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Final Project

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PROJECT ON
“To study the reasons behind the Absenteeism of the workers” For MBA (HRM)

SUBMITTED BY:
Miss.Minaxi Nilkanth Shinde (MBA HR 2nd Year)

SUBMITTED TO:
Mr.Ratan H.Patil (Factory Manager) P.S.S.G.L Shirpur

Internal Examiner : Proff.Charul Surana (B.E. Elex,M Phil(Mgt) External Examiner : Proff. Umesh Gupta (B.E Elex,M.B.A) .

NETAJI MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE DEOPUR DHULE.

University : Sikkim Manipal University

PRIYADARSHINI SAHAKARI SOOT GIRNI LTD SHIRPUR,
Reg. No. DTA/PRG/(A)DH-7 Date: 18/02/1991
Factory:- Tande, Chopda Road, Tal. Shirpur. Dist. Dhule, (Maharashtra.) India. Phone .No.- (02563)255170, 255500,255800,259706, Fax:- (02563) 255773 E-mail:[email protected]

Founder Chairman - Amrishbhai Patel (M.L.A.) Shirpur (Dhule)

PSSGL/PER/4210 DATE: 07/12/2010

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Miss.Minaxi Nilkanth Shinde,MBA(HR), a student of Netaji Institute of Research & Computer Management,Dhule, has worked as trainee from 01/12/2009 to 30/11/2010 in our organization in the department of Personnel & Human Resource Development. During her period she has completed the project on “To Study the Reasons Behind the Absenteeism of Workers” in Priyadarshini Saha.Soot Girni Ltd,Shirpur,Dist.Dhule. She has been sincere, hard working & punctual in her work. We Wish Her ALL THE BEST for her future. For Priyadarshini Saha.Soot girni Ltd,Shirpur.

Factory Manager
Place : Shirpur.

PROJECT PROFILE

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
 To study the reasons behind the Absenteeism of the workers.  To study the existing organizational culture and its impact on workers’ behavior.  To study the scope of change in the organizational culture and its impact on workers’ motivation.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. Thus it refers to the methods the researcher use in performing research operations. In other words all those methods which are used by the researcher during the course of studying his research problem are termed as research methods. Research methodology considers the logic behind the methods that we have used in the context of my study and explain why we are using a particular method or technique and why we are not using others so that research results are capable of being evaluated either by the researcher himself or by others. The methodology of my study was descriptive in nature, which included surveys and factfinding inquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs, as it exists at present.

SOURCES OF DATA 1. PRIMARY DATA:
The primary data are those which are collected freshly and for the first time and thus happened to be original in character. There are various methods of collecting the primary data particularly in survey and descriptive research such as  Observation Method  Interview Method  Questionnaire Method In the project, Primary data was collected by using frequent in-depth structured interviews, questionnaire, day-to-day interactions and observations. SAMPLE SIZE- A sample size of 100 was taken to conduct the survey. SAMPLE UNIT- A sample size is selected from the various department. My aim was to check the job satisfaction of the staff members in the organization excluding managers, directors & vice president. The total strength was around 205 employees.

2. SECONDARY DATA
Secondary data means data that are already available i.e. they refer to the data which has already been collected and analyzed by someone else. Secondary data may be either published data or unpublished data. Usually published data is available in • • • • • • Books Magazines News papers Internet sites Company manuals Journals

Secondary data was collected by scanning through various books on the related topic, various websites on internet, company manuals.

SCOPE OF PROJECT
The scope of the project which I had undertaken at PSSGL covered the total workers are 4800 & employees that were about 205 in number excluding Managers, executive & managing director &vice president. 100 were the standard criteria for selecting the sample size for carrying out my survey.

LIMITATIONS
However I shall try my best in collecting the relevant information for my project, yet there are always some problems faced by the researcher. The prime difficulties which I face in collection of information are discussed below:1. Short time period: The time period for carrying out the research was short as a result of which many facts have been left unexplored.& only the pilot study could be conducted.

2. Lack of resources: Lack of time and other resources as it was not possible to conduct survey at large level.

.

INTRODUCTION

ORGANISATION PROFILE

A)

ABOUT THE COMPANY:-

The PRIYADARSHINI SAHKARI SOOT GIRNI (PSSG) Ltd. is a co-operative organization situated in Shirpur, District Dhule Maharastra. The PSSG was approved under eighth five year plan of the Indian govt. the Company was registered on 18 FEB1991. The foundation stone was laid in the year 1994. The company started its production in the year 1998 with 25000 spindles, which were increased to 141200 spindles, by the year 2006-07. At present the company is running with the capacity of 172400 spindles. The production process is fully automated and it is using the latest technology machines for its production. The PSSG is still in the expansion phase and is expected to increase the number of spindles up to 3, 00,000. The major part of its production is exported to different countries.

