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Discovering Mesa Prieta TSIKW'AYE (MESA PRIETA) FACT FINDER

1. The Mesa With Many Names a. Tsikw’aye: Hill Top of Dark Rock (Tewa) b. Mesa Prieta: Dark Mesa (Spanish) c. Mesa de la Canoa: Canoe Mesa (Spanish) d. Black Mesa: named for the dark basalt rocks (Anglo) 2. Shield volcanoes erupted near Questa & a fisher erupted near Pilar over 3 million years ago. 3. Lava flowed from above Pilar about 12 miles southwest to present day Chamita. 4. The black basalt cap rock and erosion formed Mesa Prieta. 5. Mesa Prieta is located between the villages of Chamita and Embudo and between the Rio Grande (Pó?káy or Posongeh) and the Rio Ojo Caliente (P’osip’oe). 6. Petroglyphs: Designs and images pecked, incised or abraded into a rock surface. a. Basalt rock is usually covered with a dark patina. b. Brighter petroglyphs are younger, while darker, repatinated petroglyphs are generally older. 7. Time Periods of people who made the petroglyphs 1. Archaic people: 5,500 BC - 700 AD 2. Early Agricultural people: 700 - 1200 AD 3. Ancestral Pueblo people- lived in large villages: 1200 - 1540 AD (formerly called "Anasazi", a now outdated term) 4. Historic people (post-European contact) - Pueblos, Hispanics, Genísaros, Anglos: 1540 - 1950 5. Modern - after 1950 (there are some new petroglyphs but most marks are considered defacements)

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Discovering Mesa Prieta TSIKW'AYE (MESA PRIETA) FACT FINDER

8. Ancient and Modern Tewa villages to the east and south of Mesa Prieta Phiogeh- Flicker Village: Los Luceros. Sahui Owingeh- Corn Silk Pueblo: Velarde. Yungue Owingeh- Mockingbird Village, called San Gabriel Pueblo by the early Spanish: West of Ohkay Owingeh and between the Chama River (Tsama) and the Rio Grande (Pó?káy or Posongeh). Ohkay Owingeh- Village of the Strong People: called San Juan Pueblo by the early Spanish. The Pueblo people have recently returned to the use of their Tewa name. 9. Landscape views from the east side of Mesa Prieta: E- Sangre de Cristo Mountains: 40 million years old. (We are standing on its sediment) NE-Taos W- cap rock of Mesa Prieta: 3 + million years old S- Española Adjacent- Rio Grande, river and valley

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Discovering Mesa Prieta TSIKW'AYE (MESA PRIETA) FACT FINDER

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