of 63

Document

Published on January 2017 | Categories: Documents | Downloads: 6 | Comments: 0
128 views

Comments

Content


Printer Fabulous!
Printer Fabulous!
The Phrase
Recognize a phrase when you see one.
A phrase is two or more words that do not contain the subject-verb pair
necessary to orm a clause. Phrases can be very short or !uite long. "ere are
two e#amples$
Ater lunch
Ater slithering down the stairs and across the road to scare nearly to death
%rs. Philpot busy pruning her rose bushes
&ertain phrases have speci'c names based on the type o word that begins or
governs the word group$ noun phrase( verb phrase( prepositional phrase(
in'nitive phrase( participle phrase( gerund phrase( and absolute phrase.
)oun Phrases
A noun phrase includes a noun*a person( place( or thing*and the modi'ers
*either beore or ater*which distinguish it. The pattern loo+s li+e this$
optional modi'er,s- . noun . optional modi'er,s-
"ere are some e#amples$
The shoplited pair o jeans
Pair / noun0 the( shoplited( o jeans / modi'ers.
A cat that reused to meow
&at / noun0 a( that reused to meow / modi'ers.
A great 1nglish teacher
Teacher / noun0 a( great( 1nglish / modi'ers.
)oun phrases unction as subjects( objects( and complements$
The shoplited pair o jeans caused )athaniel so much guilt that he couldn2t
wear them.
The shoplited pair o jeans / subject.
3erome adopted a cat that reused to meow.
A cat that reused to meow / direct object.
4ith her love o 5ha+espeare and +nowledge o grammar( 3asmine will
someday be a great 1nglish teacher.
A great 1nglish teacher / subject complement.
6erb Phrases
5ometimes a sentence can communicate its meaning with a one-word verb.
7ther times( however( a sentence will use a verb phrase( a multi-word verb(
to e#press more nuanced action or condition. A verb phrase can have up to
our parts. The pattern loo+s li+e this$
au#iliary verb,s- . main verb . verb ending when necessary
"ere are some e#amples$
"ad cleaned
"ad / au#iliary verb0 clean / main verb0 ed / verb ending.
5hould have been writing
5hould( have( been / au#iliary verbs0 write / main verb0 ing / verb ending.
%ust wash
%ust / au#iliary verb0 wash / main verb.
"ere are the verb phrases in action$
%om had just cleaned the rerigerator shelves when 8awrence +noc+ed over
the pitcher o orange juice.
5arah should have been writing her research essay( but she couldn2t resist
another short chapter in her 5tephen 9ing novel.
: guests are coming or dinner( we must wash our smelly dog!
Prepositional Phrases
At the minimum( a prepositional phrase will begin with a preposition and end
with a noun( pronoun( gerund( or clause( the ;object; o the preposition.
The object o the preposition will oten have one or more modi'ers to
describe it. These are the patterns or a prepositional phrase$
preposition . noun( pronoun( gerund( or clause
preposition . modi'er,s- . noun( pronoun( gerund( or clause
"ere are some e#amples$
7n time
7n / preposition0 time / noun.
<nderneath the sagging yellow couch
<nderneath / preposition0 the( sagging( yellow / modi'ers0 couch / noun.
From eating too much
From / preposition0 eating / gerund0 too( much / modi'ers.
A prepositional phrase will unction as an adjective or adverb. As an
adjective( the prepositional phrase will answer the !uestion 4hich one=
Read these e#amples$
The spider above the +itchen sin+ has just caught a at >y.
4hich spider= The one above the +itchen sin+!
The librarian at the chec+-out des+ smiles whenever she collects a late ee.
4hich librarian= The one at the chec+-out des+!
The vegetables on )oel2s plate lay untouched the entire meal.
4hich vegetables= The ones on )oel2s plate!
As an adverb( a prepositional phrase will answer !uestions such as "ow=
4hen= or 4here=
4hile sitting in the caeteria( 3ac+ catapulted peas with a spoon.
"ow did 3ac+ launch those peas= 4ith a spoon!
Ater brea+ast( we piled the dirty dishes in the sin+.
4hen did we ignore the dirty dishes= Ater brea+ast!
Amber 'nally ound the umbrella wedged under the passenger2s ront seat.
4here did Amber locate the umbrella= <nder the passenger2s ront seat!
:n'nitive Phrases
An in'nitive phrase will begin with an in'nitive ?to . simple orm o the [email protected]
:t will oten include objects andAor modi'ers that complete the thought. The
pattern loo+s li+e this$
in'nitive . object,s- andAor modi'er,s-
"ere are some e#amples$
To slurp spaghetti
To send the document beore the deadline
To gulp the glass o water with such thirst that streams o li!uid ran down his
chin and wet the ront o his already sweat-soa+ed shirt
:n'nitive phrases can unction as nouns( adjectives( or adverbs. 8oo+ at these
e#amples$
To avoid another lecture rom %ichelle on the bene'ts o vegetarianism was
Aaron2s hope or their date at a nice restaurant.
To avoid another lecture rom %ichelle on the bene'ts o vegetarianism
unctions as a noun because it is the subject o the sentence.
&heryl plans to ta+e microbiology ne#t semester when Proessor &rum( a
pushover( is teaching the course.
To ta+e microbiology ne#t semester unctions as a noun because it is the
direct object or the verb plans.
The worst thing to happen during the severe thunderstorm was a lightning
stri+e that ried &lara2s computer.
To happen during the severe thunderstorm unctions as an adjective because
it modi'es thing.
Ryan decided to mow the long grass on the ront lawn to +eep his neighbors
rom complaining to the homeowners association.
To +eep his neighbors rom complaining to the homeowners association
unctions as an adverb because it e#plains why Ryan mowed the lawn.
Participle Phrases
A participle phrase will begin with a present or past participle. : the participle
is present( it will dependably end in ing. 8i+ewise( a regular past participle will
end in a consistent ed. :rregular past participles( unortunately( conclude in
all +inds o ways ?although this list will [email protected]
5ince all phrases re!uire two or more words( a participle phrase will oten
include objects andAor modi'ers that complete the thought. The pattern loo+s
li+e this$
participle . object,s- andAor modi'er,s-
"ere are some e#amples$
Fle#ing his muscles in ront o the bathroom mirror
Ripped rom a spiral-ring noteboo+
Briven crazy by Crandma2s endless !uestions
Participle phrases always unction as adjectives( adding description to the
sentence. Read these e#amples$
The stoc+ cler+ lining up cartons o orange juice made sure the e#piration
date aced the bac+ o the cooler.
8ining up cartons o orange juice modi'es the noun cler+.
1lijah li+es his eggs smothered in cheese sauce.
5mothered in cheese sauce modi'es the noun eggs.
5hrun+ in the dryer( the jeans hung above 3ohn2s an+les.
5hrun+ in the dryer modi'es the noun jeans.
Cerund Phrases
A gerund phrase will begin with a gerund( an ing word( and will oten include
other modi'ers andAor objects. The pattern loo+s li+e this$
gerund . object,s- andAor modi'er,s-
Cerund phrases loo+ e#actly li+e present participle phrases. "ow do you tell
the diDerence= Eou must determine the unction o the phrase.
Cerund phrases always unction as nouns( so they will be subjects( subject
complements( or objects in the sentence. Read these e#amples$
4ashing our dog Cizmo re!uires strong arms to +eep the s!uirming( unhappy
puppy in the tub.
4ashing our dog Cizmo / subject o the verb re!uires.
A good strategy or avoiding dirty dishes is eating every meal oD o paper
towels.
1ating every meal oD o paper towels / subject complement o the verb is.
5usie tried holding the slippery trout( but the 'sh >ipped out o her hands and
splashed bac+ into the stream.
"olding the slippery trout / direct object o the verb tried.
Absolute Phrases
An absolute phrase combines a noun and a participle with any accompanying
modi'ers or objects. The pattern loo+s li+e this$
noun . participle . optional modi'er,s- andAor object,s-
"ere are some e#amples$
"is brow +nitted in rustration
Frow / noun0 +nitted / participle0 his( in rustration / modi'ers.
"er 'ngers >ying over the piano +eys
Fingers / noun0 >ying / participle0 her( over the piano +eys / modi'ers.
7ur eyes ollowing the arc o the ball
1yes / noun0 ollowing / participle0 arc / direct object0 our( the( o the ball /
modi'ers.
Rather than modiying a speci'c word( an absolute phrase will describe the
whole clause$
"is brow +nitted in rustration( Thomas tried again to iron a perect crease in
his dress pants.
Francine played the diGcult concerto( her 'ngers >ying over the piano +eys.
4e watched 8eo launch a pass to his ullbac+( our eyes ollowing the arc o
the ball.
Printer Fabulous!
Printer Fabulous!
"ome H Terms H 1#ercises H "andouts H Rules H 5hop H Feedbac+
IJKKL - MNJO by Robin 8. 5immonsP
All Rights Reserved.
valid html
Printer Fabulous!
Printer Fabulous!
The Sentence Fragment
Recognize a fragment when you see one.
A fragment occurs whenever you do these three things:
ou begin a grou! of words with a ca!ital letter.
ou conclude this grou! of words with an end mar"#either a !eriod $
. %& 'uestion mar" $ ( %& or e)clamation !oint $ ! %.
ou neglect to insert a main clause somewhere between the ca!ital
letter at the beginning and the end mar" concluding the word grou!.
*very sentence must have at least one main clause. A main clause
contains an inde!endent sub+ect and verb and e)!resses a com!lete
thought. ,nce you have a main clause& you can then add other
grammatical elements& but you must have the main clause as the
base of the sentence.
Read the main clause below& then the additions to it:
-ictor sneezed re!eatedly.
.uring the stressful chemistry test& -ictor sneezed re!eatedly.
/ecause 0ulissa wore too much !erfume& -ictor sneezed re!eatedly
during the stressful chemistry test.
-ictor sneezed re!eatedly& each time as"ing 0anice for a new tissue
to blow his nose.
To deal with the stress building u! in his head& -ictor sneezed
re!eatedly as he slogged through the di1cult chemistry test.
