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Criminal Law 2 Notes

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Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

1. UNLAWFUL HOMICIDE.................................................................................................................. HOMICIDE.................................................................................................................. 4

1.1 PATTERNS OF HOMICIE !.1............................................................................................................" 1.2 A N AT#PICAL OFFENCE$ !.2..........................................................................................................." 1.% THE LE&AL FRAMEWOR'   !."..........................................................................................................! !."..........................................................................................................! 1.3.1 statutory provisions.................................................................................................................5 1.3.2 causation.................................................................................................................................6  1.3.3 constructive homicide.............................................................................. homicide..............................................................................................................7  ................................7  1.3.4 voluntary manslaughter..........................................................................................................7  1.3.5 prosecution process.................................................................................................................7  1.3.6 sentence...................................................................................................................................7  1.3.7 debate about abolishing murder-manslaughter......................................................................8 1." MENS R EA EA OF  NLAWFL HOMICIE............................................................................................. 1.4.1 intent, recless indi!!erence 5.5...............................................................................................8 1.4.2 constructive murder 5.6.........................................................................................................." 1.4.3 manslaughter by unla#!ul act 5.7.........................................................................................1$ 1.4.4 manslaughter by criminal negligence 5.8.............................................................................11 1.4.5 corporate homicide 5.".........................................................................................................12 1.! ACTS R ES ES OF  NLAWFL HOMICIE........................................................................................12 1.5.1 homicide by omission 5.1$....................................................................................................12 1.5.2 causation 5.11.......................................................................................................................14 1.5.3 causation% medical treatment and euthanasia 5.12..............................................................18 1.5.4 de!inition o! li!e.....................................................................................................................18 1.5.5 de!inition o! death.................................................................................................................18 1.5.6 voluntariness.........................................................................................................................18 1.* TEMPORAL CO+INCIENCE OF MENS REA AN ACTS RES..........................................................1, 2. DEFENCES........................................................................................................................................20

2.1 I NTROCTION *.1.................................................................................................. *.1.........................................................................................................................20 .......................20 2.2 MENTAL EFENCES.......................................................................................................................21 2.2.1 &nsanity 6.2............................................................................................................................21 2.2.1.1 2.2.1.2 2.2.1.% 2.2.1." 2.2.1.!

-r/ur.....................................................................................................................................22 i3n44 3 -la.............................................................................................................................2% rn4i/ -a3in34...........................................................................................................................2% 4ummary -r/in54..................................................................................................................2% in6lun3ary /mmi33al..................................................................................................................2%

2.2.2 'utomatism 6.3......................................................................................................................23 2.2.2.1 2.2.2.2 2.2.2.% 2.2.2."

w7a3 i4 a i4a4  37 min$......................................................................................................2% in4an au3ma3i4m........................................................................................................................2% 4an au3ma3i4m...........................................................................................................................2" /a4 law........................................................................................................................................2"

2.2.3 (ubstantial &mpairment 6.4.................................................................................................. 25 2.2.%.1 2.2.%.2 2.2.%.% 2.2.%." 2.2.%.!

a8nrmali3y  37 min...............................................................................................................2* unrlyin5 /ni3in....................................................................................................................29 4u843an3ial im-airmn3.................................................................................................................29 :-r3 6in/............................................................................................................................29 4n3n/in5....................................................................................................................................29

2.2.4 &n!anticide 6.5.......................................................................................................................27  2.% I NTO;ICATION *.*..........................................................................................................................2, 2.3.1 )art 11'................................................................................................................................2" 2.3.2 common la#..........................................................................................................................3$ 2.3.3 *he +reasonable person.......................................................................................................31 2.3.4 &ntoication and other de!ences............................................................................................31 2.%.".1 in4ani3y.........................................................................................................................................%1 2.%.".2 au3ma3i4m...................................................................................................................................%1 2.%.".% 4u843an3ial im-airmn3 (imini47 r4-n4i8ili3y)......................................................................%1 2.%."." inan3i/i....................................................................................................................................%1 2.%.".! -r6/a3in..................................................................................................................................%1 2.%.".* 4l+n/..................................................................................................................................%1 2.%.".9 ur44...........................................................................................................................................%% 2.%.". n/44i3y.......................................................................................................................................%%

2." PRO<OCATION *.9..........................................................................................................................%" 2.4.1 history....................................................................................................................................34 2.4.2 s 23% trial !or murder  provocation.....................................................................................34

Pa5 1  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

2.4.3 provocative conduct/circumstances......................................................................................35 2.4.4 sub0ective test% time  loss o! sel!-control ...........................................................................36  2.4.5 ob0ective test% the ordinary person ..................................................................................36  2.! SELF+EFENCE  *..........................................................................................................................% 2.5.1 statutory de!ence o! sel!-de!ence...........................................................................................38 2.5.2 old common la#....................................................................................................................41 2.!.2.1 a 4u8=/3i6 r 8=/3i6 343$ ......................................................................................................"2 2.!.2.2 n/  -r-r3y......................................................................................................................"2 2.!.2.% >a33r Wman Synrm (>WS)............................................................................................."2

2.* NECESSIT# *.,..............................................................................................................................."" 2.6.1 prison escapes ......................................................................................................................44 2.6.2 strict liability ........................................................................................................................45 2.6.3 political protest ............................................................................................................. ......45 2.6.4 regulation o! abortion ..........................................................................................................45 2.9 RESS *.10.................................................................................................................................."* 2.7.1 elements o! duress ................................................................................................................46  2.7.2 the ob0ective test% the person o! ordinary !irmness o! mind .............................................47  2.7.3 duress  murder ..................................................................................................................48 2.7.4 duress  battered #oman syndrome.....................................................................................48 3. ASSAULT...........................................................................................................................................49

%.1 I NTROCTION 9.1.................................................................................................. 9.1.........................................................................................................................", .......................", %.2 COMMON ASSALT........................................................................................................................", 3.2.1 assault...................................................................................................................................4" %.2.1.1 a/3u4 ru4 ....................................................................................................................................", %.2.1.2 mn4 ra.......................................................................................................................................!0

3.2.2 battery...................................................................................................................................5$ %.2.2.1 a/3u4 ru4.....................................................................................................................................!0 %.2.2.2 mn4 ra.......................................................................................................................................!1

3.2.3 coincidence o! actus reus  mens rea...................................................................................51 3.2.4 case la#.................................................................................................................................51 %.% A&&RA<ATE ASSALT 9.%..........................................................................................................!2 3.3.1 #ith !urther speci!ic intent....................................................................................................52 3.3.2 causing particular in0uries....................................................................................................52 3.3.3 on victims o! special status....................................................................................................53 3.3.4 using o!!ensive #eapons or dangerous substances...............................................................53 3.3.5 in combination #ith other o!!ences.......................................................................................53 3.3.6 #ith a seual component.......................................................................................................53 %." CONSENT TO HARM  9.".................................................................................................................!" %.! ACCEPTA>LE <IOLENCE 9.!..........................................................................................................!! %.* PATTERNS OF <ICTIMISATION  9.*.................................................................................................!! %.9 OMESTIC <IOLENCE ? LE&AL CHAN&E  9.9...............................................................................!! 4. SEXUAL ASSAULT..........................................................................................................................56

".1 I NTROCTION 9................................................................................................... 9..........................................................................................................................!* .......................!* ".2 THE MENTAL ELEMENT 9.,...........................................................................................................!* 4.2.1 sub0ective no#ledge o! lac o! consent................................................................................56  4.2.2 reclessness...........................................................................................................................57  ES ISSES  9.10..............................................................................................................!9 ".% ACTS R ES 4.3.1 de!inition o! seual intercourse.............................................................................................6$ 4.3.2 consent................................................................................. consent...................................................................................................................................6$ ..................................................6$ 4.3.3 consent induced by !orce.......................................................................................................6$ 4.3.4 consent induced by !raud  mistae.....................................................................................61 4.3.5 !eminist perspective...............................................................................................................61 "." I NECENT ASSALT 9.11...............................................................................................................*2 ".! ACT OF I NECENC# 9.11...............................................................................................................*% ".* HOMOSE;AL OFFENCES  9.12......................................................................................................*" ".9 PROSECTION OF SE;AL ASSALT  9.1%.....................................................................................*" ". PRO<IN& NON RO<IN&  NON+CONSENT  9.1"........................................................................................................*" 4.8.1 delay in complaint.................................................................................................................64 4.8.2 abolition o! reuirement !or a corroboration #arning to 0ury.............................................65 4.8.3 communications privilege.....................................................................................................66 

Pa5 2  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

2.4.3 provocative conduct/circumstances......................................................................................35 2.4.4 sub0ective test% time  loss o! sel!-control ...........................................................................36  2.4.5 ob0ective test% the ordinary person ..................................................................................36  2.! SELF+EFENCE  *..........................................................................................................................% 2.5.1 statutory de!ence o! sel!-de!ence...........................................................................................38 2.5.2 old common la#....................................................................................................................41 2.!.2.1 a 4u8=/3i6 r 8=/3i6 343$ ......................................................................................................"2 2.!.2.2 n/  -r-r3y......................................................................................................................"2 2.!.2.% >a33r Wman Synrm (>WS)............................................................................................."2

2.* NECESSIT# *.,..............................................................................................................................."" 2.6.1 prison escapes ......................................................................................................................44 2.6.2 strict liability ........................................................................................................................45 2.6.3 political protest ............................................................................................................. ......45 2.6.4 regulation o! abortion ..........................................................................................................45 2.9 RESS *.10.................................................................................................................................."* 2.7.1 elements o! duress ................................................................................................................46  2.7.2 the ob0ective test% the person o! ordinary !irmness o! mind .............................................47  2.7.3 duress  murder ..................................................................................................................48 2.7.4 duress  battered #oman syndrome.....................................................................................48 3. ASSAULT...........................................................................................................................................49

%.1 I NTROCTION 9.1.................................................................................................. 9.1.........................................................................................................................", .......................", %.2 COMMON ASSALT........................................................................................................................", 3.2.1 assault...................................................................................................................................4" %.2.1.1 a/3u4 ru4 ....................................................................................................................................", %.2.1.2 mn4 ra.......................................................................................................................................!0

3.2.2 battery...................................................................................................................................5$ %.2.2.1 a/3u4 ru4.....................................................................................................................................!0 %.2.2.2 mn4 ra.......................................................................................................................................!1

3.2.3 coincidence o! actus reus  mens rea...................................................................................51 3.2.4 case la#.................................................................................................................................51 %.% A&&RA<ATE ASSALT 9.%..........................................................................................................!2 3.3.1 #ith !urther speci!ic intent....................................................................................................52 3.3.2 causing particular in0uries....................................................................................................52 3.3.3 on victims o! special status....................................................................................................53 3.3.4 using o!!ensive #eapons or dangerous substances...............................................................53 3.3.5 in combination #ith other o!!ences.......................................................................................53 3.3.6 #ith a seual component.......................................................................................................53 %." CONSENT TO HARM  9.".................................................................................................................!" %.! ACCEPTA>LE <IOLENCE 9.!..........................................................................................................!! %.* PATTERNS OF <ICTIMISATION  9.*.................................................................................................!! %.9 OMESTIC <IOLENCE ? LE&AL CHAN&E  9.9...............................................................................!! 4. SEXUAL ASSAULT..........................................................................................................................56

".1 I NTROCTION 9................................................................................................... 9..........................................................................................................................!* .......................!* ".2 THE MENTAL ELEMENT 9.,...........................................................................................................!* 4.2.1 sub0ective no#ledge o! lac o! consent................................................................................56  4.2.2 reclessness...........................................................................................................................57  ES ISSES  9.10..............................................................................................................!9 ".% ACTS R ES 4.3.1 de!inition o! seual intercourse.............................................................................................6$ 4.3.2 consent................................................................................. consent...................................................................................................................................6$ ..................................................6$ 4.3.3 consent induced by !orce.......................................................................................................6$ 4.3.4 consent induced by !raud  mistae.....................................................................................61 4.3.5 !eminist perspective...............................................................................................................61 "." I NECENT ASSALT 9.11...............................................................................................................*2 ".! ACT OF I NECENC# 9.11...............................................................................................................*% ".* HOMOSE;AL OFFENCES  9.12......................................................................................................*" ".9 PROSECTION OF SE;AL ASSALT  9.1%.....................................................................................*" ". PRO<IN& NON RO<IN&  NON+CONSENT  9.1"........................................................................................................*" 4.8.1 delay in complaint.................................................................................................................64 4.8.2 abolition o! reuirement !or a corroboration #arning to 0ury.............................................65 4.8.3 communications privilege.....................................................................................................66 

Pa5 2  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

4.8.4 admissibility o! evidence o! seual eperience  reputation................................................66  4.8.5 the stay development.............................................................................................................67  "., CHIL A>SE ? SE;AL ASSALT  9.1!......................................................................................*9 5. DISHONEST ACQUISITION..........................................................................................................68

!.1 I NTROCTION 10 1................................................................................................ 1.......................................................................................................................* .......................* !.2 LARCEN#   10.2...............................................................................................................................* !.% OTHER  NSW  NSW OFFENCES  10.%........................................................................................................* !." TECHNOLO&# ? WHITE COLLAR  C  CRIME  10.9."...........................................................................* !.! R O>>ER# O>>ER# @ >R&LAR#  ? >LAC'MAIL 10....................................................................................* !.* R ECEI<IN& ECEI<IN&@ PROCEES OF CRIME 10.,..........................................................................................* 6. EXTENDING CRIMINAL LIABILIT.........................................................................................69

*.1 I NTROCTION 11.1................................................................................................ 11.1.......................................................................................................................*, .......................*, *.2 ATTEMPT 11.2................................................................................................................................*, 6.2.1 introduction...........................................................................................................................6" 6.2.2 mens rea................................................................................................................................7$ 6.2.3 actus reus..............................................................................................................................7$ 6.2.4 impossibility..........................................................................................................................71 *.% CONSPIRAC# 11.%..........................................................................................................................9% 6.3.1 introduction...........................................................................................................................73 6.3.2 elements.................................................................................................................................74 *.%.2.1 :i43n/  37 a5rmn3...........................................................................................................9" *.%.2.2 /n6i/3in4  ini6iual4 r /n4-ira/y.....................................................................................9" *.%.2.% im-44i8ili3y................................................................................................................................9" *.%.2." 4/-  37 a5rmn3.................................................................................................................9!

6.3.3 controversies surrounding conspiracy..................................................................................75 *.%.%.1 *.%.%.2 *.%.%.% *.%.%."

rl6an3 unlawul a/34B...............................................................................................................9! ra3inal r 37 n/  /n4-ira/y.........................................................................................9! -li3i/ally m3i6a3 -r4/u3in4................................................................................................9! -r/ural an 6in3iary a6an3a54.........................................................................................9*

6.3.4 !uture o! conspiracy...............................................................................................................76  conspiracy...............................................................................................................76  *." COMPLICIT# 11."...........................................................................................................................9* 6.4.1 introduction...........................................................................................................................76  6.4.2 0oint criminal enterprise........................................................................................................76  6.4.3 accessorial liability...............................................................................................................76  *.".%.1 /nu/3 amun3in5 3 4/nary -ar3i/i-a3in.............................................................................9* *.".%.2 mn3al lmn3 r a//44rial lia8ili3y........................................................................................9* *.".%.% im-li/a3in4  ri6a3i6 lia8ili3y inn/n3 a5n/y....................................................................9* *.".%." wi37rawal...................................................................................................................................9*

6.4.4 doctrine o! common purpose.................................................................................................76  *.".".1 w7a3 mu43 8 r4n$................................................................................................................9* *.".".2 rla3in47i- 83wn =in3 /riminal n3r-ri4 an /mmn -ur-4...........................................9*

6.4.5 accessory a!ter the !act................................................................................................ !act..........................................................................................................76  ..........76  !. SENTENCING " #ENALIT.........................................................................................................!8

9.1 I NTROCTION 12.1................................................................................................ 12.1.......................................................................................................................9 .......................9 9.2 DSTIFICATIONS FOR  P  PNISHMENT  12.2........................................................................................9 9.% E<ELOPMENTS I NCONSISTENT WITH DST ESERTS  12.%...........................................................9 9." DICIAL R ESISTANCE ESISTANCE  12."...........................................................................................................9 9.! PENALIT# ? CRIME PRE<ENTION 12.!..........................................................................................9 9.* <ICTIM PARTICIPATION  12.*.........................................................................................................9 9.9 DICIAL APPROACHES TO SENTENCIN& 12.9...............................................................................9 9. APPELLATE R E<IEW E<IEW  12...............................................................................................................9 9., SENTENCIN& OPTIONS  12.,...........................................................................................................9

C/a48 Criminal Law4  Nn34 TS (Ca6ni47) /ri8 H?DHwi ? D7n4n

Pa5 %  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

1. Unlawful Homicide 1. actus reus  (act  mu43 cause 37 death  a human) • a/3 r mi44in (mi44in (tone  obinson @ *ata ) • /au4a3in ( oyall ) • a37 ( uman *issues 'ct  1,% (NSW) 4 %%) • 7uman 8in5 (85innin5  li murr  $ 20 man4lau573r  utty) • 6lun3arin44 o 6in3iary 8urn n  (i rai4in5 in6lun3arin44)  (alconer ) o P mu43 -r6 6lun3arin44 >R ( alconer ) GC.%9% 2. mens rea • murr $ 18%1&%'& o in3n3 3 ill o in3n3 3 /au4 &>H o r/l44 inirn/ 3 7uman li (4u8=. r4i573  probability  a37) (9rabbe (olomon) o /n43ru/3i6 murr ( yan) • man4lau573r $ 18%1&%(&  /mmn law o 6lun3ary man4lau573r (mens rea r mur[email protected] 8u3 -ar3ial n/)   -r6/a3in  4u843an3ial im-airmn3 (a..a. imini47 r4-n4i8ili3y)  :/44i6 4l+n/ (w7il nin5 li r li8r3y) ($ 420)  inan3i/i o in6lun3ary man4lau573r (n mens rea r murr 8=/3i6 343)   8y unlawul an an5ru4 a/3 (:ilson a--r/ia8l ri4  4riu4 in=ury)   8y /riminal n5li5n/ ( ;ydam -r8a8ili3y  7arm) o 4u8=/3i6 man4lau573rK  r/l44 inirn/ 3 probability  &>H ( (olomon)  r/l44 inirn/ 3 possibility  a37 (9rabbe) %. )*+,)+-,)  actus reus ? mens rea ( <eyers) GC.%! • al4 a /n3inuin5 4ri4  a/34 (*habo <eli ) GC.%!, GC.",0+!02 !0*+!20 GN.%+!

1.1 Patterns of Homicide 5.1 GC.",0+!01 GN.*+ • m43 a374 ar n3 /au4 8y 7mi/i • 5nr irn/ o m43 murrr4 ar mn (mal+3+mal /nrn3a3inal 6iln/) o w7n wmn illJar ill i3 i4 m43i/ o w7n mn illJar ill i3K4 i37r m43i/ r rin4 • ini5nu4 ra34  7mi/i  3im4 37a3  5nral --ula3in • ln5+3rm 3rn 7mi/i n 37 /lin (1,0 6 1,,2 GN.)

1.2 An Atypical Offence? 5.2  GC.!01+2 Pa5 "  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011) • • •

Summary

7ar3 i4a4 ? /an/r ar 37 8i5 illr4 7mi/i a//un34 r 1  all a374 in 1,,% 7mi/i i4 a3y-i/al a4 a /riminal n/ a8u3 2  4riu4 n/4 in 1,,,

1.3 The Legal Frameor! 5." GC.!0*+20 GN.+,@1,[email protected]! • actus reus r murr ? man4lau573r i4 in3i/al • nly 37 mens rea ir4

1.3.1 statutory provisions $ 18%1&%'& /-  " 7a4 • intent  3 ill • intent  3 inli/3 &>H • r/l44 inirn/ to human li!e o r/l44 inirn/B  4u8=/3i6 r4i573  nwl5   -r8a8ili3y o r4a8ili3yJ probability  a37 (9rabbe ) Gn3 possibility  a37r/l44 man4lau573r (-r 9rabbe) o l4w7r in Au43 r/l44 inirn/ 3 -r8a8ili3y  &>H i4 al4 mur[email protected] in NSW i3 i4 man4lau573r (8/au4  wr4 3 7uman liB in 37i4 4u8+4/3in) ((olomon) o (in ' r/l44 inirn/ i4 man4lau573[email protected] 8/au4 37rK4 n in3n3) • /n43ru/3i6 murr (lny murr) murr w7il /mmi33in5 an n/ 37a3 a33ra/34 li r 2! yar4  n mens rea ruir $ 18%1&%(&  6ry37in5 l4 i4 /',$'  a4 in in /mmn law • voluntary man4lau573r (mens rea r mur[email protected] 8u3 37r ar mi3i5a3in5 /ir/um43an/[email protected] i.. a 4u//44ul -ar3ial n/) o  -r6/a3in o 4u843an3ial im-airmn3 (a..a. imini47 r4-n4i8ili3y) o :/44i6 4l+n/ o inan3i/i • involuntary man4lau573r (la/4 mens rea r murr) G8=/3i6 343 ra4na8l -r4n o man4lau573r 8y an unlawul ? an5ru4 a/3 o man4lau573r 8y /riminal n5li5n/ •  sub0ective man4lau573r (i.. n3 8=/3i6) o r/l44 inirn/ 3 probability  &>H Gn3 37i4 i4 r/l44 murr in 37r Au43 =uri4i/3in4 ((olomons) o r/l44 inirn/ 3 37 possibility  a37 (9rabbe) $ 18%2&%'& mali/iu4K  n wi37 37 a--r-ria3 mens rea. (mali/ ar37u573 GC.!09)

Pa5 !  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

1.3.2 causation •



 mu43 7a6 caused  37 a37  <@ 37rwi4 37y ar n3 5uil3y  murr r man4lau573r. P44i8ly 5uil3y  a33m-3 3 murr (i 37y 7a6 in3n3) r an a44aul3 r a55ra6a3 a44aul3. 6n i  nly in3n &>H (r wa4 r/l44ly inirn3 3 -r8a8ili3y  a37)@ 37y /mmi3 murder  i < i4.

Pa5 *  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

1.3.3 constructive homicide •





$ 18%1&%'& a/3 r mi44in /au4in5 a37 n in an a33m-3 3 /[email protected] r urin5 r immia3ly a3r 37 /mmi44i[email protected] 8y 37 a//u4@ r 4m a//m-li/ wi37 [email protected]  a /rim -uni47a8l 8y im-ri4nmn3 r li r 2! yar4K. 37i4 i4 n4i6 8/au4 i3 ma4 murrr4  374 w7 ill a//i[email protected] i 37y ar /mmi33in5 an n/ a33ra/3in5 2!yr4. E:am-l4 o 4u--lyin5 -r7i8i3 4u843an/4 in /mmr/ial uan3i3i4 rug  <isuse  *ra!!icing 'ct  1,! (NSW) 44 2!(2) (4u--ly  lar5 /mmr/ial uan3i3y) an 2!(2A) (4u--ly  /mmr/ial uan3i3i4 3 4mn 1*y..) o $ 36 /au4in5 a 5ri6u4 8ily i4a4 man4lau573r 8y unlawul an an5ru4 a/3 i4 a 6r4in  /n43ru/3i6 manslaughter .

1.3.4 voluntary manslaughter  ull mens rea r mur[email protected] 8u3 mi3i5a3in5 a/3r4 ru/ murr 3 man4lau573r  •  -ar3ial n/4 a6aila8l o  -r6/a3in o 4u843an3ial im-airmn3 (a..a. imini47 r4-n4i8ili3y) o :/44i6 4l+n/ o inan3i/i •

1.3.5 prosecution process •



in any 3rial r mur[email protected] 37 al3rna3i6 6ri/3  man4lau573r i4 alway4 -n 3 37 =ury ( o#ns) PP 4im-ly /7ar54 mur[email protected] la6in5 =ury 3 /i i i3 wa4 murr r man4lau573r (4urly 37i4 -r=ui/4 37 a//u4QQQ)

1.3.6 sentence •

9rimes =>i!e (entences? 'mendment 'ct 1"8" (NSW) amn 9rimes 'ct  o $ 19A murr a33ra/34 li (r 37 3rm  37 -r4nK4 na3ural liB) o $ 24 man4lau573r a33ra/34 2!yr4

 )emble v  (1,[email protected] HCA) GC.!20 GN.1" ')$ + -r+:i43in5 m43i/ rla3in47i- 83wn  ? < + rla3in47i- 3rmina3@  wa4 un7a--y a8u3 i3 +  4aw 37 /a4@ an /arri a la 5un 3war4 7[email protected] all5in5 37a3 7 nly in3n 3 4/ar 7r  + 37 ril wa4 //@ 7 3ri-- an ill 7r  + Crwn all5 37a3  wal u- 3 7[email protected] mul@ an 473 7r +$$ i4 a/3ual r4i573  37 /n4un/4  37 a/34 n/44ary r murr$ '+* r/l44n44 r murractual !oresight r a6r3n/ 3 37 probability  /n4un/4  7i4 a/3. ,* >arwi/ CD possibility (a4 llw in >a ontaine 8u3 6rrul in 9rabbe) - /n6i/3in  murr mu43 8 43 a4i@ an r-la/ wi37 man4lau573r 8y unlawul an an5ru4 a/3.

