levels have been built up and / or landscaped around it in this time, creating the sunken appearance the green has today, which would therefore have involved no excavation into the medieval castle deposits below.

6.5.3

Elements of the formal 19 th  century garden associated with Church Hatch may survive as sub-surface features, although the gardens themselves lie to the south of the Site that is being considered by this Study.

7

GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS

7.1

Introduction

7.1.1

In order to answer some of these questions posed in Section 7.1 geophysical surveys have been undertaken by The Christchurch Antiquarians (TCA) in 2003, 2004 and again in 2010. The 2004 survey involved the application of magnetic/magnetic gradient, electromagnetic inductive conductivity, galvanic electrical resistivity imaging, self-potential and ground penetrating radar. The 2006 Survey was a mixture of geophysical techniques including resistivity i maging and ground penetrating radar, while the 2010 work consisted of a survey of the motte using a Geonics portable conductivity meter.

7.1.2

The first survey of 2003 investigated three sites. Site 1 covered the motte, keep and an area immediately around measuring 60 metres north to south and 50 metres east to west (TCA, 2004, fig. 8-1). Site 2 covered the area of the bowling green within the former bailey measuring 80 metres north south by 70 metres east – west ( ibid , fig 91). Site 2A included part of the gardens to the rear of 18 Church Street (OA 18), known as Church Hatch and in part of the Priory grounds that was once part of these gardens (ibid , fig. 10-1). Transects were also surveyed from Ducking Stool Lane to Castle Street and from here across the bowling green to Church Hatch gardens. A series of transects was also carried out along Castle Street.

7.1.3

Further work was carried out on the Site in 2004 by Lancaster University as part of an undergraduate dissertation (TCA, 2004, 33). Work around the motte was limited to ascertaining the presence of a buried ditch at the south east corner of the motte. A second area within Church Hatch Public Gardens was also surveyed.

7.1.4

A third survey was conducted by TCA in July 2010 with the results published in February 2011. This survey re-investigated the anomalies noted on the motte in 2003.

©Oxford Archaeology

19

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

7.2

7.2.1

The Keep and Motte (2003 Survey)

The survey of the motte and keep concluded that: •

There is evidence for a mound-like structure c 5 to 6 metres below the keep.



A complex of construction layers was noted within the motte.



There are indications of a vertical structure with an in-filling of loose debris within the structure of the keep.



There is evidence for some form of concave structure (Plate 16 – position of section shown on Figure 3) forming the northern rim of the motte. Between this and north wall of the keep is an area of complex in-filling c  8 metres in depth. There is some evidence for a similar structure to the south of the keep.



A 6 metre-wide anomaly was recorded running ENE to WSW from the north keep wall towards Church Street.



Readings suggest that there is a ditch, 4-8 metres wide and 2-4 metres deep surrounding the motte (Plate 17). There is less convincing evidence for a ditch extending east along Castle Street. There is also evidence for a second ditch on the north side of Castle Street.



A number of anomalies appear to be due to the presence of ironstone rubble to the north and south of the keep associated with the tower’s partial demolition in the 1650s (Plate 18). High concentrations of rubble within the keep tower suggest that this building is cellared and has been in-filled with collapsed material.

Plate 16: Geophysical north – south section through motte (after TAC, 2004)

©Oxford Archaeology

20

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

Plate 17: Estimated location of castle ditch (after TCA, 2004)

Plate 18: Location of ironstone rubble around motte (after TCA, 2004)  Interpretation

7.2.2

The results of the 2003 surveys have started to answer some of the questions posed above (7.1). The evidence for a mound-like structure c 5-6 metres below the keep, suggests that it was originally sited on a much smaller earthwork and that the current motte has been built-up around it. The complexity of layering within the body of the motte suggests that it was constructed by a large number of labourers using small

©Oxford Archaeology

21

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

amounts of material at one time. The loose debris within the tower suggests that it is cellared and that this has become in-filled with rubble associated with the demolition of the tower. The northern rim of the motte appears to be a deliberate construction and the extra in-filling to the north and south of the tower appears to suggest that it was extended in both directions, supporting the theory that the feature was extended in the 17th century (TCA, 2004). 7.3

The Constable’s House and the Bailey (2003 survey)

7.3.1

The bailey area is the least understood section of the castle. It has been assumed that the bailey would have included a number of ancillary buildings, probably made from both timber and stone, but no firm evidence exists for how this area would have been laid out.

