Criminal Law Revision Notes Elements of Criminal Law Reading J. Herring Criminal Law (Palgrave Law (Palgrave 8th edition) pp. 1-23. A. Ashworth, “s the !ri"inal #aw a #ost !a$se%& (2''') 11 LQR 22 LQR 22 *opi+s *opi+s
*he st$d o the +ri"inal law is the st$d o liailit. liailit.
t is not ao$t whether a person +an e +harged with a +ri"e, or what senten+e he "a a+e i +onvi+ted, $t rather it deals with whether a person is inno+ent or g$ilt o an o/en+e (i.e. whether or not he +an e +onvi+ted).
*hin0 ao$t the +ri"inal law in ter"s o what has to e proved in order to +onvi+t a person o a +ri"e, not ao$t how it +an e proved.
o$r o$r depth o $nderstanding o the +ri"inal law will also e enhan+ed i o$ are ale to identi how the law is reor"ed, Parlia"ent, the +o$rts, and as a res$lt o an $ropean in$en+e.
Introduction to Criminal Law Purpose of Criminal Law – •
Prote+t individ$als and propert ro" 4har"5
Preserve order in so+iet
P$nish those who deserve p$nish"ent ( deterren+e 6 7$sties senten+ing whi+h are harsher that wo$ld e deserved si"pl on the gravit o the o/en+e in order to prote+t so+iet and red$+e +ri"e deterring other ro" engaging in the sa"e a+tivities.) ( n+apa+itation 6 to re"ove people ro" so+iet where the pose a ris0 o re o/ending or danger) dange r) (Rehailitation to ret$rn people a+0 to so+iet in a reor"ed state o "ind 6 "odern da repla+ed with prison ed$+ation and training s+he"es and
treat"ent progra""es) ( Retri$tion Retri$tion 6 gravit o the +ri"e is proportional to the har" +a$sed)
Moral values? !an e arg$ed that is it not or +ri"inal to interere in the private lives o +iti9ens $nless it is ne+essar ne+ essar to tr to i"pose +ertain standards o ehavio$r. ehavio$r. *he :olenden +o""ittee (1;<) elt that intervention i ntervention in private lives sho$ld onl e 6
- to preserve p$li+ de+en+, - to prote+t the +iti9en ro" what is o/ensive or in7$rio$s - *o *o provide s$=+ient saeg$ards against e>ploitation e>ploitation and +orr$ption o others, parti+$larl those who are v$lnerale. #ord ?evlin in the nor+e"ent o "orals (1;) disagreed. He elt el t that there are a+ts 4so gross and o$trageo$s that the "$st e prevents at an +ost5. !ases +oni+ting the law in this area 6 :hen it +o"es to +ases dealing with this iss$e the +o$rts are not alwas +onsistent when approa+hing this thi s area o the law. law. n @rown 1;;3 *he 1;;3 *he H $pheld +onvi+tions or assa$lt +a$sing a+t$al odil har" and "ali+io$s wo$nding or a+ts done in private a gro$p o +onsenting ad$lt sado"aso+hists. :ilson 1;; *he 1;; *he !A B$ashed a +onvi+tion o assa$lt +a$sing a+t$al odil har" where a h$sand randed his initials into i nto his wie $tto+0s at her reB$est.
Denition of a crime A crime is conduct forbidden by the state and which punishment has been attached because the conduct is regarded by the state as being criminal
*his denition +overs all +ri"es in the CD. *he #aw in the CD however is li0el to +hange where there is a +hange when there is a +hange in val$es o the gov and so+iet. so+iet. .g. -
- *he +ri"inal law a"end"ent A+t 1;8 +ri"inalised +onsens$al ho"ose>$al a+ts etween ad$lts in private. - *he se>$al o/en+es A+t 1;< de+ri"inalised s$+h ehavio$r etween those aged 21 and over - *he +ri"inal 7$sti+e and p$li+ order a+t 1;;E de+ri"inalised s$+h ehavio$r or those aged 18 and over. over. - n 2''' gov $sed parlia"ent a+ts to red$+e the age o +onsent to 1 or ho"ose>$al. Judicial Law main! Fo"e +ond$+t is +ri"inalised not the state $t 7$dges e.g Fhaw v ?PP 1;2 6 where an o/en+e o +onspira+ to +orr$pt p$li+ "orals was +reated. *he +reation o the o/en+e was +onr"ed in Dn$ller (P$lishing, Printing and Pro"otions) Pro"otions) #td v ?PP 1;<3. Another e>a"ple is the o/en+e o o$traging p$li+ inde+en+ Gison 1;;1. Also "arital rape in R v R 1;;1
Classication of o"ences !lassi+ation where a +ase will e tried-
- ndi+tale onl o/en+es, whi+h "$st e tried on indi+t"ent at the +rown +o$rt(I$rder, rape Iansla$ghter) - *riale *riale either wa o/en+es whi+h +an e tried either on indi+t"ent at the !rown +o$rt or at "agistrates +o$rt ( *het, $rglar assa$lt o++asioning o++asioning a+t$al odil har") har") - F$""ar o/en+es whi+h +an onl e tried at the "agistrates +o$rt e.eg assa$lting a poli+e o=+er in the e>e+$tion o his d$t Cate!ories for police detention