Pa5 9  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

1.3.7 deate aout aolishing murder!manslaughter  •

8a3 a8u3 a8li3in  -ar3ial n/4 ? murr+man4lau573r ? /ra3 4in5l n/  unlawul 7mi/iK o 7* irn/ ma 4n4 w7n a37 -nal3y (r murr) :i43.  Nw 37r i4 n n  yam v ))  (1,9"@') GC.!11 o )*, /allin5 4mn a murrrK 43ill 7a4 a 43i5ma a33a/7 GC.*1% o )*, rl  =ury 3 /i mral /ul-a8ili3ymurrJman4lau573r GC.*1%

1." #ens $ea of %nlaf&l Homicide 1.4.1 intent" rec#less indifference 5.5 GC.!20+%0 GN.1%+* • in3n3 i4 un/n3r6r4ial  i3 rla34 3 2 7a4  murr 37 in3n3 3 /au4 a37 r 3 /au4 &>H • r/l44 inirn/4u8=/3i6 r4i573 a4 3 -r8a8ili3y  a37 (9rabbe) • r/l44 inirn/ i4 irn3 a/r44 =uri4i/3in4 )$$ +,-+,) * NSW $ * A$ U:   murr murr man4lau573r    probability  a37 man4lau573r man4lau573r    possibility  a37 man4lau573r murr man4lau573r    probability  &>H man4lau573r man4lau573r man4lau573r    possibility  &>H man4lau573r 9rabbe (1,[email protected]) GC.!20 GN.1"+! ')$ +  53 6ry run a3 a 73l in Ayr4 R/  + 7 wa4 =/3 rm 37 8ar  + 7 r3urn in 7i4 ra 3rainB an r6 i3 in3 37 4i  37 73l illin5 ! --l +$$ i4 a/3ual nwl5 r r4i573  37 /n4un/4  a/3 n/44ary r murr$ (r+/n4ir4 )emble v ) '+* 3 /n6i/3  murr  mu43 nw (r4) 37a3 7i4 a/3in4 wul probably /au4 a37 r &>Him-u3 nwl5 r a possibility i4 n3 nu57. - 37 ir/3in  37 3rial =u5 a4 -44i8ili3y wa4 in/rr/3 an 37 Fral Cur3 rr r a nw 3rial 43an[email protected] Crwn a--al i4mi44.  @oughey (1,*@HCA) GC.!2! GN.1! ')$ Ta4manian /3r wi37 a -n/7an3 r /ar3i ar3ri4 '+* lilyB  -r8a8ili3y (in a =ury ir/3in) -+$$, >rnnan D -r8a8ili3y ≠ 5 /7an/B ,* 6r3urn in oyall  (37u57 n3 :-r44ly 6rrul)  'nnain (1,@NSWCCA) GC.!2* GN.1! '+* i5nr4 @ougheyK4 l4 343 ? a--li4 43ri/3 9rabbe 343 ,* a--r6 8y HCA in oyall   oyall  (1,,[email protected]) GC.!2" GN.1"+! '+* • 9rabbe mens rea r murr a--li4 3 $ [email protected] 8u3 nly r [email protected] n3 r &>H (a--r64 (olomon (1,[email protected]))

Pa5   9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011) •

Summary

a--r64 'nnain ra37r 37an @oughey (37u57 4nK3 :-r44ly 6rrul la33r)

,* in ' r/l44 inirn/B u44 an 8=/3i6 3[email protected] i.. in6lun3ary man4lau573r 

1.4.2 constructive murder 5.6 GC.!%0+, GN.1*+ • $ 18%1&%'&  a/3 r mi44in /au4in5 a37 n in an a33m-3 3 /[email protected] r urin5 r immia3ly a3r 37 /mmi44i[email protected] 8y 37 a//u4@ r 4m a//m-li/ wi37 [email protected]  a /rim -uni47a8l 8y im-ri4nmn3 r li r 2! yar4K. • 37 w7l -in3  /n43ru/3i6 murr i4 37a3 37 mens rea ruirmn3 i4 n3 37a3  mur[email protected] 8u3 ra37r 37a3  37 una3inalK /rim (4 yan GN.1*) • 37 actus reus  murr i4 43ill ruir@ w7i/7 i4 w7y involuntariness wa4 ar5u in yan GC.%*! G."%. I3K4 43ill -44i8l 3 n5a3i6 37 actus reus  murr. • 4 n3 :i43 in 37 /mmn law  37 ' ( )agett GC.!,")

')$

+$$ '+*

-

 yan v  (1,*[email protected]) GC.!%0 GN.1* +  n3r a 4r6i/ 43a3in wi37 37 in3n3 3 /mmi3 a r88ry wi37 a wa-n + 7i4 ril wa4 //@ 7a 4a3y  ? wa4 -in3 a3 < + 37 5un i4/7ar5 w7n  wa4 43ar3l 8y <K4 4un m6mn3 i  7a6 mens rea r murr$ (H /n3n 37a3 i3 wa4 man4lau573r 8y an5ru4 an unlawul a/3). 37 lny in $ 98 i4 /ra3 8y 2 a/34 r88ry an wunin5 n in3n3in 3 wun i4 n/[email protected] i3 mu43 nly 8 a 6lun3ary a/[email protected] an i 37 wunin5 r4ul34 in [email protected] i3 i4 /n43ru/3i6 murr. a--al i4mi44.

 <unro (1,[email protected] NSWCCA) GC.!%% GN.19 ')$ +  wa4 4n3n/ 3 li im-ri4nmn3 r mur[email protected] U 9 yar4 r an n/ unr $ 95 + n3r la3  ,2 yar l man wi37 37 in3n3  43alin5 + in -r/44 7 -un/7 37 man w7i/7 l 3 manK4 a37 +$$ wa4 a /au4al lin ruir 83wn 37 lny an 37 a37$ '+* • in $ 96 n/@ 37r i4 n ruirmn3 37a3 37r 8 a ir/3 /au4al lin 83wn 37 lny an 37 [email protected] nly 37a3 37 a37 mu43 8 /au4 during  OR immediately a!ter  37 lnyB. • P 4 n3 7a6 3 -r6 37a3 a37 wa4 -44i8l r 37a3 a ra4na8l -r4n wul 7a6 r4n 37 ri4. - a--al i4mi44. +$'+*, $ 95r88ry wi37 6iln/ $ 96w7r in /mmi44in  37i4 n/@ wunin5 //[email protected] -nal 4r6i3u r li

Pa5 ,  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

1.4.3 manslaughter y unlawful act 5.7 GC.!%,+" GN.1 • *(;)+< $  37 unlawul a/3 mu43 8 4u/7 37a3 a ra4na8l man in 37 a//u4K4 -4i3inwul 7a6 rali 37a3 7 wa4 :-4in5 an37r r 37r4 3 an a--r/ia8l ri4  4riu4 in=ury :ilson v  (1,,[email protected]) GC.!%, GN.1 ')$ +  7i3 37 /a4 n 37 a/@ w7i/7 /au4 7im 3 all an 7i3 7i4 7a. K4 /m-anin 37n wn3 37ru57 7i4 -/34 an 4ma47B 7i4 7a n 37 /n/r3. T7 /a4 4u84un3ly i rm 8rain in=uri4. + P ar5u 37a3 m43 lily /au4  a37 wa4 all rm K4 -un/7 +  ? /m-anin /7ar5 wi37 murr n 37 8a4i4  37 /3rin  lny murr  + /m-anin a/ui33 +  /n6i/3  man4lau573r ? a--al 7i4 /n6i/3in /';*+=> + a--r6 /i4in  Smi37 D in oltAer  an ar3i/ula3 343 3 Ma4n [email protected]  8 an appreciable ris o! serious in0ury . T7[email protected] &aurn + r=/3 En5li47 lin  au37ri3y in 9hurch an ;e#bury 37a3 an M/Hu57 DD 37r 7a 3 8 an a--r/ia8l ri4  4m [email protected] al8i3 n3 4riu4 7arm /+,*+=> + 7l 37a3 man4lau573r 8y an unlawul a/3 ruir -r  >r[email protected] an :i43n/@ 8=/3i6ly 3rmin  37 lili7 r ri4  an aw4n DD in=ury 4u/7 37a3 i3 /ul 8 4ai 37a3 37 a/3 in u43in wa4 an5ru4 + r=/3 ma=ri3y 6iw  -r  8=/3i6 a--r/ia8l ri4 r 4riu4 in=ury R'+* + *(;)+< $  /ir/um43an/4 mu43 8 4u/7 37a3 a ra4na8l man in 37 a//u4K4 -4i3i[email protected] -rrmin5 37 6ry a/3 w7i/7 37 a//u4 -rrm@ wul 7a6 rali 37a3 7 wa4 :-4in5 an37r r 37r4 3 an a--r/ia8l ri4  4riu4 in=uryB + 8a33ry man4lau573r a8li47 in Au43ralia H- + i3 i4 n3 -44i8l 3 /n/lu 37a3 n 4u843an3ial mi4/arria5   =u43i/ //urr. + a--al wa4 allw@ 37 /n6i/3in r man4lau573r ua47 an a nw 3rial rr.

Pa5 10  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

1.4.4 manslaughter y criminal negligence 5.$ GC.!",+*2 GN.21+2 • 37i4 i4 a 6r4in  /n43ru/3i6 manslaughter  GC.!0, • n intention  /au4in5 a37 r &>H n 8 -r6 8y [email protected] 4 i3 wul 8 a 5 ia 3 ar5u involuntariness (a4 in yan GC.%*!) G."%. I3K4 43ill  -44i8l 3 n5a3i6 37 actus reus  man4lau573r. • *(;)+< $  P mu43 -r6 at least 37a3 37 a//u4 ll 47r3  37 43anar  /ar w7i/7 a reasonable person wul 7a6 :r/i4@ in /ir/um43an/4 w7r 37 ra4na8l -r4n wul 7a6 a--r/ia3 a probability  a37 r &>H.  ;ydam v  (1,[email protected]<SC (FC)) GC.!", GN.21 +  7a a 3rira3in5 rin47i- wi37 < (/a4 wman). H wa4 u-43 a3 ')$ 37 37u573  7r r3urnin5 3 En5lan. + n 2 //a4in4  a33m-3 3 -r4ua 7r 3 4-a 3 7im. + n 37 37ir //a4in 7 37rw -3rl 6r 37 /a4 an li3 a /i5ar33 li573r. An :-l4in //urr an 37 /a4 i in43an3ly +  wa4 /n6i/3  murr. H a--al. w7a3 i4 37 -r-r 343 3 8 a--li r man4lau573r 8y /riminal +$$ n5li5n/$ + In rr 3 43a8li47 MCN i3 i4 4ui/in3 i 37 P 47w4 37a3 37 a/3 w7i/7 '+* /au4 a37 wa4 n 8y 37 a//u4 /n4/iu4ly an 6[email protected] wi37u3 any in3n3in  /au4in5 a37 r &>H 8u3 in /ir/um43an/4 w7i/7 in6l6 4u/7 a 5ra3 allin5 47r3  37 43anar  /ar w7i/7 a reasonable man wul 7a6 :r/i4 an w7i/7 in6l6 4u/7 a high ris  37a3 a37 r &>H wul llwB + 37rr 37 343 (1) i4 8=/3i6 (2) in6l64 a 6ry 7i57 5r  n5li5n/ an (%) 37 ra4na8l -r4n wul 7a6 a--r/ia3 a  probability  a37 r &>H + a ir/3in 3 37i4 /3 wa4 n3 5i6n 8y 37 3rial =u5 an wa4 n3 in a//ran/ wi37 37 343 a4 rmula3. + 6ri/3 wa4 ua47 an a nw 3rial wa4 rr.   v @utts#orth (1,%@ NSWCCA) GC.!!" GN.21+2 ')$ a--llan3 /7ar5 wi37 * n/4  /ul-a8l ri6in5 ($ 52A) +$$ 44[email protected] 37 i43in/3in 83wn 37 n/ MCN an 37 n/  /ul-a8l ri6in5 unr $ 52A '+* + /ur3 i43in5ui474 8Jw n/  m3r+man4lau573r (MCN) ? $ 52A + wi37 r5ar4 3 MCN + 37 /ur3 a--r64 Lr A3inK4 4-/7 in 'ndre#s v )) . + a 7i57 5r  n5li5n/ i4 ruir 37 n5li5n/ wn3 8yn a mr ma33r  /m-n4a3in 8Jw 4u8=/34 an 47w 4u/7 i4r5ar r 37 li an 4a3y  37r4 a4 3 amun3 3 a /rim a5ain43 37 S3a3 an /nu/3 4r6in5 r -uni47mn3B + 37i4 rmain4 au37ri3y in NSW + wi37 r4-/3 3 $ 52A + 37 4am 8=/3i6 43anar i4 43 8y $ 52A a4 in ;ydam v  - 37r wa4 6in/ u-n w7i/7 37 =ury /ul 7a6 un 837 n5li5n/ r man4lau573r an ri6in5 in a mannr an5ru4 3 37 -u8li/ r /ul-a8l ri6in5. S3r3 CD an Na5l CD a5r.

Pa5 11  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011) ,*

Summary

" nw ri6in5 n/4 wr /ra3 in NSW a4 a /n4un/ GN.22 •  Burisic 5uilin =u5mn3 al4 i44u •

1.4.5 corporate homicide 5.% GC.!*2+, GN.2% • 37r ar n in4 r mur[email protected] =u43 im-ri4nmn3/ann3 /n6i/3 a /m-any • mens rea u4 *esco 3 in ir/3in5 will  37 /m-any

1.5 Act&s $e&s of %nlaf&l Homicide •



37 actus reus i4 37 4am r murr ? man4lau573r o a/3 r mi44in ($ 18%1&) o /au4a3in ( oyall ) o a37 ( uman *issues 'ct  NSW (1,%) 4 %%) o 7uman 8in5 (murr  $ 20 man4lau573r  utty  G.%") o 6lun3arin44 ( yan) $//'= a 6lun3ary a/3 r mi44in /au4in5 37 a37  a 7uman 8in5

1.5.1 homicide y omission 5.1& GC.!*,+0 GN.2%+" • $ 18%1&%'&  murr ? man4lau573r /an 8 /mmi33 8y mi44in o 37i4 will 8 ra wn in 37 li573  37 /mmn law /3rin 37a3  8r 7mi/i /an 8 /mmi33 8y mi44i[email protected] 37r mu43 ir43 8 a u3y 3 a/3. GC.!90 • *(;)+< $  i yu a44um a u3y 3 /ar r 4mn@ yu mu43 i4/7ar5 37a3 u3y 3 37 43anar  a ra4na8l -r4n. (tone and obinson  (1,[email protected]'CA) GC.!90 GN.2% ')$ + S wa4 [email protected] a@ alm43 33ally 8lin@ 7a li33l 4n4  4mll an  lw a6ra5 in3lli5n/. +  li6 wi37 S an wa4 4/ri8 a4 in/3ual an inaua3. + SK4 //n3ri/ 4i43r F /am 3 li6 wi37 37m. + F 8/am ill an S a33m-3 3 in 7r a /3r 8u3 wal 3 37 wrn5 6illa5. Hr /ni3in 3rira3. A ni578ur /am 3 -r6i a44i43an/ 3 F an a6i4  3 /n3a/3 4/ial 4r6i/. +  wa4 al4 a6i4 3 83ain a /3r 8y an37r -r4n 8u3 7 inK3 nw 7w 3 u4 a -7n.  i 4u--ly F @ 8u3 47 wul nly a3  8i4/ui34 u 3 a ar  533in5 a3. + F la3r i an S an  wr /7ar5 wi37 man4lau573r an /n6i/3. + n a--al +$$ T7 i44u wa4 w737r 37 3rial =u5 mi4ir/3 37 =ury wi37 r5ar 3 i3m4 1 an 2 '+* + % lmn34 ar n in rr 3 /n6i/3 unr 37i4 4u8+/a35ry  [email protected] namly 1.  unr3 /ar  a -r4n w7 8y ra4n  a5Jinirmi3y wa4 una8l 3 /ar r 7im4l 2.  wa4 5r44ly n5li5n3 in r5ar 3 7i4 u3y  /ar %. 8y ra4n  4u/7 n5li5n/ 37 -r4n i '$*,+, + T7 /ur3 r=/3 37 -r-4i3in 37a3  wa4 n3i3l 3  n37in5 an  i43in5ui47 37i4 4i3ua3in rm 37a3  a rwnin5 43ran5r.  i ma

Pa5 12  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

r34 3 /ar an 37 =ury wr n3i3l 3 in 37a3 37 u3y 7a 8n a44um. - T7 3rial =u5 i n3 mi4ir/3 37 =ury. T7 /n6i/3in wr u-7l

*ata (1,@NSWCCA) GC.!91 GN.2" ')$ +  wa4 a 7rin ai/3 an a44/ia3  [email protected] a 7rin 4u--lir. + R a4  3 -r/ur 2 -r43i3u34 r a -ar3y. + < 7a 8n u4in5 ru54 an in 37 arly 7ur4  37 mrnin5 R -7n  3 -i/ u- 37 5irl. + w7n  arri6 37 5irl wa4 manin5 an una8l 3 4-a. +  3 37 5irl 8a/ 3 RK4 w7r 7 a33m-3 3 wa 7r 8y 4la--in5 7r a/@ -um-in5 7r /743 an -rrmin5 mu37 3 mu37 r4u4/i3a3in. + R r3urn a3 10 8u3 47 43ill wa4nK3 awa 4 7 wn3 3 53 a /3r. + 37 5irl wa4 alray a w7n 37 /3r arri6. +  wa4 /7ar5 wi37 man4lau573r. T7r wa4 7w6r a i4-u3 a4 3 37 3im  a37. +$$ wa4 i3 -n 3 a =ury 3 in 37a3 in 37 /ir/um43an/[email protected]  w 37 5irl a l5al u3y 3 83ain mi/al a33n3in r 7r$ '+* + P mu43 -r6 >R 37 % ruirmn34 r 37i4 7a  man4lau573r 1.  w a u3y  /ar in law 3 < 2. K4 mi44in wa4 37 -r:ima3 /au4  <K4 a37 %. K4 mi44in wa4 /n4/iu4 ? 6[email protected] wi37u3 any in3n3in  /au4in5 a37 8u3 in /ir/um43an/4 w7i/7 in6l6 4u/7 a 5ra3 allin5 47r3  37 43anar  /ar w7i/7 a ra4na8l man wul 7a6 :r/i4 an w7i/7 in6l6 4u/7 a 7i57 ri4 37a3 a37 wul llw 37a3 37 mi44in mri3 /riminal -uni47mn3. ,* a u3y  /ar will 8 a44um w7r 37 a--llan3 /ar r a 7l-l44 an inirm -r4[email protected] 37r8y rm6in5 37m rm a 4i3ua3in in w7i/7 anyn l4 mi573 7a6 rnr r 83ain ai. - a--al allw 6ri/3  a/ui33al n3r.  ussell  (1,%%@<SC) GC.!9* GN.2" - man /n6i/3  man4lau573r r 43anin5 8y ? wa3/7in5 7i4 wi rwn 7r4l ? 37ir 2 /7ilrn. Hi4 /n6i/3in rla3in5 3 7i4 wi wa4 6r3urn n a--al  7 w 7r n u3y  /ar (w7ra4 7 i 3 7i4 /7ilrn). ,* 37i4 i4 an :am-l  37 /mmn law ruirmn3 r a u3y 3 :i43 be!ore an mi44in will a33ra/3 /riminal lia8ili3y r 7mi/i

Pa5 1%  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

1.5.2 causation 5.11 GC.!0+*01 GN.2*+, • 37r mu43 8 a /7ain  /au4a3in rm 37 substantial  operating act  ((mith) 3 37 a37. T7a3 /7ain /an nly 8 8rn 8y a novus actus interveniens. • operating  man4 n3 4-[email protected] i.. 43ill a/3in5 a4 a /au4  a37 ( allet  GC.!,0) •  substantial  man4 n3 de minimis (37 law i4 n3 /n/rn wi37 3ril4) • 37 -ra3in5 ? 4u843an3ial /au4 n n3 8 37 only -ra3in5 /au4  a37 ((mith). I3 n n3 8 37 sole /au4 r 6n 37 main /au4  a37 ( )agget ). •  mu43 3a 37ir < a4 4J7 in4 37m ( @laue) • /mmn law year-and-a-day rule a8r5a3 in NSW ($ 1!A) • i4/n3inua3in  li+4u--r3 4 n3 /n43i3u3 a novus actus interveniens ( <alchere and (teel ) • n3 GH?D.29% li434 " 3434 r /au4a3in mn3in in oyall  8y M/Hu57 D  oyall v  (1,,[email protected]) GC.!2 GC.29 ')$ +  ? < ( a/3 /u-l) 7a6 a 6iln3 in 37ir a-ar3mn3 + < all4 rm *37 lr winw ? i4 ill + 6in/  a44aul3 an 43ru55l in 37 8a37rm +  4ai < l/ 7r4l in 8a37rm an /mmi33 4ui/i w7n 7 r/ 37 r -n + P 4ai % 4/nari4 1) < wa4 pushed  (8y ) 2) < !ell  (w7il r3ra3in5 rm K4 a33a/) %) < 0umped  (7a6in5 a wll+un an ra4na8l a--r7n4in  li+37ra3nin5 6iln/ 8y  ? 4in5 3 4/a- i3  37i4 i4 main /au4a3in i44u) +  a--al a5ain43 /n6i/3in r murr  +$$ w737r <K4 a/3  ri573J4/a-J4l+-r4r6a3in /n43i3u34 a novus actus [email protected] 37r8y n5a3i6in5 /au4a3in r 7mi/i$ '+* 1. i3 i4 r 37 =ury 3 3rmin w737r (i) K4 /nu/3 inu/ in < a #ell-!ounded apprehension  (ar)   -7y4i/al 7arm$ ',(ii) <K4 r4-n4 (3 4 4/a-) wa4 reasonable$ (i.. < i n3 6r+ra/3) ES K4 /nu/3 caused  <K4 in=ury (i.. <K4 /nu/3 wa4 n3 a novus actus interveniens n5a3i6in5 /au4al /nn/3in 83wn K4 /nu/3 ? <K4 in=ury) 2. P mu43 -r6 (>R) K4 a/3in caused  37 a/3  4/a- r 4l+  -r4r6a3in %. r4a8ili3y i4 not 37 343  r/l44n44 ? in3n3 ar mens rea lm[email protected] n3 lmn34  /au4a3in ". 37r mu43 8 a 3m-ral /in/in/ 83wn mens rea ? actus reus -+$$, (M/[email protected] >rnnan DD) ar5u r a 343 37a3 i3 wa4 ra4na8ly r4a8l (8y ) 37a3 < wul n5a5 in a/3  4l+-r4r6a3in in r4-n4 3 K4 a/3in4J37ra34. - 4-/ial la6 5ran3  a--al i4mi44

Pa5 1"  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

Pa5 1!  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

 allett  (1,*,@ SASC) GC.!*9 GN.29 ')$ +  /7ar5 wi37 murr  < + < ma a -a44 a3  i573 n4u < -ull a ni ? 37ra3n 3 4:ually mu3ila3  +  53 u--r 7an in 37 i573 ? < ran away in3 37 wa3r < /ul n3 [email protected]  r4/u 7im ? l3 7im n 37 8a/7 8ra37in5 +  ll a4l- in /[email protected] w7n 7 w u- 7 37a3 < 7a rwn. +  /u3  <K4 5ni3al4 an 8uri 7im. + /au4  a37  rwnin5 in 47allw wa3r  +  a--al /n6i/3in r murr  +$$ w737r 37 a/34   7a a 4ui/in3ly 4u843an3ial /au4al /3B n 37 a37  <$ '+* a-34 (mith (1,!,@'@GC.!2) i a3 37 3im  a37 37 ri5inal wun i4 43ill an operating  /au4 an a substantial  /au4 37n 37r i4 a /au4al /nn/3i[email protected] 6n i 4m 37r /au4 i4 al4 in -ra3in - 37 a/3   in ru/in5 < 3 un/n4/iu4n44 ri5ina3 37 /7ain  6n34 w7i/7 l 3 37 rwnin5  @laue (1,[email protected]'CA) GC.!,1 GN.2 ')$ +  a33a/ ? 43a88 < + < wa4 a D76a7K4 Wi3n44 ? ru4 a 8l 3ran4u4in +  a--al 37i4 /n6i/3in r man4lau573r (r imini47 r4-n4i8ili3y) +$$ w737r <K4 ru4al 3 a//-3 mi/al 3ra3mn3 wa4 a novus actus interveniens$ '+* • /riminal4 mu43 3a 37ir 6i/3im4 a4 37y in 37m • llw4 (mith -ra3in5 ? 4u843an3ial /au4 - 37 u43in i4 w7a3 /au4 <K4 a37$ T7 an4wr i4 37 43a8 wun. <K4 ru4al 3 43- 37i4 n i n3 8ra 37 /au4al /nn/3in 83wn 37 a/3 an 37 a37. Ru4al [email protected] in /[email protected] a -r+:i43in5 /ni3inK. A--al i4mi44.  )agett  (1,%@'CA) GC.!," GN.2 ')$ +  u4 < a4 47il ? 473 a3 -li/ w7 473 8a/ ? ill < +  /7ar5 wi37 mur[email protected] /n6i/3  man4lau573r a--alin5 /n6i/3in +$$ w7n a37 /au4 8y an37[email protected] w737r i3 47ul 8 im-u3 3 37 ri5inal a55r44r$ '+* • K4 a/3 n n3 8 37 4l /au4@ r 6n 37 main /au4@  <K4 a37   i3 i4 nu57 37a3 K4 a/3 /n3ri8u3 4i5nii/an3ly 3 <K4 a37. • an :am-l  a novus actus interveniens  i4 w7n 37 in3r6nin5 a/3  a %r -ar3y /an 8 4/ri8 a4 37 4l /au4  <K4 a37. o *?<@ a ra4na8l a/3 -rrm (8y a %r -ar3y) r 37 -ur-4  4l+-r4r6a3i[email protected] 8in5 an a/3 itsel! caused by s o#n act @ 4 n3 -ra3 a4 a novus actus interveniens   i4 /riminally r4-n4i8l r 37 a37  < - a--al i4mi44  <alchere and (teel  (1,[email protected]'CA) GC.!,, GN.2, ')$ + /3r 3urn4  li+4u--r3 a3r -rrmin5 a--r-ria3 3434

Pa5 1*  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

+$$ 4 37i4 /n43i3u3 a novus actus interveniens$ - n  4 n3 8ra /7ain  /au4a3in 83wn in=ury an a37

Pa5 19  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

1.5.3 causation' medical treatment and euthanasia 5.12 GC.*01+* GN.2, • an aul3 i4 n3i3l 3 ru4 mi/al 3ra3mn3 (t Ceorges ;( *rust v (  (1,,@') • i4/n3inua3in  li+4u--r3 4 n3 /n43i3u3 a novus actus interveniens  <alchere and (teel  (1,[email protected]'CA) GC.!,, • i4/n3inua3in  li+4u--r3 i4  w7n 'iredale ;( *rust v @land  (1,,%@HL) o in a P<S (-rmann3 653a3i6 43a3) o  -a3in3 n3 r4-nin5 3 mi/al /ar o n -r4-/3  im-r6mn3 o n37in5 l4 /3r4 /an  o amily /n4n34 o in 37 -a3in3K4 843 in3r434 • $ 31C%1& ai r a83 37 4ui/i r a33m-3 4ui/i  an37r  • $ 31C%2& in/i3in5 r /un4llin5 4ui/i r a33m-3 4ui/i  an37r  •  ights o! the *erminally &ll 'ct  1,,! (NT) r-al 8y Duthanasia >a#s 'ct 1,,9 (C37) • 1"  NSW /3r4 ami3 3 a44i43in5 u37ana4ia  -a3in34