Presently the Chairman of the company is Honorable Amrish Bhai Rasik lal Patel, Vice Chairman is Mr. Vikram Singh Mharusingh Patil and the company’s Managing Director is Mr. Dhananjay Ramchandra Patil. The Co-operative was started for the welfare of cotton farmers who were exploited by the Pvt. Organizations and were under paid for their produce. The Co-operative works for the benefit of cotton farmers as they get the market and reasonable prices for their produce.

A) VISION : The motto of PSSG is “ JAN HITAM DHYEYAM”, which means for the welfare of general people and is the vision behind the formation of the Co-operative. JAN HITAM DHYEYAM. B) SOURCE OF FUNDS : Major part of the funds is raised through the contributions of the shareholders (both employees and other members), Co-operative organizations and the Maharashtra state govt. Sr.no. 1. 2. 3. SHAREHOLDERS Employees & Other members. Co-operative organizations Maharashtra state govt. TOTAL NO. OF SHAREHOLDERS 9820 170 01 9991 AMOUNT (in Rs.LACS) 222.48 37.84 2050.20 2310.52

C) PURCHASE OF RAW MATERIAL : The company strictly practices the purchase of standard quality raw material in order to compete in the International Market. The details of raw materials Purchased Are as: S.NO. YEAR TOTAL COTTON PURCHASED (in TOTAL COST (in Rs. LACS) AVERAGE COST (per

1. 2. 3. 4. 5

2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10

Quintals) 726896.42 683740.65 517543.57 591826.62 750758.36

15994.16 15190.58 13084.80 17245.83 24964.74

Quintal) 2200.34 2221.69 2528.25 2914.00 3325.27

D) PRODUCTION OF COTTON YARN:The company produces cotton yarn of different counts (quality) which has a good demand in the international Market. Sr.No. Production Type Production/Process done (kg) 1. 2. 3. 4. Cotton Yarn knitting Dying(cloth) Dying(cotton yarn) 16866699.00 672207.61 335876.50 104644.06 Average Production (kg) 46464.74 1851.81 925.28 288.28

F) SALES OF PSSG LTD. : The cotton yarn produced in PSSG is of standard quality and has a god demand in both Domestic and International Markets. Approximately 52.54% of the total production is exported. The sale figures of the last three years are:EXPORTS TOTAL TOTAL SALES SALES (in S.NO. YEAR (in Quintals) Rs.LACS) 1 2005-06 76942.07 6341.23 2 3 2006-07 26506.84 2007-08 8022.46 2947.41 869.53 DOMESTIC SALES TOTAL SALES (in Quintals) 77501.70 124710.77 149827.28 TOTAL SALES (in Rs.LACS) 8834.37 15365.19 17766.1

4

2008-09 116105.95

151.66

173262.15

20325.33

G) STRENGHT OF WORKERS & EMPLOYEES: Presently 4800 workers & 226 employees are working in PSSGL.

H) DEPARTMENT LIST OF PSSGL : There are 41 departments in PSSGL.1) Engineering 2) Maintenance 3) Production 4) Quality Assurance 5) T.O. 6) Account 7) Ginning PSSGL (prod) 8) Training-1 9) Administration 10) Civil 11) Materials 12) Security 13) Personnel 14) Marketing 15) HRD 16) Transport 17) Ginning(Dees an) 18) Way Bridge 19) Gin Maint. 20)Apprentiship 21) B/R 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) Carding RF Drafting & cleaning SL/RL Comber D/F S/F R/F Packing P.S.M. Ginning(P.G.) Ginning(Sillod) Godown Mixing Ginning(P.O.M.) Training-2 House Keeping Ginning (Mahacot) Agriculture Tr.Transfer IT

I)STRENGTH OF THE STAFF
Sr.No Name Of The Post 1 A/C Officer 2 Assist. Manager(DHQA) Numbers 1 1