Poli+e powers are +odied the Poli+e and !ri"inal eviden+e A+t 1;8E. Poli+e powers to detain a s$spe+t who had een arrested depends on +ategor o o/en+es-
- F$""ar o/en+es - Poli+e +an onl detain an arrested person or "a>. 2Ehrs - ndi+tale o/en+es 6 *he s$spe+t +an onl e detain or 2E ho$rs, $t this +an e e>tended to 3hrs an s$perintendent o=+er or aove. @$t poli+e +an appl to "agistrates to detain the s$spe+t or "a>. ; ho$rs i needed. - *erroris" *erroris" o/en+es 6 *he *he s$spe+t +an e detained or E8 hrs and this +an e e>tended to "a> 1E das i an appli+ation is "ade to the 7$dge. Classif#in! law $# its source #aw +o"es ro" vario$s so$r+es. *hese so$r+es are-
Ftat Ftat$t $tor or (de (dened ned an an a+t a+t o parl parlia ia"e "ent) nt)
Reg$la eg$lato tor r (Fet (Fet o$t o$t in deleg delegat ated ed legi legisl slat atio ion) n)
%#pe of &arm caused $# t&e crime *here are vario$s +ategories as to the har" that is +a$sed when an o/en+e is +o""itted. *he "ain +ategories +atego ries are-
K/en /en+es +es aga again ins st a pers person on
K/en /en+es +es agai agains nstt pro propert pert
K/en K/en+e +es s aga again inst st p$l p$li+ i+ orde orderr
Elements of a crime Lor all +ri"es, e>+ept +ri"es o stri+t liailit, there are two ele"ents that "$st e proved the prose+$tion.
*hese are -
A+t$s Re$s Iens Rea
*hese ter"s ter"s +o"e ro" ro" a #atin "a>i" a+t$s non a+it re$" re$" nisi "ens sit rea whi+h "eans the a+t itsel does not +onstit$te g$ilt $nless done with a g$ilt "ind. A+t$s re$s has a wider "eaning than an a+t as it +an +over o"issions or a state o a/airs. *he ter" a+t$s re$s has has een +riti+ised as "isleading. "isleading. #ord ?iplo+0 in Iiller (1;83) preerred preerred the ter" 4prohiited +ond$+t5. *he #aw !o""ission in the ?rat !ri"inal !ode (1;8;) $sed the ter" 4e>ternal ele"ent5 Iens rea translates as 4g$ilt "ind5 $t this is also "isleading. *he levels o 4g$ilt "ind5 var. *he #aw !o""ission in the ?rat !ri"inal !ode (1;8;) $sed the ter" 4a$lt ele"ent5. *he a+t$s re$s re$s and "ens rea rea will e di/erent or di/erent +ri"es. +ri"es. *he a+t$s re$s re$s and the "ens rea rea "$st e present present together, $t i there there is an ongoing a+t, then the e>isten+e o the ne+essar "ens rea at an point d$ring that a+t is s$=+ient ( Lagan v Ietropolitan Poli+e !o""issioner (1;;) ). *his also applies where there is a seB$en+e o events or a+ts (*hao Ieli (1;E) , #e @r$n (1;;1)). ven where the a+t$s re$s and "ens rea are present, the deendant "a e not g$ilt i he has a deen+e.
'urden of Proof *he $rden is on on the prose+$tion prose+$tion to prove the +ase. +ase. *his "eans that that the "$st prove oth the reB$ired a+t$s re$s and the reB$ired "ens rea (:ool"ington v ?PP (1;3)). An a++$sed person is pres$"ed inno+ent $ntil proven g$ilt. *he standard standard o proo is 4eond 4eond reasonale reasonale do$t5. the deendant raises a deen+e then it is or the prose+$tion prose+$tion to negate that deen+e. n :ool"ington the deendant stated that the g$n had gone o/ a++identall, th$s raising the deen+e o a++ident. *he prose+$tion were oliged to disprove this i the deendant was to e o$nd g$ilt. Lor +ertain deen+es the $rden o proo is on the deendant. Lor e>a"ple, or the deen+e o insanit the deendant has to prove he was insane at the ti"e o the o/en+e. Pla+ing the $rden o proo on the deen+e "a rea+h Art (2) o the $ropean !onvention on H$"an Rights
Criminal law and &uman ri!&ts *he H$"an Rights Rights A+t 1;;8 in+orporated in+orporated the $ropean $ropean !onvention on H$"an Rights into o$r law. All Arti+les have to e +onsidered in nglish law. n +ri"inal law the "ost relevant rights $nder the +onvention are -
*he *he rig right ht to a ai airr tri trial al (A (Art rt (1) (1))) *he *he pres pres$" $"pt ptio ion n o inn inno+ o+en en+e +e (Ar (Artt (2) (2))) Mo p$n p$nis ish" h"en entt with witho$ o$tt law law (Art (Art <(1 <(1)) ))..