1.5.4 definition of life GC.*00 GN.2* a /7il 7a4 8n 8rn ali6 w7n • *  77*$ * /-   a /7il 7a4 8n 8rn ali6 w7n ( $ 20) o i3 7a4 8ra37 ',o 7a4 8n 8rn w7lly in3 37 wrl@ o wi37 r wi37u3 in-nn3 /ir/ula3in • *  77*$ * /',$'   /mmn law rul  utty (1,!%@<SC) G.%" a--li4 o /m-l3ly li6r rm 37 8y  i34 m37r ',o i3 7a4 an :i43n/ 4-ara3 ? in-nn3  i34 m37r • /7il i4 ully :3ru rm i34 m37rK4 8y ',• i4 li6in5 8y 6ir3u  37 un/3inin5  i34 wn [email protected] • i37r a33a/7 r una33a/7 8y um8ili/al /r

1.5.5 definition of death  uman *issues 'ct  NSW (1,%) 4 %%  a -r4n 7a4 i w7n o irr6r4i8l /44a3in  all un/3in4  37 -r4nK4 8rain or  o irr6r4i8l /44a3in  /ir/ula3in  8l in 37 -r4nK4 8y. • n3 $$ [email protected]  ma i3 an n/ 3 intend  3 -r/ur a mi4/arria5 (i.. a8r3in) •

1.5.6 voluntariness • •

6lun3arin44 i4 -ar3  37 actus reus u4ul 3 ar5u in6lun3arin44 in /a44  /n43ru/3i6 murr  (yan GC.%*!) r man4lau573r r unlawul an an5ru4 a/3. T7i4 /an la 3 a/ui33al. G."%

Pa5 1  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011) •

Summary

i rai4in5 in6lun3arin44 3 n5a3i6 actus reus lmn3 o 6in3iary 8urn n  (i rai4in5 in6lun3arin44)  (alconer ) GC.%9% o P mu43 -r6 6lun3arin44 >R ( alconer ) GC.%9%

1.' Temporal co(incidence of mens rea and act&s re&s  o#ler v )adget  (19,@') GC.!" 37 in3n3 ? 37 a/3 mu43 837 /n/ur 3 /n43i3u3 37 /rim • al4 oyall  GC.!" ? <eyers GC.%! • *habo <eli  GC.%!, a /n3inuin5 4ri4  a/34 •

Pa5 1,  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

2. (efences 2.1 )ntrod&ction '.1 GC.*09+1% GN.%0+2 •





a /riminal n/  ar U mr U n/4 o P mu43 -r6 >R ar ? mr (? /+in/in/  837) o  mu43 i4/7ar5 6in3iary 8urn (rai4 a u83) r all   n/[email protected] • ecept -r4ua4i6 8urn (8alan/  -r8a8ili3i4) ruir r  in4ani3y GC.*0  4u843an3ial im-airmn3 (a..a. imini47 r4-n4i8ili3y) GC.*0  43a3u3ry -r6i4in4 :-r44ly r im-lily -la/in5 4u/7 a 8urn n  GC."1" o P mu43 dis -r6Jn5a3i6 >R any n/4 rai4 (i.. P mu43 -r6 absence  37 n/ lmn34)

a 3ru /riminal n/ ruir4  3 i4/7ar5 37 6in3iary 8urn o 37i4 /n3ra434 wi37 n/4K (in u34) 37a3 ar rally =u43 nial4  /r ini3inal lmn34 (mens rea r actus reus)@ i.. n5a3i6in5 a/3r4  37 /r lmn34 8a3 a8u3 a8li3in  -ar3ial n/4 ? murr+man4lau573r ? /ra3 4in5l n/  unlawul 7mi/iK o 7* irn/ ma 4n4 w7n a37 -nal3y (r murr) :i43 nw 37r i4 n n  yam v ))  (1,9"@') GC.!11 o )*, /allin5 4mn a murrrK 43ill 7a4 a 43i5ma a33a/7 GC.*1% o )*, rl  =ury 3 /i mral /ul-a8ili3ymurrJman4lau573r GC.*1%

Pa5 20  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

2.2 #ental *efences 2.2.1 )nsanity 6.2 GC.*1%+%9 GN.%[email protected]%9 G.9*@19,@1,1 37 -ar3y rai4in5 37 n/ (i37r P r  'youb) mu43 -r6@ n 37 8alan/   -r84 ( )orter )@ 37a3 a3 37 3im  /mmi33in5 37 a/3 ( )orter )@  wa4 ( <;aughten) (i) la8urin5 unr 4u/7 a de!ect o! reason (ii) win5 3 a disease o! the mind  4u/7 37a3 either  (iii)  i n3 nw 37 na3ur ? uali3y  K4 a/3 or  (i6)i  i n[email protected] 37a3  i n3 nw 37a3 w7a3  wa4 in5 wa4 wrn5. a 4-/ial 6ri/3  n3 5uil3y 8y ra4n  mn3al illn44K r4ul34

( <ental ealth =9riminal )rocedures? 'ct 1,,0 (NSW) 4 %) 37 a/ui33 -r4n 8/m4 a rn4i/ -a3in3K ? i4 7l inini3ly in /u43y ( <ental ealth =9riminal )rocedures? 'ct 1,,0 (NSW) 4 %,)  8urn  -r ? rai4in5 37 n/ •  -ar3y rai4in5 in4ani3y 8ar4 37 8urn  -r6in5 37 n/ n 37 8alan/  -r8a8ili3i4 ( )orter  /n3ra :oolmington) •  837 P an  /an rai4 37 n/ (  alconer  'youb) •  8urn  -r i4 37 4am r 837 P an  8alan/  -r84  (alconer   'youb)  <;aughtens 9ase (1*[email protected]'HL) GC.*1% GN.%2 ')$ +  8li6 7 wa4 8in5 -r4/u3 8y 37 Tri4 + 6n3ually 7 in3n an -lann 3 ill PM Pl + 8y a//in3 7 ill 7i4 4/r3ary rummn + urin5 7i4 3rial 7 u4 ! mi/al 4-/iali434 w7 343ii a4 3 7i4 in4ani3y + 37 Law Lr4 lai wn 37 rul4 r in4ani3y in En5lan +$$ w7a3 i4 37 law wi37 r5ar4 3 -r4n4 w7 7a6 /mmi33 /rim4 w7il unr in4an lu4in4$ '+* • 6n man i4 -r4um 3 8 4an • i3 mu43 8 -r6 37a3 w7n /mmi33in5 37 a/[email protected]  wa4 (i) la8urin5 unr 4u/7 a de!ect o! reason (ii) win5 3 a disease o! the mind  4u/7 37a3 either  (iii)  i n3 nw 37 na3ur ? uali3y  K4 a/3 or  (i6)i  i n[email protected] 37a3  i n3 nw 37a3 w7a3  wa4 in5 wa4 wrn5. - n3 5uil3y 8y ra4n  mn3al in4ani3y  /mmi33 3 in4an a4ylum ,* 4 G.12+* r a mr 3ail :amina3in  37 lmn34  37i4 343  )orter (1,%*@HCA) GC.*1! GN.%% ')$ + a3r a num8r  -r8lm4 in 7i4 marria5@  l43 /n3rl  7i4 m3i[email protected] an 37 wi ru4 3 7a6 any37in5 3  wi37 7im an rm6 37 /7il +  5a6 37 /7il 43ry/7nin@ illin5 [email protected] an wa4 a8u3 3 ill 7im4l w7n 37 -li/ arri6 +$$ i  n3 nw 37a3 37 a/3 wa4 wrn5 u 3 a i4a4  37 min$ W7a3 i4 37 law rla3in5 3 in4ani3y in Au43ralia$

Pa5 21  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011) '+*

Summary

 mu43 -r6 in4ani3y n 37 8alan/  -r8a8ili3i4 (/n3ra :oolmington) •  =ury nly /n/rn wi37 K4 43a3  min a3 37 3im  37 a/[email protected] n3  8r r a3r  • in4ani3y i4 not  :/[email protected] -a44i[email protected] 43u-i[email protected] 83u4n[email protected] la/  4l+ /n3r[email protected] im-ul4i6n44 • i a3 37 3im  37 a/3 7 7a 4u/7 a i43ur8an/  37 min 37a3 7 wa4 in/a-a8l  i4/rnin5 ri573 r wrn5 r 3ain5 in3 a//un3 rl6an3 /n4ira3i[email protected] a//rin5 3 rinary 43anar[email protected] 37n 7 mu43 8 n3 5uil3y 8y ra4n  mn3al in4ani3y. - inin5  n3 5uil3y 8y ra4n  mn3al [email protected] /mmi33 3 in4an a4ylum ,*  =ury ir/3in (n3 -r4ua4i6 au37ri3y)@ 8u3 li6r 8y i:n D (HCA) •

  v Bones (1,,[email protected]) GC.*20 GN.%% *(+ /3  ra4nK 47ul n3 8 a n/44ary lmn3 in 37 n/   v 'ntoine ([email protected]'HL) GC.*21 GN.%% '+* nly n 3 -r6 actus [email protected] 8/au4 in4ani3y 7a4 43ry mens rea.

2.2.1.1 procedure  -ar3y rai4in5 in4ani3y 8ar4 37 8urn  -r6in5 37 n/ n 37 8alan/  -r8a8ili3i4 ( )orter  /n3ra :oolmington) •  837 P an  /an rai4 37 n/ (  alconer  'youb) •  8urn  -r i4 37 4am r 837 P an  8alan/  -r84  (alconer   'youb) •

 'youb (1,"@NSWCCA) GC.*2! GN.%" ')$ +  43a88 7i4 a37r 3 a37 +  -la imini47 r4-n4i8ili3y ? au/ 4u--r3in5 6in/  4/7i-7rnia +  i n3 rai4 n/  [email protected] 8u3 P i +  un n3 5uil3y r ra4n  mn3al illn44 +$$ w7a3 i4 37 43anar  -r ruir w7n P rai44 in4ani3y$ '+* P mu43 -r6 n 8alan/  -r8a8ili3i4 (=u43 li ) -+$$, :oolmington 47ul 8 llw (Enr8y D)  alconer (1,,[email protected]) GC.*2! GN.%" '+* i3 i4 -n 3 P 3 la 6in/ 3 43a8li47 mn3al illn[email protected] n 37 8alan/   -r8a8ili3i[email protected] a4 an al3rna3i6 3 /n6i/3in.  <ental ealth =9riminal )rocedures? 'ct  1,,0 (NSW) GC.*2!+* GN.%" • 4 %9 =ury ir/3in n n/  in4ani3y • 4 %  4-/ial 6ri/3 n3 5uil3y 8y ra4n  mn3al illn44B • 4 %,  in3rmina3 3n3in a rn4i/ -a3in3 i4 3ain in /u43y r an inini3 -ri (rmrly a3 37 56rnrK4 -la4urB) • au3ma3i/ r3n3in mn in Ln5 >[email protected] 37n Mrri43 wmn in Cum8rlan H4-i3al

Pa5 22  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011) •

Summary

4i:+mn37ly r+a4444mn34 8y Mn3al Hal37 R6iw Tri8unal

2.2.1.2 fitness to plead  • •

uni3 3 -la  r /ri3[email protected] 4 )resser  (1,!@<SC) GC.*2 GN.%! in/a-a8l  5i6in5 in43ru/3in4 3 /un4lrn4i/ -a3in3 GC.*%0 GN.%!

2.2.1.3 forensic patients • •

% 3y-4 mn3al illn44 n/ uni3 3 8 3ri 3ran4rr rm -ri4n Mn3al Hal37 R6iw Tri8unal r6iw4 /a44  rn4i/ -a3in34 GN.%!

2.2.1.4 summary proceedings •

 <ental ealth =9riminal )rocedures? 'ct 1,,0 (NSW) 44 %2+%% allw mn3ally ill 3 8 i6r3 in3 7al37 /ar 4y43m

2.2.1.5 involuntary committal  •

ruir4 /mmi33al 8r a Ma5i43ra3

2.2.2 *utomatism 6.3 GC.*%9+!2 GN.%*+"0 • au3ma3i4m  in6lun3ary a/3B • n/ 3 6lun3arin44 (lmn3  37 actus reus) • 3w 3y-4 1. +,$', au3ma3i4m in6lun3ary a/3 -r/in5 rm a disease o! the mind . N ln5r a6aila8l  4u84um 8y n/  in4ani3y ( @ratty)@ i.. <;aughten rul4 ? in4ani3y -r/ur4 a--ly. $7)+' <-+) " +,-+,+ -,+*, 2. $', au3ma3i4m n3 (1) )*/7 -,)

2.2.2.1 what is a disease of the mind? T7i4 i4 a 6ry im-r3an3 u43i[email protected] 8/au4 i3 man4 37 irn/ 83wn 37 u3/m4  /m-l3 a/ui33al (r sane au3ma3i4m) an inini3 3n3in (r insane au3ma3i4m). • 37r 3434 (8u3 nly 5uilin4 per alconer ) 1. r/urrn/ 343 any mn3al i4rr w7i/7 7a4 mani43 i34l in 6iln/ an i4 -rn 3 r/ur ( @ratty) 2. in3rnalJ:3rnal 343 wa4 K4 mn3al 43a3 3ri55r 8y an in3rnal r :3rnal a/3r$ I in3[email protected] 37n i4a4  37 min.  alconer  ( ) %. un4unJ4un min wa4 K4 mn3al 43a3 37 ra/3in  an un4un min 3 i34 wn lu4in4 r :3rnal 43imuli$ ( ad!ord )

2.2.2.2 insane automatism •

4m /i :am-l4 o  -4y/74[email protected] 4u/7 a 4/7i-7rnia ( @ratty) o -il-4y ( @ratty (ullivan) o /r8ral 3umur ( @ratty) o hyper 5ly/amia ( ennessy) (ia83i/ 7i57 8l [email protected] ail 3 3a in4ulin 7l 37r wa4 n :3rnal a/3r) o 4l-+walin5 ( @urgess(') /n3ra BimineA  /n3ra )ars (Canaa))

Pa5 2%  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

2.2.2.3 sane automatism • • •

 ni4 6lun3arin44 ? 37rr 7a4 6in3iary 8urn P mu43 -r6 6lun3arin44 >R (:oolmington) in6lun3ary a/34 o /n/u44in (:ogandt ) o 4l-+walin5 ( BimineA  )ars (Canaa) /n3ra @urgess(')) o hypo5ly/amia (Euic ) (lw 8l[email protected]  in=/3 3 mu/7 in4ulin 7l in4ulin /au4 in6lun3arin44) o 4un illn44 ( ill v @ater ) o 43r r 7ar3 a33a/  o  8in5 a33a/ 8y a 4warm  84 GC.*%9 o i44/ia3in /au4 8y a 46r -4y/7l5i/al 8lw  (alconer ) o i44/ia3in /au4 8y -43 3rauma3i/ 43r44 i4rr  (onyadideh) o :3rm 43a34  (nn 4l+inu/) in3:i/a3in 8y al/7l ($ 428G) o :3rm 43a34  in3:i/a3in 8y ru54 ( ay#ood ) o /ir/um43an/4 /au4 8y an :3rnal a/3rB  (alconer )

2.2.2.4 case law  @ratty v 'C !or ;orthern &reland (1,*%@'HL) GC.*% GN.%+, +$$ w7a3 i4 37 43anar  -r ruir w7n P rai44 in4ani3y$ '+* • au3ma3i4m i4 a6aila8l a4 a n/ 3 all /riminal n/4 ( per • an in6lun3ary a/3 i4 n n 8y 37 mu4/l4 wi37u3 any /n3rl 8y Lr 37 min@ 4u/7 a4 a [email protected] a rl: a/3in r a /n6ul4in r an a/3 nnin5 n 8y a -r4n w7 i4 n3 /n4/iu4  w7a3 7 i4 [email protected] 4u/7 a4 an ) a/3 n w7il43 4urin5 rm /n/u44in r w7il43 4l-+walin5B • i 37 in6lun3ary a/3 -r/4 rm a i4a4  37 min@ i3 5i64 ri4 3 a n/  [email protected] 8u3 3 a n/  au3ma3i4m • i4a4  37 min any mn3al i4rr w7i/7 7a4 mani43 i34l in 6iln/ an i4 -rn 3 r/urB • i  wi474 3 rai4 au3[email protected] 37y mu43 i4/7ar5 37 6in3iary  8urn • P mu43 43ill -r6 6lun3arin44 >R (ullivan (1,%@'HL) GC.*"2 GN."0 - -il-4y i4 a i4a4  37 min ? 37rr 37 n/  au3ma3i4m wa4 n3 a6aila8l@ ? in43a amun3 3 37 n/  in4ani3y.  alconer (1,,[email protected]) GC.*"2 GN.%, ')$ +  /n6i/3  wilul murr  7r 7u48an (<) +  4u8=/3 3 6r 37ir3y yar4  [email protected] -4y/[email protected] 4:ual a8u4 8y <@ ? 7a al4 r/n3ly larn 37a3 7 7a 4:ually a44aul3 au573r4. + < r3urn 7m n ay  mur[email protected] 4:ually a44aul3 a//u4 an 3aun3 7r. +  /laim 47 rmm8r n37in5 8u3 wain5 u- n:3 3 8[email protected] wi37 5un in 7r 7an. +  rai4 n/  nn+in4an au3ma3i4m 37a3 inu/ a i44/ia3i6 43a3. + 6in/  37i4 :/lu 8y 3rial =u5 6r+3urn 8y WACCA Crwn

Pa5 2"  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

+$$ '+*

-+$$,

,*

Summary

a--al 3 HCA. i 37 a/3  473in5 //ur in-nn3  K4 will$ •  8ar4 an 6in3iary 8urn in rai4in5 nn+in4an au3ma3i4m • i 837 in4ani3y ? nn+4an au3ma3i4m ar 8r 37 [email protected] 37n 37r i4 a 3w+43a5 343 3 3rmin w7i/7 i3 i4 1. 7a P i4-r6 >R nn+in4an au3ma3i4m$  NO  i4 n3i3l 3 unualii a/ui33al (r in6lun3arin44) #ES 5 n 3 V2 2. 7a  -r6 n 8alan/  -r8a8ili3i4 in4ani3y$ #ES 4-/ial 6ri/3  NO  i4 /riminally lia8l • :-r3 6in/ i4 im-r3an3 3 7l- =ury /i w737r  i4 i5nin5 a i44/ia3i6 43a3 (in rr 3 /a3/7 a -a37l5i/al )  per Ma4n [email protected] >rnnan ? M/Hu57 DD • w7n  rai44 au3ma3i4m an a44i5n4 4m malun/3in  37 min a4 i34 /au4@ 7 rai44 a n/  un4unn44  min r in4ani3y unless malun/3in  min wa4 1. 3ran4in3 ',2. /au4 8y [email protected] w737r -7y4i/al r -4y/7l5i/[email protected] w7i/7 37 min  37 rinary -r4n wul 8 lily n3 3 7a6 wi3743 ',%. n3 -rn 3 r/ur. • *(;)+< $  37 mn3al 43rn537  an rinary -r4n GC.*"% o i 37 minK4 43rn537 i4 8lw 37a3 43anarmin i4 inirm o i 37 minK4 43rn537 i4 8lw 37a3 43anarmin i4 4unJ4an • 37 rinary -r4nK  37 8=/3i6 343 i4 37 4am a4 37a3  37 rinary -r4n in 37 *(;)+< $ * 7*<*)'+*, rinary -r4n 4 n3 -4444 any  37 -ar3i/ular m3inal a3ur4   a3 37 3im  37 n/@ 8u3 37 8=/3i6 a/3r4 wul 8 3an in3 a//un3 (4u/7 a4 7i43ry  6iln/ ? a8u4  /7ilrn). G.1,

2.2.3 +ustantial )mpairment 6.4 GC.*!2+*, GN."1+%@"" •  -ar3ial 43a3u3ry n/ ($ 23A%5& ) • airma3i6 n/@ >P n  (/n3ra :oolmington) ($ 23A%4& ) • 6in/  an opinion 37a3 im-airmn3 wa4 4u843an3ial i4 n3 ami44i8l ($ 23A%2&) • 4l+inu/ in3:i/a3in i4 :/lu a4 a 5run r 4u843an3ial im-airmn3 ($ 23A%3&) • a6aila8l r murr nly • 343 i4 wir 37an in4ani3y (8u3 37i4 i4 nly a -ar3ial n/) •

 mu43 -r6 ($ 23A%4&) n 37 8alan/  -r8a8ili3i4 37a3 ($ 23A%1&%'&) 1. a3 37 3im  37 <K4 [email protected]  wa4 4urin5 rm an '(,*/'+= *  /+,- 2. 37a3 a8nrmali3y  37 min ar4 rm an ,-=+, )*,-++*, %. 37a3 a8nrmali3y  37 min $($',+'= +/7'+- K4 /a-a/i3y 3 (i) unr43an 6n34 or  (ii) =u5 w737r K4 a/3in4 wr ri573 r wrn5 or  Pa5 2!  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011) (iii)

Summary

/n3rl 7imJ7r4l 

9hayna (1,,%@NSWCCA) GC.*!% GN."1 +  wa4 6u3 C7ri43ian -r44@ an:i[email protected] un7a--y mari3al -r8lm4 ')$ + 7u48an 37ra3n4 3 3a /7ilrn away 3 li6 in Pr37 +  4na-4 54 in3 rni a33a/ ? ill4 4i43[email protected] 37n n au573r in 7r 8 ill4 4/n au573r u-n r3urn rm 4/7l /am+ a3 3rial /nli/3in5 -4y/7ia3ri/ a4444mn34 8y /n4ul3an3 -4y/7ia3ri434. &l4n CD :-r444 /n/rn a8u3 ii/ul3  a =ury alin5 wi37 *(+ /n/-34 w7i/7 /au4 /n3n3in an am8i5ui3y amn543 37 :-r34. 37i4 l 3 37 nw $ 23A (na/3 in 1,,9) ,*$ $ 23A

(1) A -r4n w7 wul 37rwi4 8 5uil3y  murr i4 n3 8 /n6i/3  murr i (a) a3 37 3im  37 a/34 r mi44in4 /au4in5 37 a37 /n/rn@ 37  -r4nK4 /a-a/i3y 3 unr43an 6[email protected] r 3 =u5 w737r 37  -r4nK4 a/3in4 wr ri573 r wr[email protected] r 3 /n3rl 7im4l r 7r4l@ wa4 4u843an3ially im-air 8y an a8nrmali3y  min ari4in5 rm an unrlyin5 /ni3i[email protected] ',(8) 37 im-airmn3 wa4 4 4u843an3ial a4 3 warran3 lia8ili3y r murr  8in5 ru/ 3 man4lau573r.

2.2.3.1 abnormality of the mind  :am-l4 • ma=r -r44i6 illn44 (9haya)  ;ielson) •  -43+3rauma3i/ 43r44 i4rr ( •  -r4nali3y i4rr4 (  @yrne) • PMT GC.*** GN."%  @yrne (1,*[email protected]'CCA) GC.*! GN."2 ')$ +  ami34 3 43ran5lin5 wmn al4 mu3ila3 a 8y + -la4 imini47 r4-n4i8ili3y mi/al 6in/ in4 37a3 7 i4 4:ual  -4y/7-a37B 8u3 n3 in4an a//rin5 3 MKNa573n nly -ar3ial in4ani3y. + 3rial D wi37rw imini47 r4-n4i8ili3y rm =ury D ra4n 37a3 -4y/7-a37yB i n3 all in3 43a3u3ry ini3in  a8nrmali3y  37 min +$$ w737r D 47ul 7a6 l3 imini47 r4-n4i8ili3y$ w737r -4y/7-a37y all4 wi37in 43a3u3ry ini3in  a8nrmali3y  37 min$ - DK4 ir/3in 3 37 =ury 37a3 ii/ul3 r ina8ili3y 3 :r/i4 will -wr /ul n3 amun3 3 a8nrmali3y  37 min lain5 3 4u843an3ial im-airmn3 wa4 in/rr/3 an 37 n/  4u843an3ial im-airmn3 wa4 a u43in w7i/7 47ul 7a6 8n l3 3 37 =ury '+* • a 43a3  min 4 irn3 rm 37a3  rinary 7uman 8in54 37a3 37 ra4na8l man wul 3rm i3 a8nrmal. i3 /6r4 37 minK4 a/3i6i3i4 in all i34 a4-/[email protected] n3 nly 37 -r/-3in  -7y4i/al a/34 an ma33[email protected] an 37 a8ili3y 3 rm a ra3inal =u5mn3 a4 3 w737r an a/3 i4 ri573 r wr[email protected] 8u3 al4 37 a8ili3y 3 :r/i4 will -wr 3 /n3rl  -7y4i/al a/34 in a//ran/ wi37 37a3 ra3inal =u5mn3. • w737r K4 a8nrmali3y  min wa4 4 4u843an3ial a4 3 im-air 7i4

Pa5 2*  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

mn3al r4-n4i8ili3y i4 a uestion o! degree r 37 =ury.