Slogging through the stressful chemistry test& -ictor sneezed
re!eatedly while 0ohn chewed his !encil and 0ulissa rubbed her luc"y
rabbit2s foot.
3ithout the main clause -ictor sneezed re!eatedly& all of the
sentences above would be fragments.
4now the most common ty!es of fragments and how to 5) them.
Fragments result if you !unctuate certain word grou!s as if they are
com!lete sentences. The most common of these word grou!s are the
following: subordinate clauses& !artici!le !hrases& in5nitive !hrases&
afterthoughts& verb !hrases& and a!!ositives.
ou have a number of di6erent o!tions when 5)ing a fragment.
Fre'uently& you can attach the fragment either to the front or to the
end of a nearby main clause. Another o!tion is to add whatever
words will give the fragment its own mandatory main clause.
/elow you will 5nd e)am!les of di6erent fragments and the
revisions that they re'uire to become com!lete sentences.
Subordinate 7lause Fragments
A subordinate clause contains a subordinate con+unction& a sub+ect&
and a verb. /ecause this ty!e of clause does not e)!ress a com!lete
thought& it cannot stand alone as a com!lete sentence. Read this
e)am!le:
Flooring the accelerator& 0uan wove through the heavy tra1c. As his
e)8girlfriend 9igi chased him down the interstate.
These are !ossible revisions:
Flooring the accelerator& 0uan weaved through the heavy tra1c as
his e)8girlfriend 9igi chased him down the interstate.
As his e)8girlfriend 9igi chased him down the interstate& 0uan :oored
the accelerator& weaving through the heavy tra1c.
Flooring the accelerator& 0uan weaved through the heavy tra1c. ;n
hot !ursuit was his e)8girlfriend 9igi& who was chasing him down the
interstate.
Partici!le Phrase Fragments
A !artici!le !hrase usually begins with an ing or ed word. ;n the case
of irregular verbs& an irregular !ast !artici!le& li"e burnt or s!o"en&
will begin the !hrase. <ere is a !artici!le !hrase !retending to be a
com!lete sentence:
Aunt ,livia always wears a motorcycle helmet. 3orrying that a
meteor or chun" of s!ace debris will con" her on the head.
These are !ossible revisions:
3orrying that a meteor or chun" of s!ace debris will con" her on the
head& Aunt ,livia always wears a motorcycle helmet.
/ecause she worries that a meteor or chun" of s!ace debris will con"
her on the head& Aunt ,livia always wears a motorcycle helmet.
Aunt ,livia always wears a motorcycle helmet. She worries that a
meteor or chun" of s!ace debris will con" her on the head.
;n5nitive Phrase Fragments
An in5nitive !hrase will begin with an in5nitive $to = base verb%.
7hec" out the in5nitive !hrase below mas'uerading as a com!lete
sentence:
0iggling his foot nervously& Ronald sat in the !rovost2s o1ce. To
e)!lain why he had brought S'ueeze& his seven8foot !et !ython& to
>r. Par"er2s *nglish class.
These are !ossible revisions:
0iggling his foot nervously& Ronald sat in the !rovost2s o1ce to
e)!lain why he had brought S'ueeze& his seven8foot !et !ython& to
>r. Par"er2s *nglish class.
To e)!lain why he had brought S'ueeze& his seven8foot !et !ython&
to >r. Par"er2s *nglish class& Ronald sat in the !rovost2s o1ce&
+iggling his foot nervously.
0iggling his foot nervously& Ronald sat in the !rovost2s o1ce. <e
needed to e)!lain why he had brought S'ueeze& his seven8foot !et
!ython& to >r. Par"er2s *nglish class.
Afterthought Fragments
Afterthought fragments begin with these transitions: es!ecially& for
e)am!le& for instance& li"e& such as& including& and e)ce!t. These
transitions fre'uently introduce good details that the writer is
!roviding as an afterthought for !revious information. Read the
afterthought fragment that follows:
0acob has several ways to annoy his instructors. Such as rolling his
eyes& smir"ing& reading su!ermar"et tabloids during lecture& folding
handouts into !a!er air!lanes& and drawing caricatures on his des".
These are !ossible revisions:
0acob has several ways to annoy his instructors& such as rolling his
eyes& smir"ing& reading su!ermar"et tabloids during lecture& folding
handouts into !a!er air!lanes& and drawing caricatures on his des".
Rolling his eyes& smir"ing& reading su!ermar"et tabloids during
lecture& folding handouts into !a!er air!lanes& and drawing
caricatures on his des" are the many ways 0acob annoys his
instructors.
0acob has several ways to annoy his instructors. For e)am!le& he
rolls his eyes& smir"s& reads su!ermar"et tabloids during lecture&
folds handouts into !a!er air!lanes& and draws caricatures on his
des".
?onely -erb Fragments
?onely verb fragments occur when you have a verb !hrase without a
sub+ect. Ty!ically& the sub+ect is understood& but because it does not
occur within the word grou!& the necessary main clause is missing.
Ta"e a loo" at this e)am!le:
After dinner& >i"e and Pat leave their dirty dishes on the bac" !atio.
And let the raccoons& o!ossums& and armadillos that visit the yard
eat the leftovers.
These are !ossible revisions:
After dinner& >i"e and Pat leave their dirty dishes on the bac" !atio
and let the raccoons& o!ossums& and armadillos that visit the yard
eat the leftovers.
After dinner& >i"e and Pat leave their dirty dishes on the bac" !atio
so that the raccoons& o!ossums& and armadillos that visit the yard
can eat the leftovers.
After dinner& >i"e and Pat leave their dirty dishes on the bac" !atio.
They en+oy letting the raccoons& o!ossums& and armadillos that visit
the yard eat the leftovers.
A!!ositive Fragments
An a!!ositive is a word or grou! of words that renames a noun right
beside it. /ecause an a!!ositive does not contain a main clause& it
cannot stand alone as a com!lete sentence. ?oo" at the e)am!le
below:
3hen .ustin !ulled into the driveway& Alicia admired his :ashy new
car. A red convertible with fancy rims and fuzzy dice hanging from
the rearview mirror.
These are !ossible revisions:
3hen .ustin !ulled into the driveway& Alicia admired his :ashy new
car& a red convertible with fancy rims and fuzzy dice hanging from
the rearview mirror.
Alicia admired .ustin2s :ashy new car& a red convertible >ustang
with fancy rims and fuzzy dice hanging from the rearview mirror&
when it !ulled into the driveway.
3hen .ustin !ulled into the driveway& Alicia admired his :ashy new
car. .ustin recently bought a red convertible with fancy rims and
fuzzy dice hanging from the rearview mirror.
@nderstand the conce!t of an intentional fragment.
,ccasionally& writers will include an intentional fragment to
em!hasize a !oint. Read the e)am!le below:
/ecause the mil" carton was em!ty& Paul !oured orange +uice on his
bowl of cereal. 3hat a dor"!
;ntentional fragments are not grammar errors. They can& however&
get you into trouble if you are a beginning writer. our teachers
might thin" that any fragment in your com!osition is evidence that
you do not understand the conce!t of a com!lete sentence. /efore
you include an intentional fragment in a !iece of writing& you should
as" your teachers if they will mind.
@se this strategy to !roofread for fragments:
;f you notice that your teachers are constantly mar"ing fragments in
your com!ositions& you should try this e6ective !roofreading tric" to
get the !roblem under control: Read your com!osition bac"wards.
Rather than starting with the 5rst sentence and reading through the
!iece in a normal fashion& begin with the last sentence and wor"
your way bac" to the to!. This way& the sentences won2t :ow
together. ou will instead see each sentence as an individual unit. A
word grou! that does not e)!ress a com!lete thought will stand out
so that you can catch it and 5) the !roblem.
?oo" at this short !aragra!h which contains an afterthought
fragment embedded in it:
.avid will eat anything on a dare. 3e have watched him consume
many nauseating things. For e)am!le& broccoli di!!ed in chocolate
sauce& a raw 5sh head with the eyes intact& and a handful of live
earthworms. Sharon has to close her eyes& and ;2ve had to 5ght the
urge to gag.
;f you read the !aragra!h bac"wards& starting with the last sentence
5rst& the fragment announces itself:
Sharon has to close her eyes& and ;2ve had to 5ght the urge to gag.
For e)am!le& broccoli di!!ed in chocolate sauce& a raw 5sh head
with the eyes intact& and a handful of live earthworms. 3e have
watched him consume many nauseating things. .avid will eat
anything on a dare.
;f you try this !roofreading strategy& do not use it e)clusively. To 5nd
other !roblems& you will still need to read your com!osition in the
normal way as well.
Printer Fabulous!
Printer Fabulous!
<ome A Terms A *)ercises A <andouts A Rules A Sho! A Feedbac"
BCDDE 8 FGCH by Robin ?. SimmonsI
All Rights Reserved.
valid html
$7ontents% $;nde)% $/ac"% $9lossary% $*S?% $JJ% $KK%
Sentence Fragments: Phrases
;dentifying a Phrase Fragment
A !hrase is a grou! of words lac"ing a sub+ect or a verb or both. A
!hrase cannot be !unctuated as a sentence. 3hen you edit a draft
of your writing& chec" every word grou! !unctuated as a sentence
that begins with an in5nitive !hrase Lto = base form of verbM& a verb
L!articularly a verb form ending in 8ing or 8edM& or a !re!ositional
!hrase Lbeginning with a word such as in& on& or atM. >a"e sure that
the !hrase is attached to an inde!endent clause. >a"e sure& too&
that a noun !hrase& such as an a!!ositive !hrase& is !art of a
com!lete sentence.
>ethods of 7orrecting
C. Attach the !hrase to a nearby inde!endent clause.
This e)am!le corrects an in5nitive !hrase fragment.
Faulty <e wanted to ma"e a !oint. To !rove to everyone
that he was ca!able.
Revised <e wanted to ma"e a !oint to !rove to everyone
that he was ca!able.
$Sim!ly remove the !eriod and ca!ital letter.%
This e)am!le corrects a !ast8!artici!le !hrase fragment.
Faulty Ral!h tal"ed for hours. *lated by the com!any2s
success.
Revised Ral!h tal"ed for hours& elated by the com!any2s
success.
[email protected] a comma before a !ast !artici!le form and remove the ca!ital
letter.%