7.3.2

The survey of the bailey area found: •

What appears to be the north west corner of a building adjacent to the south west corner of the Constable’s House.



The ditch along Castle Street was identified again, extending towards the Mill Stream. An anomaly running in parallel with this ditch was interpreted as an ancient foundation structure. Two small east – west aligned linear features were also noted to the south of this.



What appears to be the corner of a substantial building to the south of the Constable’s House.



What appears to be a substantial foundation to the south east of the bowling green.

 Interpretation

7.3.3

The possible remains on two rectangular buildings were noted to the south and south west of the Constable’s House. These are likely to be remains of former buildings from the castle bailey and provide that first evidence for the internal buildings within the bailey area which has been the subject of only speculation to this date.

7.4

Church Hatch Public Gardens (2003 survey)

7.4.1

The survey of the Church Hatch area found substantial V-shaped anomalies from the southern edge of the motte, eastwards across Church Hatch House garden and the Church Hatch public area (Plate 19). These anomalies were interpreted as the southern moat of the castle, up to 4 metres in depth and 12 metres in width.

©Oxford Archaeology

22

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

Plate 19: Estimated position of castle ditch beneath Church Hatch (after TCA, 2004)  Interpretation

7.4.2

The results showed that the former castle ditch survives as a substantial sub-surface feature between 4 and 8 metres in width and 2 to 4 metres in depth, surrounding the motte and runs from the motte to Castle Street. The ditch also appears to follow the line of Castle Street, forming the northern boundary of the castle. There is also evidence for a second ditch on the north side of Castle Street, which may indicate multiple ditch phases or possibly a double moat along this side of the castle. There is also the possibility that the northern ditch may be part of the Saxon Burgh defences that were exposed in 1987 at the King’s Arms Hotel c 15 metres to the north of the Site (OA 8) and which have yet to be mapped accurately.

7.5

The motte (2004 Surveys)

7.5.1

The survey at the south east foot of the motte found that there are two possible layouts for the ditch. One sees the ditch encircling the motte alone. In the second, the ditch encircles the motte with a second ditch running off the first and towards the Mill Stream to the east. The TCA suggest that both these routes could be authentic, with the second route representing a re-cut of the ditch in the Civil War period.

©Oxford Archaeology

23

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

7.6

7.6.1

Church Hatch Public Gardens (2004 survey)

The survey in Church Hatch Public Gardens found: •

The line of the southern ditch leading from the motte to the Mill Stream was established. The ditch was estimated to be c. 4 metres in depth and possibly up to 12 metres in width (TCA, 2004, figure 10-4) although only the north side of the feature was detected by the survey.



The measurement of comparative levels between the ditch and the Mill Stream suggests that the ditch was filled with c 2 metres of water.



There is a possibility that the line of the ditch established by the 2003 survey may in fact have been readings caused by former paths laid out in the 18 th and th 19  century when the formal gardens at Church Hatch were a single entity, as shown on the OS map of 1870. However, from the depth and width of the recorded feature, this seems unlikely.

 Interpretation

7.6.2

Readings initially thought to have been the castle ditch appear to show that elements of the former Church Hatch Gardens may survive below the 20 th century public park.

7.6.3

The 2004 survey work appears to strengthen the view that the castle ditch has developed over a number of phases. It appears that these different phases take the form of new ditch cutting, rather than the simple re-cutting of an existing feature, suggesting that the two ditches recorded along Castle Street in 2003, may indeed represent different phases and not a double ditch defence. The survey also appears to have established that the ditch would have been water-filled and supplied by the Mill Stream

7.7

7.7.1

The keep and motte (2010 Survey)

The survey of the keep and motte found that: •

There are in fact three distinctive anomalies on the motte, one to the northern margins of the motte, a second to the southern margins and a third to the north west of the keep which was noted by this survey.



The topographic variations of the motte show a correlation with the first two anomalies and support a TCA theory that the areas north and south of the keep were re-used as gun platforms during the Civil War, involving a substantial re-modelling of the motte in this period.



The east and west sections of the motte appear to be identical in their construction.

 Interpretation

7.7.2

The anomalies found around the motte appear to relate to concentrations of rubble associated with the destruction of the keep which took place sometime after 1650. These rubble concentrations will have slightly exaggerated the ovoid shape of the motte but will not have been the sole reason for its unusual form.

7.7.3

Overall, these further results have reinforced the view that the motte was extended to the north and south at some point, very probably in the 17 th century when the castle was re-fortified during the Civil War.

