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‫مقدمة‬
‫‪Introduction‬‬

‫ﺑﺴﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺮﻧﺎ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺷﺎﻕ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻗﺪﻡ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴـﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜـﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﺪﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﳝﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺣﺮﺻﹰﺎ ﻣﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻜـﺜﲑ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻔﻴﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﹸﺃﻟﱢﻒ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺑﺪﺃﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻷﲜﺪﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﻘﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺻﺤﺤﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺿﻔﻨﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﻴﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺑﺴﻄﻨﺎ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ ﻭﻃﻮﺭﻧﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻭﻗـﺪ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﲝﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺟﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺧﻮﺓ ﺍﳌـﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﳛﺎﻭﻟﻮﺍ ﺣﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺍﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭﺍﹰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺮﺃ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺺ‬
‫ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻭﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﻛﻞ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﳍﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺮﺟﻢ‬
‫ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺣﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﻷﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻜـﺒﲑﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻌـﺎﱐ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻔﻬﻤﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻚ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻣﻦ ﳏﺎﺳﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻄﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻤﻞ ﻭﻻ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﺰ ﺍﳌﻘﻞ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﻠﻘـﺔ‬
‫ﺑﲔ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺭﺟﻮ ﺻﺎﺩﻗﲔ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻘﻖ ﻫﺪﻓﻪ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻃﻴﻌﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺃﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﲔ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﻍ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﲤﻸﻩ ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺘﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﻣﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻭﻓﻘـﺖ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺣﻘﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻮﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺟﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﺰﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻣﻼﺀ ﺇﺑﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﲢﻴﺎﰐ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻒ‪ :‬ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﳊﻮﺭﺍﱐ‬
‫‪Written by: Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻼﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻼﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﻳﺮﺟﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻹﺣﺮﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱐ‪:‬‬
‫‪[email protected]‬‬
‫‪[email protected]‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺯﻭﺭﻭﺍ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻌﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺜﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪:‬‬
‫‪http://www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪http://www.expressenglish.4t.com‬‬
‫ﻭﳝﻜﻨﻜﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺯﻳﺎﺭﺗﻜﻢ ﳌﻨﺘﺪﻯ ‪:Express English‬‬
‫‪http://www.expenglish.com/vb‬‬
‫المراجع‬
‫‪References‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﺳﻊ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻓﻨﻨﺼﺤﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬
‫‪1) An A-Z of English Grammar & Usage - Geoffrey Leech.‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﺳﻊ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﰲ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻓﻨﻨﺼﺤﻪ ﺑﺎﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬
‫‪2) http://www.englishpage.com‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﺳﻊ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﰲ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ ﻓﻨﻨﺼﺤﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬
‫‪3) Working with English Prepositions - Diane Hall.‬‬
‫ﺕ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺧ ﹶﺬ ‪‬‬
‫‪4) Life Line - Tom Hutchinson.‬‬
‫ﺗﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪5) .‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫الفھرس‬
‫‪Index‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ :‬ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ‪.Basics of English Language‬‬

‫)ﺹ ‪(٨‬‬

‫‪ −‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٩‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٩‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٠‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٤‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٦‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪) .–s‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٨‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪) .–ing‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٨‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪) .–ed‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٩‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٢٠‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٢٤‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٢٥‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٢٧‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٣١‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ‪.English Pronouns‬‬

‫)ﺹ ‪(٣٣‬‬

‫‪ −‬ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٣٤‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٣٨‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻻﻧﻌﻜﺎﺳﻴﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٣٩‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٣٩‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٤٠‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٤٠‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٤٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ‪.Auxiliary Verbs‬‬

‫)ﺹ ‪(٤٤‬‬

‫‪ −‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٤٥‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٤٦‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٥٩‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٣‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ‪Verbs‬‬

‫‪) .English‬ﺹ ‪(٦١‬‬

‫‪ −‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٦٢‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٦٢‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٧٤‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٨٢‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٩٣‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٩٤‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ‪Nouns‬‬

‫‪) .English‬ﺹ ‪(٩٩‬‬

‫‪ −‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٠٠‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺃﺩﺍﰐ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻜﲑ ‪) .a , an‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٠٠‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ‪) .the‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٠٢‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٠٤‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٠٦‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﲨﻊ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٠٨‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١١٠‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺇﻋﺮﺍﺏ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١١٢‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١١٥‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ‪Adjectives‬‬

‫‪) .English‬ﺹ ‪(١١٨‬‬

‫‪ −‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١١٩‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٢١‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٢٣‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٢٥‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٢٧‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ‪ :‬ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ ‪Conjunctions‬‬

‫‪) .English‬ﺹ ‪(١٢٩‬‬

‫‪ −‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٣٠‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٣٠‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٣٠‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٣٢‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٣٣‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٤‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ‪ :‬ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ ‪Prepositions‬‬