F. 7hange the !hrase to an inde!endent clause.
This e)am!le corrects an 8ing !artici!le !hrase.
Faulty Althea wor"s every evening. 0ust trying to "ee! u!
with her boss2s demands.
Revised Althea wor"s every evening. She is +ust trying to
"ee! u! with her boss2s demands.
$Add a sub+ect and verb.%

N. Rewrite the whole !assage.
This e)am!le corrects a !ast !artici!le !hrase.
Faulty Ral!h tal"ed for hours. *lated by the com!any2s
success.
Revised Ral!h was so elated by the com!any2s success that
he tal"ed for hours.
$>a"e the fragment into a clause and connect it to another clause
with a subordinating word Lin this case& one showing a resultM.%

$seealso.bm!%
See also
Phrases
.e!endent 7lauses
>issing -erbs
>issing Sub+ects
7om!ound Predicates
;ntentional @ses
Sentence Fragments And 7om!lete Sentences3riter2s 3eb
L!rintable version hereM
Than"s go to 0ulie for the correction about con+unctions!
Fragments& or incom!lete sentences& occur 'uite fre'uently when we
s!ea"& so it2s no wonder sentence fragments are often found in
formal writing. 7onsider this e)am!le:
O<ey& Sam& do you want to get some lunch(O
O; can2t. Too much homewor" to 5nish before class.O
Sam2s res!onse demonstrates the way we use fragmentation in
s!eech. Though the remar" includes the verb O5nishO and several
nouns& the sentence is a fragment. ;t lac"s a sub+ect and verb to
de5ne the sentence. A corrected res!onse would include a sub+ect
and verb:
O; can2t. ; have too much homewor" to 5nish before class.O
?earning how we use fragments in our s!eech will hel! us avoid
sentence fragments in our writing.
Fragments in 3riting
Sometimes fragments occur during the editing !rocess& in trying to
brea" u! a longer sentence. 7onsider the following:
O;n class today we tal"ed about /yron2s !oem .on 0uan and its main
characters. Also /yron2s own life and how it related to his wor"s.O
Again& the second !hrase includes several nouns and a verb& but it
cannot stand alone. The sub+ect of the 5rst sentence is OweO and the
verb Otal"ed.O Since the clause is de!endant La clause that ma"es no
sense e)ce!t when attached to a sentenceM it should not form a
sentence.
7orrecting a Fragment
There are two easy ways to correct a fragment. 3e2ll use the
e)am!le above to demonstrate each method:
CM Add a comma and connect the clause to the sentence
O;n class today we tal"ed about /yron2s !oem and its main
characters& as well as /yron2s own life and how it related to his
wor"s.O
FM ;f the sentence becomes too long or wordy& add the necessary
sub+ect8verb to the clause& creating a second sentence.
O;n class today we tal"ed about /yron2s !oem and its main
characters. 3e also discussed /yron2s own life and how it related to
his wor"s.O
<ow to S!ot a Fragment
Put each !hrase through a sim!le test:
.oes it have a verb(
.oes it have a sub+ect(
7an the !hrase ma"e sense standing alone Lis it a de!endent clause
or !hraseM(
Any !hrase that answers OyesO to all three 'uestions is a sentence. ;f
any of the answers are Ono&O then it is a fragment.
,ther hints:
Fragments often start with words li"e these. Some are !re!ositions&
others are con+unctions& but both are words that normally +oin other
words:
after& although& and& because& before& but& if& though& unless& until&
when& where& who& which& and that.
3hen you see such a word at the beginning of a sentence& chec" for
a !ro!er sub+ect and verb. ;f you can2t 5nd one& the sentence is a
fragment.
e). O3e are going to !lay tennis outside today. @nless it rains.O
Remember& even !hrases which may have a noun and verb can be
fragments if they could not stand alone. [email protected] it rainsO ma"es no
sense by itself& so it should be attached to a sentence:
O3e are going to !lay tennis outside today& unless it rains.O or
[email protected] it rains& we will !lay tennis today.O

