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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY

CHAPTER – 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1

BACKGROUND
Transport is one of the most important sectors which govern the economy not only

on local level, but at national as well as international levels. Vehicles form the most important segment of this system. We are profoundly relying on vehicles which require Petrol or diesel, i.e. fossil fuels as the main source of energy. Therefore, if we see a price rise in that of the fossil fuels, there is a simultaneous rise in the price of commodities due to the fact that there is a rise in the cost of transportation. Fossil fuels are now on the verge of depletion. Therefore, many alternatives are being sought after for replacing these non – renewable sources. Hybrid vehicles are one such part of the whole picture. There are several ideal cars which have been designed on paper and in software’s, which are supposed to be the Cars of the future. These futuristic vehicles are known as Concept Vehicles. A concept vehicle or show vehicle is a car made to showcase new styling and or new technology. They are often shown at motor shows to gauge customer reaction to new and radical designs which may or may not have a chance of being produced. General Motors designer Harley Earl is generally credited with inventing the concept car, and did much to popularize it through its traveling Motorama shows of the 1950s. Concept cars never go into production directly; in modern times all would have to undergo many changes before the design is finalized for the sake of practicality, safety and cost. A "production-intent" vehicle, as opposed to a concept vehicle, serves this purpose. They are also known as prototype cars, but should not be confused with prototype race cars such as the Le Mans Prototype. Concept cars are often radical in engine or design. Some use non-traditional, exotic, or expensive materials, ranging from paper to carbon fibre to refined alloys. Others have unique layouts, such

as gullwing doors, 3 or 6 (or more) wheels, or special abilities not usually found on cars. Because of these often impractical or unprofitable leanings, many concept cars never get past scale models, or even drawings in computer design. Other more traditional concepts can be developed into fully drivable (operational) vehicles with a working drivetrain and accessories. The state of most concept cars lies

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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY somewhere in between and does not represent the final product. A very small proportion of concept cars are functional to any useful extent, some cannot move safely at anything above 10 mph. A concept car is a vehicle that has two or more power sources, making it more efficient. The most common hybrids run on gas and electricity. Concepts produce significantly lower levels of harmful emissions than non-concept cars. These emissions, commonly known as "greenhouse gases," include carbon dioxide, a type of pollution cars produce that is suspected to contribute to global warming. Current concept cars can get up to 60 miles to the gallon on the highway, allowing you to go farther and spend less. The electric motor saves energy that would normally be wasted when braking, coasting and climbing hills. Advanced technology also allows the cars to automatically shut off when the engine stops and restart when you begin to accelerate, storing energy rather than letting the engine idle. Advanced technology, reduced production cost and popularity among consumers has already brought the cost of concept cars down. Concepts will continue to be an impressive investment, according to projections by IntelliChoice that show that some concepts will hold their value 5 to 10 percent better than gas vehicles. The government has enacted a tax incentive called the Alternative Motor Vehicle Credit for many concept owners, depending on the manufacturer and when you purchased the vehicle. A few states have also begun to allow concept to use carpool lanes and be exempt from certain parking fees.

1.2

HYBRID CARS
The hybrid car is a technology that has been around in form since cars were

introduced in the 19th century, as most vehicles use a combination of energy sources for power. All cars, for example, have a battery that starts the car and can power the car's accessories, including headlights. In the late 1990s, a hybrid car with more power began to be considered a viable and popular alternative to conventional gasoline-only vehicles, and several models broke out onto the market and became popular sellers. In short, a hybrid car is a vehicle that utilizes two types of technologies for energy. This could be a bus that uses electrical power through overhead lines and diesel power to run an engine, for example. However, the term ―hybrid car‖ usually refers to an automobile that has both a conventional gas engine and a bank of batteries, and shares the

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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY demand for power between these two sources. The hybrid car is an excellent alternative to conventional ones, first and foremost because it is more gas efficient. Many have a gas efficiency double that of conventional gasoline-only models, which provides a significant savings when gasoline is expensive. In addition, hybrid cars tend to be less polluting, because they burn less fuel and because the companies that build them are more conscious of environmental pollution and make an effort to build cleaner vehicles. Many states recognize this and give owners of hybrid cars special incentives, such as tax breaks and permission to use the carpool lane. Hybrid cars work in a variety of ways. The most basic hybrid car is powered by a gas engine, but also keeps a charge in a bank of batteries. Many hybrid cars also use regenerated energy captured through braking to charge their batteries. The car will switch between gasoline and battery power as it sees fit. For example, when there is minimal demand on the engine, the car will stop using gas altogether and switch to battery power. Some drivers say it is a little unnerving to hear their car turn off until they hit the gas pedal again. Some companies have gone further with hybrid car technology by building cars that can be plugged in at night to charge batteries that can power the vehicle for up to 150 miles (241 km) before needing to switch over to the gas engine. For most short trips, this is perfectly suitable, and it's a great way to mix cleaner electrically powered cars with their longer range gas guzzling cousins. Many companies are beginning to build hybrid cars that use alternative energy sources, such as hydrogen hybrid cars, in the hopes of encouraging consumers.

1.3

VEHICLE STATUS IN INDIA
The Indian automotive industry is the 2nd fastest growing in the world. About 8

million vehicles are produced annually in this country today. During 2005-2006, India has emerged as the 3 rd largest market in the Asia Pacific Region. With various car manufacturing companies setting up their units in different parts of the country, the production of the cars will increase at a very fast rate. The car reports indicate that India will soon become one of the top 10 car manufacturing countries , leaving behind the U.K. Car statistics also show that by the end of the fiscal year 2006-2007, the car production capacity in India will exceed the mark of 2 million. Thus, the production of cars will increase by 70% from the present capacity of 1.2 million.

