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Drugs - Power Point

Published on May 2016 | Categories: Documents | Downloads: 9 | Comments: 0



Drugs, Science & Society

Physiology of Drug Abuse


Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

Your Brain on Drugs

1-2 Min








Your Brain After Drugs

The Memory of Drugs
Amygdala not lit up

Amygdala activated


Nature Video

Cocaine Video


on cocaine

Categories of Drugs

Categories of Drugs
Stimulants - ³uppers´ - stimulate the central nervous system - amphetamines, amyl nitrite, cocaine, crack, ecstasy Depressants - ³downers´ - depress the central nervous system - alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines Analgesics - powerful painkillers - from opium poppy or synthetically produced Hallucinogens - ³psychedelics´ - dramatically alter perception - LSD, psilocyn, psilocybin, cannabis, ecstasy


Club Drugs
‡ Drug Class: CNS stimulant, hallucinogen ‡ Other names: MDMA, XTC, X, E, Adam, Clarity, Essence, Stacy, Lover¶s Speed ‡ Developed in WWI but became illegal in 1985 ‡ Today: a designer drug ‡ White form, crystalline powder + buffed & pressed = pills ‡ Usual dose: 1 to 2 mg/kg body weight ‡ Ingested orally, placed under the tongue, added to juice or carbonated beverage, snorted or injected

Club Drugs
‡ ³Candyflipping´ ± combined used of ecstasy and LSD ‡ ³Stacking´ ± taking • 3 E tablets at once, mixing it with other drugs How Ecstasy Works ‡ Half-life is 6 hours ‡ Onset action ± vary from person to person ‡ Serotonin and dopamine ± released into the brain ‡ perception of pain, body temperature ‡ overheat ± without feeling any discomfort

Club Drugs
The E ³Rush´ ‡ Instantaneous rush ± 30-45 sec, lasting to 15-30 mins ‡ Sudden clarity, intensification of perceptions ‡ Inner sensation of happiness, sense of loving ‡ ³booster dose´ ± hope to prolong the sensations ‡ tolerance: desired effects; in adverse effects ‡ ³bubble bursting´ ± anxiety, paranoia, nausea, panic ‡ 30 mins±3 hrs after initial rush: ³plateau´ phase of > intense feelings ‡ trance-like movements long lasting ecstatic ³trance-dancing´

Club Drugs
The After ³Rush´ ‡ coming down: 3 ± 6 hrs after initial ingestion ‡ feelings of disappointments: anxiety, depression ‡ sluggishness & residual effects: lasts up to several days ‡ 6-7 hours to fall asleep after returning to ³normal´ ‡ ³Tuesday blues´ ± from depletion of serotonin Long term effects ‡ still uncertain BUT subsequent depression may occur ‡ due to short-circuit of serotonin pathway & serotonin shortage

Club Drugs
Adverse Effects ‡ addiction to concurrently used substance ‡ anorexia, nausea, vomiting, insomnia ‡ visual blurring, confusion ‡ jaw-clenching, teeth grinding, muscle spasms ‡ dehydration, electrolyte imbalances ‡ heat exhaustion and injury (³Saturday night fever´) ‡ acute renal failure, hepatic toxicity ‡ tachychardia, fatigue, convulsions ‡ coma, death



lover·s speed



Club Drugs
‡ Other names: Ma huang, ephedra, Cloud 9, Herbal Bliss, Rave Energy ‡ Combination of stimulants ± to stimulate effects of XTC ‡ Common use: stimulant or weight loss agent ‡ Available: many health food stores or by mail order ‡ Present in food supplements: Metabolift or Metabolife 356 ‡ In US: No regulation from US-FDA ‡ Found in many OTC cold preparations Adverse Effects ‡ Tachycardia, hypertension, stroke, seizure, heart attack, death

Club Drugs
‡ other names: Ice, speed, tweak, crank , glass, shabu ‡ white powder or clear, crystal ³rock´ ‡ release large amounts of dopamine = highly addictive stimulant ‡ enhance mood and body movement ‡ taken orally, intranasally, intravenously, rectally Desired effects ‡ smoking, intravenous: intense, very pleasurable sensation ‡ intranasal and oral: ³high´ feeling ‡ 3 ± 5 mins (intranasal); 15-20 mins (oral); can last: 24 hours