Sentence Fragments

A sentence fragment occurs when a grou! of words is !unctuated as
a sentence but lac"s a sub+ect& a verb& or both.
*)am!les:
The boys on the side of the road.
Ran u! the street and bac" down the sidewal".
Although the moon is full.

Sometimes we write fragments because we accidentally !ut a !eriod
in the middle of a single thought:

*)am!les:
The boys on the side of the road got in trouble.
For !laying in tra1c.

,ther times& sentence fragments fool us because they a!!ear to
have the com!onents of a sentence but
lac" the !ro!er form of a verb.

*)am!les:
The men going to the movies.
The dog to bar" loud.
or include a subordinating con+unction.

*)am!le:
Since ;2m going without you
7orrections:
The boys are going to the movies.
The dog bar"ed out loud.
Since ;2m going without you& ;2ll buy you a souvenir.

;dentifying Fragments:
Fortunately& sentence fragments are easy to correct once you
identify them. @se these three ste!s to identify fragments:

Find the verb.
Find the sub+ect.
>a"e sure the clause is not subordinate.

To determine whether a clause is subordinate& and therefore unable
to stand on its own& loo" 5rst for a subordinating con+unction or a
relative !ronoun.

Subordinating con+unctions:
after& although& as& because& if& once& since& than& that& unless& until&
when& where& whereas& while

Relative !ronouns:
that& which& who& whoever.

These words almost always signal subordinate clauses& which do not
e)!ress com!lete& inde!endent thoughts and must be attached to
main clauses.

Some words may introduce either subordinate clauses or com!lete
'uestions:
how& what& when& where& which& who& whom& whose& why.

A word grou! beginning with one of these words is a fragment
unless LCM it is attached to a com!lete main clause& or LFM it as"s a
'uestion.

7orrecting Fragments
7orrecting Subordinate 7lauses
Subordinate clauses contain both sub+ects and verbs& but they
always begin with a subordinating con+unction or a relative !ronoun.
To correct a subordinate clause set o6 as a sentence& combine it with
the main clause or remove or change the subordinating word to
create a main clause.
7orrecting Fragments 7onsisting of -erbal or Pre!ositional Phrases
A verbal !hrase or a !re!ositional !hrase is not a com!lete
sentence. A verbal !hrase consists of an in5nitive Lto chooseM& a !ast
!artici!le LchosenM& or a !resent !artici!le and a gerund LchoosingM&
together with any ob+ects or modi5ers it may have. Fragments
consisting of verbal !hrases are most easily corrected by combining
them with the main clauses they are related to. -erbal !hrases can
be converted into main clauses only by rewriting.
A !re!ositional !hrase Lin her strengthM consists of a !re!osition
Lsuch as in& on& to and withM together with its ob+ect and modi5er. A
!re!ositional !hrase cannot stand alone as a com!lete sentence. ;t
may be combined with a main clause or rewritten as a main clause.
Fragment: Falling gave her con5dence. ;n her strength.
Revised by combining: Falling gave her con5dence in her strength.
Revised by rewriting: Falling gave her con5dence. She learned to
trust her strength.
7orrecting Fragments ?ac"ing a Sub+ect or -erb
Any word grou! lac"ing a sub+ect or a verb or both is not a com!lete
sentence. 3e often follow a noun with a !hrase or subordinate
clause that modi5es the noun. Po matter how long the noun and its
modi5er are& they cannot stand alone as a sentence.
Fragment:-eterans who fought in -ietnam. They are 5nally being
honored.
Revised: -eterans who fought in -ietnam are 5nally being honored.
*)ercises
;. 7orrect any sentence fragment below either by combining it with a
main clause or by rewriting it as a main clause.
<uman beings who !erfume themselves. They are not much
di6erent from other animals. Animals as varied as insects and dogs
release !heromones. 7hemicals that signal other animals. The
chemicals sometimes re!el other animals. /ut more often they
!erform a se)ual function by attracting a member of the o!!osite
se). <uman beings have a diminished sense of smell. And do not
consciously detect most of their own s!ecies2 !heromones. The
human substitute for !heromones may be !erfumes. *s!ecially mus"
and other fragrances derived from animal oils.
;;. Revise the following !aragra!h to eliminate sentence fragments
by combining them with main clauses or rewriting them as main
clauses.
<iring Steele as the manager of the baseball team was a stu!id
move. ,r a very clever maneuver. .e!ending on whether one is
thin"ing li"e a fan or li"e the team2s owner. Fans claim it was stu!id.
/ecause Steele is hard to get along with and unfair. They say he is
also a !oor manager. Failing to ma"e the best use of the team2s
talents. And creating friction among the !layers. /ut the team2s
owner may have had a good reason for hiring such manager. Some
!eo!le thin" the owner hired Steele only tem!orarily. ;n order to
ma"e the team less attractive to unfriendly buyers. 3ho have been
threatening a hostile ta"eover of the team. <iring Steele could have
been intended to !revent the ta"eover. And in the long run save the
team. Pot ruin it.