‫‪) .English‬ﺹ ‪(١٣٥‬‬

‫‪ −‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٣٦‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺑﻌﺾ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٣٦‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٤٤‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٥٠‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ‪ :‬ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ‪Voice‬‬

‫‪) .Passive‬ﺹ ‪(١٥٤‬‬

‫‪ −‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٥٥‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٥٥‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ﳉﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﻨﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٦٣‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٦٤‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ‬

‫‪) .Negative‬ﺹ ‪(١٦٦‬‬

‫‪ −‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٦٧‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٦٧‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٧٤‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﺑـ ‪) .never‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٧٤‬‬
‫‪) .have no −‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٧٥‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٧٦‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺸﺮ‪ :‬ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ‪Questions‬‬

‫‪) .English‬ﺹ ‪(١٧٧‬‬

‫‪ −‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٧٨‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٧٨‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﻲ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٨٩‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٩٠‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٩١‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﺬﻳﻞ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٩٢‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٩٤‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺸﺮ‪ :‬ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ‪Grammar‬‬

‫‪) .Additional‬ﺹ ‪(١٩٦‬‬

‫‪ −‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٩٧‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ )ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ( ‪) .Adverbs‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(١٩٧‬‬
‫‪) .all −‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٢٠٠‬‬
‫‪) .although −‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٢٠١‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٥‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

(٢٠١ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.another & other −
(٢٠٢ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.any & some −
(٢٠٢ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.as −
(٢٠٢ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.because , because of −
(٢٠٣ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.both −
(٢٠٤ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.Concert & Abstract Nouns −
(٢٠٥ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.Conditional Clauses ‫ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﻴﺔ‬−
(٢٠٩ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.each −
(٢١٠ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.else & also −
(٢١٠ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.even −
(٢١٠ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.ever −
(٢١١ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.every −
(٢١٢ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.get −
(٢١٣ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.here & there −
(٢١٣ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.home −
(٢١٣ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.-ing forms ‫ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬−
(٢١٤ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.instead/instead of −
(٢١٥ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.let −
(٢١٥ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.like −
(٢١٦ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.maybe −
(٢١٦ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.neither −
(٢١٧ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.never −
(٢١٧ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.Noun Phrase −
(٢١٨ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.over −
(٢١٩ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.Reported Speech ‫ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻮﻝ‬−
(٢٢٣ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.(the) same −
(٢٢٣ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.so −
(٢٢٤ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.still −
(٢٢٤ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.that −
(٢٢٥ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.there is , there are −
(٢٢٥ ‫ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬.too & either −
www.expenglish.com

٦

Omar AL-Hourani

‫‪) .Unreal Meaning −‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٢٢٦‬‬
‫‪) .Verb-ing‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٢٢٧‬‬
‫‪Verb‬‬
‫‪−‬‬
‫‪) .yet −‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٢٢٨‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٢٢٩‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ‪) .English Informal‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٢٣٠‬‬
‫‪(٢٣١‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ ‪) .Paragraphs‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪١‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺍﻷﺟﻮﺑﺔ‪) .‬ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٢٣٧‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﺸﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﺓ ‪.Irregular Verbs‬‬

‫)ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٢٤٠‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ ‪.Common Words‬‬

‫)ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ‪(٢٥٠‬‬

‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‪ :‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺆﺍﻝ‪ :‬ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ‪ :‬ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﰎ ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﹰﺎ ﻭﳓﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﲑ ‪‬ﺎ ﳎﺪﺩﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺃﻭ"‬

‫‪OR‬‬

‫)‪(A/B‬‬

‫)‪(A‬‬

‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪ A‬ﻋﻮﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ‪ B‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ‪ B‬ﻋﻮﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ‪ A‬ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪ A‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٧‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

www.expenglish.com

٨

Omar AL-Hourani

‫مقدمة ‪:Introduction‬‬
‫ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻧﺒﺘﺪﺉ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ‪ Express English‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﳌﺒﺘﺪﺋﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬‫ﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﻭﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﲨﻞ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﻭﺃﻱ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻬﻤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﰲ ﲝﻮﺙ ﻻﺣﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺃﺻﻌﺐ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫أحرف اللغة االنجليزية ‪:English Letters‬‬
‫ ﻷﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺷﻜﻼﻥ ﳘﺎ‪:‬‬‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ /‬ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ‪:Capital Letters‬‬
‫‪N‬‬

‫‪M‬‬

‫‪L‬‬
‫‪Z‬‬

‫‪K‬‬
‫‪Y‬‬

‫‪J‬‬
‫‪X‬‬

‫‪I‬‬
‫‪W‬‬

‫‪H‬‬
‫‪V‬‬

‫‪G‬‬
‫‪U‬‬

‫‪F‬‬
‫‪T‬‬

‫‪E‬‬
‫‪S‬‬

‫‪D‬‬
‫‪R‬‬

‫‪C‬‬
‫‪Q‬‬

‫‪B‬‬
‫‪P‬‬

‫‪A‬‬
‫‪O‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﲑﺓ ‪:Small Letters‬‬
‫‪n‬‬