2.2.3.2 underlying condition GC.**0 •

• •



$ 23A%8& in4 37i4 a4 a -r+:i43in5 mn3al r -7y4il5i/al /ni3i[email protected] 37r 37an a /ni3in  a 3ran4i3ry inB 4 NSWLRC :-lana3in a3 GC.**0 :am-l4 (4 G.9,+0 r mr) o al/7li4m in a6an/ 43a54 o not  3m-rary in3:i/a3in o not  7rmnal im8alan/ /au4 8y ana8li/ 43ri4 esouAa (1,,[email protected]) 4l+inu/ in3:i/a3in i4 :/lu a4 a 5run r 4u843an3ial im-airmn3 ($ 23A%3&) GC.**0

2.2.3.3 substantial impairment  GC.**1 • •

$ 23A%1&%'& 37 -r4nK4 /a-a/i3y 3B i4 man3 3 r-ru/ @yrne $ 23A%1&%(&  man3 3 r-ru/ 37 4u843an3ial im-airmn3  mn3al r4-n4i8ili3yB  @yrne

2.2.3.4 expert evidence •

4 NSWLRC :-lana3in a3 GC.**%

2.2.3.5 sentencing  GC.**"+* Feen (1,9,@HCA) GC.**" GN."2 ')$ -r43i3u3 43a84 < 6r -aymn3 - w7n 4n3n/in5 imini47 r4-n4i8ili3y /a4[email protected] i3 i4 n/44ary 3  8alan/ 37 -r3/3in  4/i3y a5ain43 37 /ir/um43an/4 ? 5ra6i3y  37 n/. Feen =;o 2? (1,@HCA) GC.**! GN."2 ')$  rla4 rm -ri4n ? 4 37 4am 37in5 a5ain - w7n i3 /m4 3 4n3n/in5 r/i[email protected] 37 4/al 3i-4 in a6ur   -r3/3in5 4/i3y

2.2.4 )nfanticide 6.5 GC.**,+9! GN."! • $ 22A%1&>  4u843an3i6 n/  inan3i/i • $ 22A%2&>  inan3i/i a4 al3rna3i6 6ri/3 3 murr (a6aila8l 3 =ury) •  837 an n/ and   n/ •  -ar3ial n/ murr inan3i/i (man4lau573r)

Pa5 29  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

Pa5 2  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

OFFENCE ?+ (mens rea)  in3n3in ? nwl5 ? u4ually -ur-4K ( &anella v rench)GH?D.29, ') * */+$$+*, (actus reus) )'$+, (actus reus) -' *  )+-  (actus reus) ,* 7r /7ilK man4 nly 37 /7il 3 w7m 47 r/n3ly 5a6 [email protected] n3 any 37r /7il )+-  12 /$ (actus reus) DEFENCE a3 3im  n/ 7r 8alan/  min wa4 i43ur8 8y ra4n  • 7r n3 7a6in5 ully r/6r rm 37 /3  5i6in5 8ir37 3 the child  • 37 /3  la/3a3in /n4un3 u-n 37 8ir37  the child 

 utty (1,!%@<SC) GC.*90 GH?D.29, a wman 47ul n3 8 -r4/u3 r murr w7r 6in/ ini/a34 inan3i/i. • in -ra/3i/@ 7w6[email protected] wman /7ar5 wi37 murr 4 a4 3 n/ura5  3  -la 5uil3y  37 l44r n/  inan3i/i ra37r 37an a/ =ury 3rial r murr. • 4 al4 GC.*91 r nu4  -r@ 3/ • 43rn5 /a4 r a8li3in GN."! GC.*92+! o n/ i4 ar8i3rary 12 mn37 limi3 nly the child . o n/ /ul 8 /6r 8y 4u843an3ial im-airmn3 •

2.3 )nto+ication '.'  GC.*9!+1 GN."*+ • not  a n/@ nly n5a34 lmn34  a /rim (i.. i3 i4 a n/K) • in3:i/a3in may rm 8a4i4  o  -la  '*/'+$/ in6lun3arin44 (actus reus) (>P 6in3iary () >R (P)) o a nial 37a3  7a 37 n/44ary mens rea (>P 6in3iary () >R (P)) o n/  +,$',+= w7r in3:i/an3 3ri55r an unrlyin5 i4a4  37 min (>P 8alan/  -r8a8ili3i4 ()) •  =uri4 ar la37 3 :/u4 4l+inu/ in3:i/a3in  ('ins#orth (1,,"@  NSWCCA) -r &l4n CD GC.*9*)

2.3.1 ,art 11* $ 428A

-$)+7+*, -+,++*,$ • -  a4 -r rug <isuse  *ra!!icing 'ct an )oisons 'ct  • +,*+)'+*,  in/lu4 al/7[email protected] ru5 r any 37r 4u843an/ • *,)   in/lu4 an a33m-3 3 /mmi3 n/ • *,) * $7)++) +,,   4 $ 428B • <', )*,-)   a/3 r mi44in /n43i3u3in5 37 actus reus • $@+,-)- +,*+)'+*,   any intoication ecept  w7n i3% o wa4 involuntary o r4ul34 rm rau@ mr5n/[email protected] a//i[email protected] ra4na8l mi43a@

Pa5 2,  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

428B 428C

428D

428E

428F 428G

428H

Summary

ur44 r r/ o wa4 a prescription or non-prescription drug taen in accordance #ith instructions %'( *& *,)$ * $7)++) +,, * ?+) #' 11A '77+$ %2& 37 3a8l n/4 ar n3 :7au43i6 +,*+)'+*, +, '+*, * *,)$ * $7)++) +,, %1& D )', '+$ +,*+)'+*, %$@+,-)- * *?+$& * *,)$ * $7)++) +,, %2& except for )'$$ * D) )*' %'<+, */- +,,  prior  * ()*/+, +,*+)'-& +,*+)'+*, * * *,)$ • 4l+inu/ in3:i/a3in /ann3 8 3an in3 a//un3 r mens rea • i in3:i/a3in wa4 n3 4l+inu/@ i3 /an 8 3an in3 a//un3 w7n :aminin5 mens rea +,*+)'+*, +, '+*, * /- " /',$' i in3:i/a3in r4ul34 in a/ui33al r murr 37n • i 4l+inu/@ in3:i/a3in /ann3 8 3an in3 a//un3 w7n :aminin5 mens rea * /',$' • + ,* $@+,-)- +,*+)'+*, )', ( ', +,* '))*, * mens rea * /',$' +,*+)'+*, +, '+*, *  '$*,'( 7$*, $ 37 min  37 ra4na8l -r4n i4 n3 in3:i/a3 +,*+)'+*, ',-  actus reus 4l+inu/ in3:i/a3in /ann3 8 -la w7n n5a3i6in5 6lun3arin44 %'*/'+$/& ho#ever  +,<*,'+,$$ +$ '<'+'( + D$ +,*+)'+*, ?'$ ,* $@ +,-))*//*, '? '+, * $@+,-)- +,*+)'+*, +$ '(*+$-

2.3.2 common law  <a0e#si (1,[email protected]'HL) GC.*9* GN."*+9 '+* • /an nly rai4 6lun3ary 4l+inu/ in3:i/a3in 3 n5a3 actus reus r mens rea r /rim4  4-/ii/ in3n3 • i.. in6lun3arin44 u 3 4l+inu/ in3:i/a3in /ann3 8 rli u-n a4 an4wr 3 /7ar54  8a4i/ in3n3 ,* • r=/3 8y HCA in G9onnor  • r+in43a3 in NSW in 1,,* #' 11A G9onnor (1,[email protected]) GC.*9* GN."*+9 G.1,2+% '+* • 6in/  in3:i/a3in may 8 au/ 3 /a43 u83 n 37 P /a4 a3 37 l6l  actus reus an mens rea. • in3:i/a3in rl6an3 3 any n/ (n3 =u43 4-/ii/ in3n3 n/4) • not guilty  i 4 run act  wa4 in6lun3ary • not guilty  i 4 run /ulnK3 rm intent  ,* • 6rrul in NSW in 1,,* #' 11A • /ri3i/i4 a4 a run4K /7ar3rB

Pa5 %0  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

2.3.3 -he reasonale person/ •



$ 428F 43a34 37a3 37 ra4na8l -r4nK  an 8=/3i6 343 47ul n3 47ar K4 in3:i/a3in. i3 i4 wr37 n3in5 37a3 in (tingel  GC.900 37 HCA ua3 r[email protected] ra4na8lK an nrmalK.



2.3.4 )nto0ication and other defences

2.3.4.1 insanity in3:i/a3in i4 n3 a i4a4  37 min ? 37rr wnK3 -a44 37  <;aughten 343. • ho#ever  i i3 3ri55r4 an unrlyin5 i4a4  37 min 37n in4ani3y i4 a6aila8l ( 'C v Callagher ). •

2.3.4.2 automatism $ 428G 4l+inu/ in3:i/a3in /ann3 8 rai4 a4 a n/

2.3.4.3 substantial impairment (diminished responsibility •



$ 23A%3& 4l+inu/ in3:i/a3in i4 :/lu a4 a 5run r 4u843an3ial im-airmn3 GC.**0 al/7li4m in a6an/ 43a54 /an amun3 3 a rl6an3 a8nrmali3y  37 min G.0

2.3.4.4 infanticide murr i4 li43 a4 an n/  speci!ic intent  ($ 428B) $ 428C allw4 in3:i/a3in 3 8 rai4 a4 a n/ r n/4  4-/ii/ in3[email protected] 8u3 i a  -ar3ial n/ i4 u4@ 37n $ 428E i/4 in • a4 a -ar3ial n/@ -r4uma8ly inan3i/i 54 immia3ly 3 $ 428E 4l+ inu/ in3:i/a3in /ann3 8 rai4 a4 a n/ i n3 4l+inu/ 37n i3 /an. • 37i4 i4 /nu4 7r 8/au4 $ 22A i4 837 an n/ ? n/QQQ •

2.3.4.5 provocation • •



may 8 rl6an3 wi37 r5ar 3 /au4a3in ? 37 8=/3i6 343 G.9" 37r i4 an rinary -r4nK 343 ($ 23%2&%(&) -r4uma8ly ($) 37i4 i4 37 4am a4 37 ra4na8l -r4nK  $ 428F an w7 37rr may n3 8 in3:i/a3. 3ri/y i44u 7r 37r will 8 ar5umn3 a8u3 w737r loss o! control  wa4 /au4 8y -r6/a3in (w7i/7 i4 a n/) r in3:i/a3in (w7i/7 i4 n3 a n/).

2.3.4.! self"defence  HatarAynsi /n3rai/34 9onlon (8y ain5 37 :3ra 43-  a ra4na8l r4-n4B 343 43rai573 rm $ 418%2&) • 9onlon wa4 /i be!ore in3ru/3in  #' [email protected] •  8u3 Hurtic 4u55434 37a3 9onlon 43ill 43an4 • w7 nw4$$$$ • a4 y3 37r 7a4 8n n a--lla3 /i4in  w n nQQQ •

Pa5 %1  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

9onlon (1,,%@NSWSC) GC.*[email protected]"0+! GN."@*"@** '+* • 343 in 4l+n/ (/mmn law Iecevic a3 37i4 3im) i4 n3 37 reasonable persons belie! @ 8u3 ra37r 37 accuseds reasonable belie!  (in all 37 /ir/um43an/4 in w7i/7 7 un 7im4l)@ i.. 4u8=/3i6 n3 8=/3i6. • ∴ 4l+inu/ in3:i/a3in /an 8 3an in3 a//un3 w7n :aminin5 37a3 8li  ,* • in Hurtic GC.9"% Hun3 CD 4ay4 obiter  37a3 #' 11A 4 n3 6rrul 9onlon • in HatarAynsi GN.* Hwi D i4a5r[email protected] 4ayin5 37a3 37 a4444mn3  K4 r4-n4 3 37 an5r (a4 4J7 -r/i6 i3) i4 an ob0ective a4444mn3 ? 37rr 4l+inu/ in3:i/a3in i4 n3 -rmi44i8l  very, very con!using  QQQ • 37r 7a4 8n n a--lla3 /i4in y3  w n nQQQ   v HatarAynsi ([email protected] NSWSC) GN.* ')$> +  473 < 37r 3im4 in arly 7ur4  m[email protected] a3r a -u8 i573 +  wa4 in3:i/a3 a3 37 3im +  /urrn3ly n 3rial 8r =ury +$$> + i4 in3:i/a3in a rl6an3 /n4ira3in r /7ar54 unr $ 418 (4l+ n/)$ -> • 9onlon ? Iecevic n ln5r 37 law in NSW (8/au4  nw 43a3u3ry  -r6i4in4) G22 • 37 3434 r $ 418 ar (i)  sub0ective test o! necessity o! conduct =considering all relevant  personal characteristics o! ? i4 37r a ra4na8l -44i8ili3y 37a3   8li6 7i4J7r /nu/3 wa4 n/44ary 3 n 7imJ7r4l$ ',(ii) ob0ective assessment o! proportionality o! conduct in the circumstances as they #ere =sub0ectively? perceived by  i4 37r a ra4na8l -44i8ili3y 37a3 w7a3  i wa4 a ra4na8l r4-n4 3 37 /ir/um43an/4 a4 4J7 -r/i6 37m$  i  5nuinly 8li6 37ir r4-n4 wa4 n/44ary$ ',- 5i6n 37 /ir/um43an/4 a4  -r/i6 37m (not  a4 37y a/3ually wr) wa4 r4-n4 ra4na8l$ (NOTE 37i4 ir4 rm 37 /mmn law) • 37r i4 n ra4na8l -r4n 343 ($ 428F) =ury a//444 37 ra4na8ln44  37 r4-n4   (n3  37 rinary -r4n) in 37 /ir/um43an/4 as s/he perceived them (n3 a4 37y 8=/3i6ly wr). G1, • 4m  37 -r4nal a33ri8u34   (.5. a5@ 5n[email protected] 7al37) ? 37 4urrunin5 -7y4i/al /ir/um43an/4 ar rl6an3 in a4444mn3  K4 r4-n4. • in3:i/a3in i4 rl6an3 w7n o /n4irin5 ma33r  n/44i3y w737r  5nuinly believed  /nu/3 wa4 n/44ary ',o /n4irin5 ma33r  /ir/um43an/4 a4  perceived  37m o ( ,* w7n /n4irin5 -r-r3inali3y w737r K4 r4-n4 3 374 /ir/um43an/4 wa4 ra4na8l. G2 *(+> • $ 418 343 a4 3 n/44i3y i4 sub0ective (a4 4J7 perceived  37mB) • $ 418 343 a4 3 -r-r3in i4 ob0ective (reasonable r4-n4 in 37

Pa5 %2  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

,*$>

Summary

/ir/um43an/4B) a4 sub0ectively -r/i6 8y . • 37i4 i4 not  au37ri3y i3K4 =u43 =ury ir/3in4  a 4in5l 3rial =u5 in  NSWSC (Hwi D) • in 9onlon GC.9"0 Hun3 CD 43a3 37a3 in3:i/a3in i4 rl6an3 in a4444in5 ra4na8ln44  K4 /nu/3. • in Hurtic GC.9"% Hun3 CD 4ay4 obiter  37a3 #' 11A 4 n3 6rrul 9onlon • in HatarAynsi GN.* Hwi D i4a5r[email protected] 4ayin5 37a3 37 a4444mn3  K4 r4-n4 3 37 an5r (a4 4J7 -r/i6 i3) i4 an ob0ective a4444mn3 ? 37rr 4l+inu/ in3:i/a3in i4 n3 -rmi44i8l  very, very con!using  QQQ • $* o  HatarAynsi /n3rai/34 9onlon (8y ain5 37 :3ra 43-  a ra4na8l r4-n4B 343 43rai573 rm $ 418%2&) o 9onlon wa4 /i be!ore in3ru/3in  #' [email protected] o  8u3 Hurtic 4u55434 37a3 9onlon 43ill 43an4 o w7 nw4$$$$ o a4 y3 37r 7a4 8n n a--lla3 /i4in  w n nQQQ

2.3.4.# duress •

37r i4 an -r4n  rinary irmn44  minK 343  ('busi!iah) i3 i4 un/lar w737r 37 ra4na8l -r4nK  $ 428F /6r4 37i4 343.  'busi!iah 43a34 37a3 37i4 -r4n i4 a 8rar /n/-3 37an 37 a6ra5 -r4nK  37  >a#rence 343. GC.9,@ 00

2.3.4.$ necessity •



in >oughnan 37r i4 a -r-r3inali3y 3[email protected] i 37a3K4 8=/3i6 37n $ 428F mi573 a--ly in ogers  mu43 7n43ly ? reasonably 8li6 in 37 n/44i3y  K4 a/3in4. >u3 37 ra4na8l 8li i4 [email protected] n3 37 rinary -r4nK4 (9onlon (-r Hun3 CD) ma4 37i4 -in3 a8u3 Iecevic rmm8r 37a3 ogers /i4in a-34 Iecevic 343)

Pa5 %%  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

2." Pro,ocation '.-  GC.*1+92* GN.",+*0 $ 23 (3rial r murr  n/  -r6/a3in) •  -ar3ial n/ (murr man4lau573r) ($ 23%1&) • al4 a n/ 3 /n43ru/3i6 murr ($ 23%1& ry) •  8ar4 evidentiary 8urn  rai4in5 37i4 n/ • P mu43 n5a3i6 n/ 8yn ra4na8l u83 ($ 23%4&) • % lmn34 1. 37r mu43 7a6 8n 7*<*)'+< )*,-)  n 37 -ar3  < 2.  mu43 7a6 l43 4l+/n3rl a4 a r4ul3  -r6/a3i6 /nu/3  < (sub%ective 343) ($ 23%2&%'&) (9hhay) %. an rinary -r4n in K4 /ir/um43an/4 /ul al4 7a6 l43 4l+ /n3rl ? rm in3n3 3 ill r /au4 &>H (ob%ective 343) ($ 23%2& %(&). O8=/3i6 343 7a4 3w lim84 (37 (tingel 343) (a) 5ra6i3yJ/n3:3 rinary -r4n 47ar4 K4 /7ara/3ri43i/4 (Creen) (8) l44  4l+/n3rl rinary -r4n nly 47ar4 K4 yu37ul imma3uri3y ( <asciantonio) 43 • rinary -r4n  37 1  lim8 47ar4 37 8a33r wi 4ynrm   (Gsland ) •  -r6/a3i6 /nu/3 mu43 8 wi37in 37 7arin5 r -r4n/    (avis) 8u3 n3 37a3 37i4 7a4 8n u43in  n rulin5 y3. • 5r44ly in4ul3in5 wr4B ($ 23%1&) mr wr4  a8u4K ar n3 nu57  wr4 mu43 8 6il[email protected] n4i6 ( >ees) •  -r6/a3i6 a/3 n n3 //ur immia3ly 8r a/3 r mi44in /au4in5 a37 ($ 23%2&) (9hhay) • a/3 r mi44in /au4in5 a37 n n3 8 /mmi33Jmi33 4unly (-r $ 23%3&%(& ) (9hhay) •

2.4.1 history GC.*1+2 GN.!1 •   v (mith ([email protected]'HL) -r Lr Hman GC.*1 o n/  -r6/a3in i4 a /n/44in 3 7uman rail3yB o 47win5 an5r in 73 8lB wa4 n/ a 4i5n  ma4/ulin 7nur  o w7n murr a33ra/3 37 a37 -[email protected] -ar3ial n/  -r6/a3in man3 :/u3in /ul 8 a6i o ra4na8l manB 343 in3ru/ in  v :elsh (1*,@') n3 un3il 1,04 37a3 -r6/a3in wa4 mii 3 /6r m43i/ 6iln/ ? • /a44 w7r l44  4l+/n3rl wa4 n3 immia3B. T7i4 wa4 in r4-n4 3 /a44  &r5ina [email protected] SA a: mur[email protected] 3/

2.4.2 s 23' trial for murder  provocation GC.*2+% GN.!1+2 %1& -r6/a3in i4 a -ar3ial n/ =ury may a/ui3  murr ? /n6i/3  man4lau573r 

Pa5 %"  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

%2& an a/3 r mi44in /au4in5 a37 i4 an a/3 n r mi33 unr -r6/a3in w7n  l43 4l+/n3rl ( sub0ective 343) • a4 a r4ul3  any /nu/3  < (in/luin5 5r44ly in4ul3in5 wr4 r • 543ur4B) 3war4 r a/3in5  (37 -r6/a3i6 /nu/3) ($(@$ %2&%'& ) ',37 -r6/a3i6 /nu/3 wul 7a6 /au4 rinary -r4n in 37 -4i3in  •  3 4 ar l4 4l+/n3rl a4 3 rm in3n3 3 ill r /au4 &>H 3  (ob0ective 343) ($(@$ %2&%(& ) •  -r6/a3i6 /nu/3 /ul 7a6 //urr a3 any 3im -rir 3 a/3 r mi44in /au4in5 a37. %3& -r6/a3in i4 not  n5a3i6 8y (a) i4-r-r3inal r4-n4 (i.. n ruirmn3 r -r-r3inali3y) (8) a lay r4-n4 (i.. n ruirmn3  4unn44Jimmia/y  ra/3in) (/) in3n3   3 ill r /au4 &>H %4& P mu43 -r6 8yn ra4na8l u83 37a3 a/3 r mi44in /au4in5 a37 wa4 n3 n r mi33 unr -r6/a3in

2.4.3 provocative conductcircumstances  avis (1,,@ NSWCCA) GC.*!+ GN.!2 ')$>  ill < a3r 7arin5 37a3 < wa4 4:ually a44aul3in5 2 5irl4 (% ? ! y..) +$$> i4 -r6/a3in a6aila8l 3  w7 i n3 4 r 7ar 37 -r6/a3i6 /nu/3  <$ -> wr[email protected] /nu/3 r 543ur4  < mu43 //ur wi37in 37 7arin5 r  -r4n/   (-r  v Euartly (1,*@NSWSC)). '$*,+, i 7ar4ay -r6/a3inK wr allw@ 37n  wul 8 a8l 3 ill > inn/n3 --l. *(+>  per  Sim-4n D  i4 -r6 8y 37 belie!  37a3 37 /nu/3  < //urr. S i /nu/3 i in !act //[email protected] 37n  i4 -r6 8y <K4 /nu/3 not  37 r-r3  <K4 /nu/3 ∴ -r6/a3in 47ul 8 a6aila8l 3 . ,*$> $ 23%2&%'&  4ay4 37a3 -r6/a3in may 8 any /nu/3  G< • to#ards or a!!ecting GB. T7r i4 n :-r44 ruirmn3 r Euartly /ni3in. w7n ru4in5 4-/ial la6 3 a--[email protected] M/Hu57 ? Hayn DD • :-r44 -inin 37a3 1. Euartly mi573 7a6 8n wrn5ly /i an@ 2. $ 23%2&%'& mi573 8 4ui/in3 3 rm6 Euartly ruirmn3   v >ees (1,,,@ NSWCCA) GC.*+,2 GN.!2 ')$> + < ma rmar4 a8u3 4ui/i  K4 a37r. +  wa4 4n4i3i6 a8u3 37 3-i/ + a i573 n4u@  /laim4 7 l43 /n3r[email protected]  ill < +$$> /an wr4 /n43i3u3 -r6/a3in$ -> •  -r6/a3i6 wr4 /an i44u rm an [email protected] 37ra3  6iln/@  8la/[email protected] :3r3i[email protected] 3/. • wr4 n 3 8  a 4ui/in3 6il[email protected] n4i6 r 37rwi4 a55ra6a3in5 /7ara/3r Mr wr4  a8u4 r in4ul3 wul n3 nrmally ualiyB ,*$> • $ 23%1& 5r44ly in4ul3in5 wr4 r 543ur4B

Pa5 %!  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011) •

Summary

$ 23 i4 4iln3 n w737r -r6/a3i6 /nu/3 mu43 8 unlawul. I3 i4 unlily 37a3 unlawuln44 ruirmn3 43ill a--li4.

2.4.4 suective test' time  loss of self!control Hi43ri/ally 37r wa4 a ruirmn3 r 4unn44 limi3 3 a 1!+20 minu3 lay  83wn -r6/a3i6 a/3 ? r4-n4 ( )arer  GC.*,2). 9hhay (1,,[email protected] NSWCCA) GC.*,%+ GN.!2+% ')$> + < wa4 a 6iln3 ? a8u4i6 al/7li/@ marri 3  + < /laim  7a a33a/ 7r wi37 ni@ 47 53 ni rm 7im ? 43a88 7im + P /laim < ill  w7n 7 wa4 4l-in5 +$$> i  ill < w7n 7 wa4 4l[email protected] 37n 8/au4 37r wa4 n 4un 3ri55rin5 6[email protected] i4 -r6/a3in -n 3 $ -> • n ruirmn3 37a3 -r6/a3i6 /nu/3 //urr immia3ly 8r 37 a/3 r mi44in /au4in5 a37 (-r $ 23%2&) • a/3 r mi44in /au4in5 a37 n n3 8 /mmi33Jmi33 4unly (-r $ 23%3&%(&) • illin5 mu43 7a6 //urr w7n  wa4 in an m3inal 43a3 8ru573 n 8y 37 l44  4l+/n3rl ,*$> • $ 23%2&%'& 4u8=/3i6 343 • m-7a4i4 i4 n /n3:3uali4a3in  l44  4l+/n3rl (   ill ) • /ur34 ar 4u4-i/iu4  4l+7l- 37ru57 6iln/ (7n/ -r6/a3in i4 nly a partial  n/) •   v  (1,[email protected]) < 4:ually a8u4 7i4 ! au573r4. On ay  illin5  i4 3l  7i43ry  a8u4.  ill4 < wi37 an a: w7n 7 i4 a4l-. Dury a/ui34. GC.*,* GN.!% • Ceorgina ill   (1,[email protected]) :3rm m43i/ 6iln/. CCA ru/4 =ury /n6i/3in r murr wn 3 man4lau573r. GC.*,9 GN.!% • 4m mini434 7a6 /all r a8li3in  -r6/a3in a4 a mal+ /n3rK n/. >[email protected] 43a3i43i/4 47w 37a3 wmn ar 4u//44ul wi37 37i4 n/ a4 wll. GC.*, GN.!% • 6in/  >WS n3 ruir r -r6/a3i[email protected] 8/au4 37 rinary  -r4n  37 143 lim8 i4 a 8a33r wman (i rl6an3)

2.4.5 oective test' the ordinary person (tingel  (1,,[email protected] HCA) GC.*,+90! GN.!"@!9a ')$> +  i4/6r4 < 7a6in5 4: wi37 K4 rmr 5irlrin. +  43ill 8444 wi37 rmr 5irlrin + < 3ll4  3 -i44  yu /un3B +  43a84 < 3 a37 wi37 a 8u3/7r4 ni +$$> wul rinary -r4n 7a6 8n -r6$ -> • 3w lim84 3 37 8=/3i6 343 1. gravity/contetualisation 5rJ:3n3 3 w7i/7 rinary -r4n (47arin5 rl6an3 a33ri8u34  @ .5. a5@ 4:@ ra/@ 37ni/[email protected]  -7y4i/al a3ur[email protected] -r4nal a33ri8u3[email protected] -r4nal rla3in47i-4 r -a43 7i43ryB r 6n mn3al in43a8ili3yB) wul 7a6 8n -r6 2. sel!-control  /ul 37 rinary -r4n (47arin5 nly K4 yu37ul

Pa5 %*  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

• •

,*$>



Summary

imma3uri3y) 7a6 8n -r6 8y 37a3 5r  5ra6i3y 3 l4 37ir 4l+/n3rl ? 3 a/3 a4  i$ n 2  lim8 will alway4 rl/3 /n3m-rary /ni3in4 an a33i3u4B rinary -r4n  ra4na8l -r4n  nrmal -r4n $ 23%2&%(&  8=/3i6 343  /nu/3  G< wa4 4u/7 a4 /ul 7a6 inu/ an ordinary person in the position o! JK  3 7a6 4 ar l43 4l+/n3rl a4 3 7a6 rm an in3n3 3 [email protected] r 3 inli/3 &>H u-[email protected] G<B