©Oxford Archaeology

24

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

8

ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTENTIAL AND SURVIVAL

8.1

8.1.1

Archaeological Potential

The study of the surviving features and structures within the castle has led to a number of questions arising as to the origins, character and morphology of the Site. These include: •

• •

8.2

Given the good strategic location of the Site on a spur between two water courses, was the Site utilised during the Roman and/or prehistoric periods? Establishing a date of construction for the current keep. Establishing the location and character of the original keep and the earliest phase (s) of the castle.



What is the relationship between the keep and the motte? Does the keep sit atop the motte or has the motte been built up around the keep?



Was the motte constructed in one phase or has it been developed over a number of stages?



What is the precise location and dimensions of the castle ditch? Was it filled with water from the Mill Stream or was it dry? Was the ditch in-filled during the later medieval period and re-cut at the time of the Civil War? What form did the ditch and bailey wall take?



Where was the castle gatehouse located?



What other buildings were located within the bailey area and what were their functions? What date were the buildings to the south of Castle Street seen on the 1783 drawing and 1790 estate map? Where was the 14th century southern bridge mentioned in the early documents?



Were there any ancillary buildings located around the Constable’s House? What was the ground floor plan of the Constable’s House?



What changes were made to the motte, keep and bailey wall/ditch during the Civil War of the 17 th century?



Can further light be shed on the origins of the bowling green?

Archaeological Survival

8.2.1

It is likely that the medieval and earlier below ground features within the Site will survive in good condition where not affected by later historic changes such as disturbances caused by the use of the Site during the Civil War. The area of the bowling green may have suffered some disturbance in order to create a level surface as it is possible that the level surface was achieved by removing soil to a depth of between 150-300 mm. It is also possible however that the area surrounding the green has been built-up over the past two centuries and that no disturbance was caused by the bowling green’s presence. The buildings that once stood along Castle Street along the northern edge of the Site, including the brew house and the courthouse shown on the estate map of 1790 may survive as sub-surface features. There has been some erosion of soil by the sign in the north east of the Site and alongside some paths and along areas where there are no paths but which are used as such. A building, a pavilion, can be seen in the north east of the Site on the second edition OS map of 1898, and again as a smaller structure on a map of 1924 (Figure 7) which may have affected survival in this area.

8.2.2

Around the walls of Constable’s House the ground surface has been reduced, either to reveal the lower courses of the building or to aid drainage. This will have truncated any archaeological deposits within its footprint and may have compromised the relationships between the House and surrounding archaeological remains. Alternatively truncation may only have occurred through rubble which would have

©Oxford Archaeology

25

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

surrounded the House as it slowly decayed. It is assumed that this truncation was carried out during restoration work in the 1950s. Levels of truncation within the building are less clear, although the ground level inside the building lies at the same level as the truncated level outside. 8.3

Site Sensitivity

8.3.1

9

The surviving elements of the castle, the motte, keep and Constable’s House, are considered to be of the highest sensitivity to changes in structure or setting. The Listed Buildings that surround the Site, which have been adapted and refurbished, are considered to have medium sensitivity to further change. Buried features such as the castle ditch and the  Burgh ditch are of great archaeological value, and whilst unseen are also of high sensitivity to change. The sensitivity of i ndividual features within the Site can be found in Appendix One.

RECOMMENDATIONS

9.1

Introduction

9.1.1

The archaeological potential of Christchurch Castle is substantial, in that although the history and structure of the monuments within the Site boundary are not well understood, a below-ground resource exists that can help to improve knowledge through documentary research, remote surveys and physical intervention.

9.1.2

It is clear that questions on the morphology and structure of the castle, set out in section 7.1, have only been partly answered, or in some case further complicated, by recent survey work. These questions can only be fully addressed through further documentary research, remote sensing and if possible, archaeological investigations. Where possible, further investigations should avoid damage to the existing resource, given that preservation in situ  is the preferred option for all nationally significant archaeological deposits

9.1.3

Further documentary research could include an investigation of Ministry of Works papers detailing the restorative work carried out on the Site in the 1950s. These may give some insight into the condition of the monument prior to work commencing and also on any features or deposits that were noted at this time. Further research could also be carried out on Stuart Rigold’s limited excavations around the keep tower in the mid-1960s (Rigold, 1966).