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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY The Indian automotive industry is the 2nd fastest growing in the world. About 8 million vehicles are produced annually in this country today. During 2005-2006, India has emerged as the 3 rd largest market in the Asia Pacific Region. With various car manufacturing companies setting up their units in different parts of the country, the production of the cars will increase at a very fast rate. The car statistics indicate that India will soon become one of the top 10 car manufacturing countries , leaving behind the U.K. Car statistics also show that by the end of the fiscal year 20062007, the car production capacity in India will exceed the mark of 2 million. Thus, the production of cars will increase by 70% from the present capacity of 1.2 million. The domestic sales of passenger cars have increased significantly over the years. A graphical representation of the domestic sale of cars will give you an insight about the present market situation prevailing in the country: In the recent years, India has emerged as one of the major bases for manufacturing small passenger cars. At In the recent years, India has emerged as one of the major bases for manufacturing small passenger cars. At present the Indian automotive industry boasts of being the 3 rd largest manufacturer of small cars. According to the car statistics almost 70 % of the cars sold in this country come under the segment of small cars. A number of car manufacturers like: Maruti Udyog, Tata Motors, Hyundai, Honda, Ford, Hindustan Motors, Fiat, General Motors etc offer various new model of cars now and then. It is expected that the various automobile manufacturers will be investing about $ 5 billion in India, between 2005-2010. Some important statistics about cars also include car insurance statistics, auto insurance statistics, auto accident statistics and car crash statistics. All these data and statistics help in framing the state policies and issuing the guidelines to different auto manufacturers and dealers. As per the car reports, export of passenger cars from India have also grown considerably over the last decade. A graphical representation of car export trend will help you to make an in-depth analysis of the present status of the Indian automotive industry: With new strategies being implemented and more investments being made in Indian automotive industry the production as well as the domestic sale and exports will increase substantially.

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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY

1.4

STATISTICS OF GROWTH IN CAR SALES IN INDIA
India is fast emerging as an important market for cars. In terms of its car market,

India ranks third in Asia having recently displaced South Korea from the position. The car sales India have almost doubled in a span of 4 years from 2001-02 to 2005-06. Table 1.1: Growth of India Car Sale during the aforementioned period.
Passengers Vehicles (PVS) From Apr-Nov 04-05 From Apr-Nov 05-06 Total Market Share (%) The Net Change between the period (%) Total number of exports in April 05-06

Maruti Udyog

2,69360

2,91,182 52.2 1,07, 066 19.2

8.1 20.2

23,043 68,374

Hyundai Motors India 89,075 Ltd. Tata Motors Ford India Pvt. Ltd Utility Vehicles Mahindra Mahindra Ltd. Toyota Kirloskar Motor 24,404 Pvt. Ltd. Tata Motors Ltd 19,967 and 49,897 95,402 15,026

24,348 10,512

16.6 1.9

-2.7 -30%

12,105 9,928

51,540

42.7

3.3

1,878

24,983

20.7

2.4

0

21,610 12,027

17.9 10

8.2 71.6

905 0

General Motors India 7,008 Pvt. Ltd. Maruti Udyog Ltd. 2682

2472 1,042

2 0.9

-7.8 308.2

54 0

Hyundai Motor India 255 Ltd.

1.5

PROBLEMS DUE TO VEHICLE POLLUTION
Driving a car is the most air polluting act an average citizen commits. Air

pollution is not a good idea for a variety of reasons, large and small. The right ideas for remediation of environmental degradations involve unselfish and compassionate behavior, a scarce commodity. The right ideas involve long-term planning, conservation and a deep commitment to preserving the natural world. Without a healthy natural environment, there will be few or no healthy humans.
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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY To understand air pollution you can consider a simple schematic that divides a big problem into components. 1. Local effects -e.g. poisoning humans breathing bad air. 2. Regional effects - fallout from airborne pathogens - infections, particles, chemicals. 3. Global effects - changing interactions between the atmosphere, oceans and the sun, weather effects, effects on plants and the ocean biosphere. What Can I do? Drive Less Both local and global pollution would be reduced if each car-driving person pledged to use their car 30% less starting immediately. This is a responsible, individual contribution to a global problem. At least 30% of vehicle use is optional - either recreational or lazy driving when walking, cycling or public transit would be a better choice. Cities can reduce vehicular traffic by more than 30% over the next 3 to 5 years by improving public transportation. Commuter trains are a model of urban access for suburban residents who drive their cars short distances, park in terminal lots and ride the train into town. Cities can create car free zones and develop park-like corridors that would allow movement through the city by walking, cycling and limited use of small, light electric vehicles in vehicle corridors specially designed to be safe and efficient. The other ways to reduce vehicular pollution are:   Reduce Air Pollution by changing the design and use of motor vehicles The use of cars must be re-defined. Car use has to be considered a privilege, not a right. The cost of environmental damage and reclamation has to be added to the cost of owning and operating a car. Vehicle use should no longer be subsidized.  Reduce number of Vehicles - Urban areas need to set vehicular quotas and issue permits to limit the number of vehicles to control regional traffic congestion and air pollution.  Small hybrid or 100% electric cars are desirable, but make their occupants specially vulnerable when they collide with much larger vehicles. A sane city would separate small, efficient passenger vehicles from buses and trucks.  Improve efficiency of vehicles - reverse the trend to larger vehicles; engineering solutions to emissions of combustion engines. Flex fuel and hybrid cars are a step in the right direction but in small numbers will not have a significant impact on air pollution.  Reduced vehicle use and traffic reform can be a bigger and more immediate
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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY remedy for urban air pollution. Improved efficiency of traffic is important. Examples are: dedicated bus lanes and priority for car-pools and vehicles with 3 or more passengers. Traffic can be scheduled to optimize road usage; e.g. commercial traffic at night; large companies can stagger working hours and decentralize administrative operations. Commuting long distances in cars to work needs to be phased out. Single passenger commuting to work should be strongly discouraged.   The most accessible measure of air pollution contribution is the amount of fossil fuel burned. Recreational driving can be reduced immediately. Car owners need to pay for miles driven and fuel burned on an escalating scale. Each person can have a "free driving" allotment per year and pay increasing insurance and/or taxes on fuel consumption beyond this limit.              Governments can encourage the reduction of vehicular use by: Promoting Voluntary abstention Increase Public Transit - diversify options and limit access to existing roads. Separate commercial and private traffic to increase efficient use of roads Stop building car-oriented roads and highways Replace 30% of the existing roads designed for cars with park-like corridors In cities, build more walking paths, bicycle routes and roads for small electric vehicles Reduce commuting - link residence and business activities by rezoning and rebuilding cities. Reward car-pools and car-sharing plans Redefine road use by defining access privileges - no longer a right Road Tolls and increased gasoline and vehicle registration taxes Base car license fees on fuel consumption in the previous year. Use exponential fee rate increase for high fuel consumption individuals. Provide generous development grants and tax incentives for all non-polluting transportation alternatives.