<andouts ; <,>*
Printer Fabulous!
Printer Fabulous!
The 7om!lete Sentence
Recognize a com!lete sentence when you see one.
A com!lete sentence has three characteristics:
First& it begins with a ca!ital letter.
;n addition& it includes an end mar"#either a !eriod $ . %& 'uestion
mar" $ ( %& or e)clamation !oint $ ! %.
>ost im!ortantly& the com!lete sentence must contain at least one
main clause. A main clause contains an inde!endent sub+ect and
verb and e)!resses a com!lete thought.
7hec" out these e)am!les:
The banana rotting at the bottom of 0immy2s boo" bag has soa"ed
his biology notes with ooze.
.id you notice the cric"et swimming in your cu! of tea(
; cannot believe that you tried one of those disgusting chocolate8
broccoli mu1ns!
;f a main clause e)ists in the sentence& you can attach whatever
other sentence elements you need. ?oo" at the additions to the main
clause below. All of the additions "ee! the original main clause
com!lete.
A bumblebee :ew into Peter2s o!en mouth.
/uzzing around the !icnic table& a bumblebee :ew into Peter2s o!en
mouth.
A bumblebee :ew into Peter2s o!en mouth& stinging the !oor boy2s
tongue& which swelled u! as big and as blue as an egg!lant.
/ecause it smelled the !each8:avored bubble gum& a bumblebee
:ew into Peter2s o!en mouth.
A bumblebee :ew into Peter2s o!en mouth and tic"led the !oor boy2s
tonsils.
Ta"ing a wrong turn& a bumblebee :ew into Peter2s o!en mouth& but
it buzzed bac" out before Peter swallowed.
Avoid an accidental fragment.
Sometimes you might begin a grou! of words with a ca!ital letter&
then conclude with an end mar"& but forget to insert a main clause
anywhere in the mi). 3hen this ha!!ens& you have written a
fragment& a ma+or error in writing. Read the e)am!les that follow:
/ecause hungry shar"s :ashed on the surface of the waves.
Po main clause Q a fragment.
S!illing the hot s!aghetti sauce all over his new suede shoes.
Po main clause Q a fragment.
To buy nice +ewelry for his greedy girlfriend 9loria.
Po main clause Q a fragment.
For e)am!le& a mailbo) stu6ed with bills& two dozen messages on
the answering machine& an u!!ity cat& and a dead lawn.
Po main clause Q a fragment.
And !ee"ed into the room& ris"ing the wrath of >rs. >auzy& who has
no !atience for students wal"ing into class late.
Po main clause Q a fragment.
Read the revisions below. ou will see that adding a main clause
com!letes the thought:
/ecause hungry shar"s :ashed on the surface of the waves& >i"e
and Sarah decided to return their surfboards to the car.
?eonardo grabbed the !ot handle with his bare hands& s!illing the
hot s!aghetti sauce all over his new suede shoes.
.anny sold half of his comic boo" collection to buy nice +ewelry for
his greedy girlfriend 9loria.
For e)am!le& A!ril found a mailbo) stu6ed with bills& two dozen
messages on the answering machine& an u!!ity cat& and a dead
lawn.
Sherry turned the door"nob and !ee"ed into the room& ris"ing the
wrath of >rs. >auzy& who has no !atience for students wal"ing into
class late.
Printer Fabulous!
Printer Fabulous!
<ome A Terms A *)ercises A <andouts A Rules A Sho! A Feedbac"
BCDDE 8 FGCH by Robin ?. SimmonsI
All Rights Reserved.
valid html
Sentence Fragments
R
;f your com!uter is e'ui!!ed with PowerPoint& clic" on the
PowerPoint icon to the right for a brief PowerPoint !resentation on
Sentence Fragments.
7lic" <*R* for hel! with Power!oint.
7lic" <*R* to review Run8on Sentences.
.e5nition
A S*PT*P7* FRA9>*PT fails to be a sentence in the sense that it
cannot stand by itself. ;t does not contain even one inde!endent
clause. There are several reasons why a grou! of words may seem to
act li"e a sentence but not have the wherewithal to ma"e it as a
com!lete thought.
R
;t may locate something in time and !lace with a !re!ositional
!hrase or a series of such !hrases& but it2s still lac"ing a !ro!er
sub+ect8verb relationshi! within an inde!endent clause:
;n 0a!an& during the last war and +ust before the armistice.
This sentence accom!lishes a great deal in terms of !lacing the
reader in time and !lace& but there is no sub+ect& no verb.
R
;t describes something& but there is no sub+ect8verb relationshi!:
3or"ing far into the night in an e6ort to salvage her little boat.
This is a verbal !hrase that wants to modify something& the real
sub+ect of the sentence Labout to come u!M& !robably the she who
was wor"ing so hard.
R
;t may have most of the ma"ings of a sentence but still be missing
an im!ortant !art of a verb string:
Some of the students wor"ing in Professor *s!inoza2s laboratory last
semester.
Remember that an 8ing verb form without an au)iliary form to
accom!any it can never be a verb.
R
;t may even have a sub+ect8verb relationshi!& but it has been
subordinated to another idea by a de!endent word and so cannot
stand by itself:
*ven though he had the better arguments and was by far the more
!owerful s!ea"er.
This sentence fragment has a sub+ect& he& and two verbs& had and
was& but it cannot stand by itself because of the de!endent word
Lsubordinating con+unctionM even though. 3e need an inde!endent
clause to follow u! this de!endent clause: . . . the more !owerful
s!ea"er& he lost the case because he didn2t understand the +ury.

Stylistic Fragments
There are occasions when a sentence fragment can be stylistically
e6ective& e)actly what you want and no more.
<arrison Ford has said he would be more than willing to ta"e on
another ;ndiana 0ones !ro+ect. ;n a Pew or" minute.
As long as you are clearly in control of the situation& this is
!ermissible& but the freedom to e)ercise this stylistic license
de!ends on the circumstances. Perha!s your 5nal research !a!er in
*nglish 7om!osition is not the !lace to e)!eriment 88 or& then again&
maybe it is. As" your instructor.
For additional hel! with sentence fragments& see 7ha!ter S of
Sentence Sense: A 3riter2s 9uide.
TuizRe!airing Sentence Fragments
TuizFragments and Run8on Sentences


logo 9uide to 9rammar
and 3riting logo Princi!les of
7om!osition logo ;nde)
The 9uide to 9rammar and 3riting is s!onsored by the 7a!ital
7ommunity 7ollege Foundation& a non!ro5t UGC c8N organization that
su!!orts scholarshi!s& faculty develo!ment& and curriculum
innovation. ;f you feel we have !rovided something of value and
wish to show your a!!reciation& you can assist the 7ollege and its
students with a ta)8deductible contribution.
For more about giving to 7a!ital& write to 777 Foundation& DUG >ain
Street& <artford& 7T GVCGN. Phone LSVGM DGV8UCGF or email:
+mcnamaraWccc.commnet.edu. 7ontributions are ta)8deductible to
the e)tent allowed by law.
Sentence Fragments
R
;f your com!uter is e'ui!!ed with PowerPoint& clic" on the
PowerPoint icon to the right for a brief PowerPoint !resentation on
Sentence Fragments.
7lic" <*R* for hel! with Power!oint.
7lic" <*R* to review Run8on Sentences.
.e5nition
A S*PT*P7* FRA9>*PT fails to be a sentence in the sense that it
cannot stand by itself. ;t does not contain even one inde!endent
clause. There are several reasons why a grou! of words may seem to
act li"e a sentence but not have the wherewithal to ma"e it as a
com!lete thought.
R
;t may locate something in time and !lace with a !re!ositional
!hrase or a series of such !hrases& but it2s still lac"ing a !ro!er
sub+ect8verb relationshi! within an inde!endent clause:
;n 0a!an& during the last war and +ust before the armistice.
This sentence accom!lishes a great deal in terms of !lacing the
reader in time and !lace& but there is no sub+ect& no verb.
R
;t describes something& but there is no sub+ect8verb relationshi!:
3or"ing far into the night in an e6ort to salvage her little boat.
This is a verbal !hrase that wants to modify something& the real
sub+ect of the sentence Labout to come u!M& !robably the she who
was wor"ing so hard.
R
;t may have most of the ma"ings of a sentence but still be missing
an im!ortant !art of a verb string:
Some of the students wor"ing in Professor *s!inoza2s laboratory last
semester.
Remember that an 8ing verb form without an au)iliary form to
accom!any it can never be a verb.
R
;t may even have a sub+ect8verb relationshi!& but it has been
subordinated to another idea by a de!endent word and so cannot
stand by itself:
*ven though he had the better arguments and was by far the more
!owerful s!ea"er.
This sentence fragment has a sub+ect& he& and two verbs& had and
was& but it cannot stand by itself because of the de!endent word
Lsubordinating con+unctionM even though. 3e need an inde!endent
clause to follow u! this de!endent clause: . . . the more !owerful
s!ea"er& he lost the case because he didn2t understand the +ury.