9.2

9.2.1

9.3

9.3.1

The motte and the keep

Questions usefully addressed by future work could include: •

Establishing more clearly the stratigraphical relationship between the motte and the keep tower. It seems that the motte is a multiphase structure, these phases need to be securely dated t o understand them fully.



Establishing and if possible date, the phases of motte construction identified by the geophysical surveys of 2003 and 2010. Are the extended areas of the motte to the north and south of the tower part of Civil War gun platforms as has been suggested? Secure dating is also required to answer this fully.



Carrying out investigations within the footprint of the tower to further characterise its structure, possibly establish a firm date for its construction and also find evidence for a possible earlier timber keep and/or cellar.

The Castle Ditch

The route and basic dimensions of the castle ditch have been estimated from the results of the geophysical surveys of 2003 and 2004. Further and more detailed survey along the route would:

©Oxford Archaeology

26

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

9.3.2

9.4

9.4.1

9.5

9.5.1



‘Ground truth’ the findings of the previous surveys



Trial excavation to obtain stratigraphical and artefactual evidence to establish the age of the ditch and date any periods of in-filling and re-cutting, particularly those that relate to re-use during the Civil War

An examination of the southern boundary ditch would require trenching in the Church Hatch Public Gardens, outside the Site being considered by this study. Trenching along Castle Street may not prove a practical option. However, any opportunities for the monitoring of groundworks, such as the excavation of service trenches in the road, should be taken. The Bailey

Investigations within the area of the bailey would also ‘ground truth’ possible features noted during the geophysical survey and identify the site of the castle gatehouse, the location of which has been suggested through documentary work by TCA. These investigations could also be aimed at establishing the location and character of the former bailey boundaries, including the curtain wall and the dit ch and location of a southern bridge. Works in this area could include: •

Investigations on the site of the Courthouse, close to the junction between the castle grounds and Castle Street, t o look for evidence of the gatehouse.



Investigations in the north east of the area may clarify the origins of the buildings seen here on the early historic maps (Figure 8).



Investigations along the northern edge of the Site adjacent to Castle Street and along the west bank of the Mill Stream, could establish the presence, route and character of the castle’s curtain wall. It has been suggested that fragments of this wall were visible above ground along Castle Street as late as the 1890s and therefore could be exposed by small, shallow excavations.



Investigations to the south of the Constable’s House would establish the presence / absence of the substantial L-shaped structure noted by the 2003 geophysical survey.



A further geophysical survey of the bowling green area to check again for any signs of building foundations in an attempt to characterise the layout within the bailey.



If trial trenching was possible in the area of the bowling green, then excavations could investigate the structure identified to the south west of the Constable’s House by the 2003 survey.

The Bowling Green

This study has identified the bowling green as a much more archaeologically sensitive asset that was previously thought, following its identification on the estate map of 1790. Further research should be carried out on this feature in order to establish its date of origin through; •

• •

Detailed documentary research of the bowling green from historical mapping along with data held by Dorset County Council and Christchurch town archives Documentary research on the significance of the 18 th century bowling green Establish whether the bowling green was established by raising or by cutting into the surrounding landscape or whether the landscape was built up around it.

©Oxford Archaeology

27

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

9.6

The Constable’s House

9.6.1

In the pamphlet on the Constable’s House (Wood, 1956), mention is made of the line of chamfered limestone stringcourse on the south west wall, suggesting that a lean-to structure of some kind was once attached to the building.

9.6.2

The current ground level inside the building and in a trench outside is c 0.5m lower than the ground away from the building (Plates 12 and 15), suggesting that archaeological deposits in the area of the House have either been truncated or that truncation occurred through later re deposited soil and rubble. Future works could include:

9.7

9.7.1

9.8



Clarification of truncation and survival of deposits within and outside t he Constables House.



Investigations in front of the chamfered stringcourse could record any surviving remains of a lean-to building, characterise it and date it. This could also establish if later redeposited soils have protected other medieval structures and deposits.



Carry out further investigations within the structure itself to establish any internal ground plan details that have not yet been noted and which may explain why the entrance in the south wall was blocked up.