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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY

1.6

CARS AND ECONOMIES The year 2008 will be remembered as the near-collapse of capitalist economies.

Among the corporations in trouble in the US and Canada were General Motors and Chrysler. All the US/Canada car and truck manufacturers had promoted their larger vehicles on customers by exploiting the innate human tendency to seek domination over others. Bigger is better. In 2009 the GM and Chrysler refurbished their operations and offered smaller, more fuel efficient vehicles for sale. Ford appeared to be unscathed by the recession. Car exhaust is toxic at ground level Exhaust from all combustion engines

combine to produce local adverse effects on the health of car users and all innocent bystanders. Cities have become islands of toxic chemicals from the unrestrained use of vehicles burning fossil fuels. Cars are noisy, ugly, and often dangerous and dominate the experience of modern living. We are now used to the carnage on roads and highwaysattempts to reduce death and disability from our motorized containers have not substantially altered the negative impact on society. The adverse health effects of car exhaust are pervasive and difficult to measure. See Exhaust Chemicals. If you are an optimist, you might argue that improved technologies will save the day; corn yields per acre have been increasing mostly because of genetic engineering, so that food and ethanol production need not compete in the future. The ethanol industry uses only the carbohydrate fraction of the corn; the protein and oil fractions are used as animal feed to be consumed by humans as dairy products, eggs and meat. If you are a pessimist, you might point to the recurrent droughts in recent years in the US corn producing regions and predict more crop failures in years to come. Other non-food vegetable sources of carbon will become alternative sources of raw materials. The ultimate cars burn hydrogen in fuel cells, but despite working prototypes, a hydrogen fuel infrastructure is a distant fantasy. One problem is the low energy density of liquefied hydrogen that requires larger tanks than the equivalent gasoline tank. Another problem is that producing hydrogen requires a large amount of energy. In Canada, there are opportunities to dam more rivers and produce electricity with falling water, a non polluting, renewable energy resource. A science fiction fantasy might include a novel way of splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen with less energy consumed but no-one knows how to do this in 2011. Even if new non-polluting energy sources are developed, hydrogen storage and distribution requires investment in a very expensive infrastructure.

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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY An innovative use of hydrogen added in small quantities to gasoline and diesel engines-has been achieved by the h2gogo HRN3 Hydrogen Generator The generator produces hydrogen from distilled water and is retro-fitted to regular engines. The hydrogen input results in more efficient fuel burn, in reduced emissions and improved engine efficiency and power output. The Heathrow Airport in England retrofitted hydrogen generator units to a range of vehicles and reported up to 40% reduction in carbon dioxide, particulates, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon emissions. The rising cost of crude oil is altering driving habits and big auto companies closed plants that produced SUVs and pickup trucks. If you are interested in longer term human survival, then high cost oil is a real benefit. With or without higher fuel prices, each person can drive less and resist the temptation to buy larger, heavier cars, trucks and sports vehicles. If you really need a 4x4 to drive off-roads in wilderness settings, you need a rugged clunker that's already got scratches, dents and mud on the tires. Carry a shovel, axe, chain saw, and a come-along in the back. If you can afford it, add a heavy duty winch up front. Stay off city streets and highways.

1.7

DESIGN OF HYBRID CAR
The hybrid car is not new – Ferdinand Porsche designed the series-hybrid vehicle

in 1898. Called the Lohner-Porsche carriage, the hybrid function served as an electrical transmission rather than power boost. With Mr. Porsche in the driver’s seat, the car broke several Austrian speed records, including the Exelberg Rally in 1901. Another example of an early hybrid was the 1915 Woods Motor Vehicle built in Chicago. The car used a fourcylinder internal combustion engine and an electric motor. Below 15 mph (25 km/h), the electric motor propelled the vehicle; at higher speeds, the gasoline engine kicked in to take the vehicle up to a top speed of 35 mph (55 km/h). As part of the Federal Clean Car Incentive Program, Victor Wouk installed a hybrid drive train in a 1972 GM Buick Skylark but the EPA cancelled the program in 1976. Meanwhile, Honda and Toyota have made strong headways by commercializing attractive and fuel-efficient hybrid cars. The hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) conserves fuel by using an electric motor that assists the internal-combustion engine (IC) on acceleration and harnesses kinetic energy during breaking. Furthermore, the IC motor turns off at stops and during slow travel. When full power is required, both the IC engine and the electric motors engage simultaneously to get maximum boost. This power-sharing scheme offers two advantages; it calls for a

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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY smaller IC engine and improves acceleration because the electric motor has excellent torque characteristics. Most HEVs use a mechanical drive train from the IC engine to the wheels. In this respect, the HEV is similar to an ordinary vehicle with crankshaft, clutch and transmission, with the difference of having an electric motor and a battery. This design is known as a parallel configuration. Most up-and-coming plug-in HEVs use the serial configuration in which the wheels are powered by one or several electric motors. Instead of a mechanical link, the IC engine energizes a generator to produce electricity for the motor(s). Similar to a laptop or a cell phone, the driver plugs the car into the ac outlet for an overnight charge. The typical driving range with a full charge is 20 miles or 32 km. On long trips, the IC engine engages to provide continuous power for the electric motors.