Stylistic Fragments
There are occasions when a sentence fragment can be stylistically
e6ective& e)actly what you want and no more.
<arrison Ford has said he would be more than willing to ta"e on
another ;ndiana 0ones !ro+ect. ;n a Pew or" minute.
As long as you are clearly in control of the situation& this is
!ermissible& but the freedom to e)ercise this stylistic license
de!ends on the circumstances. Perha!s your 5nal research !a!er in
*nglish 7om!osition is not the !lace to e)!eriment 88 or& then again&
maybe it is. As" your instructor.
For additional hel! with sentence fragments& see 7ha!ter S of
Sentence Sense: A 3riter2s 9uide.
TuizRe!airing Sentence Fragments
TuizFragments and Run8on Sentences


logo 9uide to 9rammar
and 3riting logo Princi!les of
7om!osition logo ;nde)
The 9uide to 9rammar and 3riting is s!onsored by the 7a!ital
7ommunity 7ollege Foundation& a non!ro5t UGC c8N organization that
su!!orts scholarshi!s& faculty develo!ment& and curriculum
innovation. ;f you feel we have !rovided something of value and
wish to show your a!!reciation& you can assist the 7ollege and its
students with a ta)8deductible contribution.
For more about giving to 7a!ital& write to 777 Foundation& DUG >ain
Street& <artford& 7T GVCGN. Phone LSVGM DGV8UCGF or email:
+mcnamaraWccc.commnet.edu. 7ontributions are ta)8deductible to
the e)tent allowed by law.
Sentence Fragments
R
;f your com!uter is e'ui!!ed with PowerPoint& clic" on the
PowerPoint icon to the right for a brief PowerPoint !resentation on
Sentence Fragments.
7lic" <*R* for hel! with Power!oint.
7lic" <*R* to review Run8on Sentences.
.e5nition
A S*PT*P7* FRA9>*PT fails to be a sentence in the sense that it
cannot stand by itself. ;t does not contain even one inde!endent
clause. There are several reasons why a grou! of words may seem to
act li"e a sentence but not have the wherewithal to ma"e it as a
com!lete thought.
R
;t may locate something in time and !lace with a !re!ositional
!hrase or a series of such !hrases& but it2s still lac"ing a !ro!er
sub+ect8verb relationshi! within an inde!endent clause:
;n 0a!an& during the last war and +ust before the armistice.
This sentence accom!lishes a great deal in terms of !lacing the
reader in time and !lace& but there is no sub+ect& no verb.
R
;t describes something& but there is no sub+ect8verb relationshi!:
3or"ing far into the night in an e6ort to salvage her little boat.
This is a verbal !hrase that wants to modify something& the real
sub+ect of the sentence Labout to come u!M& !robably the she who
was wor"ing so hard.
R
;t may have most of the ma"ings of a sentence but still be missing
an im!ortant !art of a verb string:
Some of the students wor"ing in Professor *s!inoza2s laboratory last
semester.
Remember that an 8ing verb form without an au)iliary form to
accom!any it can never be a verb.
R
;t may even have a sub+ect8verb relationshi!& but it has been
subordinated to another idea by a de!endent word and so cannot
stand by itself:
*ven though he had the better arguments and was by far the more
!owerful s!ea"er.
This sentence fragment has a sub+ect& he& and two verbs& had and
was& but it cannot stand by itself because of the de!endent word
Lsubordinating con+unctionM even though. 3e need an inde!endent
clause to follow u! this de!endent clause: . . . the more !owerful
s!ea"er& he lost the case because he didn2t understand the +ury.

Stylistic Fragments
There are occasions when a sentence fragment can be stylistically
e6ective& e)actly what you want and no more.
<arrison Ford has said he would be more than willing to ta"e on
another ;ndiana 0ones !ro+ect. ;n a Pew or" minute.
As long as you are clearly in control of the situation& this is
!ermissible& but the freedom to e)ercise this stylistic license
de!ends on the circumstances. Perha!s your 5nal research !a!er in
*nglish 7om!osition is not the !lace to e)!eriment 88 or& then again&
maybe it is. As" your instructor.
For additional hel! with sentence fragments& see 7ha!ter S of
Sentence Sense: A 3riter2s 9uide.
TuizRe!airing Sentence Fragments
TuizFragments and Run8on Sentences