Kther !onvention rights relevant to +ri"inal law in+l$de -
*he righ rightt not to to e s$7e s$7e+te +ted d to inh$"a inh$"an n or degr degradin ading g treat treat"e "ent nt
(Art 3(1)) *he right right o o resp respe+t e+t or or a pers person5 on5s s priva private te lie lie (Ar (Artt 8) *hat, *hat, in the appli+ation appli+ation o the the !onvent !onvention ion rights rights and reedo" reedo"s, s, ther there e sho$ld e no dis+ri"ination on the gro$nds o se>, ra+e, +olo$r, religion or politi+al opinion (Art 1E).
%&e ri!&t to a fair trial *his right is +ontained in Arti+le Arti+le (1). n G (2'') it was held that that the a+t that the o/en+e was one o stri+t liailit did not render the trial $nair. $nair. 'urden of proof Arti+le (2) states that 4verone +harged with a +ri"inal o/en+e shall e pres$"ed pres$"ed inno+ent $ntil proven g$ilt5. *his pla+es the $rden o proo on the prose+$tion. ?een+es whi+h pla+e the $rden o proving the deen+e in the deendant "a e in rea+h o this Arti+le. However, the +o$rts have held that in so"e stat$tes the reverse $rden $rden o proo "a e interpreted as evidential onl (A-G Reeren+e (Mo E o 2''2) (2''E)). n addition, the Ho$se o #ords has held that a $ll reverse $rden $rden o proo "a e a++eptale i it is not $nair or disproportionate. (Fheldra0e (Fheldra0e v ?PP (2'')).
Mo p$nish"ent witho$t law 1. Arti+le <(1) states that 4Mo one shall e held g$ilt o an +ri"inal o/en+e on a++o$nt o an a+t or o"ission whi+h did not +onstit$te a +ri"inal o/en+e $nder national law or international law at the ti"e it was +o""itted5.
2. the o/en+e is one whi+h +onor"s to the $nda"ental o7e+tives o the !onvention, then it will not e in rea+h o this Arti+le !R ! R v CD (1;;) where the +onvi+tion o a h$sand or the rape o his wie was approved the $ropean !o$rt o H$"an Rights. 3. n other +ases there have een +hallenges $nder Art < on the asis that the o/en+e is too $n+ertain or la+0s +larit, e.g gross negligen+e "ansla$ghter (R v Iisra R v Frivastava (2''E)) (see ;.E.2) and p$li+ n$isan+e (Goldstein (2'')). *o *o date no +hallenge on the asis o la+0 o +larit has een s$++ess$l. s$++ess$l. 1..E Kther h$"an rights 1. *here have een +hallenges to the +ri"inal law on the asis o other rights in the !onvention. 2. n Altha" (2'') the deendant +lai"ed that the re$sal to allow hi" the deen+e o ne+essit in respe+t o his $se o +annais or e>tre"e phsi+al pain was a rea+h o Art 3 whi+h provides that no one shall e s$7e+ted to 4inh$"an or degrading treat"ent5. *his +hallenge ailed. 3. Fi"ilarl, in N$ale (2'') the deendant arg$ed that the re$sal to allow hi" the deen+e o ne+essit in respe+t o his $se o +annais or e>tre"e phsi+al pain was a rea+h o Art 8. *his Arti+le gives a right to respe+t or a person5s private lie. *his +hallenge also ailed. E. n G (2''8) a "inorit o the #aw #ords held that prose+$ting ?, aged 1, $nder s o the Fe>$al K/en+es A+t 2''3 (rape o a +hild) was disproportionate and a rea+h o Art 8 when the se>$al inter+o$rse was +onsens$al and ? +o$ld have een +harged $nder s13 o the A+t. . n ?ehal (2'') it i t was held that ?5s right to reedo" o e>pression (Art 1') had een inringed when he was prose+$ted $nder sE o the P$li+ Krder A+t 1;8 or pla+ing a noti+e in a te"ple stating that the prea+her was a hpo+rite.
A+t$s Re$s J. Herring Criminal Law (Palgrave (Palgrave 2'13) pp. 3;-8E. R v Woollin O1;;; A! 82 3 :#R 382 O1;;8 E All R 1'3 H# R v G (and Another) O2''; 1 A! ;2 O2''8 !ri" #R 818 O2''8 CDH# 3< A. Ashworth “*he F+ope o !ri"inal #iailit or K"issions& (1;8;) 1' #NR E2E J. Herring Criminal Law !e"t# Cases and $aterials (K>ord, 2'1E) pp. ;1E, 12-1;.