‫‪m‬‬

‫‪l‬‬
‫‪z‬‬

‫‪k‬‬
‫‪y‬‬

‫‪j‬‬
‫‪x‬‬

‫‪I‬‬
‫‪w‬‬

‫‪h‬‬
‫‪b‬‬

‫‪g‬‬
‫‪u‬‬

‫‪f‬‬
‫‪t‬‬

‫‪e‬‬
‫‪s‬‬

‫‪d‬‬
‫‪r‬‬

‫‪c‬‬
‫‪q‬‬

‫‪b‬‬
‫‪p‬‬

‫ ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻑ ‪ A , E , I , O , U‬ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﺻﻮﺗﻴﺔ )ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ( ‪.Vowel Letters‬‬‫ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻑ ﻓﺘﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺔ ‪.Consonant Letters‬‬‫ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ‪ u‬ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺻﻮﰐ ﻣﺜـﻞ ‪" umbrella‬ﴰﺴـﻴﺔ" ﻭﺑﻌـﺾ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪" university‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ"‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٩‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫‪a‬‬
‫‪o‬‬

‫أرقام اللغة االنجليزية ‪:Numbers of English‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ /‬ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‪:‬‬
‫‪Zero‬‬

‫ﺻﻔﺮ‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪One‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪Two‬‬

‫ﺍﺛﻨﺎﻥ‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪Three‬‬

‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪Four‬‬

‫ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫‪Five‬‬

‫ﲬﺴﺔ‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫‪Six‬‬

‫ﺳﺘﺔ‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫‪Seven‬‬

‫ﺳﺒﻌﺔ‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫‪Eight‬‬

‫ﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫‪8‬‬

‫‪Nine‬‬

‫ﺗﺴﻌﺔ‬

‫‪9‬‬

‫‪Ten‬‬

‫ﻋﺸﺮﺓ‬

‫‪10‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺒﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪Eleven‬‬

‫ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

‫‪11‬‬

‫‪Twelve‬‬

‫ﺃﺛﲎ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

‫‪12‬‬

‫‪Thirteen‬‬

‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

‫‪13‬‬

‫‪Fourteen‬‬

‫ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

‫‪14‬‬

‫‪Fifteen‬‬

‫ﲬﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

‫‪15‬‬

‫‪Sixteen‬‬

‫ﺳﺘﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

‫‪16‬‬

‫‪Seventeen‬‬

‫ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

‫‪17‬‬

‫‪Eighteen‬‬

‫ﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

‫‪18‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١٠‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

19

‫ﺗﺴﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

Nineteen
:‫ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻮﺩ‬/‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‬

20

‫ﻋﺸﺮﻭﻥ‬

Twenty

30

‫ﺛﻼﺛﻮﻥ‬

Thirty

40

‫ﺃﺭﺑﻌﻮﻥ‬

Forty

50

‫ﲬﺴﻮﻥ‬

Fifty

60

‫ﺳﺘﻮﻥ‬

Sixty

70

‫ﺳﺒﻌﻮﻥ‬

Seventy

80

‫ﲦﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

Eighty

90

‫ﺗﺴﻌﻮﻥ‬

Ninety

100

‫ﻣﺌﺔ‬

Hundred

1000

‫ﺃﻟﻒ‬

Thousand

1000000

‫ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ‬

Million

1000000000

(‫ﺑﻠﻴﻮﻥ )ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ‬

Billion (Milliard)
:‫ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬/‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﹰﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ‬

‫ﺭﻣﺰﻩ‬

‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺘﻪ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬

1st

First

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬

2nd

Second

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬

3rd

Third

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‬

4th

Fourth

‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‬

5th

Fifth

‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‬

6th

Sixth

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١١

Omar AL-Hourani

‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ‬

7th

Seventh

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ‬

8th

Eighth

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ‬

9th

Ninth

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ‬

10th

Tenth

‫ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

11th

Eleventh

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

12th

Twelfth

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

13th

Thirteenth

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

14th

Fourteenth

‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻋﺸﺮ‬

15th

Fifteenth

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ‬

20th

Twentieth

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﻮﻥ‬

30th

Thirtieth

‫ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﻮﻥ‬

40th

Fortieth

‫ﺍﳋﻤﺴﻮﻥ‬

50th

Fiftieth

‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺍﳋﻤﺴﻮﻥ‬

51st

Fifth First

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺘﻮﻥ‬

62nd

Sixth Second

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬

83rd

Eighth Third

‫ﺍﳌﺌﺔ‬

100th

Hundredth

‫ﺍﻷﻟﻒ‬

1000th

Thousandth

‫ﺍﳌﻠﻴﻮﻥ‬

1000000th

Millionth

(‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻴﻮﻥ )ﺍﳌﻠﻴﺎﺭ‬

1000000000th

Billionth

‫ﺍﻷﺧﲑ‬

-

Last

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١٢

Omar AL-Hourani

:‫ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬/‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﹰﺎ‬
:‫( ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺍﺕ‬١
Twenty six