 <asciantonio (1,,[email protected] HCA) GC.90!+11 [email protected]!9a ')$> + < i4 marri 3 K4 au573[email protected] 3ra34 7r 8a[email protected] 7a r/n3ly l3 7r ? 37ir /7il ? 7a 3an m43  37ir a4434 ? 4a6in54 +  /nrn34 <@ l44 4l+/n3rl ? a33a/4 ? ill4 < in a rni a47in -> airm4 (tingel  37 u43in i4 w737r 37 -r6/a3i[email protected] ma4ur in 5ra6i3y 8y rrn/ 3 37 -r4nal 4i3ua3in  37 a//u4@ /ul 7a6 /au4 an rinary -r4n 3 rm an in3n3in 3 ill r  &>H an 3 a/3 u-n 37a3 in3n3i[email protected] a4 G iB GC.909 *(+>  -r M/Hu57 D n • 37 rinary -r4nB  37 2  lim8  37 (tingel  343 47ul 47ar K4 37ni/i3y r /ul3ural 8a/5run. • ra3inal ral uali3y 8r 37 law man4 37a3 minri3i4 n3 8 ma4ur a5ain43 37 43anar4  37 minan3 /ul3ur. ,*$> • M/Hu57 DK4 -4i3in /an 8 /ri3i/i4 r o /ra3in5 a mul3i-li/i3y  rinary --lB (n r a/7 37ni/i3y) o w7y 43- a3 37ni/i3y$ w7y n3 5nr$ w7y n3 a5$ 3/ o ra/ial 43r3y-in5 7lin5 4m --l 3 a lwr 43anar  4l+/n3rlB 37an 37r4 4u55434 37a3 4m 37ni/i3i4 7a6 a 5ra3rJl44r /a-a/i3y  4l+/n3rl 37an 37r4 • in <o!!a (1,[email protected] [email protected]) Mur-7y D (in i44n3) ar5u r a8li3in  37 n3ir 8=/3i6 343 GC.910 43 • Gsland  (1,,,@ HCA) rinary -r4n  37 1  lim8 47ar4 37  8a33r wi 4ynrm   GC.90, • 3rial ir/3in4 mi573B r /ulB 7a6 /au4 rinary -r4n 3 l4 4l+/n3rl. (n3 wulB) Creen (1,,[email protected] HCA) GC.911+2* GN.!! ')$> + < (%*y) a33m-3 3 7a6 4: wi37  (22y).  i n3 wan3 3. +  /laim4 37 ima5  4:ual a8u4  7i4 4i43r4 8y 7i4 a37r la47 37ru57 7i4 min@ /au4in5 7im 3 l4 4l+/n3rl +  ill < in a 6ry 6iln3 a47in +$$> 47ul K4 4-/ial 4n4i3i6i3y 3 4:ual a44aul3 8 47ar 8y 37 rinary  -r4n  37 143 lim8  37 (tingel 343$ -> y4 K4 4-/ial 4n4i3i6i3y 3 4:ual a44aul3 i4 a rl6an3 a/3r in ma4urin5 37 5ra6i3y  37 -r6/a3in ? 47ul 8 47ar 8y 37 rinary -r4n. T7 4-/ial 4n4i3i6i3y i4 not  3 8 47ar 8y rinary  -r4n  2n lim8. '$*,+, • >rnnan CD < wa4 a a37r i5ur 3  ? <K4 -r4i43n3 7m4:ual

Pa5 %9  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011) >

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,*$>

Summary

a6an/4 6 K4 4-/ial 4n4i3i6i3y. T74 wr ma33r4 r 37  =ury 3 3rmin w7n ma4urin5 37 5r  -r6/a3in • M/Hu57 D 37 contet   37 -r6/a3in wa4 a 4:ual a6an/ a55ra6a3 8y K4 4-/ial 4n4i3i6i3y 3 4:ual a44aul3. In ma4urin5 37 5ra6i3y  37 -r6/a3i[email protected] 37 rinary -r4n mu43 8 -r6 r 37 4am ra4n4 a4 37 a//u4B 'ir8y D • /u44 n HA (7m4:ual a6an/ n/) ? /n/lu4 37a3 rinary 22y wul n3 8 -r6 8y a 7m4:ual a6an/ • 'ir8y D 7a4 mi44 37 -in3  7 4 n3 /u4 n K4 4-/ial 4n4i3i6i3y 3 (73r4:ual) 4:ual a44aul3 • in  v (mith ([email protected]'HL) GN.!* 37 HL 7a4 r=/3 37 6iw 37a3 nly a5 ? 5nr 47ul 8 47ar 8y 37 rinary -r4n in 37 4l+/n3rl lim8. O37r (rl6an3) -r4nal /7ara/3ri43i/4 /an al4 8 3an in3 a//un3. In ([email protected]  wa4 4urin5 rm a 46r -r44i6 illn44 37a3 lwr4 /a-a/i3y r 4l+/n3rl. HL 4ai rinary -r4n 47ul 47ar 37a3 /7ara/3ri43i/ in 37 2n lim8.  NOTE n3 37 law in Au43ralia.

2.5 elf(defence './  GC.92*+*1 GN.*0+ • • • • • • •



• •

$$ [email protected]  (-r/laim 22J02J2002) n :/44i6 r/ /m-l3 n/ (n3 5uil3y) :/44i6 r/ ($ 421) -ar3ial n/ (murr man4lau573r)  8ar4 evidentiary 8urn  rai4in5 37i4 n/ P mu43 n5a3i6 n/ 8yn ra4na8l u83 ($ 419) i3 i4 nu57 r P 3 n5a3i6 either   37 3w lmn34  $ 418 2 lmn34 ($ 418) 1. i  5nuinly 8li6 37a3 /nu/3 wa4 n/44ary in rr 3 n 7im4lJ7r4lJan37r$ (4u8=/3i6 343) ',2. wa4 K4 /nu/3 a ra4na8l r4-n4 3 37 an5[email protected] a4 4J7  -r/i6 i3 3 8$ (8=/3i6 343  -r-r3inali3y wi37 rrn/ 3 K4 4u8=/3i6 -r/-3in  /ir/um43an/4) 4l+n/ 3 murr n3 a6aila8l w7n -r3/3in5 -r-r3y r -r6n3in5 /riminal 3r4-a44 ($ 420) :-r3 6in/  >WS /an 8 au/ (Gsland ) 37ra3 n n3 8  a37 r &>[email protected] al4 4:ual a44aul3 (:alden) NOTE $$ [email protected] nw r-la/ /mmn law in NSW

2.5.1

statutory defence of self!defence

9rimes 'mendment =(el! e!ence? 'ct 2$$1  (NSW) GN.* •  -r/laim 22J02J2002 r-al ome &nvasion =Gccupants )rotection? 'ct 1""8 (NSW) GC.9"! • GN.*! in4r3 a nw #' 11 D+<+$+*, 3  in3 9rimes 'ct 1"$$ (NSW) • 4imilar 3 37 MCC GC.9%* •

Pa5 %  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

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418

419

420

421

422 423

Summary

-$)+7+*, $@-,)  ?, '<'+'( %1& 4l+n/ i4 a /m-l3 n/ %2& 4l+n/ 43a8li47 i ? nly i 37 -r4n 8li64 37 /nu/3 wa4 n/44aryB %'& 3 n 7imJ7r4l r an37r * %(& 3 -r6n3 r 3rmina3 unlawul -ri6a3in  li8r3y  7imJ7r4l r an37r * %)& 3 -r3/3 -r-r3y rm unlawul 3a[email protected] 43ru/3i[email protected] ama5 r in3rrn/ * %-& 3 -r6n3 /riminal 3r4-a44 r rm6 -r4n /mmi33in5 /riminal 3r4-a44 ',- /nu/3 i4 ra4na8l in /ir/um43an/4 a4 4J7 -r/i64 37m. *,$ * 7**  P mu43 -r6 8yn ra4na8l u83 37a3  i n3 /arry u3 37 /nu/3 in 4l+n/B +,+)+, -' %7*)+, 7*7= 7<,+, $7'$$& 4l+n/ i4 not  a6aila8l w7n +  u44 r/ in6l6in5 in3n3inal r r/l44 inli/3in  a37 n < ',+  -r3/3in5 only -r-r3y ($ 418%2&%)& ) r -r6n3in5 /riminal 3r4-a44 ($ 418%2&%-& ) )$$+< *) +,+)+, -' %-,-+, + * +(=& %1& +   %'& u44 r/ in6l6in5 in3n3inal r r/l44 inli/3in  a37 ',%(& 37 /nu/3 i4 n3 ra4na8l in /ir/um43an/4 as s/he perceives them (  8li64 37 /nu/3 n/44ary 3 %)& n 7imJ7r4l r an37r * %-& -r6n3 r 3rmina3 unlawul -ri6a3in  li8r3y  7imJ7r4l r an37r %2& , 4l+n/ i4 a partial  n/ (murr man4lau573r) $7*,$ * '? )*,-) 4l+n/ 43ill a6aila8l i %'& <K4 /nu/3 i4 lawul %(& < n3 /riminally r4-n4i8l r /nu/3 3 w7i/7  r4-n4 +/+, 7*<+$+*,$

  v HatarAynsi ([email protected] NSWSC) GN.* (r MCC ui6aln3 / C.9%*) ')$> +  473 < 37r 3im4 in arly 7ur4  m[email protected] a3r a -u8 i573 +  wa4 in3:i/a3 a3 37 3im +  /urrn3ly n 3rial 8r =ury +$$> + i4 in3:i/a3in a rl6an3 /n4ira3in r /7ar54 unr $ 418$ -> • 9onlon ? Iecevic n ln5r 37 law in NSW (8/au4  nw 43a3u3ry -r6i4in4) • 37 3434 r $ 418 ar (iii)  sub0ective test o! necessity o! conduct =considering all relevant  personal characteristics o! ? i4 37r a ra4na8l -44i8ili3y 37a3  8li6 7i4J7r /nu/3 wa4 n/44ary 3 n 7imJ7r4l$ ',(i6) ob0ective assessment o! proportionality o! conduct in the circumstances as they #ere =sub0ectively? perceived by  i4 37r a

Pa5 %,  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

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Summary

ra4na8l -44i8ili3y 37a3 w7a3  i wa4 a ra4na8l r4-n4 3 37 /ir/um43an/4 a4 4J7 -r/i6 37m$  i  5nuinly 8li6 37ir r4-n4 wa4 n/44ary$ ',- 5i6n 37 /ir/um43an/4 a4  -r/i6 37m (not  a4 37y a/3ually wr) wa4 r4-n4 ra4na8l$ (NOTE 37i4 ir4 rm 37 /mmn law) • ∴ P mu43 -r6 8yn ra4na8l u83 either  (i)  i n3 5nuinly 8li6 37ir /nu/3 n/44ary 3 /3 37ir 4l+n/ or  (ii) K4 /nu/3 wa4 n3 a ra4na8l r4-n4 3 37 an5r a4 4J7  -r/i6 i3 • 37r i4 n ra4na8l -r4n 343 ($ 428F) =ury a//444 37 ra4na8ln44  37 r4-n4   (n3  37 rinary -r4n) in 37 /ir/um43an/4 as s/he perceived them (n3 a4 37y 8=/3i6ly wr). • 4m  37 -r4nal a33ri8u34   (.5. a5@ 5n[email protected] 7al37) ? 37 4urrunin5 -7y4i/al /ir/um43an/4 ar rl6an3 in a4444mn3  K4 r4-n4. • in3:i/a3in i4 rl6an3 w7n o /n4irin5 ma33r  n/44i3y w737r  5nuinly 8li6 /nu/3 wa4 n/44ary ',o /n4irin5 ma33r  /ir/um43an/4 a4  -r/i6 37m o ( ,* w7n /n4irin5 -r-r3inali3y w737r K4 r4-n4 3 374 /ir/um43an/4 wa4 ra4na8l. • I 37in w7a3 Hwi D i4 4ayin5 i4 37a3 37r ar 37r 37in54 r =ury 3 /n4ir (ir43 3w ar 4u8=/3i6 37ir i4 8=/3i6) 1. K4 a4444mn3  /ir/um43an/4 (a4 4J7 -r/i6 37m) 2. K4 a4444mn3  37 n/44i3y 3 r4-n in 374 /ir/um43an/4 %. 8=/3i6 a4444mn3  w737r K4 r4-n4 wa4 -r-r3inal in 374 /ir/um43an/4 (a4 -r/i6 8y @ n3 a4 37y 8=/3i6ly wr) NOTE> +$ +$ very $+/+' * M'$*, $ [email protected]*+, -+)+*, +, &iro • $ 418 343 a4 3 n/44i3y i4 sub0ective (a4 4J7 perceived  37mB) • $ 418 343 a4 3 -r-r3in i4 ob0ective (reasonable r4-n4 in 37 /ir/um43an/4B) a4 sub0ectively -r/i6 8y . • 37i4 i4 not  au37ri3y i3K4 =u43 =ury ir/3in4  a 4in5l 3rial =u5 in  NSWSC (Hwi D) •  -rly :-r44 ra4n4 r ir/3in4 • +,*+)'+*, o in 9onlon GC.9"0 Hun3 CD 43a3 37a3 in3:i/a3in i4 rl6an3 in a4444in5 ra4na8ln44  K4 /nu/3. o in Hurtic GC.9"% Hun3 CD 4ay4 obiter  37a3 #' 11A 4 n3 6rrul 9onlon o in HatarAynsi GN.* Hwi D i4a5r[email protected] 4ayin5 37a3 37 a4444mn3  K4 r4-n4 3 37 an5r (a4 4J7 -r/i6 i3) i4 an ob0ective a4444mn3 ? 37rr 4l+inu/ in3:i/a3in i4 n3 -rmi44i8l  very, very con!using  QQQ o $* •  HatarAynsi /n3rai/34 9onlon (8y ain5 37 :3ra 43-  a ra4na8l r4-n4B 343 43rai573 rm $ 418%2&) Pa5 "0  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011) • • • •

Summary

9onlon wa4 /i be!ore in3ru/3in  #' [email protected]  8u3 Hurtic 4u55434 37a3 9onlon 43ill 43an4 w7 nw4$$$$ a4 y3 37r 7a4 8n n a--lla3 /i4in  w n nQQQ

2.5.2 old common law NOTE l /mmn law GC.92*+*1

 o#e (1,!@ HCA) GC.92* GN.*1 4l+n/ i4 u4ually a /m-l3 n/@ 7w6r 37 (8=/3i6ly a4444) u4  :/44i6 r/ ru/4 4l+n/ 3 a  partial  n/.  )almer  (1,[email protected] PC) GC.92* GN.*1 r=/34 :/44i6 4l+n/  -r-r3inali3y i4 37 44n/  4l+n/. Ei37r 37 /nu/3 wa4 ra4na8l r i3 wa4 n3 (37r i4 n in3rmia3 -4i3in). Firo (1,9@ HCA) GC.929+, GN.*1+2 +$$>  o#e r )almer  w7i/7 i4 37 law in Au43ralia$ ->  -r Ma4[email protected] Da/[email protected] Mur-7y ? &i884 DD (>arwi/ CD i44n3in5) •  o#[email protected] i.. n/  :/44i6 4l+n/ i4 a6aila8l (-ar3ial) n/ '+*> Ma4n DK4 *+-in3 /i4in 3r r =ury (5ra3ly 4im-lii) • w7r 37r i4 a 37ra3  a37 r &>H 3 @ =ury mu43 /i (1) w737r  (4u8=/3i6ly) ra4na8ly 8li6@ in all 37 /ir/um43an/[email protected] 37a3 37 37ra3 wa4 ral (2) i =ury an4wr4 nB 3 (1)@ 37n 4l+n/ i4 n3 a6aila8l. (%) wa4 r/ u4 8y  ra4na8ly -r-r3ina3 3 37 an5r   8li6 4J7 a/$ (") i =ury an4wr4 y4B 3 (%)@ 37n =ury 47ul a/ui3 (!) i  8li6 37 r/ 4J7 u4 wa4 ra4na8ly -r-r3ina3 3 37 an5r  8li6 4J7 a/$ (*) i =ury an4wr4 nB 3 (!)@ 37n  i4 5uil3y  murr. I =ury an4wr4 y4B 3 (!)@ 37n  i4 5uil3y  man4lau573r. -+$$,> Mur-7y D a8li47 37 8=/3i6 343  3a/7 rl/3in /ann3 8 man in 37 -r4n/  an u-rai4 niB  Iecevic v )) =Fic? (1,[email protected] HCA) GC.92,+% GN.*2+" ')$> +  7a ar5umn3 wi37 7i4 ni578ur (<) + < 43a88  ? 37ra3n 3 8lw K4 7a   + < m6 3war4 7i4 /ar (in w7i/7  8li6 < -3 a 5un) +  wn3 in3 7i4 7u4@ 53 a [email protected] /am 8a/ ? 473 < a +$$> + w737r K4 8li  rali3y  37 37ra3  a37 r &>H 7a4 3 8 a reasonable 8li$ -> y4 i3 4. (a--al allw r+3rial rr) '+*> • u43in 3 8 a4 w737r 37 a//u4 8li6 u-n ra4na8l 5run4 37a3 i3 wa4 n/44ary in 4l+n/ 3  w7a3 7 i. I 7 7a 37a3 8li ? 37r wr ra4na8l 5run4 r [email protected] r i 37 =ury i4 l3 in ra4na8l u83 a8u3 37 ma33[email protected] 37n 7 i4 n3i3l 3 an

Pa5 "1  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

-+$$,>

,*$>

Summary

a/ui33alB (-r Wil4[email protected] aw4n ? T7y DD &aurn D a5rin5 an D i44n3in5) • a8li47 -ar3ial n/  :/44i6 r/ (-r Wil4[email protected] aw4n ? T7y DD &aurn ? an DD i44n3in5) an D •  -ar3ial n/  :/44i6 r/ wa4 n3 an i44u 8r 37 /ur3 ? 4 47ul n3 8 6rrul • rrmula34 Firo wi37u3 37 (/nu4in5) 8urn  -r 43u GC.9%" • 37 /n/-3  &>H 47ul 8 :-an 3 in/lu 4riu4 8ily a8u4[email protected] .5. 4:ual a8u4 ? -rln5 in/ar/ra3in • 3w main irn/4 wi37 Firo. In Iecevic 1. -r6/a3in n n3 8 an unlawul a33a/  2. -ar3ial n/  :/44i6 r/ a8li47 • $ 421 r+in3ru/4 -ar3ial n/  :/44i6 r/ • $ 418 =ury ir/3in i4 irn3 rm Iecevic rmula3in (/  HatarAynsi)

:alden (1,*@ NSWCCA) GC.9%! GN.*% - 37 37ra3 i4 n3 /nin 3 a37 r &>H. S:ual a44aul3 i4 an :am-l  an37r -r6/a3i6B 37ra3 r an5r.   v );  ([email protected]) GC.9%+, GN.*% ')$ + 1"y..  anally ra- 8y < +  8/am arul 37a3 < wul ra- K4 inan3 n-7w +  lur < 3 7i4 7u4 an 473 7im ! 3im4 +$$ w737r  /ul 7a6 8li6 n ra4na8l 5run4 37a3 i3 wa4 n/44ary in 4l n/ 3  w7a3 7 i '+*  wa4 n3 8in5 a33a/ r any37in5 li [email protected] 37 /ri3i/al lmn3  imminence  a 37ra3 wa4 la/in5. - a--al wa4 i4mi44. ,* • r+in3ru/4 ruirmn3 37a3 37ra3 8 imminn3. > •  -r8a8ly n3 5 law anymr (5i6n nw 4l+n/ -r6i4in4)

2.5.2.1 a sub%ective or ob%ective test? 9onlon (1,,%@ NSWSC) GC.*[email protected]"0+! GN."@*"+* 343 in 4l+n/ (/mmn law  Iecevic a3 37i4 3im) i4 n3 37 reasonable persons 8li@ 8u3 ra37r 37 accuseds reasonable 8li (in all 37 /ir/um43an/4 in w7i/7 7 un 7im4l)@ i.. 4u8=/3i6 n3 8=/3i6.  Hurtic (1,,*@NSWSC) GC.9"% GN.*" Hun3 D 4ay4 obiter  37a3 #' 11A 4 n3 6rrul 9onlon. S $ 428F (ra4na8l -r4n n3 in3:i/a3) 4nK3 a--ly.

2.5.2.2 defence of property GC.9"!+* GN.*!  ome &nvasion =Gccupants )rotection? 'ct 1""8 (NSW) 4imilar 3 [email protected] 8u3 n rulin54 • r-al 8y 9rimes 'mendment =(el! e!ence? 'ct 2$$1  (NSW) •

2.5.2.3 'attered oman )yndrome (') Gsland  (1,,,@ HCA) GC.9!0+*1 GN.**+9

Pa5 "2  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

+ m37r ? 4n murr < (an a8u4i6 7u48an) + 4n a/ui33  murr  + m37r /n6i/3 +$$> /an :-r3 6in/  8a33r wman 4ynrm (>WS) 8 au/ in /ur3$ W7a3 wi573 47ul i3 8 5i6n$ -> • :-r3 6in/ /an 8 au/ 3 7l- =ury /i i  wa4 a  8a33r wman •  =ury mu43 /i 2 37in54 1.  37y 8li6 37 :-r3 6in/$ 2. i4  a 8a33r wman$ ,*$> • 6in/  >WS n3 ruir r -r6/a3i[email protected] 8/au4 37 rinary  -r4n  37 143 lim8 i4 a 8a33r wman (i rl6an3) • 4l+n/ i4 a complete n/ (4 i3K4 833r 3 53 u- n 37i4 37an n -r6/a3i[email protected] w7i/7 i4 a partial   n/). • BUT n3 37a3 $ 421 7a4 r+in3ru/ :/44i6 r/@ 4 =ury /ul /i n partial 4l+n/ r >WS /a44 //a4inin5 a37. ')$>

Pa5 "%  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

2.' 0ecessity '. GC.9*1+ GN.*,+9% • • •

• • • • •



/m-l3 n/ (n3 5uil3y) circumstances inu/  3 8ra 37 law lmn34 ( ogers) 1. a 37ra3  a37 r 4riu4 in=ury a5ain43  r 37rJ4 2.  mu43 7n43ly ? ra4na8ly 8li6 37a3 8rain5 37 law wa4 n/44ary 3 a6i 37 37ra3n 7arm  8ar4 evidentiary 8urn  rai4in5 37i4 n/ P mu43 n5a3i6 n/ 8yn ra4na8l u83 not  a6aila8l r murr ( udley  (tephens) a6aila8l r 43ri/3 lia8ili3y n/4 (:hite) a6aila8l r a8r3in n/4 (:ald  H v <inister !or L'9(  9D( v (uperclinics) a6aila8l a3 /mmn r all n/4 (:hite) :/-3 murr ( udley  (tephens)

 udley  (tephens (1"@ 'V>) GC.9*2+9 GN.90 ')$> + " mn ari3 a3 4a wi37 n 7-  r4/u + 2 /n4-ir 3 ill 37 yun543 ? wa43  37ir num8r  ? 37y  + % a3 37 "37 8r 8in5 r4/u '+*> n/44i3y i4 n n/ 3 murr  '$*,+, •  -ur -li/y > o /ann3 -r4r6 yur wn li 8y 3ain5 37 li  an inn/n3 o 3 -r4r6 nK4 li i4 5nrally 4-ain5 a [email protected] 8u3 i3 may 8 37 -lain43 an 37 7i5743 u3y 3 4a/rii/ i3B (-r Lr Clri5 LD) •

/ur34 ar 4u4-i/iu4  n/44i3y. N/44i3y rarly 4u//4 in /ur3 /. Lr nnin5 MR in (outh#ar v :illiams (1,[email protected] ') GC.9*9 GN.*,+90  l5a34 ar5umn3

2.6.1 prison escapes GC.9*9+99! GN.90+1  >oughnan (1,[email protected] <SC) GC.9*, GN.90+1 (i) /rim /mmi33 3 a6i irreparable harm '+*> (ii)  7n43ly 8li6 an5r wa4 imminn3 (imminence) (iii) /rim mu43 n3 8 u3  -r-r3in wi37 37 -ril ( proportionality)  ogers (1,,*@ NSWCCA) GC. 9*+9! GN.91 ')$> +  wa4 a -ri4n 5B (inrmr) +  8li6 7i4 li wa4 in imminn3 an5r ? a33m-3 3 4/a- ->  ail 3 i4/7ar5 6in3iary 8urn  n n 3 -u3 n/44i3y 3  =ury '+*> w737r  7n43ly 8li6 n ra4na8l 5run4 37a3 4/a- rm  -ri4n wa4 n/44ary in rr 3 a6i 37ra3n a37 r 4riu4 in=ury

Pa5 ""  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

(aa-3in5 Iecevic) ,*$> • llwin5 ar all nw 6in3iary /n4ira3in4 o imminn/  37 37ra3 o w737r -ri4nr -rm-3ly 7an 7imJ7r4l in o w737r 37r wa4 an37r /ur4  a/3in -n 3  (.5. a4in5 r -r3/3in)

2.6.2 strict liaility GC.99!+ GN.91 :hite (1,[email protected] NSWC) GC.99*+ GN.91 ')$> +  wa4 /au573 ? 8 r 4-in5 8y -li/ i/r  +  i n3 mn3in 37a3 7 wa4 ru47in5 7i4 4i/ 4n 3 74-i3al +$$> 4-in5 i4 an n/  a84lu3 lia8ili3y. I4 n/44i3y a n/$ -> y4. /n6i/3in ua47 '+*> in /r3ain /ir/um43an/[email protected] a /7i/ ma 3 /mmi3 an n/  43ri/3 lia8ili3y in rr 3 a6i a 5ra3r 6il  Gi4 a n/.B ,*$> • a n/ in 4ar/7  37 -r/3 /ir/um43an/4B

2.6.3 political protest GC. 99,+1 GN.91

2.6.4 regulation of aortion GC.91+ GN.92+%  H v <inister !or L'9(  (1,[email protected] NSWSC) GC.91+% ')$> + 1! y.. -lain3i@ a war  37 43a3@ wi474 3 7a6 an a8r3in + Mini43r ()@ -lain3iK4 5uar[email protected] 7a4 ru4 -> mini43r mu43 5i6 /n4n3 r -lain3i 3 7a6 an a8r3in '+*> • i mi4/arria5 -r/ur 8y -r4n w7 7a4 an 7n43 8li n ra4na8l 5run4 37a3 37 3rmina3in i4 n/44ary 3 -r4r6 37 wman in6l6 rm 4riu4 an5r 3 7r li r -7y4i/al r mn3al 7al37 an 37a3 in 37 /ir/um43an/4 37 an5r wa4 n3 u3   -r-r3in 3 37 an5r in3n 3 8 a6r3@ 37n 37 3rmina3in i4 l5al (:ald 343) • ra4na8l 5run4 /an 43m rm 4/[email protected] /nmi/ r mi/al 8a44. ,*$> • 37i4 i4 n3 a /riminal /a4 • $ 82 4l+inu/ mi4/arria5 r • $ 83 mi4/arria5 inu/ 8y a %  -ar3y • $ 84 4u--lyin5 ru54 r in43rumn34 3 8 u4 3 a/3 a mi4/arria5 9D( v (uperclinics ='ustralia? )ty >td (1,,[email protected] NSWCA) GC.9"+ GN.9% ')$> + CES (-lain3i) 4uin5  r ailin5 3 ia5n4 7r -r5nan/[email protected] 37r8y  -r6n3in5 7r rm 7a6in5 an a8r3in *(+> • w7n /n4irin5 wmanK4 mn3al 7[email protected] :ard 343 47ul 8 :3n 8yn 37 /urrn/y  37 -r5nan/yB 3 a3r 37 8ir37  37 /7ilB (-r 'ir8y P) ,*$> • 37i4 i4 n3 a /riminal /a4 • r3una3ly Su-r/lini/4 r- 37ir a--al 3 HCA 8/au4 Ca37li/ >i47-4 Cnrn/ 53 43anin5.