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

Assit.HTK Assist. Excise Officer Assist. Manager(Lab.) Assist. Officer(Waste) Assist. Programmer Assist.S.K. Cashier Checker Chief Accountant Chief S.O. Chief Agri.Officer D.G.M. (Wet Proce.) Dy. Mgr.(Utilities) Dy.Excise Officer Dy.Mgr.(Dying) DYEING EXECUTIVE Dyeing Officer Executive Director Export Co-ordinator Export Docu Executive Fabric Merchandiser Finishing Officer Fy. Manager G.M. (Engg.) G.M.(Finis & Pack) G.M.(Material) G.M.Finance Grey Incharge H.T.K. Indus.Officer Jr.Geologist Jr.Officer L.W.O. Lab. Asst. Maint Inch(Auto Conner) Manager Manager (Engineering) Manager (Maint.) MD Mgr.(Fini.& Pack) Prod.Manager Prod.Mgr.(Prep) Project Officer S.O. Sales Manager Secretary Spinning Master

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85

Sr. Merchandiser. Sr.Manager(Processing) Sr.Manager(Q.A.) Sr.Marketing Manager Store Officer Tr,Officer Tr. Engineer Tracer V.P.(Tech.) A.S.O. Asst.Officer DGM Executive Grader Jr.Civil Egg. Lab Officer Mkt.Excutive Sales Co-Coordinator Shift Officer Sr. Officer Tele.Opt. Trainee Accountant Jr. Engineer Shift Incharge Driver Offence Asst. Peon Egg. Asst.Manager Dyeing Asst. Q A Asst. Sr.Clerk Supervisor Clerk Asst. Total

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 7 9 16 31 37 226

J)Process for spinning cotton yarn

CARDED YARN

COMBED YARN

GINNING

GINNING MIXING BLOW ROOM CARDING

MIXING BLOW ROOM CARDING DRAW FRAME

LAP PREPARATION &COMBING DRAW FRAME

SPEED FRAME
SPEED FRAME

RING FRAME WINDING PACKING

RING FRAME WINDING

PACKING

Ginning:- The company with long term foresightedness has included a cotton ginning &
processing composite unit with 48 Bajaj Double roller Gin with a capacity to gin 86.40 quintals per hours of seed cotton to give a lint out put of 28.80 quintals per hour & 24 Jadhav jumbo DR Gin with a capacity to gin 17.70 quintals per hours seed cotton to give a lint out put of 46.50 quintals.

Process: - Seed cotton Procured & stored from farmers are fed to the ginning M/C variety wise &
seeds are separated & the lint is sent to the lint house or directly to the press. There after the lint is pressed in to bales of 160 to 170 Kgs with the aid of heavy duty Hydraulic baling press. These bales are transported to Raw material Godown & storage places before being issued to mixing department of spinning mill.

Mixing:- Here 120 to 140 numbers of cotton bales are opened & homogenous stock mixing is
done. Pre opening done whenever necessary.

Blow Room:- Main function of the blow room is to open & clean the cotton. Opening of cotton
in to small tufts is carried out with the help of opening roller & beaters along with underneath gridsections. Dust & micro dust extraction is done by passing the cottons over perforated cages. In short by extracting out about 5% waste. Cotton is opened & cleaned & pneumatically conveyed to chute fed carding machines, cotton sheet/ batt is directly fed to the cards which is called as “Chute Feed” arrangement. It helps in eliminating material handling & to increase the production of Blow-Room as well as cards.

Carding:- Main function of this machine is to clean the cotton further by removing 4 to 58 waste.
In this process individualization of fibers is done due to carding action which is taking place in the wire points of cylinder & flats. Here we get clean cotton silver coiled in card cans.

Lap formation & combing: - Card silver contains long fibers as well as short fibers. In
combing process almost all short fibers & majority of immature fibers are removed out. Normally 15 to 20% waste is removed at combing. Obviously the quality of silver after combing up-grades. That’s why combed yarn is always superior than carded yarn.

Draw frames:- Here 8 silvers are fed drafting is done. In this process all individual fibers at laid
parallel to each other & uniform silver is obtained.

Speed frames:- Here draw frame silver is drafted & slightly twisted to form a rove to rove is
then wound on bobbin. In this process, weight per unit length of material is reduced.

Ring Frames:- This is yarn forming machine. Roying is fed in to drafting zone. Depending upon
the yarn count to be spun draft is applied. Then drafted fine strand is twisted with the help of spindle & ring & ring traveler & yarn is wound on ring bobbin.

Winding:- On this machine ring bobbins yarn are wound on cones & at the same time Yarn is
cleared to remove some major & minor faults & contaminations with sirocleane. Cone contains normally 1.0Kgs or 1.5 Kgs of yarn in local market. & 1.71 to 2.5 Kgs in export market. Wound cones are conditioned in Xorella yarn conditioning m/c prior to packing.