General

It is likely that some of the works suggested above may throw light on some of the more generic questions posed; such as whether there was a prehistoric or Roman use of the Site. A Bronze Age settlement site was excavated c 500 metres to the north west of the Site in the 1980s, while individual Iron Age finds have been made within 1 km of the Site. The Site’s location, at the confluence of two rivers and so close to the major prehistoric settlement at Hengistbury Head would appear to suggest that there is some potential for prehistoric deposits within the Site. The fact that Hengistbury declined in importance in the Roman period, together with the lack of Roman finds from the immediate area of the Site, appears to suggest that the potential for further Romano-British finds is perhaps low. Improvements to the Scheduled Area

9.8.1

A line of mature trees aligned north – south currently separates the motte and keep tower from the former bailey area. These trees have been allowed to grow to heights that have now obscured the line of sight between the motte and the Constable’s House, so that one cannot currently be viewed from the other. If these trees were pollarded then the two monuments could be viewed together from a single point.

9.8.2

The roots of these trees may also be having an adverse effect on the buried archaeological resource, i.e., the castle ditch at the base of the motte (Roger Mills, pers. comm.) and structures within the bailey.

©Oxford Archaeology

28

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

Plate 20: Trees blocking view of keep from Constable’s House, from the east 10

CONCLUSIONS

10.1.1 The scope of this Baseline Study includes the remains of the former Christchurch Castle, including the motte, keep and bailey, as well as the great hall of the castle, now known as the Constable’s House, the medieval artificial waterway known as Mill Stream and the private garden to the rear of the post medieval house known as Church Hatch. The Study has established that the motte, keep and Constable’s House are Grade I Listed Structures, located within a wider Scheduled Monument that also includes Church Hatch Public Gardens and Christchurch Priory that are not within the boundaries of the Site. 10.1.2 The Site is located in an area that was already settled by the later prehistoric period, with Christchurch harbour becoming one of the most important cross-channel trading ports in the Iron Age (Cunliffe, 1987). The castle is located within the earlier Saxon  Burgh of Twinham that was founded by King Alfred as part of a system of defences against Danish raids (Haslam, 1984), although matching early origins for the castle have yet to be proven (Roger Mills, pers. comm.). 10.1.3 The castle was established to defend the crossing of the River Avon in the early 12 th century, having formally been royal lands belonging to the Late Saxon Kings and then William I. The castle consisted of a rectangular area located to the west of Mill Stream and enclosed by a curtain wall and ditch. Remains of the original castle that date from 1107 have not been found. The visible remains within the Site; the motte, the stone keep and the ‘Constable’s House’ that survive as ruins above ground, date th from the mid to late 12  century. 10.1.4 The castle appears to have gone through periods of decline and then re-development through the 14 th and 15th centuries. It was the scene of conflict in two civil wars, one during the reign of Stephen in the mid-12 th century and then during the Civil War of the 17th century. It was partly demolished and abandoned in the 1650s and was left as a ruin until taken into the care of the Department of the Environment in the mid-20 th century when the remains of the tower keep and the Constable’s House were made safe. 10.1.5 In context, the castle appears to have been developed in a period of unrest within an existing settlement which continued to develop independently of it while it fell into decay. Its only period of significant redevelopment occurred during a second period of unrest and it rapidly returned to neglect after this. The castle does not appear to have had the status of anything more than a manorial seat and appears to have often

©Oxford Archaeology

29

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

lacked the wealth to redevelop the buildings within it, hence the survival of the th Constable’s House with many of its original 12 -century features intact. 10.1.6 The motte is of an atypical in that it is sub-rectangular in plan as opposed to conical and may have been extended and redeveloped during its use in the Civil War of the 17th  century. Recent geophysical surveys have suggested that the motte may have been built over an original, smaller mound and that it may have been built around the keep tower. Evidence for possible Civil War gun platforms on the north and south sides of the motte has also been gleaned from these surveys. The surveys have also indicated that the keep tower contains a great amount of loose material which may indicate the presence of cellars in-filled with rubble from the collapsed north and south walls. 10.1.7 The geophysical surveys have also mapped the possible location of the castle ditch, which appears to have surrounded the motte and which ran eastward to the earlier Mill Stream and along the south of the Site. It would have protected a curtain wall which in turn protected the bailey. 10.1.8 The Constable’s House is a very well-preserved example of a 12 th century domestic building with partially surviving decorated window frames, staircases, a fireplace and chimney. An external garderobe and watergate were added in the 13 th  century. Geophysical surveys have suggested that further structural remains exist within the former bailey area. 10.1.9 There appears to have been a bowling green within the Site since at least the late 18 th century. Further detailed documentary research needs to be carried out to investigate the date, history and morphology of this asset. 10.1.10 Suggestions for further work have been made, including documentary research, which would help to answer a series of questions that have arisen around the morphology, character and history of the Site. 10.1.11 Any investigations around the motte and keep would concentrate on establishing the relationship between the tower keep and the motte and the identification of any earlier phases of the castle as well as characterising the construction phases of the motte, th including any extensions to this feature in the 17  century. 10.1.12 Any investigations along the line of the castle ditch would attempt to ‘ground truth’ the route of the ditch and its dimensions as well as identifying the buried remains of the curtain wall. They would also attempt to establish a firm date for the creation of the ditch and for any periods of in-filling and re-cutting that followed, in particular the re-cutting of the ditch during the Civil War of the 17 th century. 10.1.13 Any investigations within the area of the bailey would attempt to ‘ground truth’ the possible building foundations noted by the geophysical survey of 2003 to the south and possibly the south west of the Constable’s House and characterise the buildings seen on the 1790 map in the north. A further geophysical survey of the bowling green area could attempt to identify further former structures. 10.1.14 Any investigations around the Constable’s House would be aimed at characterising and dating a possible lean-to structure that may have existed immediately to the west of this building. Further investigations within the footprint of the Constable’s House could establish the ground plan of the basement floor and possibly explain the reason for the blocking of an entranceway in the south wall. Work in this area would also determine the levels of truncation and survival resulting from the 1950s restoration works. 10.1.15 Further investigations may also clarify whether the Site was utili sed in the prehistoric and Roman periods while more detailed documentary research may establish the origins of the bowling green which is known to have existed here since at least 1790.