Pa5 "!  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

2.- *&ress '.1  GC.9+09 GN.9%+" • • •



• • •





/m-l3 n/ (n3 5uil3y) 3rd  party inu/4  3 8ra 37 law lmn34 ( urley 'busi!iah) o a 37ra3  -7y4i/al 7arm 3  r 37rJ4 o /ir/um43an/4 w7r -r4n  rinary irmn44 wul 7a6 yil a4  i o 37ra3 wa4 -r4[email protected] /[email protected] imminn3 ? im-nin5 o  ra4na8ly a--r7n 37a3 37ra3 wul 8 /arri u3 o 37 37ra3 inu/  3 /mmi3 37 n/ 2+43a5 8=/3i6 343 ( >a#rence) o w737r a6ra5 -r4n  rinary irmn44  min ( a li a5 ? 4:@ in li /ir/um43an/4) wul 7a6 yil 3 37 37ra34  a37 r 4riu4 8ily 6iln/ o w737r an a6ra5 -r4n  rinary irmn44  min ( a li a5 ? 4:@ in li /ir/um43an/4) wul 7a6 3an an --r3uni3y 3 ra44r3 37ir will  8ar4 evidentiary 8urn  rai4in5 37i4 n/ P mu43 n5a3i6 n/ 8yn ra4na8l u83 ( 'busi!iah) a6aila8l 3 m43 n/[email protected] in/luin5 o man4lau573r  o 3 -rin/i-al in 2n 5r r murr ( <c9onnell ) not  a6aila8l o r a33m-3 murr ( o#e) o 3 -rin/i-al in 143 5r r murr ( <c9onnell ) :-r3 6in/  >WS may 8 au/ ( un0an0ic  Hontinnen)

2.7.1 elements of duress  >a#rence (1,[email protected] NSWCCA) GC.9,+," GN.9% ')$> +  wa4 na6i5a3r n a ya/73 in w7i/7 /+a//u4 wr im-r3in5 /anna8i4 +  /laim 7 wa4 ini3ially unawar  37 -ur-4  37 6ya5 +  /laim 7 nly /n3inu unr 37ra34  6iln/ (ur44) '+*> • w7n  /mmi34 a /rim nly 8/au4 7i4J7r min 7a4 8n 6r8rn 8y 37ra34  a37 r 4riu4 8ily 6iln/ (w737r 3war4 7i4J7r r an37r) n/  ur44 i4 -n  8=/3i6 343 (X1) w737r an a6ra5 -r4n  rinary irmn44  min@  a li a5 ? 4:@ in li /ir/um43an/[email protected] wul 7a6 n 37 a/34B 37a3  i • i  ail4 3 3a a6an3a5  an --r3uni3y ra4na8ly -n 3 7imB 3 ra44r3 7i4J7r [email protected] 37 n/ will n3 8 -n 3  • 8=/3i6 343 (X2) w737r an a6ra5 -r4n  rinary irmn44  min@  a li a5 ? 4:@ in li /ir/um43an/[email protected] in/luin5 li ri44 in r4-/3  37 al3rna3i64 -[email protected] wul 7a6

Pa5 "*  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)



Summary

a6ail 7im4l  37 --r3uni3yB 3 ra44r3 7i4J7r will a3 la43 n  37 8=/3i6 3434 mu43 8 n5a3i6 8y P

 urley (1,*[email protected] <SC (FC)) GC.9,1 GN.9% '+*> • ?,  7a4 8n ruir 3  37 a/3 r w7i/7  i4 /7ar5 (i) unr 37ra3 37a3 a37 r &>H will 8 unlawully inli/3 n a 7uman 8in5 ',(ii) /ir/um43an/4 w7r 4u/7 37a3 37 -r4n  rinary irmn44 wul 7a6 yil a4  i ',(iii) 37ra3 wa4 -r4[email protected] /[email protected] imminn3 ? im-nin5 ',(i6)  ra4na8ly a--r7n 37a3 37ra3 wul 8 /arri u3 ',(6)  wa4 inu/ 37r8y 3 /mmi3 37 n/ /7ar5 ',(6i) K4 /rim wa4 n3 murr (r 4m 37r 7inu4 /rim) ',(6ii)  i n3 :-4 7im4l 3 37 ur44 ',(6iii)  7a4 n man4  -r6n3in5 37 37ra3 , ur44 i4 -n 3  a4 a n/ ,*$ • 37i4 i4 37 /la44i/ =ury ir/3in r ur44 c • (6i) murr  4 < 9onnell  8l[email protected] w7i/7 4u-r44 37i4 43-

2.7.2 the oective test' the person of ordinary firmness of mind  'busa!iah (1,,[email protected] NSWCCA) GC.9,!+01 GN.9% +$$> i4 i3 #ould @ might @ r could  r 37 8=/3i6 343$ '+*> • 343 w737r -r4n  rinary irmn44  min ? will (wi37 37 4am a5 ? 5nr) #ould  7a6 yil 3 37 37ra3 in 37 way  i. • -r4n  rinary irmn44  minB i4 a 8rar /n/-3 37an 37 a6ra5 -r4n ? in/lu4 a 5ra3r ran5  irin5 3m-ramn34. •  =ury ir/3in (1) P mu43 -r6 37a3  a/3 6lun3arily (i.. not  unr ur44) (2)  4 n3 7a6 3 43a8li47 37a3  i a/3 unr ur44 (%) P mu43 limina3 37 ra4na8l -44i8ili3y 37a3  a/3 unr ur44 (") P mu43 43a8li47 +  37r i4 n ra4na8l -44i8ili3y [email protected] w7n  /mmi33 37 n/@  wa4 a/3in5 unr a 37ra3  a37 r 4riu4 -7y4i/al 7arm i  i n3 4 a/3 * (!) 37r i4 n ra4na8l -44i8ili3y 37a3 a -r4n  rinary irmn44  min an [email protected] an  37 4am 4: ? ma3uri3y a4 @ #ould  7a6 yil 3 37a3 37ra3 in 37 way in w7i/7  i (*) i P 7a4 43a8li47 i37r (1)@ (") r (!) 37n ur44 i4 n5a3i6 (9) i P ail4 3 43a8li47 any n  (1)@ (") r (!) 37n  i4 inn/n3  8/au4 ur44 i4 a complete n/ :arren, 9oombes  *ucer  (1,,*@ SACCA) GC.01+% GN.9" ')$> + < 8r /u43mary ini5nu4 law + 4 /laim i3 wa4 /u43mary 3 -uni47 37 wrn5[email protected] l4 37  -uni47mn3 wul 8 m3 n 4 (r n3 -rrmin5 37 -uni47mn3) -> • a--al4 a5ain43 /n6i/3in ? 4n3n/ i4mi44 ,*$> • /ur3 mi4unr43 37 4K n/. Cur3 37u573 37a3 4 wr a4in5 3 8 3ri 8y /u43mary law. In a/3 37y wr rai4in5 37

Pa5 "9  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

n/  ur44.

2.7.3 duress  murder  <c9onnell  (1,[email protected] NSWCCA) GC.0%+"GN.9" ur44 i4 not  a6aila8l 3 -rin/i-al in 143 5r 3 mur[email protected] 8u3 is a6aila8l 3 -rin/i-al in 2n 5r (i.. a//44ry).  o#e (1,[email protected] HL) GC.0" obiter   ur44 n3 a6aila8l r a33m-3 murr (a-3 in Cotts (1,,[email protected] HL) GC.0"G)

2.7.4 duress  attered woman syndrome  un0an0ic  Hontinnen (1,,[email protected] SACCA) GC.0!+9 GN.9" ')$> + 4 wr 4u8=/3 3 6iln/ 8y 37 4am man (Hill) + Hill r/ 4 3 /mmi3 an n/ +$$> /an :-r3 6in/  >WS 8 au/ r ur44$ -> y4  =u43 li -r6/a3in. A--al allw nw 3rial rr. '$*,+, • ur44 7a4 3w+-ar3 343 > 1. sub0ective test  wa4 will   a/3ually 6r8rn$ 2. ob0ective test  wul will  -r4n  ra4na8l irmn44 in 7i4 4i3ua3in wul 7a6 8n 6r8rn$

Pa5 "  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

3. *ssault A>Ha/3ual 8ily 7arm &>H5ri6u4 8ily 7arm )*//*, '$$' %$ 61> not  *))'$+*,+, ABH& 1. actus reus a. '$$' (a--r7n4in  unlawul /n3a/3) an a/3 (8u3 n3 an mi44in) /ra3in5 a--r7n4in in 37 min •  < 37a3 unlawul /n3a/3 i4 imminn3  8. ('=  (unlawul /n3a/3) an a/3 (8u3 n3 mi44in)  unlawul /n3a/3 u-n an37r •  -r4n wi37u3 7i4 /n4n3 2. mens rea a. '$$' (a--r7n4in  unlawul /n3a/3) in3n3 r r/l44n44 (3 /ra3 a--r7n4in 3/) •  8. ('=  (unlawul /n3a/3) in3n3 r r/l44n44 (3 /3 unlawul /n3a/3 3/) • 3. )*@+,)+-,) a. mens rea an actus reus mu43 /in/i.

3.1 )ntrod&ction -.1 GC.0+10 GN.9! • ri5inally 37r wa4 a44aul3B (37ra3  6iln/) ? 8a33ryB (a--li/a3in  6iln/). Tay 37r i4 nly a44aul3. • a44aul3 i6i in3 3w /a35ri4  /mmn a44aul3 ($ 61)  a55ra6a3 a44aul3 (/mmn a44aul3 plus ai3inal r a55ra6a3in5 a/3r4)

3.2 ommon Assa&lt  GC.10+22 GN.9!+, • E6n 37[email protected] i/[email protected] 37 7i43ri/ally 4-ara3 n/4  a44aul3B ? 8a33ryB 7a6 8n 4u84um in3 37 n 43a3u3ry n/  /mmn [email protected] 37 3w 3y-4  a44aul3 43ill :i43 in 37 l5al 3434. o a44aul3B rr4 3 37 /ra3in  an a--r7n4in  unlawul /n3a/3 o 8a33ryB rr4 3 a/3ual unlawul /n3a/3

3.2.1 assault

3.2.1.1 actus reus •



an a/3 (8u3 n3 an mi44in) /ra3in5 a--r7n4in in 37 min  < 37a3 unlawul /n3a/3 i4 imminn3 mu43 8 a -4i3i6 a/3 o  4iln3 -7n /all4 ( &reland  @ursto#)  n3 $ 562 al4 wi37 43alr4 w7 ma 4iln3 -7n /all4 o  wr4 aln ( @arton v 'rmstrong )

Pa5 ",  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

o

 /ni3inal 37ra34 ( osAa v (amuels G.," GN.99)

o

 4-i33in5 ( )) v B: )

o

 /. GC.2 (la43 -a5) r mr

o

 an mi44in ( agan)

43a3  min  37 6i/3im o < mu43 a/3ually 7a6 8n -u3 in ar  imminn3 unlawul /n3a/3 ( @arton <ac)herson) o *(;)+< $  a ra4na8l -r4n wul 7a6 7l 4u/7 a ar ( @arton GC.12) • imminn/ o < mu43 a--r7n imminn3K r immia3K unlawul 6iln/ ( Ianer ) o 37ra3  u3ur 6iln/ i4 in4ui/in3 ( Hnight ) o but a /n3inuin5 37ra3  imminn3 u3ur 6iln/ i4 4ui/in3 i 37r wa4 n 4/a-@ n ra4na8l -44i8ili3y  a novus actus interveniens 3 8ra 37 /au4al lin 83wn 37 37ra3 an 37 :-/3 inli/3in  7armB ( Ianer ) • n3 /au4a3in i44u (=u43 li in oyall @ / 1.!.2 a86)  /an 8 /7ar5 wi37 a44aul3 //a4inin5 A>H i < i4 in=ur a/3in5 an 4/a-. (.5.  Ianer  =um-in5 rm /ar) •

3.2.1.2 mens rea •

• •

in3n3 r r/l44n44 3 /ra3 an a--r7n4in  imminn3 unlawul /n3a/3 ( <ac)herson)  $(;)+< mens rea> in3[email protected] nwl5 r r4i573 ( <ac)herson) r/l44n44  4u8=/3i6 r4i573 3 probability  /ra3in5 an a--r7n4in  imminn3 unlawul /n3a/3

3.2.2 attery

3.2.2.1 actus reus •



• •



an a/3 (8u3 n3 mi44in)  unlawul r/ 3 an37r -r4n wi37u3 7i4 /n4n3 a/3ual in3n u4  unlawul r/ 3 an37r -r4n wi37u3 7i4 /n4n3 ( agan) mu43 8 a -4i3i6 a/3 mi44in i4 n3 a44aul3  (agan) mr 3u/7in5 /an amun3 3 a44aul3 (9ollins v :ilcoc  G.,*) unl44 37 3u/7in5 ari44 rm 37 :i5n/i4  6ryay liB ( itAgerald v Hennard  GC.,) /n4n3 o P mu43 -r6 37a3 < i n3 /n4n3 o /n4n3 may 8 6i3ia3 in /r3ain 4i3ua3in4   /n4n3 83ain 8y r/ r 37ra3  r/   /n4n3 i4 n n/ 3 4m 4:ual n/4   rau may 4m3im4 n5a3i6 /n4n3  1   /ann3 /n4n3 3 A>H ( @ro#n) o llwin5 a44um an im-li /n4n3

1

 r mr :am-l4 (? :/-3in4) 4 4/3in n /n4n3 3 7armB 8lw ? G.,*+9

Pa5 !0  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary



 -a33in5 an37r n 37ir 47ulr 3 a33ra/3 a33n3in



( @oughey)  -u47in5 83wn 37r4 3 ali573 rm a /rw 8u4 ( @oughey)

3.2.2.2 mens rea • • •



in3n3 r r/l44n44 3 /3 an unlawul /n3a/3 ( <ac)herson)  $(;)+< mens rea> in3[email protected] nwl5 r r4i573 ( <ac)herson) r/l44n44  4u8=/3i6 r4i573 3 probability  /3in5 an unlawul /n3a/3 743ili3y i4 not  a n/44ary 5nral lmn3  unlawul 8a33ry ( @oughey GC."%)

3.2.3 coincidence of actus reus  mens rea •





a3 4m -in3 urin5 37 a44aul3 37r mu43 8 a /+in/in/  actus reus an mens rea. ( agan) i3 i4 n3 n/44ary 37a3 mens rea 47ul 8 -r4n3 rm 37 43ar3  37 actus reus. ( agan) /n3inuin5 4ri4  a/34 *habo <eli  GC.%!, GN.99

3.2.4 case law  Ianer v FartAoas (1,@ SASC) GC.11 GN.9*+9 ')$> + < a//-3 a li3 rm  +  r < Y r 4:. < /lin. + < man  43- 37 6an ? l3 7r u3 +  a//lra3 an 4ai 7 wa4 5in5 3 3a 7r 3 7i4 ma3K4 7u4 3 i: 7r u-B + /ir/um43an/4 -u3 < in 4u/7 ar 37a3 47 -n 37 r an la-3 u3 n3 37 ra 4i@ 4urin5 8ily in=uri4 + < a--alin5 i4mi44al  /7ar5  a44aul3 //a4inin5 A>H in L/al Cur3 '+*> • < mu43 a--r7n imminn3K r immia3K unlawul 6iln/ a /n3inuin5 37ra3  imminn3 u3ur 6iln/ i4 4ui/in3 i 37r wa4 n 4/a-@ n ra4na8l -44i8ili3y  a novus actus interveniens 3  8ra 37 /au4al lin 83wn 37 37ra3 an 37 :-/3 inli/3in  7armB - a--al allw  <ac)herson v @ro#n (1,[email protected] SASC (FC)) GC.21 GN.9 ')$> +  (43un3) wa4 /n6i/3  7a6in5 a44aul3 a l/3urr a3 uni. +a num8r  43u[email protected] in/luin5 @ 7a 3an 6r 37 amin 8l5 in  -r3434 6r 37 all5 CIA lin4  a r/n3ly a--in3 4nir amini43ra3r. + < (l/3urr) wa4 4urrun 8y a num8r  43un34 w7 -r6n3 7im rm -a44in5 37ru 37 5ru- an /au4 7im 3 ar r 7i4 -r4nal 4a3y. + n a/3ual -7y4i/al /n3a/3 wa4 ma an 7 wa4 6n3ually allw 3  -a44. + Ma5i43ra3 4ai  7a 8n r/l44 an u573 3 7a6 nwn 37a3 7i4 /nu/3 wul 7a6 5i6n ra4na8l 5run4 r a--r7nin5 an

Pa5 !1  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

inli/3in  -7y4i/al r/. +  a--al. '+*> • < mu43 a/3ually 7a6 8n -u3 in ar  imminn3 unlawul /n3a/3 (actus reus) • a44aul3 /an 8 /mmi33 r/l44ly (mens rea) - a--al i4mi44  agan v 9ommissioner o! <etropolitan )olice  (1,*,@'V>) GC.1 GN.99+, ')$> +  r6r4 ? -ar 7i4 /ar n3 -li/manK4 3 + < a4 7im 3 m6 i3. +  4ai u/ y[email protected] yu /an wai3B 8r m6in5 7i4 /ar  +$$  7a n3 ini3ially in3n 3 u4 r/. Wa4 37i4 a44aul3$ '+*> • an a44aul3 i4 any a/3 w7i/7 in3n3inally  r -44i8ly r/l44ly  /au44 an37r -r4n 3 a--r7n immia3 an unlawul -r4nal 6iln/. 37 a/3ual in3n u4  unlawul r/ 3 an37r  -r4n wi37u3 7i4 /n4n3B • /+in/in/  actus reus ? mens rea ruir • mr mi44in /ann3 8 an a44aul3 - a--al i4mi44

3.3 Aggra,ated Assa&lt -.3 GC.22+%1 GN.9,+1

3.3.1 with further specific intent P mu43 -r6 ur37r 4-/ii/ in3n3 E:am-l4 $ -$)+7+*, a44aul3 wi37 in3n3 3 /mmi3 murr  [email protected] [email protected] a44aul3 wi37 in3n3 3  &>H r r4i43 lawul arr43 a44aul3 wi37 in3n3 3 /mmi3 an ini/3a8l n/ [email protected]

3.3.2 causing particular inuries % 8a4i/ /a35ri4 • ABH any 7ur3 r in=ury /al/ula3 3 in3rr wi37 37 7al37 r /mr3  37 -r4/u3r. Su/7 7ur3 r in=ury n n3 8 -rmann3 8u3 [email protected] n [email protected] 8 mr 37an mrly 3ran4in3 an 3rilin5B onovan (1,%") o  -7y4i/al in=ury o  -4y/7ia3ri/ in=ury 9han oo (1,,"@'CA) >ardner  (1,,@NSWCCA) o $ 59 //a4inin5 A>H • GBH any -rmann3 r 4riu4 i4i5urin5  37 -r4nB ($ 4) o $ 35 inli/3in5 &>H r wunin5 o $ 54 /au4in5 &>H • ?*,-+, 8rain5 r /u33in5  37 in3rir layr  4[email protected] n3 =u43 37 u3r layr (Fallance G.102) o $ 35 inli/3in5 &>H r wunin5 ,*$ • $ 35 ruir4 an in3n3 3 /au4 4m -7y4i/al in=ury n3 an in3n3 3 inli/3 &>H (  v (toes  Ci!!ord (1,,[email protected]) GC.2" GN.0 Dami Par3li/ /a4) Pa5 !2  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011) • • •

Summary

/'+)+*$ =u43 man4 wi37 37 n/44ary mens reaB GC.%9, GN.0 $ 54> in/lu4 negligent  inli/3in  &>H $ 36> /au4in5 a 5ri6u4 8ily i4a4 GN.0

3.3.3 on victims of special status $ 42 43 44 56 5! 58 60 206 326

*,) /7ilrn a3 8ir37 :-4in5 r a8annin5 a /7il (2y) a44aulin5 wi6[email protected] /7ilrn  -ri434  --l 7l-in5 47i-4 in i43r44 a44aul3  -li/ i/r (/ eynhoudt  8lw) [email protected] 43al[email protected] in3imia3in5 a -li/ i/r  air/ra3 /rw wi3n[email protected] =ur[email protected] =u5[email protected] -u8li/ =u43i/ i/ial4B (n3 -li/ all 37 3im) GN.0

 eynhoudt  (1,*[email protected] HCA) GC.29 GN.1 ')$ /7ar5 wi37 inter alia a44aul3in5 a -li/ i/r in 37 :/u3in  7i4 u3y +$$ 4 P 7a6 3 -r6 < wa4 a -li/ i/r$ '+* P nly 7a4 3 -r6 37a3 37 -r4n a44aul3 8y  wa4 a -li/ i/r a/3in5 in 37 :/u3in  7i4 u3y. - Mni[email protected] Taylr an Own DD (ma=ri3y) + nwin5lyB i4 n3 3 8 inrr rm 37 43a3u3+ n mn3al lmn3  8yn 37 wr4 7a 3 8 43a8li47 <i/ C A /i4in r6r4+ /n6i/3in r+in43a3 ,*$

+ 43a8li47in5 37a3  wa4 a -li/ i/r i4 an lmn3  37 actus r[email protected] n3 37 mens rea + /3i6ly /i 37a3 37 n/ wa4 n  43ri/3 [email protected] n3 a84lu3 lia8ili3y. T7i4 man4 37a3 (-r e Ha# *eh) P mu43 -r6 >R a84n/  HRMF. + i 37i4 /am 8r HCA [email protected] i3 i4 lily 37a3 (-r  e Ha# *eh) -r  nwl5 r r/l44n44 wul 8 ruir ∴ i 6i/3im i4 a -li/ i/rB i4 an actus reus lm[email protected] 37n 37r /$ 8 an a44/ia3 mens rea lmn3.

3.3.4 using offensive weapons or dangerous sustances GC.%0 • • •

[email protected] ni6[email protected] 4/rwri6[email protected] 8a48all [email protected] 3/ :-l4i6[email protected] /7lr[email protected] 3/ $ 35A mali/iu4ly /au4in5 a 5 3 inli/3 &>H r A>H

3.3.5 in comination with other offences $$ [email protected] r88rya44aul3 U lar/ny $$ [email protected] ina--in5a44aul3 U al4 im-ri4nmn3

3.3.6 with a se0ual component $$ [email protected] 4:ual a44aul3 ? a55ra6a3 4:ual a44aul3

Pa5 !%  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

3." onsent to Harm -." GC.%1+"! GN.1 • A3 /mmn law /n4n3 i4 n3 a n/ 3 a44aul3 //a4inin5 A>H ( )allante (tadiums @ro#n) G.,*  @ro#n (1,,%@'HL) GC.%1 GN.1 G.,*+9 ')$ + ! a--llan34 /7ar5 wi37 n/4 in/luin5 a44aul3 //a4inin5 A>H + all wr -ar3  5ru- w7 n5a5 in /n4[email protected] 4a+ma4/7i43i/@ 7m4:ual a/3i6i3i4B + n /m-lain34 in -a43 (-li/ un 6i3a-4  a/3i6i3i4 urin5 a 4ar/7) +$$ w737r 37 n/  /n4n3 47ul :3n 3 /n4un/4  4ama4/7i43i/ n/un3r4$ '+* 37 n/  /n4n3 4 n3 :3n 3 /n4un/  4ama4/7i43i/ n/un3r4 - ma=ri3y a--ra/7 37 u43in in 3rm4  6iln/ inli/3 an i44u4  -u8li/ -li/y in/luin5 7al37 i44u4 rla3in5 3 37 u4  8ily lui. a--al4 i4mi44 Lr [email protected] in min[email protected] 4aw 37 /a4 in 3rm4  -ri6a3 4:ual -+$$, rla3in4 '$*,+, • lawully r/5ni4 :/-3i[email protected] inter alia  o 4ur5ry o  8:in5 o /n3a/3K 4-r34 o lawul /rr/3in (7i33in5 /7ilrn) o manly -a43im4 ,* • 37r a--al 3 Eur-an Cur3  Human Ri5734+ un4u//44ul. • in Au43. 37i4 wul -r8a8ly n3 53 u- u 3 uman ights =(eual 9onduct? 'ct 1""4 (C37) G.,9 GC.,!   v :ilson (1,,[email protected]') GC."% ')$ 7u48an 8ran4 wiK4 8u33/4 wi37 a 73 ni (i.. A>H) -   /n4n4ual a/3i6i3y 83wn 7u48an ? wi in 37 -ri6a/y  37 ma3rimnial 7mB ,* 37i4 a--ar4 3 8 an :/-3in 3 @ro#n 8/au4 37i4 i4 A>[email protected] 8u3 i3K4  $$$$   v 'iten (1,,[email protected]') GC."% ')$ + airr/ i/r4 37rw -3rl 6r a/7 37r ? li573 ma3/74  3 343 37ir ir+-r 4ui34. +n 53 46rly 8urn3 -   /n4n4ual a/3  7r4-layB ,*  -r+ @ro#n   v Dmmet  (1,,,@'CA) GC."% ')$ + n5a5 /u-l inul5 in /n4n4ual S?M (-la43i/ 8a5 6r 7ar ?  8urnin5 ni--l4) - a44aul3  wll 8yn 37 linB w7i/7 /n4n3 8/m4 imma3rial ,*  -r+ @ro#n

Pa5 !"  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

3.5 Accepta4le iolence -.5  GC."!+, GN.% • /7a43i4mn3  /7ilrn • 6iln/ in 4-r3

3.' Patterns of ictimisation -.'  GC.",+!9 GN." • % 3y-4 in Au43ralia 1. mal+3+mal /nrn3a3in 2. m43i/ 6iln/ %. ini5nu4 /mmuni3i4 • al/7l i4 37 8i5543 /n3ri8u3r 3 6iln/ • " 43ru/3ural a/3r4 1. 5nr   2. a5 %. 4/i+/nmi/ 43a3u4 ". a8ri5inali3y