Packing:- Finally individual cone is put in the polythne bag such 40 to 50 cones are packed in a
Hessian bag for local yarn & for export purpose, sea worthy 7 ply carton packing is done as per the contract conditions of the overseas buyer.

Organizational chart

ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS OF RESPONSES OF MALE WORKERS

1) Working environments and conditions.

WORKING CONDITIONS

IMPROPER 27%

PROPER 73%

INTERPRETATION The study shows that 73% of the workers are satisfied with the working conditions and environment and 27% of the workers consider heat and noise as a hindrance in their work.

2) Satisfaction level of workers on their wages.

SATISFIED 32%

UNSATISFIED 68%

INTERPRETATION In our study facts shows that 68% of the workers are not satisfied with their wages and 32% of worker are satisfied.

3) Satisfaction level of workers on wage increment.

SATISFIED 31%

UNSATISFIED 69%

INTERPRETATION In our study facts shows that 69% of the workers are not satisfied with their wage increment and 31% of worker are satisfied.

4) Opinion of workers about wage deduction on leave

INCORRECT 46% CORRECT 54%

INTERPRETATION In the study 54% of the workers consider wage deduction on leave is correct and 46% of the workers are not satisfied with wage deduction.

5) Should company provide fixed yearly C/L?

NO 7%

YES 93%

INTERPRETATION In the study 93% of the workers consider that C/L should be provided and only 07% of the workers say that C/L should not be provided.

6) Opinion about overtime segmentation

UNFAVOURABLE 19%

FAVOURABLE 81%

INTERPRETATION The study shows that 81% of the workers consider that the overtime of 8 hours shift should be segmented, while 19% of the workers are satisfied with the existing overtime schedule.

7) Satisfaction level of workers on the seniority and promotion structure.

UNSATISFIED 44% SATISFIED 56%

INTERPRETATION In the study it was found that 56% of the workers are satisfied with the existing seniority and promotion structure, while 44% of the workers want changes in the existing structure.

8) Is apology letter an easy tool to get back on the job after uninformed leave?

NO 2%

YES 98%

INTERPRETATION The study shows that 98% of the workers consider apology letter as an easy tool to get back on the job after uninformed leave and only 2% of workers consider it difficult.

9) Preference level of workers on being accommodated within the campus.

NOT PREFERABLE 54%

PREFERABLE 46%

INTERPRETATION The study gives an impression that 46% of the workers would consider being accommodated within the campus and 54% of the workers think otherwise.

10) Type of training:

MULTI TASK 10%

SINGLE TASK 90%

INTERPRETATION About 90% workers consider the training being administered as single tasking and 10% view it as multi tasking training.

11) Would you prefer multi-tasking training?

NO 10%

YES 90%

INTERPRETATION About 90% of the workers would prefer multi-tasking training being administered on them, while only 10% think otherwise.

12) Any difficulties while working after the training:

YES 19%

NO 81%

INTERPRETATION The study shows that 81% of the workers do not face any difficulties while working after the training and 19% of the workers think otherwise.

13) Level of awareness about the benefits of P.F.:

AWARE 26%

UNAWARE 74%

INTERPRETATION About 74% of the workers are not aware about the benefits of P.F. and 26% of the workers have the knowledge about the benefits of P.F.

14) Level of awareness about the aim and meaning of Co-operative:

AWARE 31% UNAWARE 69%

INTERPRETATION About 69% of the workers are not aware about the aim of Co-operative and 31% of the workers have the knowledge about it.

15) Should uniforms be provided:

NO 3%

YES 97%

INTERPRETATION Majority of the workers (97%) feel that the organization should provide uniforms to them.

16) Communication with Supervisors/ Monitors:

IMPROPER 7%

PROPER 93%

INTERPRETATION The study shows that 93% of the worker feels that the communication with the supervisors and monitors is proper and 7% feel otherwise.

17) Opinion about supervision

NO 6%

YES 94%

INTERPRETATION It is clear from study that 94% of the workers are satisfied with supervision.

18) Reason for absenteeism:

OTHERS 26%

CONVEYANCE 8% FARMING 13%

GENERAL 53%

INTERPRETATION About 53% workers cited general reasons and 8%, 13% and 26% of the workers cited conveyance, farming and other reasons respectively. General reasons include – marriage functions, festival, illness & work at home Other reasons are – Conveyance problem, wages & urgent work.