©Oxford Archaeology

30

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

10.1.16 The pollarding of the Lime trees currently located immediately to the east of the motte would restore the line of the sight between the motte, keep and Constable’s House. 10.1.17 The archaeological potential of Christchurch Castle is substantial, in that although the history and structure of the monuments within the Site boundary are not well understood, a below-ground resource exists that, with further investigation, can help to improve knowledge of both history and structure through documentary research, remote surveys and possibly trial excavation.

©Oxford Archaeology

31

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

OA  Ref. No

 Feature Type

Description

OA 44 OA 45

Scheduled Monument Archaeological Site

OA 46

Historic Feature

OA 47

Archaeological Site

Apparent southern extension of Castle motte. Appears to date from the ci vil War in the mid -17 th century, possibly a gun platform. Possible location of the former Castle gatehouse. This building is mentioned in civic documents dating from the 16 th century. Superceded by a 19 th-century courthouse. Bowling Green within the Castle bailey area. May date from the 18th century. Is referred to in contemporary descriptions of the area. Former castle ditch. This in-filled feature has been traced by the TCA using geophysical techniques.

©Oxford Archaeology

37

Source

19/12/11

Heritage Sensitivity

TCA, 2004

High

TCA, 2004

Medium

TCA, 2004

High

TCA, 2004, 2006

Medium

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

Appendix Two: References and Sources Books and Articles

Cathcart King, D.J., 1983 Castellarium Anglicanum I  The Christchurch Antiquarians, 2004, Christchurch Castle, Dorset; Report on geophysical survey of the motte and bailey, August – October 2003, unpublished report for English Heritage The Christchurch Antiquarians, 2006, Christchurch Castle, Christchurch, Dorset: Report on Survey Work July – October 2004, unpublished report for English Heritage The Christchurch Antiquarians, 2010,  Newsletter, November 2010 The Christchurch Antiquarians, 2011, An Electromagnetic Survey at Christchurch Castle, Christchurch, Dorset, carried out in July 2010 (Licence AA/64218/5), unpublished report for English Heritage. Coulstock, P.H, 1993, The Collegiate Church of Wimbourne Minster – Studi es in the History of Medieval Religion, 5, 52 Creighton, O. H.,2005, Castles and Landscapes: Power, Community and fortification in  Medieval England (Studies in the Archaeology of Medieval Europe) Cunliffe, B. W., 1987, Hengistbury Head, Dorset, Volume I , OUCA, Monograph 13 Dorset County Council, 2005, Christchurch Central Conservation Area Appraisal and management plan – adopted September 2005 Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society,1930, Notes on the Society Outing to Christchurch, P.D.N.H.A.S, 52, lii - lv Dyson, T., 1954, The History of Christchurch – From Saxon Times to the present day Eels, D, 2005, Christchurch Castle, A Comparative Study, unpublished paper for The Christchurch Antiquarians rd