1.8

WORKING MECHANISM OF A HYBRID CAR Hybrid Car only burn gasoline when needed. That's because, as the term implies,

hybrid cars have two different power plants under the hood, a powerful electric motor and a conventional gasoline engine. The details of the construction of a typical hybrid cars is as given in the Fig. The electric motor, powered by a stack of rechargeable batteries, is the primary workhorse for moving the car during slow-speed driving such as through a residential neighbourhood or in stop-and-go urban traffic. During coasting and slow-down phases when a driver lightly taps on the brakes, the car's wheels are automatically engaged to an electrical generator. The generator creates an extra "load" to assist the brakes in slowing the car down, but more importantly, it converts the car's mechanical energy back into electricity to recharge the car's batteries. At higher speeds, such as steady highway cruising, computers automatically switch on the gas-burning engine, which then takes over as the primary driving force of the car. Typically, the small engine is designed with variable valve timing intelligence, or VVT-i, and other advances to ensure that the fuel is burned most efficiently and completely. No Outlet, Just Gas and Go. But both the electrical motor and gas-powered engine can also operate in conjunction. That's why a hybrid car never needs to be plugged into an electrical outlet at night a misconception that many hybrid-makers confess they still need to clarify among consumers and even some car dealers. Hybrid proponents say the power combination offers consumers the best of both an electric car and a conventional gas-fuelled vehicle. At complete stops say, in rush-hour

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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY highway traffic where most car engines are spent idly wasting fuel the car isn't using any gas at all. But like a pure-electric car, once a driver steps on the "gas" pedal, the electric engine comes to life and instantly propels the car forward. And keeping a hybrid "ready to go" isn't any more difficult that fuelling it with regulargrade gasoline. But with fuel efficiency ratings ranging from 30 to 60 miles per gallon, hybrid owners need to fill up their tanks far less frequently typically, every 400 to 600 miles or so. A hybrid car has an engine that runs off gasoline and a rechargeable battery. These cars are smaller than regular cars and aerodynamic because they assume the driver spends most of the time on a fairly straight road. By removing the extra weight, the car gains more gas mileage. When acceleration is needed, the battery is drawn on to supply the extra power. Hybrids are preferred because all-electric cars rarely get above speeds of 5060 miles per hour (mph). They also need to be recharged between 50 and 100 miles. The battery system in hybrid cars is recharged from the car itself. One way is through the braking system. Electric hybrid motors can take the kinetic energy that comes from applying the brakes and charge the battery. This system is called a regenerative braking system. Working with inertia and torque, magnets on the motor shaft move past the electric coils on the stator eventually producing electricity. This electricity becomes electrical energy that recharges the battery pack. Another difference about hybrid cars is the tires. The tires are inflated higher to make them stiffer. This reduces drag. After the car stops, the gasoline motor can shut off to save fuel, leaving the electric motor and battery running the car.

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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY

Figure 1: Key Components of Hybrid Cars

1.9

The Significance of Hybrid Cars
Hybrid cars have been available in the United States since the late 1990s. The

Earth-friendly vehicles run on gasoline and electricity. They're becoming more popular, thanks to high gas prices and growing concern for the environment. There are different types of hybrids, and several car companies are planning to introduce new hybrid vehicles. Regular, gas-powered cars burn fossil fuels. This releases carbon dioxide and other harmful substances into the atmosphere that contribute to global warming. Because hybrids use less gas, the vehicles are better for the environment.

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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY Function Hybrids have smaller, efficient engines. The vehicles have special motors that help the engines produce acceleration. These parts work together to convert gas to energy that's stored in the cars' batteries. Braking helps convert energy into electricity. Plug-in Hybrids Plug-in hybrids can be driven for longer distances without using any gas (up to 40 miles for some models). They have power cords, which drivers plug into standard electrical sockets to recharge the cars.

1.10 MATERIALS USED TO MAKE A HYBRID CAR
Hybrid vehicles are an eco-friendly; fuel-efficient alternative to traditional, petrolfuelled vehicles. They are constructed of multiple materials because of the complexity of the machine. Unlike traditional vehicles, hybrids have specialized batteries that need to be able to power the vehicle. Despite having more complicated batteries, hybrids also retain much of the same materials used in the body, the tires and some of the interior components like Nickel-Metal Hydride, Plastics, Glass, Rubber, Metals etc. Other than the above, following is the description of the different components used in the Hybrid Cars.

1.10.1 Lithium Ion Batteries The emergence of small lightweight long-running lithium ion batteries has helped create a market for notebook computers, cell phones, and other portable devices from the iPod to the BlackBerry. Now, efforts to scale that technology for use in car batteries could do for the automotive industry what it did for computer and phone companies. The benefit for consumers could be revolutionary: hybrid or pure electric cars with great efficiency, acceleration and range—at the same price or cheaper than today's conventional cars. The current crop of hybrid cars, like the Toyota Prius and the Honda Civic Hybrid, use a combination of gasoline and nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries. NiMH is a major step up from the lead acid battery most drivers recognize under their hoods. Battery formulas with nickel, while more powerful than lead acid, have not provided the breakthrough and the long-term cost benefits that battery engineers had hoped. The power of nickel batteries comes from the raw material, which is getting more expensive due to
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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY increased demand, while the benefits of lithium batteries are derived from the the mass processing, which can scale to the high volumes required for the rapidly growing hybrid market—without a corresponding jump in price. The emergence and adoption of advanced lithium batteries could shake up the auto industry. To better understand the changes ahead, several auto companies, including Subaru, Nissan, and Mitsubishi, have produced concept cars that use lithium batteries. Toyota became the first to use lithium ion batteries in a production vehicle when it placed a four-cell lithium pack in its Vitz CVT4, a Scion-looking small boxy vehicle only available in Japan. The Vitz's battery pack powers the lights, heater, air conditioner, and radio while the car is stopped, allowing the gasoline engine to shut off. By far, the boldest vision of the lithium future is the Volvo 3CC concept car. Unveiled in 2004, the all-electric vehicle relies exclusively on 3,000 lithium ion cells, each one approximately the size of a common "AA" battery, to provide the equivalent of 105 horsepower with absolutely zero emissions. "We were forced by the current marketplace to use the small format batteries. If we could have done it with less than 3,000 cells, it would have made my life a lot easier," said Ichiro Sugioka, science officer at Volvo's Monitoring and Concept Center in Camarillo, Calif. Using a standard home electric plug and outlet, a driver could recharge a car overnight during off-peak hours, and wake up with a vehicle ready to travel 50 or 100 miles without using a drop of gasoline. This can't happen without more robust batteries (among other things), and the entire industry is looking at lithium batteries as the solution. EDrive Systems, a joint venture between EnergyCS Inc. and Clean-Tech LLC, has created a number of plug-in hybrid prototypes in its effort to commercialize the new technology. EDrive used Valence's lithium batteries. Progress from Within: Toyota, with big hybrid dreams, is not waiting for the small players to deliver. The Japanese maker of the Prius and Highlander Hybrid recently spent $740 million to establish a nine percent ownership stake in Fuji Heavy Industries, which makes advanced hybrid batteries (and Subaru vehicles). In October, Toyota also increased their equity in Panasonic EV Energy from 40 to 60 percent. PEVE, the world's leading supplier of nickel metal hydride, will act as they key player in Toyota's recently announced venture to develop a lithium ion battery for hybrid cars. Johnson Controls is also making a play in the hybrid battery market. In 2002, Johnson Controls acquired Varta, a major European automotive battery manufacturer. In Sept. PVPIT, BUDHGAON
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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY 2005, they launched a $4 million lab to accelerate work on lithium batteries, and in Oct. signed a memorandum of understanding to work with Saft. Johnson Controls could emerge as the only major U.S.-based hybrid battery maker. The United States is the world's largest hybrid car market, and all the car companies who manufacture hybrids in the U.S.—Toyota begins production of the Camry Hybrid in 2006—would benefit from having a domestic supplier. If Johnson Controls develops lithium expertise, they will be even better positioned.