19) Reason for not informing / asking for leave:

OTHERS 12% URGENTWORK 12% NOBENEFIT 28% NOTSANCTIONED 48%

INTERPRETATION According to the study 48% of the workers feel it as difficult to get their leaves sanctioned as the reason for not asking / informing for it, while 28% feel there is no financial benefit in asking for leave, 12% cite urgent work as the reason and other reasons are cited by 12% of the workers. Other reasons include – Boredom, conveyance problem & illness.

20) Common problem of workers:

OTHERS 24% CONVEYANCE 12% HIGHWORKLOAD 19%

LOWWAGES 45%

INTERPRETATION About 45% of the workers have low wages as their problem while 19% and 12% of the workers cited high workload and conveyance respectively and 24% workers cited other common problems. Other problems include – Medical problem and lack of facilities like C/L, canteen etc.

\

ANALYSIS OF RESPONSES BY FEMALE WORKERS

1) Working environments and conditions.

IMPROPER 23%

PROPER 77%

INTERPRETATION The study shows that 77% of the workers are satisfied with the working conditions and environment and 23% of the workers consider heat and noise as a hindrance in their work.

2) Satisfaction level of workers on their wages.

SATISFIED 29%

UNSATISFIED 71%

INTERPRETATION In our study facts shows that 71% of the workers are not satisfied with their wages and 29% of worker are satisfied.

3) Satisfaction level of workers on wage increment.

SATISFIED 29%

UNSATISFIED 71%

INTERPRETATION In our study facts shows that 71% of the workers are not satisfied with their wage increment and 29% of worker are satisfied.

4) Opinion of workers about wage deduction on leave

CORRECT 35% INCORRECT 65%

INTERPRETATION In the study 35% of the workers consider wage deduction on leave is correct and 65% of the workers are not satisfied with wage deduction.

5) Should company provide fixed yearly C/L?

NO 12%

YES 88%

INTERPRETATION In the study 88% of the workers consider that C/L should be provided and only 12% of the workers say that C/L should not be provided.

6) Opinion about overtime segmentation

UNFAVOURABLE 53%

FAVOURABLE 47%

INTERPRETATION The study shows that 47% of the workers consider that the overtime of 8 hours shift should be segmented, while 53% of the workers are satisfied with the existing overtime schedule.

7) Satisfaction level of workers on the seniority and promotion structure.

UNSATISFIED 29%

SATISFIED 71%

INTERPRETATION In the study it was found that 71% of the workers are satisfied with the existing seniority and promotion structure, while 29% of the workers want changes in the existing structure.

8) Is apology letter an easy tool to get back on the job after uninformed leave?

NO 2%

YES 98%

INTERPRETATION The study shows that 98% of the workers consider apology letter as an easy tool to get back on the job after uninformed leave and only 2% of workers consider it difficult.

9) Preference level of workers on being accommodated within the campus.

PREFERABLE 25%

NOTPREFERABLE 75%

INTERPRETATION The study gives an impression that 25% of the workers would consider being accommodated within the campus and 75% of the workers think otherwise.

10) Type of training:

MULTITASK 18%

SINGLETASK 82%

INTERPRETATION About 82% workers consider the training being administered as single tasking and 18% view it as multi tasking training.

11) Would you prefer multi-tasking training?

NO 6%

YES 94%

INTERPRETATION About 94% of the workers would prefer multi-tasking training being administered on them, while only 6% think otherwise.

12) Any difficulties while working after the training:

YES 23%

NO 77%

INTERPRETATION The study shows that 77% of the workers do not face any difficulties while working after the training and 23% of the workers think otherwise.

13) Level of awareness about the benefits of P.F.:

UNAWARE 35% AWARE 65%

INTERPRETATION About 35% of the workers are not aware about the benefits of P.F. and 65% of the workers have the knowledge about the benefits of P.F.

14) Level of awareness about the aim and meaning of Co-operative:

AWARE 24%

UNAWARE 76%

INTERPRETATION About 76% of the workers are not aware about the aim of Co-operative and 24% of the workers have the knowledge about it.

15) Should uniforms be provided:

NO 24%

YES 76%

INTERPRETATION Majority of the workers (97%) feel that the organization should provide uniforms to them.

16) Communication with Supervisors/ Monitors:

IMPROPER 7%

PROPER 93%

INTERPRETATION The study shows that 93% of the worker feel that the communication with the supervisors and monitors is proper and 7% feel otherwise.

17) Opinion about supervision

NO 6%

YES 94%

INTERPRETATION It is clear from study that 94% of the workers are satisfied with supervision.