Club Drugs
Adverse effects ‡ wide variety or physical and psychological effects ‡ wakefulness, increased physical activity (hyper, alertness) ‡ appetite ‡ headache, sensation of hair ³standing on end´ ‡ dry mouth, tremors, tachycardia, hypertension, palpitations ‡ stroke, seizures ‡ euphoria, irritability, insomnia, anxiety ‡ hallucinations, paranoia, psychosis, death ‡ degeneration of neurons underlying cause of Parkinson¶s disease

Methamphetamine Speed



Street Names black stuff, chandu

Effects Withdrawal symptoms, e.g. aches, spasms, stomach cramps & convulsions, shaking & vomiting, runny nose, watery eyes Withdrawal symptoms, e.g. aches, spasms, stomach cramps & convulsions, shaking & vomiting, runny nose, watery eyes Withdrawal symptoms, e.g. aches, spasms, stomach cramps & convulsions, shaking & vomiting, runny nose, watery eyes Loss of concentration and memory, heart rate increases, poor balance & coordination, anxiety or panic, depression, confusion Ice has a strong effect on the nervous system and is highly addictive. Loss of weight, impotency, severe convulsions (fits), hallucinations, liver & kidney damage, damage to the heart, stroke & death. Blood pressure and increase in pulse rate, false feelings of confidence & closeness with others, dehydration, convulsions, vomiting & anxiety. Hallucination, Altered sensation, mood and consciousness, Affected judgment and co-ordination, distorted hearing, touch, smell, taste and visual sensation, nausea and vomiting, memory loss Increased heart beat, dehydration, paranoid feeling, sweating, insomnia, irritability, depression


M, white stuff, white powder


White, junk, powder, putih, medicine marijuana, ganja, pot, grass, joints Ice, glass, crystal, quartz, icecream, hirropon, shabu

CANNABIS originated from the hemp plant, Cannabis Sativa METHAMPHETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE


Ecstasy, Pink or Pink Lady, Snow White, Playboy, Apple, XTC Also known as "K", Special K, Vitamin K, Ket, Kit kat Methamphetamine tablet, crazy horse, mad medicine


Cocaine Powder Cracked cocaine


Amphetamines in various capsules

Barbiturate Pills

Benzodiazepine Pills

Marijuana leaves

seeds In joint rolling

In plastic bag

In block


Codeine in various form

Coca leaves and powder

Hashish Oil

Downers (various)

Depressant Pills

LSD in Blotter Paper

LSD in forms

Heroin in plastic Heroin in various forms with balloons

Heroin in off white powder form

Ketamine - special


Morphine Methadone

Morphine in various forms


Opium pod & derivatives


Drug User Paraphernalia

Drug User Paraphernalia

Drug Laboratory

Identification of a Drug User

Identification of a Drug User
‡ excitable, hostile, violent, destructive behavior, outbreaks of temper ‡ unsteadiness, clumsiness ‡ slurred speech, talking to oneself ‡ in a state of confusion ‡ dreamy, hallucinations ‡ lack of personal hygiene ‡ loss of concentration or attention ‡ loss of interest in personal care & appearance, food, family activity ‡ social withdrawal ‡ sudden decline in attendance or performance in school ‡ frequent job hopping ‡ frequents places like storage rooms, toilets, isolated corners ‡ sores on nose & mouth (glue sniffers), runny nose, bloodshot eyes ‡ smell solvents on breath, clothes, hair (glue sniffers)

Drug Abuse is a preventable behavior

Drug Addiction is a treatable disease

Prevention Programs should . . . . Reduce Risk Factors
y ineffective parenting y chaotic home environment y lack of mutual attachments/nurturing y inappropriate behavior in the classroom y failure in school performance y poor social coping skills y affiliations with deviant peers y perceptions of approval of drug-using behaviors in school, peer, and community environments

Prevention Programs should . . . .
Enhance Protective Factors
y strong family bonds y parental monitoring y parental involvement y success in school performance y prosocial institutions y conventional norms about drug use