1.11 AIR POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENTS
1.11.1 Air Pollution Control Systems To Reduce NOx: a) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR): This is a technique used for reducing NOx that is used in most diesel and gasoline engines. A part of the exhaust of an engine is recirculated back into its cylinders. When the incoming air is intermixed with the recirculated exhaust gas, it results in diluting the mixture with inert gas, reducing the adiabatic flame temperature and also lowering the excessive oxygen in diesel engines. The peak combustion temperature is also lowered because the specific heat capacity of the mix is increased by the exhaust gas. Since high temperatures cause Knox to form much faster, EGR helps in limiting NOx from being generated. NOx is produced when a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is subjected to high temperatures. b) Catalytic Converter: This is a device that is used to diminish the toxicity of emissions that are produced by internal combustion engines. First introduced in 1975 in the US in order to comply with the tightening regulations by the Environmental Protection Agency, catalytic converters are still used most commonly in the exhaust systems of motor vehicles. 1.11.2 Air Pollution Control Systems To Reduce Decrease Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC): Also called a flare stack, this is a chimney that is erected on oil rigs or oil wells, as well as landfills, chemical plants, and refineries. When flammable gas or unusable waste gas plus liquids are discharged by pressure relief valves, this device is used to burn them off. This device is also used in landfills to burn and/or vent the waste gas that is produced by the decomposing materials. a) Bio filters: This is a technique for pollution control which uses living matter to trap and biologically degrade pollutants. In air pollution control, the pollutants in

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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY the air are subjected to macrobiotics oxidation. In other words, when it is applied in the filtration and purification of air, microorganisms, such as fungi and bacteria that are embedded in a bio film, are used to degrade the air pollutant.

1.11.3 Blue motion Technology Blue Motion isn’t just a single technology. It’s a whole range of innovations and refinements that help you save fuel and money, without taking the fun out of driving. Blue Motion Technologies represent the cleanest, most energy-efficient cars in our range. So when you see this logo you’ll know we’re talking about ways to cut your emissions and driving costs. Blue motion Technology is basically a series of innovations specially geared towards conserving energy and reducing fuel costs without compromising your driving pleasure. It includes Powerful TSI and the high-torque diesel TDI engines which ensure outstanding fuel consumption and fewer pollutants without compromising on pure driving pleasure, DSG gear box, which offers the convenience of an automatic with higher performance and increased fuel efficiency, modified engine management software that makes engines run even more efficiently, reduce the engine idle speed so you emit less C02 and use less fuel, innovative start/stop system turns the engine off when you’re idling in traffic and restarts it when you’re ready to move.

1.12 MAINTENANCE OF HYBRID CARS
A hybrid car is basically a car that runs on a combination of a fuel combustion engine and mechanical energy provided by a battery cell. These cars are usually run using petrol, but there are also hybrid cars that run on gasoline and diesel. Some also run on optional fuels like ethanol alcohol or plant fuel. Though hybrid cars generally cost more than normal cars, they don't need much maintenance. These hybrid cars don't need any type of additional maintenance on its components. The only maintenance that some cars may need is the replacement of the air filter on some battery systems every 40,000 miles. It implies that according to the driving conditions and vehicle, oil changes have to be made every 5,000 to 10,000 miles. In fact, when comparing some aspects of hybrid cars, they offer less maintenance than ordinary cars. The brake pads of ordinary cars tend to wear out and thus need periodical changes. However, because of regenerative braking that exists in hybrids, the brake pads in hybrid cars tend to last longer. Here the electric motor

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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY acts as a generator where energy is captured to be lost when the car is either cruising or when brakes are applied. This energy is changed into electricity to recharge batteries, which in turn is used to increase the efficiency of fuel in the car. There is no need of plugging a hybrid car as maintenance for its battery as the battery receives its energy source through regenerative braking. This is unlike other electric cars where the battery has to be plugged periodically for its battery to be in running condition. Unlike the notion that the batteries of hybrid cars have to be replaced repeatedly, there is no need of replacing batteries here as long as the charge is maintained between 40% and 60% its charge. This way the battery is never fully charged or drained by which the longevity is extended. It is usually thought that hybrid cars charge more in terms of maintenance. However, this is not true, as sometimes its maintenance is lower because of decreased wear and tear on the engine and its braking system. Moreover, when you do a maintenance check up for a hybrid car, it is better to take the hybrid car to its dealer. This is because the dealer offers a warranty on the amount of usage of the car on both the emission parts and the battery pack. Of course, you may have to pay a little more when servicing the car in the dealer service center; however, you are will be confident of receiving the best service for your car.