18) Reason for absenteeism:

OTHERS 30%

GENERAL 70%

INTERPRETATION General reasons include – marriage functions, illness & work at home. Other reasons are – Conveyance problem, wages & urgent work.

19) Reason for not informing / asking for leave:

OTHERS 4% NOBENEFIT 18% URGENTWORK 8% NOT SANCTIONED 70%

INTERPRETATION According to the study 70% of the workers feel it as difficult to get their leaves sanctioned as the reason for not asking / informing for it, while 18% feel there is no financial benefit in asking for leave, 8% cite urgent work as the reason and other reasons are cited by 4% of the workers. Other reasons include – Boredom, conveyance problem & illness.

20) Common problem of workers:

OTHERS 25%

LOW WAGES 40%

CONVEYANCE 16%

HIGH WORK LOAD 19%

INTERPRETATION About 40% of the workers have low wages as their problem while 19% and 16% of the workers cited high workload and conveyance respectively and 25% workers cited other common problems. Other problems include – Medical problem and lack of facilities like canteen etc.

ANALYSIS OF RESPONSES BY SUPERVISORS & MONITORS

Methods of Efficiency & Performance Evaluation:

REPORT 17%

OBSERVATION OFWORK 83%

INTERPRETATION: The study shows that most of the supervisors and monitors (83%) use observation of the workers while working as the criteria for evaluation their efficiency and performance, while only 17% of the respondents said that they prepare a proper report of the workers’ performance record.

FINDING

FINDINGS AND IMPICATIONS:
1) While conducting the pilot study it was observed that the intensity of heat and noise was high in the mill and the cotton dust caused irritation, but when the workers were asked about the working condition and environment, ¾’th of the workers (both male & female) said that they get used to it and it does not affects their work. This implies that the working condition and environment is not a problem area for workers. 2) Majority of the workers (both male female) are not satisfied with their present wage level. The dissatisfaction about the wage level affects their efficiency and motivation to work. Most of the workers think that the wage structure is not proper according to their workload and the deduction like P.F. and Professional tax are not properly communicated to them. Due to the inappropriate wage structure that does not includes any of the allowances like T.A., D.A. The workers are not satisfied with the yearly increment in their wages. 3) Most of the workers feel that wage deduction on uninformed leave is correct but on the other hand majority of them (around 90%) feel that C/L should be provided to them. 4) Most of the senior / old workers are not satisfied with the existing seniority and promotion structure in the company, which is the cause of their low efficiency and productivity. This results in the improper utilization of their sills and experience. 5) Majority of the workers use apology letter as the easiest tool to get back on the job after taking an uninformed leave. This is also the reason why majority of workers do not inform before going on leave. 6) Majority of the workers especially females do not prefer accommodation on the campus due to their families and other obligations.

7) It was found in the study that PSSG is providing single task training to the workers, but most of the workers (both male and female) feel that they should be given multi task training and it would be beneficial for the company and the workers. 8) The training program of PSSG was found to be a good one as almost all the workers are satisfied with the training administered on them and said that they did not face any problem while working after the training. 9) It was found in the study that majority the male workers do not know about the benefits of P.F. and also about the employers contribution on P.F. on the other hand most of the female workers due to their enquiring nature especially in monetary terms know about the benefits of P.F. 10) The study shows that the majority of the workers (both male and female) are not aware of the aim and vision of the Co-operative. It was found that most of them did not even know the correct meaning of the word Co-operative. Because of this they feel that the company is an individual’s or is a pvt. Organization and they feel that they are being exploited. 11) It was observed in the pilot study that most of the workers do not follow the instructions of wearing caps and tucking –in their shirts while working, but it was found in the study that almost all of the workers feel that company should provide uniforms to them. 12) About the communication with the supervisors and monitors and the supervision (technical) most of the workers graded them as good. 13) In the study it was found that the worker who is the single earning member in the family is more regular than the others and taken the attendance incentive more than 2 times in the last 4 months. 14) It was found in the study that general problems and work like work at home, marriage and medical reasons were cited by more than 50% of the workers as the main reason of their being absent. Agriculture, conveyance, low wages and boredom at work were other reason in decreasing order of responses given by the workers.

15) The study shows that majority of the workers do not ask for leave because – A) The leave is not sanctioned to them. B) They do not see any benefit in asking for leave because still the deduction is the same. Where as other reasons were urgent or sudden work and illness. 16) The study shows that majority of the monitors feel that they do not have any role in performance and efficiency evaluation of workers and almost all of the supervisors do it by observation method.