‫ ﺳﺘﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻭﻥ‬: 26

Thirty seven

‫ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﻮﻥ‬: 37

Forty three

‫ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻭﺃﺭﺑﻌﻮﻥ‬: 43

Fifty five

‫ ﲬﺴﺔ ﻭﲬﺴﻮﻥ‬: 55

Sixty one

‫ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺳﺘﻮﻥ‬: 61

Seventy four

‫ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﺳﺒﻌﻮﻥ‬: 74

Eighty two

‫ ﺍﺛﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﲦﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬: 82

Ninety eight

‫ ﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﻌﻮﻥ‬: 98
:‫( ﺍﳌﺌﺎﺕ‬٢

www.expenglish.com

One hundred thirty one

‫ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻭﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﻮﻥ‬: 131

Nine hundred eight

‫ ﺗﺴﻊ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻭﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬: 908

١٣

Omar AL-Hourani

Three hundred twelve

‫ ﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺸﺮ‬: 312

Five hundred eleven

‫ ﲬﺲ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻭﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻋﺸﺮ‬: 511

:‫( ﺍﻷﻟﻮﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﻟﻮﻑ ﻭﺍﳌﺌﺎﺕ ﺃﻟﻮﻑ‬٣
One thousand two hundred thirty five ‫ ﺃﻟﻒ ﻭﻣﺎﺋﺘﺎﻥ ﻭﲬﺴﺔ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﲔ‬: 1235

Three thousand five hundred twelve ‫ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺃﻟﻮﻑ ﻭﲬﺲ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺸﺮ‬: 3512

Fourteen thousand three hundred five ‫ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺃﻟﻔﹰﺎ ﻭﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻭﲬﺴﺔ‬: 14305

٣

٢

١

‫ ﺳﺖ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻭﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﲬﺴﻮﻥ ﺃﻟﻔﹰﺎ ﻭﺛﻼﺙ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻭﲬﺴﺔ ﻭﺃﺭﺑﻌﻮﻥ‬: 651345
١

٢

٣

Six hundred fifty one thousand three hundred forty five
٤

٣

٢

١

‫ ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻧﺎﻥ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻭﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻭﲬﺴﻮﻥ ﺃﻟﻔﹰﺎ ﻭﻣﺎﺋﺘﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺛﻨﺎ ﻋﺸﺮ‬: 2453212
١

٢

٣

٤

Two million four hundred fifty three thousand two hundred twelve

:English Nouns ‫قواعد األسماء‬
، Ali ‫ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻋﻠﻢ )ﻋﻠـﻲ‬، book ‫ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬، apple ‫ ﺗﻔﺎﺣﺔ‬، school ‫ ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ‬، house ‫ ﻣﻨﺰﻝ‬:‫ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬.(America ‫ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﺎ‬، London ‫ ﻟﻨﺪﻥ‬، Mary ‫ ﻣﺎﺭﻱ‬، James ‫ﺟﻴﻤﺲ‬
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١٤

Omar AL-Hourani

‫ ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﻌﺮﻑ ﺃﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻟﻼﺳﻢ ﻧﻜﺮﺓ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ "ﺍﻝ"‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬‫)ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﲏ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﲏ ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪،‬‬

‫"‪."the‬‬
‫"‬
‫ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻟﻼﺳﻢ ﻧﻜﺮﺓ ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳـﺔ ﻫـﻲ‬‫ﻣﺜﻞ‪.(school , the school) :‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ )ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ( ‪the school :‬‬

‫‪,‬‬

‫ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ )ﺃﻱ ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ( ‪school :‬‬

‫‪."a‬‬
‫ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻜﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻫﻲ "‪a , an‬‬‫"ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ"‬
‫ﺱ‪ /‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ‪ a‬ﻭ ‪an‬؟‬
‫ﺝ‪ /‬ﻧﻀﻊ "‪ "a‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﻭﻧﻀﻊ "‪ "an‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺻﻮﰐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ‪ ، a school‬ﺗﻔﺎﺣﺔ ‪an apple‬‬
‫ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ‬

‫ﺣﺮﻑ ﺻﻮﰐ‬

‫ ﻻ ﺗﻀﺎﻑ ﺃﺩﺍﰐ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻜﲑ ‪ a , an‬ﻟﻸﲰﺎﺀ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﺀ ‪ ، water‬ﺳﻜﺮ ‪" sugar‬ﺗﺪﺭﺱ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪I drink a water.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ )ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺷﺮﺏ ﻣﺎ ًﺀ(‬