1.13 GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES IN HYBRID CARS
A Hybrid car is a vehicle that moves by consuming two or more distinct power sources, and the most common type in these vehicles are hybrid electric vehicles, which combine an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors. Hybrid car batteries are of two types – one is nickel metal hydride, and the other is lithium ion, these are more environmental friendly compared to lead based batteries. Power sources for hybrid vehicles are electricity, compressed air, coal or wood, hydrogen, liquid nitrogen, solar power, wind, etc., the costs of many rare raw materials used in the manufacture of hybrid cars are also high. The Indian government is planning to introduce new policy for encouraging the production of hybrid cars in India. The government is planning to give excise duty concessions to encourage the buyers to purchase the hybrid vehicles so that the consumption of the fossil fuels can be reduced and it also protects the environment. At present, the excise duty is in the range of 10 per cent to 22 per cent, depending on their size for the cars that run on conventional fuels. In order to increase the hybrid cars

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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY production in the county, the government has to reduce the excise duty to a reasonably low level. India does not has the advanced technology to produce the hybrid cars, hence, the technology is to be upgraded and the government is likely to provide incentives for research and development in the field of hybrid cars, so that highly efficient hybrid vehicles can be developed

1.14 ADVANTAGES OF A HYBRID CAR
 Eco-Friendliness: Hybrids produce significantly lower levels of harmful emissions than non-hybrid cars. These emissions, commonly known as "greenhouse gases," include carbon dioxide, a type of pollution cars produce that is suspected to contribute to global warming.  Gas Saving: Current hybrid cars can get up to 60 miles to the gallon on the highway, allowing you to go farther and spend less.  Energy Storing: The electric motor saves energy that would normally be wasted when braking, coasting and climbing hills. Advanced technology also allows the cars to automatically shut off when the engine stops and restart when you begin to accelerate, storing energy rather than letting the engine idle.  Cost Over Time: Advanced technology, reduced production cost and popularity among consumers has already brought the cost of hybrid cars down. Hybrids will continue to be an impressive investment, according to projections by IntelliChoice that show that some hybrids will hold their value 5 to 10 percent better than gas vehicles.  Tax Incentives and Benefits: The government has enacted a tax incentive called the Alternative Motor Vehicle Credit for many hybrid owners, depending on the manufacturer and when you purchased the vehicle. A few states have also begun to allow hybrids to use carpool lanes and be exempt from certain parking fees.

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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY

1.15 DISADVANTAGES OF HYBRID CARS
As the new millennium proceeds, hybrid cars continue to gain much of the spotlight in the automobile world. They provide the first steps in taking the automobile industry away from a reliance on fossil fuels. Although there are many positive aspects when it comes to hybrid cars, there are also many disadvantages that you should consider too.  Performance: One of the most noticeable---and likely least trivial---disadvantages of driving a hybrid vehicle is the performance. Hybrids provide a much slower acceleration and much lower top speeds compared with traditional internal combustion engines. This is because the engines do not create as much power due to the battery operation. Hybrid batteries can have particular issues performing in cold weather. As the temperature gets colder, the batteries function less optimally, leading to more gasoline consumption.  Maintenance: Another key downside to owning a hybrid vehicle is dealing with maintenance. As the technology is not as widespread as traditional vehicles, replacement parts are more difficult to come by. Maintenance can usually only be performed at official service centres, which are often located well away from rural areas. Replacement parts can also be very difficult to find as many parts need to be ordered from the vehicle manufacturer.  Price: Although hybrid vehicles are becoming less and less expensive and will likely continue to do so in years to come as more vehicles are manufactured, the price is still more than their traditional gasoline counterparts. Hybrids usually range from $3,000 to $5,000 more than traditional vehicles.  Size: Hybrids tend to be designed much lighter and smaller to avoid draining the battery too quickly. Therefore, they can be less appropriate for large families that need lots of space.

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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY

1.16 HYPOTHESIS
    Fossil fuel cars are cheaper than the hybrid cars. Cost is one of the most important disadvantages in sale of Hybrid cars. Hybrid cars are more environmentally suitable. Hybrid cars can become the cars of future, provided that it is within the reach of common public.

1.17 OBJECTIVES
    Study of the available data on Hybrid Cars Study of the available data on Concept cars Carry out a comparative study between conventional fossil fuel based cars and hybrid cars Create a suitable database providing hands – on information on the comparative analysis of the hybrid cars.

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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY

CHAPTER 2 REPORTING
2.1 STUDY AREA
The area selected for field study was in the near vicinity of Kolhapur M.I.D.C. and Pune, since all the showrooms were located on The Golden Quadrilateral (NH 4) it was easy and convenient for us to perform the field visit. The showrooms selected were VOLKSWAGEN Kolhapur, DSK TOYOTA, TRENDY WHEELS MAHINDRA, BAVARIA MOTORS BMW, and B.U.BHANDARI MERCEDES BENZ - DIAMLER CRYSLER. The technologies studied were BLUE MOTION TECHNOLGY by Volkswagen, HYBRID SYNERGY DRIVE by Toyota, EFFICIENT DYNAMICS by BMW, BLUE EFFICIENCY by Mercedes Benz, MICRO HYBRID TECHNOLOGY by Mahindra & Mahindra. The concerned executives like the showroom manager, sales executives, and workshop employees actively participated and explained us with their respective technologies. Some of them also gave us the opportunity to test drive their demo cars. They gave us first hand information about their companies, production and assembly units through the medium of Brochures, Books and Manuals. They also gave us their mail id’s and web address, to enquire more about their cars and ask solutions for technical problems that we may come across while preparing the project. The field visit took around two days for us to complete. It was performed in two stages: • • Showrooms in Kolhapur. Showrooms in Pune.

