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Subpart S. Electrical. Trainer Objectives. Discuss the scope and structure of Subpart S Discuss pertinent sections of Design Safety Standards for Electrical Equipment, sections 301 - 305 Emphasize equipment grounding and the proper use of flexible cords <div id="description"></div>
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<div class="panel-content doc-transcript" itemprop="text">Subpart S Electrical Trainer Objectives <li>Discuss the scope and structure of Subpart S <li>Discuss pertinent sections of Design Safety Standards for Electrical Equipment, sections 301 - 305 <li>Emphasize equipment grounding and the proper use of flexible cords <li>Discuss Safety-Related work practices; sections 331 - 335 </li></li> Subpart S - Electrical(1910.301 - 399) Live parts * Conductors entering cabinets/boxes/fittings protected from abrasion * Grounding path * Standard: 1910. Electrical box covers * Use of flexible cords and cables * *Average number of Federal OSHA citations issued between 2000 and 2003 1910.301 Introduction <li>Addresses electrical safety for safeguarding employees in their workplaces <li>Divided into four major divisions as follows: (a). Design safety standards for electrical systems (b). Safety-related work practices (c). Safety-related maintenance requirements (d). Safety requirements for special equipment </li></li> 1910.301 Introduction 1. Design safety standards for electrical systems. <li>Standards found in 1910.302-308 are design safety standards 2. Safety - related work practices. <li>These regulations are contained in 1910.331-.335 and require the employer to train and equip designated employees to maintain facility’s electrical equipment </li></li></li> 1910.303 General Requirements (a) Approval. The conductors and equipment required or permitted by this subpart shall be acceptable only if approved 1910.303 (b) Examination, installation and use <li>Employer Obligation: (1) Electrical equipment shall be free from recognized hazards that are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to employees </li></li> 1910.303 (b) Examination, installation, and use <li>(1) Examination. Safety of equipment shall determined using the following considerations: <li>(i) Suitability of equipment for an identified purpose may be evidenced by listing or labeling for that identified purpose </li></li></li> 1910.303(d) Arcing parts <li>Parts of electric equipment which in ordinary operation produce arcs, sparks, flames, or molten metal shall be enclosed or separated and isolated from all combustible material </li></li> D 1910.303 (e) Marking <li>Electrical equipment may not be used unless the manufacturer's name, trademark, or other descriptive marking by which the organization responsible for the product may be identified is placed on the equipment </li></li> 1910.303 (e) Marking <li>Other markings shall be provided giving voltage, current, wattage, or other ratings as necessary. The marking shall be of sufficient durability to withstand the environment involved </li></li>480 V 1910.303 (f) Identification of Disconnecting Means <li>Each disconnecting means (dm) legibly marked to indicate its purpose <li>(Unless so arranged so the purpose is evident) </li><li>A dm is a switch used to disconnect the conductors of a circuit from the source of current </li></li>Disconnect switch for motor number 3 1910.303 (f) Identification of Disconnecting Means <li>Each service, feeder, and branch circuit, at its dm or overcurrent device, legibly and durably marked to indicate its purpose <li>Switches and circuit breakers must be clearly labeled to indicate its circuit’s function </li></li>Circuit breaker for motors 1,2,3, and 4 Example of properly labeled electric service: motors, disconnects and breakers 1910.303(g) Working Space about Electric Equipment <li>(1) Sufficient access and working space around all electrical equipment to provide ready and safe operation and maintenance <li>(ii) Not used for storage <li>(ii) If located in aisle or general open area, working space shall be suitably guarded </li></li> TABLE S-1 - WORKING CLEARANCES ____________________________________________ Nominal voltage Minimum clear distance to ground for condition (2)(ft) __________________________________________ (a) (b) (c) ________________________________________ 0-150 .........… (1)3 (1)3 3 151-600 .......… (1)3 3 1/2 4 ________________________________________ Footnote(1) Minimum clear distances may be 2 feet 6 inches for installations built prior to April 16, 1981. Access and working space requirements for electric equipment (600V or less) <li>In addition to the dimensions shown in Table S-1, work space may not be less than 30 inches wide in front of the covered electric equipment <li>This access and working space shall be kept clear at all times for operation and maintenance personnel <li>May not be used for storage of non-permanent equipment or furniture </li></li>30&quot; min 1910.303(g)(1)(v) Illumination (600V or less) <li>Illumination provided for all working spaces about service equipment, switchboards, panel-boards, and motor control centers installed indoors. </li></li> 1910.303(g)(1)(vi) Headroom (600V or less) <li>The minimum headroom of working spaces about service equipment, switchboards, panel-boards, or motor control centers shall be 6 feet 3 inches </li></li>6'3&quot; 1910.303(g) Guarding of live parts (600V or less) <li> (2)(i) Live parts of electric equipment operating at 50 volts or more guarded against accidental contact by approved cabinets </li></li> 1910. 