‫‪I drink water.‬‬

‫ﺟـﻤـﻊ ﺍﻷﺳـﻤـﺎﺀ‬
‫ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﺜﲎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﲨﻊ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬‫‪school  schools‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺗ‪‬ﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺣﺮﻑ "‪ "s‬ﻵﺧﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭﺱ ‪school‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٥‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺱ‪ /‬ﺍﲨﻊ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﻄﲑ ‪ ، fly‬ﺃﺗﻮﺑﻴﺲ ‪bus‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ %٩٠ /‬ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫‪bus  buss , fly  flys‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺧﻄﺄ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫﻮ‪:‬‬
‫‪buses , flies‬‬
‫"ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺸﺮﺡ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ"‬
‫ ﻻ ﺗﻀﺎﻑ ﺃﺩﺍﰐ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻜﲑ ‪ a , an‬ﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ‪.‬‬‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪I bought a toys.‬‬

‫ﺖ ﺃﻟﻌﺎﺑﹰﺎ(‬
‫ﺻﺢ )ﺃﻧﺎ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻳ ‪‬‬

‫‪I bought toys.‬‬

‫‪:English Verb‬‬
‫قواعد األفعال ‪Verbs‬‬
‫ ﻛﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻟﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺗﺼﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﻫﻢ‪:‬‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ "ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ" ‪ - V1‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ "ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ" ‪ - V2‬ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ "ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ" ‪.V3‬‬
‫‪Present (V1) - Past (V2) - Past Participle (V3).‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺿﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟـﺚ ﻓﻴﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ "ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ"‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺴﻤﲔ ﳘﺎ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﺓ ‪:Regular Verbs‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻔﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳـﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌـﻞ ﺇﱃ‬
‫"‪ ."ed‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "ﻳﻠﻌﺐ"‪:‬‬
‫"‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﻵﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬
‫‪play - played‬‬
‫‪play‬‬
‫‪- played‬‬
‫‪ed‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٦‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﺓ ‪Irregular Verbs‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﺓ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﻐﲑ ﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲢﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "ﻳﺄﻛﻞ"‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "ﻳﺸﺮﺏ" ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "ﳚﺮﺡ"‪:‬‬
‫‪eat - ate - eaten‬‬
‫‪drink - drank - drunk‬‬
‫‪hurt - hurt - hurt‬‬
‫"ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻔﻆ"‬
‫ ﻛﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻟﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺯﻣﻨﺔ ﻫﻢ‪:‬‬‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ‪:Past‬‬
‫ﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﺲ ‪ ،‬ﹶﻟ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺟ ﹶﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺙ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﹶﺃ ﹶﻛ ﹶﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺷ ﹺﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺻﻒ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺣ ‪‬ﺪ ﹶ‬‫‪ ،"ed‬ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ‬
‫ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻠﻬﻢ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻵﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "‪ed‬‬‫ﺃﻓﻌﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻏﲑ ﺷﺎﺫﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ ‪.Regular Verbs‬‬
‫ﺱ‪ /‬ﺣﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺃﻓﻌﺎ ﹰﻻ ﺷﺎﺫﺓ‪ :‬ﻳﺒﻜﻲ ‪ ، Cry‬ﳛﺐ ‪Love‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ %٩٠ /‬ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫‪Love  Loveed , Cry  Cryed‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺧﻄﺄ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫﻮ‪:‬‬
‫ﺑﻜﻰ ‪Cried‬‬