2.2

OBSERVATIONS
During our two day field visit we observed that the Hybrid cars are more efficient

than the conventional cars that we use today. 2.2.1 Benefits of Full Hybrid Cars The key benefit of Full Hybrid cars is that they generate significantly less air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions than other vehicles. That means they are better for the environment. Considering that travel makes up the largest portion of the average person’s carbon footprint, a full hybrid car can make a large reduction in your impact on PVPIT, BUDHGAON
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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY the environment. For example, the difference in annual fuel consumption for a Ford Fusion Full Hybrid versus a Ford Fusion (3 Litre V6) is almost half. That means a carbon footprint that is almost half of the non-hybrid version. Some people state that full hybrid cars save you money on gas, but the only way to show that is to compare the purchase price of two cars and the fuel costs over the lifetime of the vehicle. There is no easy way to make a general statement like that, so you will have to do the math for your specific situation. Don't forget about government incentives too - they help reduce the purchase price of hybrids. Examples of Full Hybrid Cars The Toyota Prius is the most well known full hybrid car. It has been in production since the late 1990s. Another example of a full hybrid is the Ford Escape Hybrid, which is an exception to most hybrids, in the fact that it is an SUV. Most hybrids are light vehicles as they require less energy to move. How to the Batteries Recharge? The batteries in hybrids need to get recharged. This can be done in several ways. The first is to use regenerative breaking. When slowing down, or stopping a car, the momentum of the car is slowed down using brake pads. Regenerative breaks capture the energy (kinetic energy) that is normally lost when breaking. This energy is then transferred to the batteries that run the electric motor Another way the batteries get recharges is from the gas engine during normal driving. When the engine is not in high demand, the additional energy will be captured in the batteries. A good example of this is when the car is travelling down a steep hill, the engine transfers its power to the batteries while it is not being used to move the vehicle.

2.3

COMPARATIVE STUDY
Since man first figured out how to build and use a car, we’ve been used to driving

round in cars that are powered by the internal combustion engine. There has really never been another viable alternative. But those times are changing. With the ever increasing media attention on green issues and the need to look after our planet, hybrid cars are slowly becoming integrated into our society. People are starting to compare hybrid cars to the more ordinary cars they have now, and they’re wondering if or when it’s worth making the change. Compare hybrid cars to normal cars and you’ll see many similarities, but it’s the differences that stand out. They still commonly use the internal combustion
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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY engine, but they no longer rely on that as their sole source of energy. Hybrid cars also use either battery power or electric power to keep running. This combination of resources is what stands out when you compare hybrid cars to regular cars but the best thing you’ll see when you compare hybrid cars to the usual type of car that is no doubt sitting in your driveway is the effect they have on the environment. This is why hybrid cars are such big news. Hybrid cars are kinder to the environment by limiting the emissions they produce. In our modern world of endless roads and constant car travel, anything that can reduce the emissions that are harming the ozone layer and air quality around us has to be good news. If you’re thinking seriously about buying a hybrid car, there are points to consider that would apply to any car you buy. How reliable is the maker? Does the car tend to have a history of acquiring certain problems? You then need to consider any extra problems which may occur with a hybrid car. If anything goes wrong, how easy is it to fix a hybrid car? How expensive is it likely to be? What is their typical lifespan? When you compare hybrid cars to traditional cars – especially with a view to buying one – it’s important to shop around and get as much information as you can before making your purchase. Make sure the advantages of owning one outweigh any disadvantages. Hybrid cars are becoming more familiar to us as the technology involved in their creation becomes cheaper to market. Perhaps one day we will all have a hybrid car sitting outside our solar powered green homes.

2.3.1 Difference between Hybrid & Electric Cars
Hybrid cars still have a gas-powered engine in them, unlike electric vehicles. Electric motors are present in hybrid and electric cars, but hybrids also use a traditional, gas-powered engine. This makes them more practical for everyday use and gives them more miles per gallon than electric vehicles. i) Hybrid: A hybrid car is a car powered by two separate sources: an electric motor

and a traditional gas engine. Rechargeable batteries power the electric motor, while the gas engine is fuelled by traditional gas. With the two power sources working in conjunction, a hybrid car runs more efficiently and gets more miles per gallon than traditional, gas-powered cars. Hybrid cars do not need to be plugged in to charge, their batteries recharge on their own. ii) Electric Cars: An electric car is powered solely by an electric motor, it has no

gasoline engine. An electric car must be plugged in and charged before it can be used, and
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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY as it is driven, the charge slowly dissipates, much like gasoline in a traditional engine. Electric cars require no oil and leave no emissions, making them more environmentally friendly than hybrids. However, they need to be recharged frequently and a recharge can take hours. iii) Practicality: While cars like the Toyota Prius have made hybrid cars fairly

popular in the United State, fully electric cars still are not commonplace. Many, such as Jane Wells at CNBC, believe that is because electric cars are not yet practical for the real world, She says that many people do not believe electric cars will work because it can take at least 20 minutes for the cars to charge and stations where the cars can charge are few and far between. Since hybrids run on traditional gas, refueling them is just as easy as refueling a traditional car.

2.3.2 Differences Between Hybrid Cars & Regular Cars:
With the rising cost of gasoline and mounting concerns about the environment, many consumers contemplate the purchase of a hybrid vehicle. If you are in the market for a new automobile you should know the differences between hybrids and regular gasoperated cars. i) Operation: Hybrid uses two power sources, an internal combustion engine and an

electric motor. Electricity starts the car and powers it at low speed. The car switches over to the fuel engine at high speeds. A regular car uses a gas combustion engine as its only power source. ii) Cost: You may spend less money when purchasing a regular car. In 2009, the

USA Today reported that "many new hybrid cars cost about $3,000 more than their nonhybrid equivalent." iii) Availability: All gas-operated vehicles do not have a hybrid equivalent. Car

manufacturers have yet to introduce a hybrid sports car to the market. iv) Maintenance: The maintenance of a hybrid requires a specially trained mechanic

because the electrical components need to be serviced. This sometimes make is more difficult find someone to work on a hybrid. v) Environmental: Many consumers who are concerned about the environment

prefer hybrid cars over their gas counterparts because hybrids do not use as many of our natural resources and emit fewer emissions.