3.- *omestic iolence 6 Legal hange -.-  GC.!9+*, GN.!+9 • A<O4 ? AP<O4 GN.* GC.!,+*% • 43alin5 ? in3imia3in ($ 562AB) GN.9 GC.*+,

Pa5 !!  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

4. +e0ual *ssault ".1 )ntrod&ction -./  GC.90+, GN.+,[email protected] • 4/ial /n3:3 GN. • law rrm GN., • /urrn3 n/4 *,) ('$+) 4:ual a44aul3 *1I in/n3 a44aul3 *1L a/3  in/n/y *1N

''<'*1D *1M *1O

/ir/um43an/4  a55ra6a3inB ')* $ 61 inli/3 A>H a 37ra3n 3 inli/3 A>H wi37 wa-n 8 in /m-any / < 1*y  < unr au37ri3y    < 7a4 a 4riu4 -7y4i/al i4a8ili3y  < 7a4 a 4riu4 in3ll/3ual i4a8ili3y 5

-$)+7+*, 4:ual in3r/ur4 wi37u3 /n4n3 3u/7in5 n 3u/7in5 (.5. la47in5)





$ 61M

$ 61O









a 8 /  

a 

8 / 

$ 61A (O/3 2001) a55ra6a3 4:ual a44aul3 in /m-any o 4-ara3 4u843an3i6 n/ (n3 =u43 an a55ra6a3in5 a/3r) o ma: -nal3y + +/7+$*,/,

".2 The #ental 7lement -. GC.9,+9 GN.,2+"@,* ull 4u8=/3i6 nwl5  la/  /n4n3 ($$ 61I ? 61 )) v <organ) * • r/l44n[email protected] i37r i5nrin5 r ailin5 3 a6r3 (i.. n3 /n4irin5) 3  possibility  la/  /n4n3  < ($ 61R%1& Hitchener ) •

4.2.1 suective #nowledge of lac# of consent  )) v <organ (1,9*@'HL) GC."2"+"%1 GN.,2 ')$> + airman in6i34 % rin4 7m 3 7a6 4: wi37 7i4 wi + 3ll4 37m 37a3 < i4 inyK ? 4 mi573 43ru55l a3 ir43 + < 4 n3 /n4n3 +  (n  37 ma34) /laim4 7 7n43ly 8li6 < wa4 /n4n3in5 +$$> i  7n43ly 8li6 < wa4 /n4[email protected] i4  5uil3y  ra-$ '+*> 37 343 i4 -urly sub0ective no#ledge o! lac o! consent .  i4 n3 5uil3y i  7n43ly 8u3 mi43anly 8li6 < wa4 /n4n3in5  6n i a ra4na8l -r4n wul n3 7a6 ma 37 4am mi43a. -> a--al i4mi44 (A3 [email protected] 37 =ury inK3 8li6  w7n 7 4ai I 37u573 47 wa4 /n4[email protected] 4  wa4 /n6i/3)

Pa5 !*  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

+$'+*,> *rimes +ct  **?$ ,organ> $$ 61I ? 61 ruir4 37a3  no#s 37a3 37 37r -r4n 4 n3 /n4n3B (i.. nwl5  la/  /n4n3)

4.2.2 rec#lessness  emsley (1,@ NSWCCA) GC.! GN.,% ')$> + 1* y.. < 54 r a ri wi37 a 8ii () +  4:ually a44aul34 < +  /laim4 < /n4n3 ? 37a3 < i4 nw lyin5 +$$> 4 9rabbe r/l44n44 (a6r3n/ 3 probable /n4un/4) a--ly 3 4:ual a44aul3$ -> n '+*> r r/l44n44 3 8 -r6@ 37 P mu43 -r6 >R 37a3  %'&  wa4 awar 37a3 < wa4 n3 /n4n3in5 OR  %(&  rali4 < mi573 n3 8 /n4n3in5 AND 3rmin 3 7a6 in3r/ur4 wi37 < w737r < wa4 /n4n3in5 r n3 ,*> • 37i4 i4 a irn3 43anar rm 9rabbe r/l44n44 in w7i/7  probability i4 ruir@ n3 possibility.  Hitchener  (1,,%@ NSWCCA) GC.!+9 GN.," ')$> + 1* y.. < 54 r a ri wi37 a 8ii () +  4:ually a44aul34 < +  /laim4 < /n4n3 ? 37a3 < i4 nw lyin5 +$$> 4 a !ailure 3 a6r3 (/n4ir) 3 37 -44i8ili3y 37a3 < mi573 n3  8 /n4n3in5 amun3 3 r/l44n44$ '+*> r r/l44n44 3 8 -r6@ 37 P mu43 -r6 >R 37a3 i37r (a)  /n4ir -44i8ili3y  la/  /n4n3 8u3 i5nr i3 OR  (8)  !ailed to advert  3 -44i8ili3y 37a3 < wa4 n3 /n4n3in5. -> a--al i4mi44 ,*> • 37i4 i4 a irn3 43anar rm 9rabbe r/l44n44 in w7i/7  probability i4 ruir@ n3 possibility. +$'+*,> )$$,$$  7$/- )*,$, $ 61R%1&> 8in5 r/l44 a4 3 w737r < /n4n34 (i.. n3 /n4irin5 w737r < /n4n34) presumed  nwl5  la/  /n4n35uil3y

".3 Act&s $e&s )ss&es -.1  GC.+,9 GN.,"[email protected],9+

Pa5 !9  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

Pa5 !  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

Pa5 !,  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

!.10.1 $' '$$'> actus reus • 4:ual in3r/ur4 $ 61H%1& • a84n/  /n4n3 $$ 61I " 61 • a/3r4 6i3ia3in5 /n4n3 $ 61R%2& • /n4n3 may 8 7[email protected] rlu/[email protected] 5ru5in5B 8u3 43ill 8 /n4n3 ( olman)

4.3.1 d

efinition of se0ual intercourse s 61H(1)- definition of sexual intercourse (a) sexual connection occasioned by the penetration to any extent of the genitalia (including a surgically constructed vagina) of a female person or anus of any person by: (i) any part of the body of another person; or (ii)  any object manipulated by another person, except where…carried out for proper medical purposes; or (b) sexual connection occasioned by the introduction of any part of the penis into the mouth of another person; or (c) cunnilingus; or (d) continuation of sexual intercourse as described in (a), (b) or (c) above.

4.3.2 consent s 61R(2) : consent is vitiated (invalidated) when: (a)(i)  under mista!en belief as to identity of "; or (ii)  under mista!en belief that  is married to "; (a1)   under mista!en belief that intercourse is for medical or hygienic purposes; (b) if " !nows that  consents under mista!en belief referred to in (a) # (a$), then " is ta!en to !now that  does not consent; (c)  only consents as a result of threats or terror against  or another person; (d) lac! of actual physical resistance does not prima facie e%uate to consent

4.3.3 consent induced y force 9lare (1,,@NSWCCA) GC., GN.,! ')$> + -ri4n ra- +  3ll4 < 37a3 37r4 wan3K 7im (37ra3 mana3in5 rm 37r4) +  4ai 7 wul -r3/3 < i 7 7a 4:ual in3r/ur4 wi37  +  -u47 < n3 8 an 7a 4:ual in3r/ur4 wi37 < +$$> i 3rial =u5 rr 8y n3 u4in5 37 olman ir/3in /n4n3 may 8 7[email protected] rlu/[email protected] 5ru5in5B 8u3 43ill 8 /n4n3$ *(+>  -r Sim-4n D (37r DD4 4iln3 n 37i4 -in3) /n4n3 7a4 3 8 rly an 6lun3arily 5i6nB  NOTE 37i4 i4 not  37 law in NSW  olman 43ill 43an4 -> /n6i/3in ua47 (n 37r 5run4) ,*>   v Glugbo0a (1,[email protected]'CA) GC.,0 • 37r i4 a irn/ 83wn /n4n3 ? 4u8mi44in • a--arn3 a/ui4/n/ ≠ /n4n3 +$'+*,> s 61R(2) : consent is vitiated (invalidated) when: … (c)  only consents as a result of threats or terror against  or another person; (d) lac! of actual physical resistance does not e%uate to consent

Pa5 *0  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

4.3.4 consent induced y fraud  mista#e A+)A*> & W[email protected] (eual 'ssault >a# e!orm in ;(:  GC.,1+2 GN.,! T7r ar 37r in4  mi43a 1. /+$' '$ *  ,' *  $' ')  .5. in  <obilio (1,,[email protected]<CCA) GC.,2 a rai5ra-7r in4r3 a 3ran4u/r in3 6a5ina  < r 7i4 wn 4:ual 5ra3ii/a3in. <CCA 7l 37a3 K4 m3i64 ar irrl6an3. < /n4n3 3 37 na3ur ? /7ara/3r  37 a/3. NOTE overturned  8y $ 61R%2&%'1&  in NSW. 2. /+$' '$ *  +-,+= *  * 7'=  .5. Callienne (1,*%@$) GC.,1 < a4l[email protected]  /lim8 in3 7r  8@ < mi43anly 37u573  wa4 7r 7u48an ? 37y 7a 4:. Hl /n4n3 6i3ia3 + 37i4 wa4 a mi43a  a 6ry  8a4i/ 3y-@ 37 -7y4i/al in3i3y  . NOTE codified  in $ 61R%2&%'&%+& %. /+$' '$ * $*/ '+= * )'') *  * 7'= .5. in )apdimitropoulos (1,[email protected]) GC.,2  3ri/ < in3 37inin5 37y wr marri. HCA 7l 37a3 4u84un3 4:ual in3r/ur4 #as /n4n4ual. NOTE overturned  8y $ 61R%2&%'&%++&  in NSW. s 61R(2) : consent is vitiated (invalidated) when: L+$'+*,> (a)(i)  under mista!en belief as to identity of "; or (ii)   under mista!en belief that  is married to "; (a1)  under mista!en belief that intercourse is for medical or hygienic purposes s 65A  : sexual intercourse procured by intimidation, coercion # other non&violent threats

4.3.5 feminist perspective A+)A*> Dann Ma3l/@ (candals o! ;aming (1,,%) GC.," Hw  w :/7an5 a 4y43m w7r a wmanK4 wr i4 i43ru43 4im-ly 8/au4 47K4 mal wi37u3 4u843i3u3in5 a 4y43m w7r 7r wr i4 8li6 4im-ly 8/au4 47 i4 mal$B A+)A*> Carl [email protected] eminism and the )o#er o! the >a# (1,,) GC.," •  8inary i4/ur4  ra- ([email protected] 5uil3Jinn/n/@ /n4n3Jnn+/n4n3) i4 ina--r-ria3 3 4/ri8 37 am8i5uu4K na3ur  ra-. • /n4n3Jnn+/n4n3 8inary i4 in/n4i43n3 wi37 wmnK4 /m-l: :-rin/4  4:ual in3r/ur4. • a wman mi573 a5r 3 in3ima/[email protected] 8u3 n3 4:ual in3r/ur4 a i43in/3in 37 law 4 n3 ma. • 4u8mi44in i4 l5ally /n4n3 8u3 a wman mi573 4u8mi3 in rr 3 43- 6iln/@ r 3 - 7r =8 A+)A*> Ca37arin Ma/'inn[email protected] eminism, <arism, <ethod  the (tate (1,%)@ GC.,! • rm a wmanK4 -in3  6iw ra- i4 n3 -r7i8i3@ 8u3 ra37r i3 i4 r5ula3 • ra- i4 an a/3  4u8rina3in  wmn 3 mn

Pa5 *1  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

r a w[email protected] ra- i4 an in=ury r a [email protected] ra- i4 a /rim • ra- law a44um4 37a3 a 4in5l@ 8=/3i6 43a3  aair4 :i43 a3 37 3im  37 ra-. >u3 w74 8=/3i6 43anar i4 u4$  mnK4. W74 43anar4  ra4na8ln44 i4 u4$  mnK4. A+)A*> D <[email protected] 9oercion  9onsent  (1,) GC.,*+9 • mini4m r4 3w 6iw4  mal 4:uali3y rul 8y r/ (/r/in) r rul 8y rm  /7i/ (/n4n3). •  a84lu3i4m in mini4m -r4n34 wmn a4 6i/[email protected] al4 4u55434 37a3 all mn ar 6iln3 ? all wmn ar nn+ 6iln3 • 37 3w 6iw4 ar in/m-a3i8l ? 8a3 83wn 37 3w /am-4 la4 3 -araly4i4 wi37in mini43 37u573 • rla3in47i- 83wn mn ? wmn i4 a 4/ial /n43ru/3 w7i/7 /an 8 r+43ru/3ur (i.. i3 i4 n3 i: in 3im) • ul3ima3[email protected] /n4n3 i4 a 4/ial a/3 /n43ru/3 8y 4/i3y •

"." )ndecent Assa&lt -.11 GC.,9+,00 GN., !.11.1 +,-), '$$' AR> • (i) a/3  a44aul3 ',- (ii) a/3  in/n/y ($ 61L )) v ogers) • 37 n a/3 /an /n43i3u3 837 37 a44aul3 ? 37 in/n3 a/3  (itAgerald v  Hennard ) • 37 a44aul3 mu43 7a6 a 4:ual /nn3a3in (   v arin)   v • in/n3 man4 /n3rary 3 mral 43anar4  r4-/3a8l --l (  arin) MR> • in3n3 (3 /mmi3 837 a44aul3 ? in/n3 a/3) (  itAgerald v Hennard ) • r/l44n[email protected] in/luin5 Hitchener nn+a6r3n/ (  itAgerald v Hennard )

 itAgerald v Hennard  (1,,[email protected]) GC.,+,00 GN., ')$> +  wa4 a 6i4i3in5 l/3ri/ian w7 ru88 <K4 l54 ? 3ri 3 3u/7 7r  8ra434 + /7ar5 wi37 in/n3 a44aul3 ($ 61L) + a3 [email protected] w7n a4 i 7 7a /n4ir a3 37 3im w737r < a/3ually wan3 7im 3 3u/7 7r 7 r-li I3 inK3 n3r my minB. +$$> + w737r i3 i4 an lmn3  in/n3 a44aul3 37a3  -u34 < in ar  immia3 an unlawul an5rB$ +  37 a44aul3 ? 37 in/n3 a/3 n 3 8 43a8li47 4-ara3ly$ + 4 Hitchener  nn+a6r3n3 r/l44n44 a--ly 3 $ 61L$ '+*> + i3 i4 n3 n/44ary 37a3  -u34 < in ar  immia3 ? unlawul an5rB  n3 an lmn3  in/n3 a44aul3 + 37 a/3  a44aul3 may i34l /n43i3u3 37 a/3  in/n/[email protected] 4 837 lmn34 n n3 8 -r6 4-ara3ly + Hitchener  nn+a6r3n/ a--li4 3 in/n3 a44aul3 i.. ailur 3

Pa5 *2  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

a6r3 3 37 -44i8ili3y  /n4n3 /n43i3u34 r/l44n44 (i..  -r4/u3in nly 7a4 3 -r6 nn+a6r3n/) + -7y4i/al /n3a/3 wi37u3 /n4n3 i4 [email protected] unl44 37 /n3a/3 ari44 rm 37 :i5n/i4  6ryay liB -> + 5uil3y  in/n3 a44aul3 + 37 -la/in5  7an n <K4 l5 wa4 37 a44aul3 ? 37 m6in5 7an 3war4 <K4 833m wa4 37 a/3  in/n/[email protected] 8u3 i3 i4 mr a//ura3 3 4ay 37a3 37 a/3  a44aul3 al4 /n43i3u3 37 a/3  in/n/y. +$'+*,> $ 61L i3 i4 an n/ i any -r4na44aul34 an37r -r4n [email protected] a3 37 3im @ r immia3ly 8r r a3[email protected] 37 [email protected] /mmi34 an a/3  in/n/y n r in 37 -r4n/  37 37r -r4nB   v arin (1,,@NSWCCA) GC.,00 GN., R'+*> + 37 a44aul3 mu43 7a6 a 4:ual /nn3a3in. 37 5ni3al4 ? anu4   837 mal ? mal ? 37 8ra434  37 mal G i37r < r  ar 37 rl6an3 ara4B + in/n/y man4 /n3rary 3 37 rinary 43anar4  mrali3y  r4-/3a8l --l wi37in 37 /mmuni3yB + 37 =ury mu43 /i w737r an a/3 i4 in/n3 r n3

".5 Act of )ndecency -.11 GC.,00+2 GN.,, !.11.2 ') * +,-),)= AR> • a/3  in/n/y wi37 r 3war4B an37r -r4n ($ 61N) MR> • in3n3 r r/l44n44 ($)

9hona ([email protected]) GC.,01 GN.,, ')$> +  in/i3 46ral /7ilrn 6r 37 3l-7n 3 ma43ur8a3 ? 3  -rrm 4:ual a/34 wi37 amily mm8r4 + /7ar5 wi37 , /un34  #ith ? 2 /un34  to#ards '+*> + a/3  in/n/y ?+B ruir4 2 -ar3i/i-an34 in 37 in/n3 a/3 + a/3  in/n/y *?'-$B ruir4 a -r4n a/3in5 in/n3ly 3war4 37 nn+-ar3i/i-an3 ,*$> $ 61N wa4 na/3 3 /a3r r 5a-4K in in/n3 a44aul3 •  airclough v :hipp (1,[email protected]'CCA) GC.,00 7l 37a3 in6i3a3in 3 5irl 3 3u/7 K4 -ni4 wa4 n3 an in/n3 a44aul3 8/au4 < 3u/7  n3 vice versa •  )) v ogers (1,!%@') GC.,00 7l 37a3 K4 in6i3a3in 3 11y.. au573r 3 ma43ur8a3 7im wa4 n3 in/n3 a44aul3  8/au4  i n3 3u/7 < +$'+*,> $ 61N anyn w7 /mmi34 r in/i34 an a/3  in/n/y wi37 r 3war4 a -r4nB

')$>

9rampton v *he Eueen  ([email protected]) GC.,01 GN.,, + 4/7l3a/7r () ma43ur8a3 in rn3  #ar * mal 43un3

Pa5 *%  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

+ /7ar5 wi37 a/3  in/n/y #ith -> + /7ar5 /ann3 8 4u43ain 8/au4 < i n3 -ar3i/i-a3

".' Homose+&al Offences -.12  GC.,02+" GN.,, 9hard v :allis (1,@NSWSC) GC.,0% R'+*> n/  HRMF a4 3 a5 a6aila8l r a/34  5r44 in/n/y ($ !8Q) N*> • a5  /n4n3 i4 1 yar4 ($ !8H) • u-li/a34 $ 66 n/4 +$'+*,> $ !8G ini3in  7m4:ual in3r/ur4 $ !8H wi37 mal unr 10 $ !8H wi37 mal 83wn 10 ? 1 $ !8:  8y 3a/7[email protected] a37r r 43-+a37r  $ !8Q a/34  5r44 in/n/y

".- Prosec&tion of e+&al Assa&lt -.13 GC.,0"+* GN.,,+100 +, 1996 +, NSW> + 2J%r4  r-r34  4.a. i n3 la 3 /7ar54 + nly 10  r-r3 a44aul34 r4ul3 in /n6i/3in NSW + )*$ 20  N& -la4 /n6i/3  $ 61I (4:ual a44aul3) +, 1999> 2*  N& -la4 /n6i/3  $ 61 (a55ra6a3 4.a.) %0  N& -la4 /n6i/3  $ 66C (/7il 83wn 10?1*) NSW L*)' C* +, "2  N& -la4 /n6i/3  $ 61L (in/n3 a44aul3) 1999> %1  N& -la4 /n6i/3  $ 61M (a55ra6a3 i.a.) %9  N& -la4 /n6i/3  $ 66C (/7il 83wn 10?1*)  L*)' C* *".2 6rall /n6i/3in ra3 (5uil3y ? n3 5uil3y -la4) r $ )*/7'+$*,> 61L (in/n3 a44aul3) /m-ar 3 ,!., 6rall /n6i/3in r all n/4

"./ Pro,ing non(consent -.1" GC.,09+2! GN.100+"

4.$.1 delay in complaint  avies (1,[email protected]) GC.,0 GN.100 '+*> a4 wll a4 $ 405B ir/3i[email protected] 3rial =u5 47ul a4 a 5nral rul /n3inu 3 ir/3 37 =ury 37a3 37 a84n/  a /m-lain3 r a lay in main5 n may 8 3an in3 a//un3Gw7n 6alua3in5 37 6in/  37 /m-lainan3 an in 3rminin5 w737r 3 8li6 7rB. ,*$> • rmrly 9rimes 'ct 1"$$ (NSW) $ 405B •  avies ir/3in /nirm 8y ma=ri3y in 9ro!ts v  (1,,*@HCA) GC.,0 air 8alan/  5 ra4n4 r layB ir/3in an a4444mn3  <K4 /ri8ili3y rlay +$'+*,> 9riminal )rocedure 'ct 1"86  (NSW) 4 109 i 4u5543in i4 ma urin5 3rial 37a3 < lay in 8rin5in5 /[email protected] 37n =u5 mu43 • warn =ury 37a3 lay 4 n3 man 37a3 all5a3in i4 al4 ($ 10!%2&%'& )

Pa5 *"  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011) •

Summary

inrm =ury 37a3 37r ar 5 ra4n4 w7y < mi573 74i3a3 in main5 /m-lain3 ($ 10!%2&%(& )

4.$.2 aolition of reuirement for a corrooration warning to ury  >ongman (1,,@HCA) GC.,0, GN.100 '+*> • 4-i3 43a3u3ry rm6al  /mmn law n r /rr8ra3in [email protected] 3rial =u5 still reuired  3 5i6 warnin5 w7n 37r i4 a ri4  a mi4/arria5  =u43i/. • 37r i4 n 43 rmula  wr4 3 8 u4 in a warnin5 +$'+*,>  Dvidence 'ct 1"86  (NSW) $ 164%1& 6in/ n n3 8 /rr8ra3 $ 164%3& 3rial =u5 n n3 warn =ury 37a3 i3 i4 an5ru4 3 a/3 n un/rr8ra3 6in/ $ 165 3rial =u5@ i ru43@ mu43 5i6 warnin5 37a3 4m 6in/ (.5. 7[email protected] ami44in4) mi573 8 unrlia8l

Pa5 *!  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

9rampton v *he Eueen  ([email protected]) GC.,10 GN.100 '+*>  >ongman warnin5 mu43 8 li6r wi37 a--r-ria3 m-7a4i4 ? 8 aa-3 3 /ir/um43an/4  37 /a4 A+)A*> S Ewar[email protected] emale (euality  the >a# (1,9)@ GC.,11+% 37 • in 37 arly 20  /n3ury a//u4a3in4  ra- wr -r4um 3  8 al4 (4-. a5ain43 n3i434 ? /3r4) • in 1,11 Pr. &r[email protected] -r.  /riminal [email protected] wr3 in 7i4 3:38 37a3 wmn ar 7y43ri/4 an liar4B • in 1,"0 Wi5mrK4 8 n 6in/ /laim 37a3 un/7a43 mn3ali3yK  4m wmn  a8ri/a3 4:ual an3a4i4 in w7i/7 37y wr 37 6i/3im4 • in 1,!! Pr. William4 wr3 37a3 wmn ma u- al4 all5a3in4 r many ra4[email protected] in/l. [email protected] =alu4y ? 4-i3 • in 1,9% & 4i3 < n la43 /mr3a8l /7air i 47 4nK3 i5[email protected] 37n 7r all5a3in i4 n3 5nuin.