‫‪،‬‬

‫ﺣﺐ‪Loved ‬‬

‫"ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺸﺮﺡ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ"‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺭﻉ ‪:Present‬‬
‫ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ "ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ" ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﻠﻌـﺐ ‪ ، play‬ﻳﺸـﺮﺏ‬‫‪ ، drink‬ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ‪ ، eat‬ﳚﻠﺲ ‪.sit‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٧‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ‪:Imperative‬‬
‫ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ "ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ" ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﺐ ‪ ، play‬ﺍﺷﺮﺏ ‪، drink‬‬‫ﻛﹸﻞ ‪ ، eat‬ﺍﺟﻠﺲ ‪.sit‬‬
‫قواعد إضافة ‪:-s‬‬
‫ ﺗﻀﺎﻑ "‪ "-s‬ﻟﻸﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ﻓﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﲨﻌﹰﺎ‪.‬‬‫ ﺗﻀﺎﻑ "‪ "-s‬ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻓﻘـﻂ "ﺗـﺪﺭﺱ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ"‪.‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ "‪ "z‬ﺃﻭ "‪ "sh‬ﺃﻭ "‪ "ch‬ﺃﻭ "‪ "s‬ﺃﻭ "‪ "ss‬ﺃﻭ "‪:"x‬‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -s‬ﻟﻠﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻧﻀﻴﻒ ‪ -es‬ﻋﻮﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ‪ .-s‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﺗﻮﺑﻴﺲ ‪bus  buses‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ "‪ "o‬ﻳﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ‪:‬‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -s‬ﻧﻀﻴﻒ ‪ -es‬ﻋﻮﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ‪ .-s‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ‪do  does‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ‪ , Kilo  Kilos‬ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ‪ , Video  Videos‬ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪Photo  Photos‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻮ ‪Piano  Pianos‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ "‪ "y‬ﻳﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ‪:‬‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -s‬ﳓﺬﻑ ‪ y‬ﻭﻧﻀﻴﻒ ‪ .-ies‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﻳﺒﻜﻲ ‪ , cry  cries‬ﻳﻘﻠﻖ ‪worry  worries‬‬
‫ﻣﺎﻋﺪﺍ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪Harry  Harrys :‬‬
‫قواعد إضافة ‪:-ing‬‬
‫ ﺗﻀﺎﻑ "‪ "-ing‬ﻟﻸﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪،‬‬‫ﺃﻭ ﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫)ﺻﻔﺔ( ﻣﻔﻘﻮﺩ ‪  missing‬ﻳﻔﺘﻘﺪ ‪miss‬‬
‫)ﺍﺳﻢ( ﺷﻌﻮﺭ ‪  feeling‬ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ‪feel‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١٨‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ "‪ "e‬ﻳﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ‪:‬‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -ing‬ﳓﺬﻑ ‪ e‬ﻭﻧﻀﻴﻒ ‪ .-ing‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﺄﰐ ‪come  coming‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪be  being‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ "‪:"ie‬‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -ing‬ﳓﺬﻑ ‪ ie‬ﻭﻧﻀﻴﻒ ‪ .-ying‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﻜﺬﺏ ‪lie  lying‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﲝﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ‪ +‬ﺣﺮﻑ ﺻﻮﰐ ‪ +‬ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻄ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﺧـﲑ ﻣـﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -ing‬ﻣﺸﺪﺩ "ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻔﻆ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -ing‬ﻧﻀﻌ‪‬ﻒ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﰒ ﻧﻀﻴﻒ ‪ .-ing‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﳜﻄﻂ ‪ , plan  planning‬ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ‪ , stop  stopping‬ﳚﺮﻱ ‪run  running‬‬
‫قواعد إضافة ‪:-ed‬‬
‫ ﺗﻀﺎﻑ "‪ "-ed‬ﻟﻸﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‬‫ﻭﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ "‪:"e‬‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -ed‬ﳓﺬﻑ ‪ e‬ﻭﻧﻀﻴﻒ ‪ .-ed‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ‪ , like  liked‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ‪use  used‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ "‪ "y‬ﻳﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ‪:‬‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -ed‬ﳓﺬﻑ ‪ y‬ﻭﻧﻀﻴﻒ ‪ .-ied‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﺪﺭﺱ ‪study  studied‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ "‪ "w‬ﺃﻭ "‪ "y‬ﻳﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺻﻮﰐ‪:‬‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -ed‬ﻻ ﳓﺬﻑ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻭﻻ ﻧﻀ‪‬ﻌﻒ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺳﻮﺍ ‪ ed‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﺣﱴ ﻟﻮ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﰐ ﺣﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻛﻦ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ‪play  played‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﲝﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ‪ +‬ﺣﺮﻑ ﺻﻮﰐ ‪ +‬ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻧ ﹾﻄ ‪‬ﻖ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﺧـﲑ ﻣـﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -ed‬ﻣﺸﺪﺩ "ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻔﻆ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -ed‬ﻧﻀﻌ‪‬ﻒ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﰒ ﻧﻀﻴﻒ ‪ .-ed‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﳜﻄﻂ ‪ , plan  planned‬ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ‪stop  stopped‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١٩‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫جملة اللغة االنجليزية‪:‬‬
‫ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﻭﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﲨﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﺛﻨﺘﺎﻥ ﳘﺎ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﲰﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜـﻦ ﰲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻫﻲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺗﺘﺄﻟﻒ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ‪:‬‬‫‪Verb.1 + Object‬‬
‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫"ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ"‬

‫‪Subject‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬

‫ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ‪ Object‬ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻇﺮﻑ‪.‬‬‫ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺫﻛﻲ‪" .‬ﺻﻔﺔ"‬

‫‪He is smart.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺒﲎ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‪" .‬ﻇﺮﻑ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ"‬

‫‪The building is there.‬‬

‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ‪ ، He‬ﻫﻲ ‪ ، She‬ﻏﲑ ﻋﺎﻗﻞ ‪ ، It‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪:‬‬‫ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﻵﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ "‪ "s‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪.s‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪ :‬ﺃﻧﺖ ‪ ، You‬ﳓﻦ ‪ ، We‬ﻫﻢ‪،‬ﻫﻦ ‪ ، They‬ﺃﻧﺎ ‪ ، I‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ‪:‬‬‫ﻻ ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫‪ (١‬ﺟﻮﻥ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﺟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪ :‬ﺟﻮﻥ "‪ ، "John‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﺄﻛﻞ "‪ ، "eat‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺡ "‪."apples‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٢٠‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﻥ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺡ‪.‬‬

‫‪John eats apples.‬‬

‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ "‪ "s‬ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ ‪ eat‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ "ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪ :‬ﺟﻮﻥ ‪."John‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻫﻢ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻮﻥ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻮﻥ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪  .‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺿﻤﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﺘﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻩ "ﻫﻢ"‬