303 Guarding live parts (600V or less) <li>(g)(2)(i) or other forms of approved enclosures, or by any of the following means: <li>(A) By location in a room, vault, accessible only to qualified persons <li>(B) By permanent, substantial partitions or screens <li>(C) By location on a suitable balconyor platform as to exclude unqualified persons <li>(D) By elevation of 8 feet or more above the floor or other working surface </li></li></li> 1910. 303(g) Guarding live parts (600V or less) <li>(2)(iii) Entrances to rooms and other guarded locations containing exposed live parts shall be marked with conspicuous warning signs forbidding unqualified persons to enter </li></li> 1910.303(h)(3)(ii) Illumination (600V or less) <li>Adequate illumination for all working spaces about electric equipment </li></li> 1910.304 (600V or less) Wiring Design and Protection Identification of Conductors (600V or less) <li>A conductor used as a grounded conductor shall be identifiable and distinguishable from all other conductors. <li>A conductor used as an equipment grounding conductor shall be identifiable and distinguishable from all other conductors </li></li> Identification of Conductors (600V or less) <li>Grounded conductor and equipment grounding conductors marked or color coated <li>So that employees can i.d. and tell apart <li>Grounded conductor is an energized circuit (conductor that is connected to earth through the system ground) Commonly referred to as the neutral </li></li> Grounding Conductors (600V or less) <li>Equipment grounding conductor acts as a safeguard against insulation failure or faults in the other circuit conductors <li>Not an energized conductor under normal conditions. <li>Energized if a leak or fault in the normal current path <li>Directs current back to the source <li>Enabling fuses or circuit breakers to operate </li></li> Identification of Conductors (600V or less) <li>Grounded conductor i.d. and distinguished from other conductors w/ white or gray <li>Equipment grounding conductor i.d. and distinguished w/ green, green w/ yellow stripes, or bare </li></li> Electrical Conductor Identification (600V or less) <li>The use of a diagram not an acceptable form of identifying and distinguishing grounded circuit conductors and equipment grounding circuits <li>Under paragraph 1910.304(a), a grounded conductor and an equipment grounding conductor must be identifiable and distinguishable from all other conductors <li>Employee must be able to distinguish an equipment grounding conductor from any other type of conductor in a plant </li></li> Electrical Conductor Identification (600V or less) <li>If a wiring diagram were the only means of identifying these conductors, an employee (to perform work safely) would have to look up the color coding each time there is need to identify circuit or equipment conductors </li></li> Electrical Conductor Identification (600V or less) <li>Non-standardized use of colors makes it much more likely that an employee would confuse a red ungrounded circuit conductor with an equipment grounding conductor in a similar panel <li>Of particular concern are employees of electrical contractors, who are familiar with standard color coding schemes, making this mistake </li></li> Use and identification of grounded and grounding conductors (600V or less) <li>No grounded conductor may be attached to any terminal or lead so as to reverse polarity </li></li>correct polarity between the ungrounded (hot) conductor, the grounded (neutral) conductor, and the grounding conductor must be maintained 1910.304(a)(2) (600V or less) Reverse Polarity Normal Wiring 1910.304(a)(2) NEC Article 200-11 1910. 304(b) Branch circuits (600V or less) 1. Reserved 2. Outlet devices. Outlet devices shall have an ampere rating not less than the load to be served </li> Disconnecting means (600V or less) <li>General. Means provided to disconnect all conductors in a building from the service-entrance conductors. <li>The disconnecting means shall plainly indicate whether it is in the open or closed position <li>Installed at a readily accessible location </li></li> Services over 600 volts, nominal (600V or less) <li>(i) Guarded to make them accessible only to qualified persons <li>(ii) Signs warning of high voltage shall be posted where other than qualified employees might come in contact with live parts </li></li>1000kV 1910. 304 (e) Overcurrent protection (600V or less) <li>600 volts or less: <li>Overcurrent devices readily accessible to each employee <li>May not be located where they will be exposed to physical damage nor near easily ignitable material <li>Fuses and circuit breakers located or shielded that employees will not be burned or otherwise injured by their operation </li></li> 1910. 