logo 9uide to 9rammar
and 3riting logo Princi!les of
7om!osition logo ;nde)
The 9uide to 9rammar and 3riting is s!onsored by the 7a!ital
7ommunity 7ollege Foundation& a non!ro5t UGC c8N organization that
su!!orts scholarshi!s& faculty develo!ment& and curriculum
innovation. ;f you feel we have !rovided something of value and
wish to show your a!!reciation& you can assist the 7ollege and its
students with a ta)8deductible contribution.
For more about giving to 7a!ital& write to 777 Foundation& DUG >ain
Street& <artford& 7T GVCGN. Phone LSVGM DGV8UCGF or email:
+mcnamaraWccc.commnet.edu. 7ontributions are ta)8deductible to
the e)tent allowed by law.
Printer Fabulous!
Printer Fabulous!
Rules
For Finding and Fi)ing Fragments
Recognizing Fragments A ;dentifying Fragment Ty!es A Fi)ing
Fragments
Fragment Ti! C A Fragment Ti! F A Fragment Ti! N
Recognize the di6erence between a sentence and a fragment.
A fragment resembles a sentence in a number of ways. /oth are
grou!s of words that begin with a ca!ital letter and conclude with an
end mar"#usually a !eriod $ . % but sometimes a 'uestion mar" $ ( %
or an e)clamation !oint $ ! %.
The one im!ortant di6erence is that a fragment does not contain a
main clause. ?i"e an engine& the main clause !owers a com!lete
sentence& !ro!elling the reader through the develo!ment of an idea.
A fragment& missing this essential com!onent& stalls on the !age.
3hen you analyze a grou! of words loo"ing for the main clause& you
have to 5nd three things: a sub+ect& a verb& and a com!lete thought.
;f one of these three items is missing& a fragment results.
<ere are e)am!les of fragments:
And yawned loudly enough to ma"e everyone in class turn around.
Sub+ect Q X Y verb Q yawnedY com!lete thought Q X.
The boy sitting on the 5re esca!e dro!!ing water balloons on the
!edestrians below.
Sub+ect Q boyY verb Q XY com!lete thought Q X.
After 9abriel ate half a bo) of .evil .ogs.
Sub+ect Q 9abrielY verb Q ateY com!lete thought Q X.
4now how to identify the ty!e of fragment that you have found.
ou can correct a fragment two ways: CM adding the necessary main
clause or FM connecting the fragment to a main clause already in the
!assage. 3hether you add or connect& you must use the right
!unctuation.
Some fragments& for e)am!le& will re'uire a comma if you connect
them at the beginning of a main clause. ;f you choose to connect
them at the end& however& these same fragments re'uire no
!unctuation at all. ,ther fragments will re'uire a comma whether
you connect them at beginning or the end. To ma"e an intelligent
comma decision& you 5rst have to identify the ty!e of fragment that
you have.
A fragment will often be a subordinate clause& !artici!le !hrase&
in5nitive !hrase& afterthought& lonely verb !hrase& or a!!ositive.
*ach ty!e of fragment has a mar"er that identi5es it.
Subordinate 7lause Fragments
A subordinate clause fragment $sometimes called a de!endent
clause fragment% will begin with a subordinate con+unction& a
relative !ronoun& or a relative adverb. ;t will also contain a sub+ect
and a verb. @nfortunately& this combination of words will not e)!ress
a com!lete thought by itself.
Thin" of the !roblem li"e this: At wor"& there are bosses and their
em!loyees& also "nown as subordinates. 3hen the bosses aren2t
directly su!ervising& many subordinates goof o6. ;n a sentence& the
main clause is the boss. ;f the boss is absent& the subordinate clause
goofs o6& and the +ob doesn2t get done.
<ere are the words that will begin a subordinate clause fragment:
after
although
as
because
before
even if
even though
if
in order that
once
!rovided that since
so $that im!lied%
so that
than
that
though
unless
until
when
whenever
where whereas
wherever
whether
which
whichever
while
who
whoever
whom
whomever
whose
These words are your mar"ers for this ty!e of fragment. <ere are
some e)am!les:
/ecause 7hase caught the eye of the beautiful brunette in algebra.
/ecause Q subordinate con+unctionY 7hase Q sub+ectY caught Q verb.
3hat ha!!ened( 3as he able to cheat on the test( .id he 'uic"ly
as" her for a date( 3e don2t "now because the thought is
incom!lete.
@ntil Rachel notices the toilet !a!er stuc" to her shoe.
@ntil Q subordinate con+unctionY Rachel Q sub+ectY notices Q verb.
3hat will ha!!en( 3ill she embarrass her date( 3ill !eo!le at the
restaurant stare( 3e don2t "now because this is another incom!lete
thought.
*ven though Fred stuc" straws u! his nose.
*ven though Q subordinate con+unctionY Fred Q sub+ectY stuc" Q
verb.
3hat ha!!ened( 7ould he still not !ass as a walrus( .id the
>c.onald2s manager o6er him a +ob anyway( 3e don2t "now because
this thought is incom!lete too!
Partici!le Phrase Fragments
A !artici!le !hrase fragment will begin with a word ending in ing or
ed& or the fragment will o!en with an irregular !ast !artici!le. >ore
words will follow to 5nish the !hrase& but nowhere will you 5nd a
main clause to com!lete the thought. /y itself& a !artici!le !hrase
cannot be a sentence.
our mar"er for this ty!e of fragment is the !resent or !ast
!artici!le that you will 5nd at the beginning of the fragment. Ta"e a
loo" at these e)am!les:
Sunning themselves on the hot concrete until they heard human feet
crashing down the sidewal".
All the while twirling the baton with the s!eed and ferocity of
helico!ter blades.
Suc"ed down the !i!e with a hearty slur!.
<idden in the bureau drawer underneath a !ile of mismatched soc"s.
;n5nitive Phrase Fragments
An in5nitive !hrase fragment will begin with to followed by the base
form of the verb& li"e this:
to = verb Q in5nitive
Although more words will follow to 5nish the !hrase& you will not
5nd a main clause to 5nish the thought. An in5nitive !hrase#by
itself#cannot be a sentence.
?oo" for the to = verb as your mar"er for this ty!e of fragment.
Study these e)am!les:
,nly to watch in dismay as .r. Frazier !oured her chemistry
e)!eriment into the sin".
To catch butter:ies for her biology !ro+ect.
To brea" a !iece of !lywood with his bare hands.
Afterthought Fragments
An afterthought clari5es earlier information by !roviding s!eci5c
details. 3hen an afterthought does not contain a main clause& it is a
fragment. These words and !hrases fre'uently begin afterthoughts:
es!ecially& e)ce!t& e)cluding& for e)am!le& for instance& including&
li"e& and such as.
These words are your mar"ers for this ty!e of fragment $although
infre'uently you will have +ust the list of details%. <ere are some
e)am!les:
For e)am!le& lea"y !ens& candy wra!!ers& dollar bills& and
!a!ercli!s.
;ncluding the dog with three legs and the cat with one eye.
Such as leaving the stove on and teasing mean dogs.
?onely -erb Fragments
3riters will sometimes forget to include a sub+ect in a sentence. The
result is a verb !ining for its !artner. 3ith the sub+ect missing& the
word grou! thus becomes a lonely verb fragment.
A lonely verb fragment will often begin with a coordinating
con+unction $and& but& for& or& nor& so& yet%. The mar"er for this ty!e
of fragment will be the immediate e)!ression of action. 0ust
remember that a verb alone cannot be a sentence. Study these
e)am!les:
And dashed through the down!our as raindro!s softened the
hairs!ray shell holding her elaborate coif in !lace.
/ut "new that all of his e6ort would !rove useless in the long run.
Too" the thic" boo" and& with a heavy sigh& loaded it on to! of her
research !ile.
A!!ositive Fragments
An a!!ositive is a noun !hrase that renames and clari5es anther
noun. /ecause an a!!ositive can be long& writers sometimes mista"e
one as a com!lete sentence. /y itself& however& an a!!ositive is not
a sentence.
An a!!ositive fragment will begin with a noun and usually include
one or more clarifying !hrases or subordinate clauses after it. <ere
are some e)am!les:
The un!re!ared student who was always begging for an e)tra !encil
and a cou!le sheets of blan" !a!er.
A slac"er wasting his afternoon in front of the television.
A dog around whom !eo!le need to guard their 5ngers and food.
4now how to 5) the fragment that you have found.
*very fragment can be 5)ed by either CM revising the fragment so
that it has a main clause or FM connecting the fragment to a main
clause that comes before or after it. 3hen you connect& you have to
"now whether or not !unctuation is re'uired. ?earning the nine
!unctuation rules that follow will hel! you not only 5) fragments but
also !unctuate your sentences correctly.
Fi)ing Subordinate 7lause Fragments
3hen you have a subordinate clause fragment& removing one thing#
the subordinate con+unction#will give you the necessary main
clause. ?oo" at this fragment:
/ecause 7hase caught the eye of the beautiful brunette in algebra.
Removing because ma"es the thought com!lete. 7hase is the
sub+ect& caught the verb. Pow you have a sentence!
7hase caught the eye of the beautiful brunette in algebra.
;f& however& you need the subordinate con+unction because of the
meaning it !rovides& then you must 5) the fragment by connecting
it.
;f you attach the fragment after a main clause& use Punctuation Rule
C:
main clause = X = subordinate clause.
<ere is an e)am!le:
3e will continue giggling X until Rachel notices the toilet !a!er
stuc" to her shoe.
;f you attach the fragment in front of a main clause& use Punctuation
Rule F:
subordinate clause = & = main clause.
The 5) loo"s li"e this:
*ven though Fred stuc" straws u! his nose& >elissa ate her tuna 5sh
sandwich and continued to ignore him.
Fi)ing Partici!le Phrase Fragments
,ne way to 5) a !artici!le !hrase fragment is to add the necessary
main clause. <ere is such a fragment:
Sunning themselves on the hot concrete until they heard human feet
crashing down the sidewal".
Potice that you2re not sure what ty!e of creatures are en+oying the
warmth. ;f you add this information and com!lete the verb& the
!roblem would be 5)ed. The correction would loo" li"e this:
The little lizards were sunning themselves on the hot concrete until
they heard human feet crashing down the sidewal".
;n addition& you can attach a !artici!le !hrase fragment after a main
clause. 0ust follow Punctuation Rule N:
main clause = & = !artici!le !hrase .
7hec" out this sam!le:
The ma+orette marched at the front of the !arade& all the while
twirling her batons with the s!eed and ferocity of helico!ter blades.
,r you can choose to use Punctuation Rule H:
!artici!le !hrase = & = main clause.
The !artici!le !hrase introduces the main clause& li"e this:
Suc"ed down the !i!e with a hearty slur!& the dirty bath water
drained from the tub.
Fi)ing ;n5nitive Phrase Fragments
ou can convert an in5nitive !hrase fragment into a sentence by
adding a sub+ect and con+ugating the verb. Ta"e a loo" at this
fragment:
,nly to watch in dismay as .r. Frazier !oured her chemistry
e)!eriment into the sin".
3hen you read this fragment& you don2t "now who is involved. 3ith
a cou!le of minor changes& however& you have the necessary main
clause that every sentence re'uires:
Amber watched in dismay as .r. Frazier !oured her chemistry
e)!eriment into the sin".
;f you don2t li"e that o!tion& you can attach an in5nitive !hrase
fragment after a main clause. 0ust follow Punctuation Rule U:
main clause = X = in5nitive !hrase .
<ere2s how it will loo":
0ossie enlisted the hel! of several s!iders X to catch butter:ies for
her biology !ro+ect.
,r you can use Punctuation Rule V:
in5nitive !hrase = & = main clause.
The in5nitive !hrase introduces the main clause& li"e this:
To brea" a !iece of !lywood with his bare hands& .aniel followed his
"arate teacher2s advice and focused !ower.
Fi)ing Afterthought Fragments
ou can 5) an afterthought fragment one of two ways. ,ne o!tion is
to insert the missing sub+ect and verb so that you have a main
clause. This o!tion wor"s best when you have for e)am!le and for
instance as the transitions beginning the fragment. Ta"e a loo" at
this e)am!le:
For e)am!le& lea"y !ens& candy wra!!ers& dollar bills& and
!a!ercli!s.
The sim!le addition of a sub+ect and verb will 5) the !roblem:
For e)am!le& the des" drawer contained lea"y !ens& candy
wra!!ers& dollar bills& and !a!ercli!s.
,r you can attach the afterthought fragment to the end of a main
clause. This o!tion wor"s best when the fragment begins with
e)ce!t& e)cluding& including& li"e and such as. @se Punctuation Rule
E:
main clause = & = afterthought transition = X = details.
The correction loo"s li"e this:
0ohn has many unsafe habits& such as X leaving the stove on and
teasing mean dogs.
Fi)ing ?onely -erb Fragments
,ne missing element#the sub+ect#ma"es a lonely verb fragment an
error. <ere is such a fragment:
And dashed through the down!our as raindro!s softened the
hairs!ray shell holding her elaborate coif in !lace.
3ho did the dashing( 3e don2t "now. The sub+ect might be
mentioned in a sentence that came !reviously& but this word grou!
is a fragment because no sub+ect e)ists in it. To correct the error& all
you need to do is insert a sub+ect& li"e this:
/etty dashed through the down!our as raindro!s softened the
hairs!ray shell holding her elaborate coif in !lace.
;f you want to connect this ty!e of fragment to a main clause in
front& use Punctuation Rule S:
main clause = X = lonely verb !hrase.I
3ith a heavy sigh& .arryl began counting the words of his essay X
but "new that all of his e6ort would !rove useless in the long run.
I;f the coordinating con+unction beginning the lonely verb !hrase
connects three or more verbs& you will need to use a comma. See
7omma Ti! H.
Fi)ing A!!ositive Fragments
ou have two o!tions when 5)ing an a!!ositive fragment. Since an
a!!ositive contains a noun which can conveniently become a
sub+ect& adding a verb will often 5) the !roblem. ?oo" at this
e)am!le:
The un!re!ared student who was always begging for an e)tra !encil
and a cou!le sheets of blan" !a!er.
3e "now who we are tal"ing aboutY now we need to "now what this
student did.
The un!re!ared student who was always begging for an e)tra !encil
and a cou!le sheets of blan" !a!er screamed. $or cried& sang&
!rotested the accusations& bit his li!& crossed his 5ngers& :irted with
0asmine& etc.%
Another good o!tion is to connect the a!!ositive to a main clause.
Punctuation Rule D says this: Po matter where you attach the
a!!ositive#at the beginning& in the middle& or at the end#always
use commaLsM to se!arate it. <ere are some sam!les:
A slac"er wasting his afternoon in front of the television& /rian
o!ened a bag of !otato chi!s instead of his chemistry te)tboo".
/rian& a slac"er wasting his afternoon in front of the television&
o!ened a bag of !otato chi!s instead of his chemistry te)tboo".
,n the lawn chair lay Roc"et& a dog around whom !eo!le need to
guard their 5ngers and food.
Printer Fabulous!
Printer Fabulous!
<ome A Terms A *)ercises A <andouts A Rules A Sho! A Feedbac"
BCDDE 8 FGCH by Robin ?. SimmonsI
All Rights Reserved.
valid html