Eels, D, 2010, Letter to Dr Heather Sebire, English Heritage, dated 23  September 2010 English Heritage, 2009, Christchurch Castle and Norman House: Periodic Condition Survey  Report No:150/2009 English Heritage, 2010, Brief for a Cultural Heritage Baseline study of the Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House Guardianship Sites, Christchurch, Dorset English Heritage, 2011, The Setting of Heritage Assets Harding, P, 1983 , The 1983 Excavations, Wick Lane Access Road and Regent Cinema in Davies, S.M. Excavations at Christchurch, Dorset 1981-3, P.D.N.H.A.S, 105, 21-56 Higham, R. and Barker, P., 1994, Timber Castles Hodges, M.A, 1978, Prepared for Battle: Some details of forts and fights in and near Christchurch over the last three millennia, Christchurch

©Oxford Archaeology

38

19/12/11

Baseline Study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset

Hodges, M.A., 2003, Christchurch Castle: A Short History Jarvis, K, 1982, Steamer Point, Christchurch, P.D.N.H.A.S, 104, 172 Jarvis, K, 1985, Christchurch, King’s Arms Hotel Watching Brief , P.D.N.H.A.S, 107, 169-170 Keen, L., 1984, The Towns of Dorset  in Haslam, J, Ed, Anglo-Saxon Towns in Southern  England Newman, S., 1998, Christchurch Oxford Archaeology, 2011, Project Design for the study of Christchurch Castle and Constable’s House, Christchurch, Dorset Renn, D., 1987, Ludlow Castle, in Kenyon and Brent Castles in Wales and the  Marches: Cardiff. Rigold, S., 1966, Christchurch Castle, The Archaeological Journal, Vol CXXIII, 204-5 Stannard, M., 1999, The Makers of Christchurch, A Thousand Year Story Taylor, C, 1994, Christchurch: A Pictorial History Wood, M, 1956, Christchurch Castle, Hampshire, English Heritage Guide Book, reprinted 1974 Sketches and Pictures

Sketch of Christchurch Castle 1783 – Hampshire Record Office Pencil sketch of the Constable’s House circa 1840 – Hampshire Record Office Constable’s House as photographed by M. Wood in 1951 – Hampshire record Office Maps

Estate Map showing Christchurch Castle, c1790 Tithe Map of Christchurch, 1842 Tithe Map of Christchurch (east) 1843 Ordnance Survey, 6” to 1 mile, Sheet 86, 1871 Edition Ordnance Survey, 6” to 1 mile, Sheet 86, 1872 Edition st Ordnance Survey 10.56 feet = 1 mile, Sheet 86.12.6 1  Edition, 1870 Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Sheet 86.12., 2nd Edition, 1898 Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Sheet 86.12., 1912 Edition Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Sheet 86.12., 1924 Edition Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Sheet 86.12., 1939 Edition Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Sheet 86.12., 1939 Edition (Revision)

©Oxford Archaeology

39

19/12/11

     1      1  .      0      1  .      7      2      *      K      R      H      *     e      l      t     s     a      C      h     c     r     u      h     c      t     s      i     r      h      C      *      O      C      L      O      C      H      C      \     s     e      d     o     c     e     c      i     o     v     n      i _      C      \      h     u     r      h      t     a     s     e      d     o     c     e     c      i     o     v     n      i      \      8     r     e     v     r     e      S      \      \

MANCHESTER

Ibsley

!

! A       3       3       ! 8      

Blashford

 Ashley

DORSET

!

!

Southampton

  1    3   A

!

Clayhill

!

Ringwood

Saint Leonards !

BIRMINGHAM

Corfe Mullen

!

!

    8    4     3!     A

!

      8        3        3        A

!

!

HAMPSHIRE

 A 3 5

!

!

CARDIFF

Upton

LONDON

!

Poole!  

POOLE

Battramsley

!

!

BOURNEMOUTH

!

!

!

Bournemouth

!

OXFORD

Setley !

A      v     o     n   

!

Highcliffe !

 A 3 3 7

!

Barton-on-Sea

Lymington ! ! Everton    4    5 ! !    0    3 !    A  A 3  

ISLE OF WIGHT

! ! !

0  5   5  

Easton

EXETER !

!

!

 A3 5  1  !

!

Swanage !

Langton Matravers

1:500,000

1:5,000,000 4   1   4    0    0    0  

4   1    5    0    0    0  

4   1    6    0    0    0  

4   1   7    0    0    0  

4   1    8    0    0    0  

94000

93000

!