‫ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪ :‬ﻫﻢ "‪ ، "They‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻮﻥ "‪ ، "play‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ "‪."football‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻢ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻮﻥ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪They play football.‬‬

‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﻫﻨﺎ ﱂ ﻧﻀﻊ "‪ "s‬ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ ‪ play‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ "ﻫﻢ ‪."They‬‬
‫ﱂ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ ﻟﻼﺳﻢ ‪ football‬ﻷﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ "ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼـﻴﻞ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻂ ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻂ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ‪.‬‬

‫ـﺎﺭﻉ‬
‫ـﻪ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸـ‬
‫ـﻮﻝ ﺑـ‬
‫ـﺐ "‪ ، "play‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻌـ‬
‫ـﻞ‪ :‬ﺗﻠﻌـ‬
‫ـﻂ "‪ ، "The cats‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌـ‬
‫ـﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﻄـ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋـ‬
‫"‪."in street‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻂ ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ "ﺃﻱ ﺷﺎﺭﻉ ﺩﻭﻥ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ"‪.‬‬

‫‪The cats play in a street.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻂ ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ "ﺷﺎﺭﻉ ﻣﻌﲔ"‪.‬‬

‫‪The cats play in the street.‬‬

‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﻫﻨﺎ ﱂ ﻧﻀﻊ "‪ "s‬ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ ‪ play‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ "ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٤‬ﻫﻮ ﻳﺸﺮﺏ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﻳﺸﺮﺏ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪  .‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺿﻤﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﺘﺮ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻩ "ﻫﻮ"‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ "‪ "He‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ :‬ﻳﺸﺮﺏ "‪ "drink‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﺀ "‪"water‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺸﺮﺏ ﻣﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪He drinks water.‬‬

‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ ‪ s‬ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ ‪ drink‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ "ﻫﻮ ‪."He‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ‪ water‬ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﱂ ﻧﻀﻊ ﻟﻪ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻜﲑ ‪.a‬‬
‫ ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻓﻴﺼﺎﻍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬‫‪Object‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪Verb.1‬‬
‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬
‫"ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ"‬

‫‪٢١‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ‪:‬‬‫ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ‪ ، .‬ﺗﻨﺎﻭﱄ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ‪ ، .‬ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ‪ ، .‬ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ‪ ، .‬ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪Have lunch.‬‬

‫ﺍ ‪‬ﺷﺮﺏ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ، .‬ﺍﺷﺮﰊ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ، .‬ﺍﺷﺮﺑﺎ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ، .‬ﺍﺷﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪ ، .‬ﺍﺷﺮﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪Drink water.‬‬

‫ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ، .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ، .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ، .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪﻭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ، .‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫‪Be sure of that.‬‬
‫‪Be careful.‬‬
‫ﻛ ‪‬ﻦ ﺣﺬﺭﹰﺍ‪ ، .‬ﻛﻮﱐ ﺣﺬﺭﺓ‪ ، .‬ﻛﻮﻧﺎ ﺣﺬﺭﻳ‪‬ﻦ‪ ، .‬ﻛﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﺣﺬﺭﻳﻦ‪ ، .‬ﻛﻦ‪ ‬ﺣﺬﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﻄﲏ ﺇﻳﺎﻩ‪.‬‬

‫‪Give it to me.‬‬

‫ﺃﻋﻄﲏ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ‪.‬‬

‫‪Give me the pen‬‬

‫ﺖ ﺍﺫﻫﱯ‪ ، .‬ﺃﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺍﺫﻫﺒﺎ‪ ، .‬ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﺍﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ‪ ، .‬ﺃﻧﱳ ﺍﺫﻫﱭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﺍﺫﻫﺐ‪ ، .‬ﺃﻧ ‪‬‬