SUGGESTIONS

SUGGESTIONS
The major area of concern for the organization is the absenteeism of the workers along with low job satisfaction and the lack of knowledge about the organization culture amongst the workers. The simultaneous implementation of the suggestions given below can help in overcoming the problems faced by the organization. 1) As the requirement of the workers is increasing continuously due to the expansion plans, there should be a separate H.R. department to specifically look into all the H.R. related activities.

2) SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVISATION IN THE RECRUITING/ SELECTION PROCESS – A) Proper filing of the application form to gain the information about the applicant. B) Background investigation on the basis of: • • • • • No. Of members in the family. No. Of earning members in the family. No. Of dependents on the applicant. Any occupation (farming or shop) in which the applicant is directly involved. Any other work experience.

C) Screening Criteria: • • • Preference should be given to applicant who has experience of working in related field The applicant who is the only earning member of his/her family should be preferred in the selection process. Those applicants who are not directly involved in any other occupation (farming or shop etc.) should be preferred. the

3)

SUGGESTION FOR CREATING AWARENESS ABOUT THE ORGANIZATION CULTURE AMONGST THE WORKERS:A) SOCIALIZATION PROCESS: Socialization strongly influences employee performance and organizational stability. The work performance of the worker depends to a considerable degree on knowing what he/she should or should not do. Understanding the right way to do a job indicates proper socialization. Every organization has its own unique culture .the culture includes longstanding and often unwritten rules and regulations. The socialization process helps the organization to educate its employees about its culture and the benefits it is offering to them. The new workers here are adopting the culture from the old and somewhat unsatisfied workers due to the non-existence of the socialization process. The socialization process will ensure the proper knowledge to new worker about the aim, vision and benefits of the Co-operative to which most of the workers are unaware. The values, norms and rules of the Co-operative and the benefits that it provides to the workers

are to be properly communicated to them to create a sense of belongingness and understanding of the responsibility and importance of their work. In the present case workers here do not know about the benefits provided to them by the Co-operative as P.F., insurance milk pouches, ration at subsidized rates etc. the workers consider them as only a deduction in their wages. The socialization process will ensure that they are properly educated and have the understanding about the culture and vision of the Co-operative and it will increase the belongingness of the workers to the organization. The suggested socialization process is as follows: Formal socialization in addition to Individual and Collective socialization process should be implemented as – • FORMAL SOCIALIZATION: - In the formal socialization program the management designs and executes the process. The formal socialization program increases the likelihood that the new recruit will acquire a known set of standards that the management desires. Here the process should be administered by the Training in charge and is a COLLECTIVE process i.e., a group of new recruits interact with the Training in charge and he/she educates them. INDIVIDUAL socialization will be more beneficial for PSSG. Monitor s and supervisors should individually interact with the workers and educate them to follow the organization culture.

B) SERVICES: Workers expect more than wages or salary from their employers. The additional services and benefits do not motivate employees to higher performance. However, there is evidence that the absence of adequate services and benefits contributes to the employee dissatisfaction and increased absenteeism and turn over. The company can provide services to workers as under: • SOCIAL AND RECREATIONAL EVENTS: - The management should offer social and recreational programs; it develops cohesiveness among the employees as well as commitment and loyalty to the organization. The programs will fill the void left by unchallenging, boring and Repetitive job. The management should organize sports events and also give the Opportunity to employees to participate in the planning and Coordinating of cultural activities.



COUNSELLING: - The management should bear the responsibility to counsel the workers on work related issues.Individuals cannot completely separate their life away from the job from their life on the job. Therefore the counseling practice is necessary and should be conducted here by the supervisors and monitors who can individually interact and counsel the workers in their problems.

4) SUGGESTIONS TO IMPROVE THE RELATEDNESS AND BELONGINGNESS OF THE WORKERS TOWARDS THEIR JOB: A) JOB ENRICHMENT – Job enrichment program increases the employees’ Satisfaction and lowers the absenteeism. The suggested Job enrichment process is: • • • Provide multi tasking training i.e., training of different departments. To increase the degree of autonomy. Take proper feedback based on workers self-evaluation.

B) JOB ROTATION – Job rotation offers a potential for dealing with the problem of general worker dissatisfaction caused by over structuring and boredom. It allows employees to diversify their activities and offset the occurrence of boredom; here the process of Job rotation should be periodic, horizontal job transfer i.e., transferring of workers in the skill level in different departments.