Site location

92000

91000

1:25,000

Reproduced by permission of the Ordnance Survey on behalf of The Controller of Her Majesty's Stationary Office (c) Crown Copyright. 1996 All rights reserved. License No. AL 100005569

Figure 1: Site location

\\Servergo\invoice codes a thru h\C_invoice codes\CHCOLCO*Christchurch Castle*CDP*28.11.11

N

Key Site boundary Scheduled monument Probable line of burgh wall Conservation area

NOT TO SCALE

Figure 2: Wider context of the site

\\Servergo\invoice codes a thru h\C_invoice codes\CHCOLCO*Christchurch Castle*CDP*2811.11

OA 47

OA 47

Constables House

OA 45

Bailey Area

OA 47 OA 46 OA 43

Keep

OA 44

OA 47

Church Hatch Gardens

Key Site Boundary Geophysical Survey Section (Plate 16) Curtain Wall

    s     n     o      i      t       a     g        i      t       s     e     v     nI      l     a     c      i     s     y        h     p       o     e G      f     o      t       i     m      i      L

Limit of geophysical investigations Motte Ditch Bowling green

Figure 3: Main Elements of the Site

N

   1    1  .    0    1  .    6    2    *

  w   m    *   e    l    t   s   a    C

OA 42 OA 41 OA 40

   h   c   r   u    h   c    t   s    i   r    h    C    *

   O    C    L    O    C    H    C    \   s   e    d   o   c   e   c    i   o   v   n    i _    C    \    h   u   r    h    t   a   s   e    d   o   c   e   c    i   o   v   n    i    \   o   g   r   e   v   r   e    S    \    \

OA 38

OA 7

OA 26

OA 32 OA 1

OA 29 OA 30

OA 25

OA 8

OA 37 OA 35 OA 36

OA 34 OA 33

OA 27

OA 39

OA 31

OA 28

OA 24

OA 23

OA 2

OA 3 OA 4 OA 9

OA 22

OA 5 O     A     1     0    

OA 21 OA 20 OA 6 OA 18 OA 19

OA 12 OA 17

Key OA 13

OA 16

OA 14

Site boundary Scheduled monument

OA 15

Castle elements Listed building Historic garden

Figure 4: Heritage Assets within the Study Area

   1    1  .    0    1  .    6    2    *   w   m    *   e    l    t   s   a    C    h   c   r   u    h   c    t   s    i   r    h    C    *    O    C    L    O    C    H    C    \   s   e    d   o   c   e   c    i   o   v   n    i _    C    \    h   u   r    h    t   a   s   e    d   o   c   e   c    i   o   v   n    i    \   o   g   r   e   v   r   e    S    \    \

N

Key NOT TO SCALE

Site boundary

Figure 5: Christchurch (east) Tithe Map 1843

   1    1  .    0    1  .    6    2    *   w   m    *   e    l    t   s   a    C    h   c   r   u    h   c    t   s    i   r    h    C    *    O    C    L    O    C    H    C    \   s   e    d   o   c   e   c    i   o   v   n    i _    C    \    h   u   r    h    t   a   s   e    d   o   c   e   c    i   o   v   n    i    \   o   g   r   e   v   r   e    S    \    \

N

Clubhouse

Key NOT TO SCALE

Site boundary

Figure 6: Christchurch 1st edition OS map 1870

   1    1  .    0    1  .    6    2    *   w   m    *   e    l    t   s   a    C    h   c   r   u    h   c    t   s    i   r    h    C    *    O    C    L    O    C    H    C    \   s   e    d   o   c   e   c    i   o   v   n    i _    C    \    h   u   r    h    t   a   s   e    d   o   c   e   c    i   o   v   n    i    \   o   g   r   e   v   r   e    S    \    \

N

Key NOT TO SCALE

Site boundary

Figure 7: Christchurch OS 1924 edition

   1    1  .    0    1  .    6    2    *   w   m    *   e    l    t   s   a    C    h   c   r   u    h   c    t   s    i   r    h    C    *    O    C    L    O    C    H    C    \   s   e    d   o   c   e   c    i   o   v   n    i _    C    \    h   u   r    h    t   a   s   e    d   o   c   e   c    i   o   v   n    i    \   o   g   r   e   v   r   e    S    \    \

N

NOT TO SCALE

Figure 8: Estate map, c1790

Sponsor Documents


Recommended

No recommend documents

Or use your account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Forgot your password?

Or register your new account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link to create a new password.

Back to log-in

Close