304 (e)(1)(vi) Circuit breakers (600V or less) <li>Circuit breakers shall clearly indicate whether they are in the open (off) or closed (on) position </li></li>1000kV Danger 1910. 304 (f) Grounding (600V or less) <li>(2) For AC premises wiring systems the identified conductor shall be grounded <li>(4) The path to ground from circuits, equipment, and enclosures shall be permanent and continuous </li></li> Grounding (600V or less) <li>Required to protect employees against: <li>Shock <li>Safeguard against fire <li>Protect equipment from damage </li></li></li> Grounding (600V or less) <li>There are two kinds of grounding: <li>1. Electrical circuit or system grounding <li>2. Electrical equipment grounding </li></li></li> Electrical System Grounding (600V or less) <li>One conductor of the circuit is intentionally grounded to earth <li>Protects circuit from lightning, or other high voltage contact <li>Stabilizes the voltage in the system so “expected voltage levels” are not exceeded under normal conditions </li></li> Equipment Grounding (600V or less) <li>All metal frames &amp; enclosures of equipment are grounded by a permanent connection or bond <li>The equipment grounding conductor provides a path for dangerous fault current to return to the system ground should a fault occur </li></li> Note that properly bonded conduit and associated (600V or less) metal enclosures can also serve as a grounding conductor. 1910.305 (600V or less) Wiring methods, components, and equipment for general use 1910.305(a)(1)(ii) Wiring in ducts (600V or less) <li>No wiring systems of any type installed in ducts used to transport dust, loose stock or flammable vapors </li></li> 1910.305(a)(2) Temporary wiring (600V or less) <li>Lamps for general illumination shall be protected from accidental contact or breakage <li>Protection shall be provided by elevation of at least 7 feet or by a suitable fixture or lampholder with a guard </li></li> 1910.305(a)(2) Temporary wiring (600V or less) <li>Flexible cords and cables shall be protected from accidental damage <li>Sharp corners and projections shall be avoided. <li>Where passing through doorways or other pinch points, flexible cords and cables shall be provided with protection to avoid damage </li></li> 1910.305(a)(2)(iii)(G) Flexible Cords (600V or less) <li>Where passing through doorways or other pinch points, flexible cords and cables shall be provided with protection to avoid damage </li></li> 1910.305 (b) Conductors Entering Boxes, Cabinets or Fittings (600V or less) <li>Where they enter they must be protected by some type of clamp or rubber grommet <li>The device used must close the hole through which the conductor passes as well as provide protection from abrasion </li></li> 1910.305 (b) Conductors Entering Boxes, Cabinets or Fittings (600V or less) <li>The knockouts in cabinets, boxes, and fittings should be removed only if conductors are to be run through them <li>Open knockouts and other holes must be closed </li></li> 1910.305 (c)Conductors Entering Boxes, Cabinets or Fittings (600V or less) <li>All pull boxes, junction boxes and fittings must be provided with approved covers <li>If covers are metal they must be grounded. <li>Each outlet box must have a cover, faceplate or fixture canopy </li></li> 1910.305(e) Enclosures for damp or wet locations (600V or less) <li>Cabinets, cutouts boxes, fittings, and panelboards weatherproof <li>Switches, circuit breakers, and switchboards in weatherproof enclosures </li></li> 1910.305 (g)(1) Use of Flexible Cords &amp; Cables (600V or less) <li>Flexible cords and shall be approved and suitable for conditions of use and location* </li></li>* The OSHA electric standard (1910.305) lists specific situations in which flexible cords may be used Clarification of the Electrical Standard as it applies to flexible power cords on appliances <li>Under paragraph 1910.303(a), electrical conductors and equipment are acceptable for use in the workplace only if approved <li>An electrical appliance which is certified by a NRTL is considered to be approved by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) as long as it is used in accordance with the condition(s) of NRTL certification </li></li> Clarification of the Electrical Standard as it applies to flexible power cords on appliances <li>Can I put a longer cord on a portable fan? <li>Replacing the existing cord (with a longer cord, perhaps 15-25 feet long) is a violation of the NRTL certification of the appliance </li></li>Flexible cords and cables may not be used as a substitute for the fixed wiring of a structure A new receptacle, readily accessible to the fan, must be provided Clarification of the Electrical Standard as it applies to flexible power cords on appliances <li>Use of an appliance with flexible cord and cable as short as possible plugged into a nearby receptacle promotes workplace safety by reducing the likelihood of being a tripping hazard and being damaged </li></li> Clarification of the Electrical Standard as