5) SUGGESTIONS TO MOTIVATE THE EMPLOYEES:A) PERFOMANCE APPRAISALS – There are three basic purpose of Performance Appraisals: • • • It can be used as a basis for reward allocations. Performance Appraisal can be used for identifying areas where development efforts are needed. As criteria against which selection devices and development programs are validated. In addition to observation method used here as a tool for Performance Appraisal, the management should set a proper check list based on set standards that should and can be uniformly used to check the workers’ performance.

Moreover there should be periodic tests conducted not only on trainees but also on regular workers. The suggested process to be followed for Performance Appraisal is as1) Establish performance standards. 2) Communicate performance expectations to employees. 3) Measure actual performance. 4) Compare actual performance with the set standards. 5) Discuss the Appraisal with the employees. 6) If necessary, initiate corrective action. B) REWARDS – In addition to the membership rewards in the form of yearly increments in salary there should be performance based financial rewards given to the workers. Performance based rewards motivate the workers to higher Performance and also reduce absenteeism. The rewards should be given o the basis of Performance Appraisal.

C) BENEFITS – In addition to social and recreational services the provision of benefits motivates the workers and creates an atmosphere of mutual understanding. Benefits such as:• • • • • Holidays (Important religious functions). Sick leaves. Provision of Casual Leaves. Medical Insurance. Provision of Bonus.

6) SUGGESTIONS TO INCREASE THE ATTENDANCE: A) BENEFITS AND SERVICES – It creates a sense of belongingness and motivates the employees. The benefits and services should be provided on the basis of attendance of the workers. B) DISCIPLINE – The workers here generally do not follow the rules as wearing caps and shirt tuck-ins while working. The company should provide them uniforms that will increase the sense of belongingness amongst the workers. The uniforms provided should differentiate the workers of different departments and should have a unique identification number, this will help in maintaining the discipline as it will make it easy to recognize the worker. C) COMPENSATION – Majority of the workers feel that they are not fairly compensated according to their workload. The management should revise the wage structure or compensate them by providing monetary benefits and other services

D) STRICT ACTION – Apology letter is considered as an easy tool for the workers to get back on the job after uninformed leave. There should be a provision of Strict Action as Suspension and Dismissal on the basis of record of absence of the workers.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books:
1. Aswathappa K, Organisational Behaviour, Himalaya Pub. House, Mumbai, (1991)

Publications of Organisation:
ANNUAL REPORT OF PSSG Ltd. FOR THE FINANCIAL YEAR 2007-08.

Websites:
1. www.pssglmills.org 2. www.citehr.com 3. http://pandc.ca/?cat=abraham_maslow&page=needs_hierarchy

APPENDICES

Questionnaire on Feedback for Absenteesm of Workers

1) NAME (optional):2) Department:3) Machine:4) Working environs. & Condition:5) Address:villagea) favorable

sex: M/ F married/ single

b) un favorable

distance from mill:-

6) No. Of family members:7) No. Of earning members:8) Any other source of income:9) Duration of employment in PSSG:10) Any other work experience:11) Wages: - a) satisfied 12) Wage increment: - a) satisfied b) unsatisfied b) unsatisfied

13) Is wage deduction on leave correct - yes / no 14) Should company provide a fixed yearly C/L: - yes / no 15) Overtime segmentation: - a) favorable b) unfavorable b) un satisfied )

16) Seniority and promotion structure: - a) satisfied

17) How many times have u taken attendance incentive in past 4 months:- ( 18) Reason for absenteeism: 19) Any penalties for negligence and uninformed leave; - yes / no If yes, type of penalty: 20) Reason for not informing before going on leave:-

21) Is apology letter considered an easy tool to get back to work after uninformed leave: - yes / no 22) Suggestion to reduce absenteeism: 23) Facilities provided by PSSG: 24) Would u prefer accommodation on campus: - yes / no 25) Type of training: - a) single task b) multi task

26) Would u prefer multitasking training: - yes / no 27) Any difficulties while working after the training: - yes / no 28) Do u know about the benefits of PF: - yes /no 29) Do u know about the aim of cooperative: - yes / no 30) Do u know about wearing caps and shirt tuck-in: - yes / no If yes, do u follow: - yes / no If no, why: 31) Would u prefer wearing uniform if provided: - yes / no 32) Is communication with supervisor / monitor proper: - yes / no 33) Is the supervision proper: - yes / no 34) Are there any performance rewards and/or punishments for workers: - yes / no If no, should they exist: - yes / no 35) One problem that affects u the most: -_________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

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