4.$.3 communications privilege +$'+*,> 9riminal )rocedure 'ct 1"86  (NSW) GC.,1! GN.10% $ 149 a84lu3 -ri6il5 a3 8ail ? /mmi33al -r/in54 r r/r4  <K4 /un4llin5 3ra3mn3 $ 150 /ur3 may 43 a4i 37 -ri6il5 a3 3rial

4.$.4 admissiility of evidence of se0ual e0perience  reputation 37 ra- 47ilB GC.,1* GN.10% ,*$> • ra3inal 4:ual :-rin/ ? r-u3a3in ar irrl6an3 /n4ira3in4. On 8alan/@ i43r44 /au4 3 < u3wi574  -r8a3i6 6alu  6in/. GC.,19+ • rmrly 9rimes 'ct 1"$$ (NSW) $ 409B • $ 409B 7a4 8n /ri3i/i4 8/au4 i 5a54 37 a//u4 an i3 5a54 37 a//u4K4 /un4lB GC.,22 • 'umar ? Ma5nr GC.,1,+22 ar5u !or $ 409B • / n:3 3a8l (37 43ay 6l-mn3B) r mr /ri3i/i4m +$'+*,> 9riminal )rocedure 'ct 1"86  (NSW) GC.,1*+9 $ 105%2& ra- 47il  6in/ rla3in5 3 4:ual r-u3a3in  < i4 absolutely inami44i8l (n :/-3in4) $ 105%3& 6in/ 37a3 i4/l44 r im-li4 4:ual :-rin/ (r la/ 37r)  < i4 inami44i8l (:/-3in4 a--ly) $105%4&  6in/  4:ual inJ:-rin/ ami44i8l w7n • %'& a3 r a8u3 3im  /mmi44in  all5 n/ • %(& :i43in5 r r/n3 rla3in47i- a3 3im  n/ • %)&@%&  -r4n/  i4a4@ -r5nan/[email protected] 4mn r in=ury • %& i < 5i64 4u/7 6in/ in /r44+:amina3i[email protected] -ur4uan3 3 4u8+4 %6&@ ',- -r8a3i6 6alu u3wi574 i43r[email protected] 7umilia3in r m8arra44mn3  < $ 105%6& +  /ur3 4a3i4i 37a3 prosecution i4/l4 r im-li 4:ual inJ:-rin/  < ',-  mi573 8 unairly -r=ui/ i /ann3 /r44+ :amin <@ , < /an 8 /r44+:amin unr /ni3in4 43 u3 in Pa5 **  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

4u8+4 %4&%& $ 105%!& urin5 3rial all u43in4  ami44i8ili3y unr 4u8+44 %2&@ %3& ? %6& ar 3 8 7ar in 37 a84n/  37 =ury

4.$.5 the stay development   v )BD  (1,,[email protected]) GC.,2% GN.10" ')$> + a--li/a3in 3 43ay a 4ri4  /7il 4:ual a44aul3 3rial4 in i43ri/3 Cur3 wr 4u//44ul n 8a4i4  ietrich ar5umn3 9riminal  )rocedure 'ct 1"86  (NSW) $ 105 /ul la 3 an unair 3rial + P a--alin5 3 CCA +$$> /an /ur34 43ay n 374 5run4$ ->  N  43ay  ini/3mn3 6a/a3 '$*,+,> /ur3 mu43 a--ly 37 43a3u3ry law w737r 37y a5r wi37 i3 r n3 (4u-rma/y  Parliamn3 ar5umn3) ,*> • HCA ru4 4-/ial la6 3 a--[email protected] 8u3 >rnnan CD n3 37a3 $ 409B /larly warran3 ur37r /n4ira3in 8y 37 l5i4la3urB (-.,2%) • in r4-n4 NSWLRC r/mmn r-al  $ 409B ? r-la/mn3 wi37 -r6i4in4 r3urnin5 i4/r3in 3 3rial =u5. R/mmna3in 7a4 n3 8n im-lmn3. • in ' 4imilar -r6i4in 3 $ 409B • in Canaa 4imilar -r6i4in 43ru/ wn r 7uman ri5734 8ra/7  air 3rial ((eaboyer )

". hild A4&se 6 e+&al Assa&lt -.15  GC.,2!+"1 GN.10!+* • in/in/ ? i4/6ry GC.,2! •  NSW l5i4la3i6 rrm4  1,! GC.,29+, GN.10! • /urrn3 n/4 $ *,) 4: wi37 /7il 10y 66A 4: wi37 /7il 83wn 10+1* 66C%1& 4: wi37 /7il 83wn 10+1* " < unr au37ri3y   66C%2& /n4n3 n n/ in 4m /a44 !!%2&  -r4i43n3 4:ual a8u4  a /7il (%Un/4) 68EA /arnal nwl5 wi37 a 3a/7r  !3 in/43 !8A [email protected]!8N 7m4:ual n/4 (!8H!8!8:!8N) 4: wi37 in3ll/3ually i4a8l 66F  -4444in  /7il -rn 5!8B  -u8li47in5 /7il -rn 5!8C 4: wi37 /7il 1* w7il43 6r4a4 50BA • n n/  4imilari3y  a5 GC.,%% • (ummary G!!ences 'ct  1,, (NSW) 4 11& li3rin5 nar a 4/7l •  )re-trial iversion o! G!!enders 'ct 1,! (NSW) 3 -r6n3 r/ii6i4m •  Dvidence 'ct  4 1% a -r4n in/a-a8l  unr43anin5B /anK3 5i6 6in/ • arly 3/3in ? -r3/3in  /7ilrn GC.,%,+"1 GN.10*

Pa5 *9  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

5. (ishonest *cuisition G.119+"0

5.1 )ntrod&ction 1 1 GC.11!%+"

5.2 Larceny 1.2  GC.11!"+,9 [email protected]+%

5.3 Other 08 Offences 1.3 GC.11,9+121! [email protected]"  -- 110+121".

5." Technology 6 8hite ollar rime 1.-." GC.12"0+, GN.12!+*

5.5 $o44ery9 :&rglary 6 :lac!mail 1./  GC.12",+!% GN.12*

5.' $ecei,ing9 Proceeds of rime 1. GC.12!%+, GN.129

Pa5 *  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

6. 80tending 9riminal :iaility '.1 )ntrod&ction 11.1 GC.12*0 GN.12, '/7 " +,)+/, :3n lia8ili3y aln5 3im imn4in  3 a 3im be!ore /mmi44in )*/7+)+= :3n4 lia8ili3y aln5 5ru- imn4in  3 mr 37an n  -r4n )*,$7+')= :3n4 lia8ili3y aln5 5ru- ? 3im imn4in  2 r mr  --l be!ore /mmi44in GROU#

TIME %7'$& '/7

)*,$7+')=

)*/7+)+=

'.2 Attempt 11.2  GC.12*0+9 GN.1%0+2 P mu43 -r6 >R 37a3 ( @ritten v 'lpogut ) 1.  7a a3 all ma3rial 3im4 37 mens rea 3 /mmi3 4u843an3i6 n/ ',2.  i an a/3 r a/34 (r mi44in4) 37a3 ar su!!iciently proimate 3 37 actus reus  37 n/@ an n3 merely preparatory 3 i3. mens rea • +,, 3 /mmi3 37 4u843an3i6 n/ (>P [email protected] >R) o r/l44n44 i4 n3 nu57 ( Hnight  Ciorgianni)  6n w7n r/l44n44 i4 4ui/in3 mens rea r 37 4u843an3i6 n/ i34l  •  mu43 in3n 3 /mmi3 37 speci!ic 7arm a44/ia3 wi37 37 (/m-l3) n/ ( Hnight  in3n3 3 inli/3 &>H in4ui/in3 r /7ar5  a33m-3 murr) actus reus • a/34 (r mi44in4) mu43 8 (9ollingridge @ritten) o  8 su!!iciently proimate (i.. /l4 3) o 5 8yn n3 mere preparation • ailur 3 /m-l3 4u843an3i6 n/ 8/au4  in3rru-3in (i37r 6lun3ary r :3rnal) 4 n3 n5a3 actus reus  37 a33m-3 ( )age) • 37 a/3ual im-44i8ili3y  37 a33m-3 4 n3 n5a3 actus reus ( <ai  *ran)

6.2.1 introduction •

P mu43 -r6 >R 37a3 ( @ritten v 'lpogut  -r Mur-7y D GC.129*)

Pa5 *,  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

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Summary

1.  7a a3 all ma3rial 3im4 37 mens rea 3 /mmi3 4u843an3i6 n/ ',2.  i an a/3 r a/34 (r mi44in4) 37a3 ar su!!iciently proimate 3 37 /mmi44in  37 n/@ an ar n3 merely preparatory 3 i3. un4u//44ul a33m-34 3 /mmi3 a /rim 3w 3y-4  ailur 3 /m-l3 all lmn34  actus reus u 3 1. in3rru-3i[email protected] -r6n3i[email protected] /7an5  7ar3 2. in/m-3n/ r im-44i8ili3y -*)+, * /  /ann3 8 /7ar5 wi37 a33m-3 ? /mmi44in  37 4am /rim a33m-3 i4 a /mmn law n/ $ 344A -nal3y r a33m-3 i4 4am a4 /mmi44in  n/ o ecept  a33m-3 murr ($$ [email protected])  2! [email protected] n3 li 8a3 a8u3 a33m-3J/m-l3 n/ i43in/3in o &i884 R-r3 4ay4 a8li47 a33m-3 ? /7ar5 a33m-3 a4 /mmi44in o MCC 4ay4 - a33m-3 4-ara3

6.2.2 mens rea GC.12*2+" GN.1%0 • in3n3 3 /mmi3 37 4u843an3i6 n/ i4 ruir  Hnight  Ciorgianni)  6n w7r r/l44n44 i4 • r/l44n44 i4 n3 nu57 ( 4ui/in3 mens rea r 37 4u843an3i6 n/ i34l  • P mu43 -r6 >R 37a3 (a3 all ma3rial 3im4)  7a +,,  3 /mmi3 37 4u843an3i6 n/ ( @ritten v 'lpogut  -r Mur-7y D GC.129*) •  mu43 in3n 3 /mmi3 37 speci!ic 7arm a44/ia3 wi37 37 (/m-l3) n/ ( Hnight  in3n3 3 inli/3 &>H in4ui/in3 r /7ar5  a33m-3 murr)  Hnight  (1,,[email protected]) GC.12*2 GN.1%0 ')$> +  ir 3w 4734 a3 < (2n 473 7i3) +  /n6i/3  a33m-3 murr  +$$> /an  8 /7ar5 wi37 a33m-3 murder i 7 inK3 7a6 intent  3 murr a3 37 3im 3 ir 37 5un$ -> n  a33m-3 murr ruir4 +,,+*, * )*//+  )*/7 *,) ,*> in3n3 3 /au4 &>H mi573 8 4ui/in3 mens rea r mur[email protected] 8u3 i3 i4 in4ui/in3 mens rea r a33m-3 murr 

6.2.3 actus reus •



/l443 37in5 wK6 53 3 an actus reus i4 ( @ritten v 'lpogut  -r Mur-7y D GC.129*) o  i an a/3 r a/34 (r mi44in4) 37a3 ar su!!iciently proimate 3 37 /mmi44in  37 n/@ an ar n3 merely preparatory 3 i3. 46ral 3434 ar a6aila8l o last act test  a33m-3 4a3i4i nly w7n 37 la43 a/3 8r /m-l3inK 7a4 8n -rrm ( Dagleton) o  series o! acts test  wul n/ 7a6 8n /m-l3 i 4ri4  a/34 7a n3 8n in3rru-3$ ( aughton v (mith) Pa5 90  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

uneuivocal test  4 /nu/3 unui6/ally ini/a3 an in3n3in 3 /mmi3 37 n/$ ( @arer ) o  proimity test  ( Dagleton) % imn4in4 /n43i3u3 a33m-3 1. 3m-ral  7w mu/7 3im rmain4 8r /m-l3in$ 2. -7y4i/al  7w nar i4  3 -7y4i/al l/a3in  n/$ %. 3a4+rla3  7w many mr 3a44 l3 3  8r /m-l3in$ 374 3434 47ul 8 u4 a4 5uilin4 [email protected] ul3ima3ly i3 i4 37 a/34  a/7 ini6iual /a4 37a3 will /i w737r a33m-3 7a4 8n /mmi33 r n3 ((tonehouse (1,[email protected]'HL) GC.1*!) ,* 3:38 -rr4 37 proimity 343 GC.12*" ailur 3 /m-l3 37 a/3ual 4u843an3i6 n/ 8/au4  an in3rru-3in (w737r 6lun3ary r 4m 37r /au4) will n3 n5a3 37 actus reus  a33m-3 o 6lun3ary 4i43an/ (/7an5in5 yur min) a3 37 la43 minu3 i4 n n/ ( )age) o



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 )age (1,%%@<SC (FC)) GC.12*9 GN.1%1 ')$> +  a8u3 3 8ra ? n3r 3 43al 4m /i5ar334 +  37in4  7i4 ar l Mum ? 4i434 + -li/ arr43  ? a//m-li/ nly m3r4 away +$$> i  6lun3arily 4i434 a3 37 la43 minu3 i4 7 43ill 5uil3y  a33m-3$ -> y4  a33m-3 /an 8 /mmi33 4-i3 an in3rru-3in 37a3 il4 37 /mmi44in  37 4u843an3i6 n/ ,*> • 6lun3ary 4i43an/ i4 n n/ 3 a33m-3 n/  7a4 /r44 37 ill+in lin rm preparation in3 37 ralm  perpetration. • Pa5K4 -r8lm i4 37a3 7 wa4 -r8a8ly a3 37 43a5  37 la43 a/3K 3[email protected] i.. 7 /7an5 7i4 min a3 37 6ry la43 minu3 43 • 43ill very 7ar47. W7 wa4 7ur3$ Wa4 37i4 a 1 3im n/$ T7i4 wa4 37 -r44in. Du54 wul 8 r-r4n3a3i64  37 status uo.

6.2.4 impossiility •



intent   i4 37 /n3ral /n/-3 7r. T7 a/3 37a3 37 a/3ual n/ wa4 a/3ually (in 37 /ir/um43an/4) im-44i8l i4 irrl6an3.  intended  3 /mmi3 37 n/ ? i /ir/um43an/4 ? a/34 7a 8n irn3 7 wul 7a6 4u//. test% i 37 a/34 wr a4  8li6 37[email protected] wul  7a6 a/3ually /mmi33 37 in3n /rim$ ( @ritten -r Mur-7y D GC.129*)

 <ai  *ran (1,,[email protected]) GC.129% GN.1%2 ')$ +  /au573 wi37 8l/4 37a3 /n3ain n 7rin (4u843i3u3 8y -li/) +  /7ar5 wi37 a33m-3 -4444in  -r7i8i3 im-r3 +$$ 7w /an yu 8 /n6i/3  a33m-3 w7n /mmi44in  4u843an3i6 n/ wa4 a/3uallyJ-7y4i/ally im-44i8l$ - 5uil3y  in3n3 3 /mmi3 n/ i4 4ui/in3 '+* a-3in5 @ritten v 'lpogut  in /ir/um43an/4 w7r i3 i4 in a/3 -7y4i/ally im-44i8l r  3 /mmi3 a -ar3i/ular /rim@ an a33m-3 3 /mmi3 37a3 /rim will 4u// i P -r64 >R (a)  in3n 3  37 a/34 wi37 37 rl6an3 mens rea (8)  -rrm 4m a/3 5in5 8yn mr -r-ara3in

Pa5 91  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011) ,*



Summary

 -li/ n3ra-mn3 (/ /n4-ira/y ? im-44i8ili3yB 8lw)

Pa5 92  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

'.3 '.3 ons onspi pira racy cy 11.3 11.3 GC.129+1%2% GN.1%"+%, actus reus • a5rmn3 3  an unlawul a/3 (r a lawul a/3 8y unlawul man4)  <ulcahy  (<ulcahy) o P mu43 -r6 :i43n/  an a5rmn3  P mu43 -r6 37 scope  4u/7 an a5rmn3 8r :i43n/  37 a5rmn3 /an 8 43a8li47 46ral 4mall /n4-ira/i4 (Ceraiteys) • n 8i5 /n4-ira/y ( <eyric  •  <eyric ) o P mu43 -r6 37a3 37a3 a5rmn3 i4 5nuin   n3 lia8l r 47am a5rm[email protected] w7r 37r i4 nly n 4in/r  -ar3y ? n -r3n /+/n4-ira3r /+ /n4-ira3r (G@rien)@ unl44 -r3n 5uy i4 a -li/ i/r (Lip 9hiu-9heng )   n3 lia8l w7r nly n -ar3y in3n4 a/3 3 8 /mmi33 in in/rimina3in5 /ir/um43an/4 ((egal ) o i3 i4 n3 n/44ary 37a3 any37in5 8 n 3 -u3 37 -lan 3 /mmi3 37 unlawul a/3 in3 a/3in  i3 i4 4ui/in3 37a3 an (/m-l3) a5rmn3 wa4 ma ( ogerson  ogerson) o i3 i4 n3 n/44ary 37a3 37 -r/i4 mannr  /arryin5 u3 37 unlawul a/3 7a4 8n a5r u-[email protected] nly 37a3 i3 will 8 n  ouglas  (ouglas @olton) • 37 a/3ual im-44i8ili3y  /m-l3in5 37 unlawul a/3 4 n3 n5a3 actus reus ( @arbouttis  @arbouttis) mens rea • +,, 3 -rrm an unlawul a/3 (>P [email protected] >R) o r/l44n44 i4 n3 nu57 ((iracusa)  6n w7n r/l44n44 i4 4ui/in3 mens rea r 37 unlawul a/3 i34l  • +,, * ' wi37 n r mr mm8r4  a 5ru- (3 -rrm unlawul a/3) o in3n3 3 a5rB /ann3 8 n r/l44ly r n5li5n3ly o P mu43 -r6 37a3  7a in3n 3 n3r 37 a5rmn3 a4 a -ar3y  in4ui/in3 i  nly nw a8u3 37 a5rmn3  in4ui/in3 i  wa4 43ill /n4irin5 3 a5r

W7r a /n4-ira/y /n4i434  an a5rmn3 3 -rrm mul3i-l unlawul a/[email protected] P mu43  -r6 >R • a /n4-ira/y wi37 r5ar 3 37 -ar3i/ular 3rm4  a/7 unlawul a/3 • 37a3  a5r 3 37 /mmi44in  a/7 unlawul a/3.  will nly 8 /n6i/3 r /n4-ira/y 3 /mmi3 374 unlawul a/34 -r6 8y P

6.3. 6.3.1 1 intr introd oduc ucti tion on •



• • •

a5rmn3 3  an unlawul a/3 (r a lawul a/3 8y unlawul man4) ( <ulcahy  <ulcahy) GC.12,% /rim  /n4-ira/y i4 /mmi33 w7r 3w r mr --l rm an  3 /mmi3 a /rim agreement  3 /n4-ira/y allw4 mu/7 arlir in3r6n3in 37an 4 a33m-3 in3iyin5 actus reus ? mens rea i4 ii/ul3 37r i4 l34  /n3r6r4y 4urrunin5 /n4-ira/y GC.122 Pa5 9%  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011) •

Summary

37r i4 n /3rin  / 4  /an 8 /7ar5 wi37 /n4-ira/y an /mmi44in  37 4am n/ ( oar   oar ) GC.1%[email protected]%1

6.3. 6.3.2 2 elem elemen ents ts

!.3.2.1 !.3.2.1 existence existence of the agreeme agreement  nt  37 44n/  a /n4-ira/y i4 an a5rmn3B (G@rien) • i3 i4 n3 n/44ary 37a3 37r 8 an a5rmn3 a4 3 37 -r/i4 mannr in w7i/7 37 unlawul a/3 i4 3 8 -rrm ( ouglas  ouglas) • i3 i4 n3 n/44ary 37a3 /n4-ira3r4 7a6 43ar3 3 /mmi3 37 unlawul a/3 ( @olton  w7a3 wa4 in !act done w7i/7 i4  @olton w7a3 i4 agreed to be done  an not  w7a3 all im-r3an3B GC.129 •  i4 5uil3  /n4-ira/y 3 -rrm an unlawul a/3 6n i  wa4 unawar 37a3 a/3 i4 unlawul ( @riot ) GC.1%00 G@rien (1,9"@'CA) GC.12% GN.1%" ')$ + 3al4 a8u3 8rain5 ma34 u3  -ri4n + 3a4 4m -734  a -ri4[email protected] i4 arr43 ? /7ar5 wi37 /n4-ira/y '+* • 44n/  a /n4-ira/y i4 an a5rmn3B  3 /mmi3 37a3 unlawul a/3 mu43 8 ma • an agreement  3  a8u3 /mmi33in5 an unlawul a/3 o i3 i4 n3 nu57 3 tal  a8u3 •

!.3.2.2 !.3.2.2 convictions convictions of individua individuals ls for conspiracy conspiracy T7r ar in43an/4 in w7i/7 a /n4-ira3r /an 8 /n6i/3 a4 an ini6iual •  /an 8 /7ar5 wi37 /n4-irin5 wi37 a -r4n r -r4n4 unnwnB ($  arrison GC.129 Ceraiteys GC.12,9) 393 -r  arrison • w7r K4 /+/n4-ira3r i4 in a/3 an unr/6r -li/ i/r w7 n3ra-4  (Lip 9hiu-9heng ) GC.129 • w7r K4 /+/n4-ira3r i4 5i6n immuni3y rm -r4/u3in in :/7an5 r 5i6in5 6in/ • 6n i K4 /+/n4-ira3r i4 a/ui33 a3 3rial (  arby  arby) GC.12  arby (1,[email protected]) GC.12 GN.1%"+! ')$ + K4 /+/n4-ira3rK4 /n6i/3in r /n4-ira/y wa4 ua47 +  a--alin5 /n6i/3in n 5run4 37a3 37r /ul n3 7a6 8n a /n4-ira/y i 7i4 /+/n4-ira3r wa4 n3 in a/3 a /n4-ira3r  '+*  /an 8 /n6i/3 6n i /+/n4-ira3r i4 a/ui33 -+$$, Mur-7y D (43rn5 /n4n3) • 44n/  /n4-ira/y i4 agreement  • 37 3rai3inal rul 37a3 a /n6i/3in /ann3 8 4u43ain i /+ /n4-ira3r i4 a/ui33 47ul 43an • n [email protected] n inn/n3 i3 n4 /mmn4n4 3 7a6 a /n3rai/3ry 6ri/3

!.3.2. !.3.2.3 3 imposs impossibi ibilit lityy  @arbouttis, ale  (ingle (1,,[email protected]) GC.12,2 GN.1%! ')$ +  /7ar5 wi37 /n4-irin5 3 r/i6 43ln -r-r3y +  a5r 3 8uy 43ln /i5ar334 rm an unr/6r -li/ i/r  + /i5ar334 wr n3 in a/3 43ln (-li/ 7a 37m n lan) - n3 5uil3y  4-/ii/ /i5ar334 wr n3 in a/3 43l[email protected] 37rr 37r

Pa5 9"  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

wa4 n 4u843an3i6 n/ 5runin5 37 /n4-ira/y  3 r/i6 54 (w7i/7 7 nw4 r 8li64 3 8 43ln)@ -+$$,  intended  3 37n 7 in3n4 3 r/i6 43ln 54 (-r &l4n CD) ,* /ur34 (86iu4ly) 7a3 n3ra-mn3 •  idge#ay HCA 7l 6in/ 83ain 8y n3ra-mn3 in6l6in5 an  a/3 i4 inami44i8l illegal  a/3 •  NSW Parliamn3 6rrul4 idge#ay GN.1%! GC.12,!

!.3.2.4 !.3.2.4 scope of the the agreement  agreement  •

• • •

P mu43 in3iy 37 scope  a /n4-ira/y 8r 37 :i43n/  a /n4-ira/y /an 8 43a8li47. 37i4 in6l64 in3iyin5 w7 a5r [email protected] wi37 w7m an w7n. /7ar5 47ul 8 r n 8i5 /n4-ira/y r 46ral 4mall n4 37i4 ruir4 /arul analy4i4 8/au4  will 53  i 37 wrn5 n i4 /7ar5. (4 S3r3 CD u3 in Ceraiteys GC.12,9)

Ceraiteys (1,"@HCA) GC.12,! GN.1%* ')$ + mi/al in4uran/ rau +  wa4 a &P w7 /n4-ir 4al4man 3 rau in4uran/ /m-any +  /n4-ir wi37 , 37r4 3 rau C37 + /7ar5 wi37 a 5nral /n4-ira/y - a/ui33  37r wr ! irn3 /n4-ira/i4 '+*  /ann3 8 un 5uil3y  a /n4-ira/y irn3 rm 37 n /7ar5  >ees (1,,"@NSWCCA) GC.12, GN.1%* ')$ +  ? Huyn7 /7ar5 wi37 /n4-irin5 3 4u--ly -r7i8i3 ru54 + in a/3  7a a5r 3 8uy 7rin rm A7 S7 ? Huyn7 7a al4 a5r 3 8uy 7rin rm A7 S7. +$$ /an 37i4 8 in3r-r3 a4  /n4-ir wi37 A7 S7 (/n4-ira/y X1) an Huy7n /n4-ir wi37 A7 S7 (/n4-ira/y X2)$ - 1 /n4-ira/y (unr3una3ly r  37r wa4 a 3a- r/rin5   ? Huyn7 /n4-irin5)

6.3.3 6.3.3 controvers controversies ies surrounding surrounding conspiracy conspiracy GC.1%01+2% GN.1%9+

!.3.3.1 !.3.3.1 relevant relevant -unlawf -unlawful ul acts  acts  •



i3 i4 a n3 a )+/ n/ 3 /mmi3 a 3[email protected] 8u3 i3 i4 a /rim 3 )*,$7+ * )*//+ ' *.  GC.1%0% 5ra3 /mmn3 rm S3r3 CD a8u3 4/ular /riminal /ur34 9ahill  GC.1%0%

!.3.3.2 !.3.3.2 rationale rationale for the offence offence of conspirac conspiracyy •



/ur3K4 ru4al 3 /riminali4 /n4-ira/y 3 /mmi3 37 im-44i8l wul unrmin -li/ -ra3in4 in 37i4 ara. G.19% ar  --l in 5ru-4

!.3.3.3 !.3.3.3 politicall politicallyy motivated motivated prosecutions prosecutions •

Anana Mar5a

Pa5 9!  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

!.3.3.4 procedural and evidentiary advantages n /3rin  mr5r 4  /an 8 /7ar5 wi37 837 /n4-ira/y an /mmi44in  an n/ • mr 6in/ i4 ami44i8l n a /7ar5  /n4-ira/y 37an n 37 a/3ual n/ i34l@ .5. 7ar4ay. T7i4 8/m4 rally -r8lma3i/ w7n  i4 /7ar5 r 837 /n4-ira/y an /mmi44in  /7ar54 ar 7ar 8r 37 4am =ury. •  'hern (1,@HCA) GC.1%12 GN.1% 6in/ mu43 8 ra4na8l •  oar (1,[email protected]) GC.1%1 GN.1% /ri3i/al  /7ar5in5  837 /n4-ira/y an /mmi44in  4am n/  u8l =-ary im-li/a3in4 •

6.3.4 future of conspiracy GC.1%22+%

'." omplicity 11." GC.1%2%+9! GN.1"0+%  374 n34 a5 5@ u4 37m G.1!9+90  -r33y 5 3

6.4.1 introduction 6.4.2 oint criminal enterprise 6.4.3 accessorial liaility

!.4.3.1 conduct amounting to secondary participation !.4.3.2 mental element for accessorial liability !.4.3.3 implications of derivative liability/ innocent agency !.4.3.4 withdrawal  6.4.4 doctrine of common purpose

!.4.4.1 what must be foreseen? !.4.4.2 relationship between %oint criminal enterprise and common  purpose 6.4.5 accessory after the fact

Pa5 9*  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

Summary

wa4  a3 37 /rim 4/n$

#RINCI#AL

ACCESSOR

i  /mmi3 actus reus$ /un4llin5 r -r/urin5K 7+,)+7' +,  1$ -

i  7a6 a5rmn3 wi37 P1 3 /mmi3 this n/$ (*angye)

'))$$*= before  ')

 =in3 /riminal n3r-ri4 (Gsland )

aiin5 ? a833in5K

7+,)+7' +,  1$ -

7+,)+7' +,  2,- -

a44i43in5 P 3 4/a- /a-3ur

'))$$*= after   ')

NOTE r 4/nari4 (374 w7 ar ai[email protected] a8[email protected] /un4llin5 r -r/urin5K) 1. i P1 i4 inn/n3 (la/  mens [email protected] /7il@ in4an@ 3/)@ 37n P /an a--ly -*)+, * +,,*), ',)= 3 S (wi37 mens rea)> SP1 2. i P1 /mmi33 an in/in3al r ai3inal /rim@ 37n P /an a--ly -*)+, * )*//*, 77*$ i S r4 37a3 i3 wa4  possible 37a3 37

in/in3al /rim wul 8 /mmi33$ S P1

Pa5 99  9

Criminal Law 2 (LAWS1011)

7. +entencing  ,enality -.1 )ntrod&ction 12.1 GC.1%9*+ GN.1""

-.2 ;&stifications for P&nishment 12.2  GC.1%9,+1"01 GN.1""+

-.3 *e,elopments )nconsistent ith ;&st *eserts 12.3 GC.1"02+1" GN.1",+!2

-." ;&dicial $esistance 12." GC.1"1"+! GN.1!%

-.5 Penality 6 rime Pre,ention 12.5  GC.1"1*+22 GN.1!%+"

-.' ictim Participation 12.'  GC.1"22+%2 GN.1!"+*

-.- ;&dicial Approaches to entencing 12.-  GC.1"%2+! GN.1!

Summary

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