Sentence Fragments
,n this !age& you will 5nd:
a de5nition of a sentence fragment
an e)!lanation of why we write sentence fragments
a chec" list for identifying and revising sentence fragments in your
!a!er
The 7om!lete Sentence vs. The Sentence Fragment
A sentence fragment is !art of a sentence set o6 by a ca!ital letter
and 5nal !unctuation.
*). The circus clowns under the big to!.
A com!lete sentence or main clause contains a sub+ect and a verb
and is not a subordinating clause& a clause beginning with a word
such as ObecauseO or Owho.O 7hec" out our !age on subordinating
con+unctions.
*). The circus clowns wor" under the big to!.
clowns Q sub+ect
wor" Q verb
A sentence fragment:
lac"s a verb
The colorfully adorned circus clown.
or lac"s a sub+ect
Tumbled across the entire length of the arena.
or is a subordinate clause& or de!endent clause& not attached to a
com!lete sentence
;nto the la! of a ferocious& hungry lion.
Placed together& these fragments form a com!lete sentence!
The colorfully adorned circus clown tumbled across the entire length
of the arena and into the la! of a ferocious& hungry lion.
This sentence has:
a sub+ect
clown
a verb
tumbled
a coordinating con+unction
and
/ac" to the to!
An *)!lanation of Fragments
3hy do we write sentence fragments(
3e write sentence fragments because we often s!ea" in sentence
fragments!
3hen we answer a 'uestion
*)am!le:
T. O3hat are you doing(O
A. O*ating.O
T. O3hen are you going home(O
A. OAt 5ve o2cloc".O
3hen we give a command
*)am!le:
Remember running through the halls in elementary school(
our teacher yelled OPo running!O
She or he s!o"e in a sentence fragment!
/ac" to the to!
;dentifying and Revising Sentence Fragments
To hel! you edit your !a!er& use the following chec" list:
Find the verb.
Find the sub+ect.
>a"e sure the sentence is not a subordinate clause.
CM Find the verb:
?oo" for the verb in your sentence.
;f you do not have one& then your sentence is actually a sentence
fragment.
Fragment: Students in !ur!le boots and green mittens.
As" yourself& O3here2s the verb( 7an ; circle it(O
Revised: Students in !ur!le boots and green mittens wal" through a
terrible storm.
The verb in the sentence is Owal".O
FM Find the sub+ect:
,nce you2ve located the verb& loo" for the sub+ect in your sentence.
;f you do not have a sub+ect& then your sentence is actually a
sentence fragment.



Fragment: Ran across the street and u! a tall& newly blooming tree.
As" yourself& O3ho or what !erforms the action(O
Revised: The "itten ran across the street and u! a tall& newly
blooming tree.
The sub+ect of this sentence is O"itten.O
Remember: There is a ty!e of sentence where OyouO is understood to
be the sub+ect:
LouM Pic" u! the dirty laundry o6 the :oor.
;n all other cases& a sub+ect is necessary for a sentence to be
com!lete.
NM >a"e sure the clause is not subordinate.
A subordinate clause is a clause Lwith a sub+ect and a verbM
introduced by a subordinating con+unction or a relative !ronoun.
See our subordinating con+unction !age for a list of subordinating
con+unctions.
See our relative !ronoun !age for a list of relative !ronouns.
A subordinate clause is a sentence fragment.
Subordinate clauses should not be used as com!lete sentences.
Subordinate clauses should be +oined with com!lete sentences.
Fragment: 3hen the girl ran across the street
The subordinating con+unction LwhenM leads us to as"& O3hat
ha!!ened when the girl ran across the street(O
Revised: 3hen the girl ran across the street& she was nearly struc"
by a car.
Fragment: The girl who ate all the ca"e.
;n this case& the relative !ronoun LwhoM leads us to as"& O3hat
ha!!ened to the girl who ate all the ca"e(O
Revised: The girl who ate all the ca"e has icing on her chin.
P,T*: Tuestions beginning with a subordinating con+unction or a
relative !ronoun are com!lete sentences.
<ere are some e)am!les of 'uestions& or interrogative sentences&
which begin with a subordinating con+unction or a relative !ronoun:
3ho is coming to our !arty(
3hich games should we !lay 5rst(
3hen will the clowns arrive(
/ac" to the to!

Sponsor Documents

Or use your account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Forgot your password?

Or register your new account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link to create a new password.

Back to log-in

Close