Prevention Programs should . . . . . .Target all Forms of Drug Use

. . . and be Culturally Sensitive

Prevention Programs should . . . . Include Interactive Skills-Based Training
y Resist drugs y Strengthen personal commitments against drug use y Increase social competency y Reinforce attitudes against drug use

Prevention Programs should . . . . Be Family-focused
y Provides greater impact than parent-only or childonly programs y Family: included at each stage of development y Involve effective parenting skills

Prevention Programs should . . . . Involve Communities and Schools
y Media campaigns and policy changes y Strengthen norms against drug use y Address specific nature of local drug problem

Components of Comprehensive Drug Addiction Treatment

Matching Patients to Individual Needs
y No single treatment is appropriate for all individuals y Effective treatment attends to multiple needs of the individual, not just his/her drug use y Treatment must address medical, psychological, social, vocational, and legal problems

Duration of Treatment
y Depends on patient problems/needs y Less than 90 days is of limited/no effectiveness for residential/outpatient setting y A minimum of 12 months is required for methadone maintenance y Longer treatment is often indicated

Medical Detoxification
y Detoxification safely manages the physical symptoms of withdrawal y Only first stage of addiction treatment y Alone, does little to change long-term drug use

Self-Help and Drug Addiction Treatment
y Complements and extends treatment efforts y Most commonly used models include 12-Step (AA, NA) and Smart Recovery y Most treatment programs encourage self-help participation during/after treatment

Counseling and Other Behavioral Therapies

Medications for Drug Addiction
y Methadone y LAAM y Naltrexone y Nicotine Replacement y patches y gum y buproprion

Motivation to Enter and/or Sustain Treatment
y Effective treatment need not be voluntary y Sanctions/enticements (family, employer, criminal justice system) can increase treatment entry/retention y Treatment outcomes are similar for those who enter treatment under legal pressure vs voluntary

HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis and Other Infectious Diseases
y Drug treatment is disease prevention y Drug treatment reduces likelihood of HIV infection by 6 fold in injecting drug users y Drug treatment presents opportunities for screening, counseling, and referral

Effectiveness of Treatment
y Goal of treatment is to return to productive functioning y Treatment reduced drug use by 40-60% y Treatment reduces crime by 40-60% y Treatment increases employment prospects by 40% y Drug treatment is as successful as treatment of diabetes, asthma, and hypertension

Cost-Effectiveness of Drug Treatment
y Treatment is less expensive than not treating or incarceration y Savings can exceed costs by 12:1 when health care costs are included y Reduced interpersonal conflicts y Improved workplace productivity y Fewer drug-related accidents

The Philippine Drug Scene

The Philippine Drug Scene
‡ RA 9165 ± Comprehensive Dangerous Act of 2002 ‡ signed June 7, 2002 ‡ stiffer penalties for illegal drug possession and pushing ‡ RA 7624 ± Integrated Drug Prevention Control in the Intermediate & Secondary Curricula ‡ signed July 22, 1991 ‡ Drug users: 300% annually ‡ 2001: 2 million Filipinos are drug dependents ‡ 1.2 million are 15 ± 17 years old ‡ Growing number of executives ± hooked on drugs ‡ Growing problem: production of shabu in the country ‡ Philippines: serves as a transit point ± strategic location

The Philippine Drug Scene
‡ Shabu ± favored drug; ³mass appeal´, ³poor man¶s cocaine´, most popular drug of abuse ‡ XTC ± rich man¶s ³hug drug´ ‡ previously: ³designer drug´ among the rich kids ‡ now: caught on by the middle class ‡ originally expensive; but now, affordable ‡ before: only in bars and dance clubs ‡ now: streets, malls, schools, internet chat rooms ‡ popular among kids: easy to use, looks like any other pill, take it like ordinary medicine, no incriminating evidence ‡ E sold now: diluted E, mixed E, homemade E

The Philippine Drug Scene
‡ Phil. Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA) ‡ closely monitoring production of E ‡ also: use and trafficking of E ‡ recent Drug Act 2002: ‡ life imprisonment to death for people caught with more than 10g of E choice of drug users: shabu ‡ info from: drugs addicts in the rehab centers ‡ 2001: Revenue from sales of illegal drug trade ‡ expected to hit 300 billion pesos (50% national budget in 2001)

Is it worth the risk?

t he n d

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