it applies to flexible power cords on appliances <li>Can electrical tape be used to cover minor nicks and abrasions in the outer jacket of a flexible cord? Under what circumstances, if any, may &quot;electrical tape&quot; be used to repair the outer cover of a flexible cord? <li>Nicks and abrasions which do not penetrate completely through the outer jacket of a flexible cord are not considered a safety concern for which corrective action, that is, repair or replacement of the flexible cord, would be required. </li></li> Clarification of the Electrical Standard as it applies to flexible power cords on appliances <li>Repair or replacement of the flexible cord is required when the outer jacket is penetrated or the conductors or their insulation, inside are damaged. <li>Flexible cord not less than No. 12 American Wire Gauge (AWG) may be repaired by splicing the conductors with a suitable vulcanized or molded splice. </li></li> 1910.305 (g)(1) Use of Flexible Cords &amp; Cables flexible power cords on appliances <li>Flexible cords and cables shall be used only for: <li>Pendants(a lampholder or cord-connector body suspended by a length of cord properly secured and terminated directly above the suspended device); <li>Wiring of fixtures; </li></li> 1910.305 (g)(1) Use of Flexible Cords &amp; Cables flexible power cords on appliances <li>(C) Connection of portable lamps or appliances; <li>(D) Elevator cables; <li>(E) Wiring of cranes and hoists; </li></li> 1910.305 (g)(1) Use of Flexible Cords &amp; Cables flexible power cords on appliances <li>(F) Connection of stationary equipment to facilitate their frequent interchange (equipment which is not normally moved, but might be on occasion); <li>(G) Prevention of the transmission of noise or vibration (In such cases vibration might fatigue fixed wiring and result in a more hazardous situation); </li></li> 1910.305 (g)(1) Use of Flexible Cords &amp; Cables flexible power cords on appliances <li>(H) Appliances where the fastening means and mechanical connections are designed to permit removal for maintenance (e.g. water coolers, exhaust fans); <li>Data processing cables </li></li> 1910.305 (g)(1)(iii) Prohibited uses of flexible cords flexible power cords on appliances <li>Except for the previously listed exemptions, flexible cords may not be used for: <li>(A) As a substitute for fixed wiring of the structure; <li>(B) Where run through holes in walls, ceilings, or floors; <li>(C) Where run through doorways, windows, etc.. </li></li></li> Identification, Splices and Terminations flexible power cords on appliances <li>Flexible cords shall be connected to devices and fittings so that strain relief is provided which will prevent pull from being directly transmitted to joints or terminal screws </li></li> 1910.305 (g)(2)(ii) flexible power cords on appliances <li>Flexible cords shall be used only in continuous lengths without splice or tap. <li>Hard service flexible cords No. 12 or larger may be repaired if spliced so that the splice retains the insulation, outer sheath properties, and usage characteristics of the cord being spliced. </li></li>Note: The National Electric Code allows splice in 14 gauge or greater wire Acceptable job-made extension cords flexible power cords on appliances <li>We have prepared the following analysis, which indicates that shop-made extension cords and other temporary wiring is acceptable in certain circumstances. <li>It is not required in all circumstances that an extension cord be approved as an assembly. </li></li> Acceptable job-made extension cords flexible power cords on appliances <li>Normally, electrical equipment must be approved as an assembly by a nationally recognized testing laboratory to be acceptable under the General Industry or Construction Electrical Standards <li>However, it is also true that cord sets, assembled in the field by qualified persons, are appropriately used in both general industry and in the construction industry, under limited circumstances. Such cord sets are considered to be temporary wiring extensions of the branch circuit. </li></li> Acceptable job-made extension cords flexible power cords on appliances <li>When the temporary wiring consists of shop-made cord sets, etc., using approved parts, as permitted by 1910.305(a)(2) and 1926.405(a)(2) the requirements for listing by a nationally recognized testing laboratory do not apply. <li>The practice of assembling electrical extension cords is considered to be in compliance with OSHA standards provided the assembled cord sets are assembled in a manner equivalent to those that are factory-assembled and approved. </li></li> Acceptable job-made extension cords flexible power cords on appliances <li>All components must be approved for the purpose by a nationally recognized testing laboratory (1910.303(a)) and (1926.403(a)). Individual components must be compatible for use with the other components of the completed assembly. <li>The cord set must be assembled by a qualified person. </li></li> Acceptable job-made ext<div id="transcripts"></div></div>
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