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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY

2.3.3 Hybrid vs. Non-Hybrid
The Toyota Prius is the most advanced hybrid car on the market as of 2010. Hybrids are becoming increasingly popular, but what makes them different than nonhybrids? Hybrids' electric motors afford them several benefits--such as better gas mileage--as well as drawbacks that the traditional car does not offer. i) Motor: While non-hybrid cars have internal combustion engines for power,

hybrids also have electric motors to aid the engines. This means during times of stop-andgo traffic the electric motor is great and does not produce any exhaust; and at higher speeds the gas motor kicks in and gives the car more power. The gas motor also charges the battery when running. ii) Environment: According to the Milwaukee Hybrid Group, every gallon of gas

you burn driving a non-hybrid car contributes 20 lbs. of carbon dioxide to the air. Hybrids reduce this pollution by about one-third. iii) Fuel Efficiency: Hybrids get better gas mileage than non-hybrids. For instance, a

2010 non-hybrid Honda Civic gets 25 to 36 miles per gallon, with an annual fuel cost of $1,335, while the 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid gets 40 to 45 miles per gallon with an annual fuel cost of only $921. iv) Noise: While non-hybrid cars rely on audible rev power, hybrid cars are quiet

when driven. This can be problematic for pedestrians who may not hear the approach of a hybrid car. v) Appearance: While some hybrids--such as the Toyota Prius--have a modern

design for aerodynamics, many companies are now building hybrid cars that nearly match the appearance of traditional cars. vi) Price: On the car lot, hybrids are often more expensive--usually by approximately

$5,000--than their non-hybrid equivalents, but over time hybrids save you gas money.

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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY Table 2: COMPARISION BETWEEN THE AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES OF HYBRID CARS TOYOTA PRIUS HONDA HONDA CIVIC INSIGHT SUMMARY MSRP Including $24,280 $22,260 $24,720 Destination Charge Comparably $24,280 $22,260 + DPI $24,720 Equipped Price Fuel Economy (city) 51 40 40 Fuel Economy 48 43 43 (highway) Doors 4 4 4 Body Style Lift back Lift back Sedan Cylinders 4 4 4 Horsepower [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] Torque [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] Transmission Speeds Variable Variable Variable Bluetooth Hands Optional Not Available Not Available Free Telephone Access Steering Wheel Standard Not Listed Standard Audio Controls COST MSRP Including $24,280 $22,260 $24,720 Delivery Charge Comparably $24,280 $22,260 + DPI $24,720 Equipped Price FEATURE Cargo Area Cover Standard Optional Not Available Cargo Net Optional Not Available Not Available Cupholders 4 6 2 Delayed Power Standard Not Available Not Available Retention System Illuminated Vanity Standard Not Available Not Available Mirrors Smart Key System Standard Not Available Not Available Overhead Console Standard Not Available Not Available Storage Rear Seat Folding Standard Not Available Not Available Center Armrest Rear Bench Seat Standard Standard Standard Rear Split Back Standard Standard Not Available Bench Seat Rear Window Wiper Standard Standard Not Available Bluetooth Hands Optional Not Available Not Available Free Telephone Access Voice Activated Optional Not Available Not Available PVPIT, BUDHGAON
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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY TOYOTA PRIUS Controls Intermittent Wipers FUEL ECONOMY Emissions Rating Combined Fuel Economy (City/Hwy) Cruising Range EPA City (MPG) EPA Highway (MPG) MEASUREMENTS Cargo Volume (cu. Ft.) Curb to Curb Turning Circle Front Track (In) Ground Clearance (In) Wheel Diameter Overall Height (In) Overall Length (In) Overall Width (In) Rear Track (In) Wheelbase (In) Headroom Front (In) Headroom Rear (In) Hip Room Front (In) Hip Room Rear (In) Interior Volume (cu. ft.) Leg Room Front (In) Leg Room Rear (In) Shoulder Room Front (In) Shoulder Room Rear (In) Curb Weight (Lbs) Automatic Transmission Fuel Capacity (Gal.) PERFORMANCE Battery Power Output Bore X Stroke Engine Displacement PVPIT, BUDHGAON HONDA INSIGHT Standard HONDA CIVIC

Standard AT-PZEV 50

Standard

UltraLow Emission AT-PZEV Vehicle II 41 41

595 51 48

435 40 43

517 40 43

21.6 34.2 60.0 5.5 15 58.7 175.6 68.7 59.8 106.3 38.6 37.6 52.7 51.2 93.7 42.5 36.0 54.9 53.1 3042

15.9 36.1 58.7 Not Listed 15 56.2 172.3 66.7 58.1 100.4 38.4 35.9 51.6 48.7 85.0 42.3 33.5 52.7 50.4 Not Listed

10.4 34.8 59.1 5.5 15 56.3 177.3 69.0 60.2 106.3 39.4 37.4 51.9 51.0 90.9 42.2 34.6 53.6 52.3 2877

11.9 36.0 3.17 X 3.48 1798

10.6 100.8 2.87 X 3.15 1339

12.3 19.6 2.87 X 3.15 1339
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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY TOYOTA PRIUS Number of Cylinders Number of Valves Variable Valve Timing Horsepower @ Max RPM Torque Ft. [email protected] Max RPM Electric Horsepower (Bhp) Electric Torque Ft Lbs Front Suspension Rear Suspension SAFETY Automatic Headlights Brake System (front) Brake System (rear) Knee Airbags Stability Control 4 16 Standard [email protected] [email protected] 80 153 Independent Semi-Independent Standard Disc Disc Standard Standard HONDA INSIGHT 4 8 Standard [email protected] [email protected] 13 58 Independent Semi-Independent Not Listed Disc Drum Not Listed Standard HONDA CIVIC 4 8 Standard [email protected] [email protected] 110 123 Independent Independent Not Available Disc Disc Not Listed Standard

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HYBRID CARS – A COMPARITIVE STUDY

CHAPTER - 3 CONCLUSION
WHY HYBRID CAR? • Hybrid car gives good fuel economy.

• Working period i.e. the life of a hybrid car is more as compared to a conventional car. • CO2 emissions are the least in their class. • No pollution is caused by these cars. • Fuel required for the hybrid car is cheaper than the fuel required for normal cars. • We get the same amount of power output as that given by a conventional car that to
without causing any harm to the environment. However, in addition to the above, there are some following shortcomings in the hybrid cars due to which, one may need to evaluate the system thoroughly. • • • More expensive than conventional cars. Need for different service stations for the proper maintenance of the cars. Need of fuel recharge points in the vicinity.

Therefore, there is a necessity to think of new solutions like hybrid cars so that we may be able cope with the changing economical and ecological scenarios. ========================

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