‫‪You go‬‬

‫ﺍﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎﺗﺮﻳﺪ‪ ، .‬ﺍﻓﻌﻠﻲ ﻣﺎﺗﺮﻳﺪﻳﻦ‪ ، .‬ﺍﻓﻌﻼ ﻣﺎﺗﺮﻳﺪﺍﻥ‪ ، .‬ﺍﻓﻌﻠﻮﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﻳﺪﻭﻥ‪Do whatever you want. .‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻧﻀﻊ ‪ Do‬ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪Do have lunch.‬‬
‫‪Do drink water.‬‬
‫‪Do be careful.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻠﻨﻔﻲ ﻧﻀﻊ )‪ Do not (Don't‬ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ"‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﺍﻵﻥ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ :‬ﻛــﺎﺭﻟــﻮﺱ ﺑـﻄـﻞ‪.‬‬‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﲰﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﲰﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳـﺔ ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻛﻴـﻒ‬
‫ﺳﻨﺘﺮﲨﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ؟ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﺭﻟﻮﺱ "‪"Carlos‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‪ :‬ﺑﻄﻞ "‪"a hero‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺃﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ؟ ﻧﻀﻴﻒ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﻫﻮ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ‪is  He , She , It ,‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ ‪are  You , We , They ,‬‬
‫‪am  I‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ‪ is , are , am‬ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ "ﻳﻜﻮﻥ" ﻭﻣﺎﺿﻴﻬﺎ ‪ was , were‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻛﺎﻥ"‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٢‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪Carlos is a hero.‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ ‪ is‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ "ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﺭﻟﻮﺱ ‪"Carlos‬‬
‫ﻼ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﳓـﻦ ﻋﻨـﺪﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺣﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪" :‬ﻛﺎﺭﻟﻮﺱ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻄ ﹰ‬
‫ﻧﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﳓﺬﻑ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ "ﻳﻜﻮﻥ" ﻓﺘﺼﺒﺢ‪ " :‬ﻛﺎﺭﻟﻮﺱ ﺑﻄﻞ"‪.‬‬
‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬‫‪He is  He's , She is  She's , It is  It's‬‬
‫‪John is  John's , Ali is  Ali's‬‬
‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻓﻘﻂ‪:‬‬‫‪You are  You're , They are  They're , We are  We're‬‬
‫‪I am  I'm‬‬
‫ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ‪:‬‬‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﻣﻬﻤﻞ‪.‬‬

‫'‪(You are/You‬‬
‫‪are You're) careless.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻂ ﲨﻴﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪The cats are beautiful.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﲨﻴﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫'‪The (cat is/cat‬‬
‫‪cat's)) beautiful.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﺫﻛﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪(He is//He's)) smart.‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﺫﻛﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(She is/She's‬‬
‫‪is‬‬
‫‪) smart.‬‬

‫ﳓﻦ ﺃﺫﻛﻴﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪(We are/We're‬‬
‫‪are‬‬
‫‪re)) smart.‬‬

‫ﻫﻢ ﺃﺫﻛﻴﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫'‪(They are/They‬‬
‫‪/They're)) smart‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ‪/‬ﻫﻲ "ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ" ﻛﺴﻮﻝ‪/‬ﻛﺴﻮﻟﺔ‪.‬‬

‫'‪(It is/It‬‬
‫‪It's)) lazy.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻣﺸﻐﻮﻝ‪.‬‬

‫'‪(I am/I‬‬
‫‪/I'm)) busy.‬‬

‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﱂ ﳔﺘﺼﺮ ‪ cats are‬ﺇﱃ ‪ cats're‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ "ﻗﻄﻂ ‪ "cats‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺿﻤﲑ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﱂ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻜﲑ ‪ a‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ "‪ "smart , busy , lazy , beautiful , careless‬ﻷﻥ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ "ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ"‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٢٣‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

:clock ‫كتابة الساعة‬
:British Language ‫ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬/‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‬
X:30
half past X (١
9:30
half past nine o'clock.
12:30
half past twelve o'clock.
X:15
quarter past X (٢
11:15
quarter past eleven o'clock.
22:15
quarter past twenty two "ten" o'clock.
X:45
quarter to X (٣
15:45
quarter to sixteen "three" o'clock.
21:45
quarter to twenty two "nine" o'clock.
.‫( ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ‬٤
10:32
ten and thirty two o'clock.
14:05
fourteen and five o'clock.
:American Language ‫ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ‬/‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‬

10:15
9:30
20:45

:‫ ﺗﻘﺮﺃ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ten and fifteen o'clock.
nine and thirty o'clock.
twenty and forty five o'clock.

"‫ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ "ﻭ‬:‫ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬and ‫ ﻣﻌﲎ‬John and Carlos.
Carlos

.‫ﺟﻮﻥ ﻭ ﻛﺎﺭﻟﻮﺱ‬

He and she are smart.

.‫ﺃﺫﻛﻴﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺫﻛﻴﺎﺀ‬
.‫ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻷﻥ "ﻫﻮ ﻭ ﻫﻲ" ﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﲨﻊ‬are ‫ﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ‬

"‫"ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ‬
www.expenglish.com
english.com

٢٤

Omar AL-Hourani
AL

‫كتابة التاريخ ‪:Date‬‬
‫ﻳﻮﻡ‪ ، Day :‬ﺃﺳﺒﻮﻉ‪ ، Week :‬ﺷﻬﺮ‪ ، Month :‬ﻗﺮﻥ‪Century :‬‬
‫ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬‫‪ ,‬ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ )‪ , Monday (Mon‬ﺍﻷﺣﺪ )‪ , Sunday (Sun‬ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ )‪Saturday (Sat‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﺍﳋﻤﻴﺲ )‪ , Thursday (Thu‬ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺎﺀ )‪ ,Wednesday (Wed‬ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺎﺀ )‪Tuesday (Tue‬‬
‫ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ )‪Friday (Fri‬‬
‫ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ‪:‬‬‫ﻛﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ )ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ(‬

‫‪January‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫ﺷﺒﺎﻁ )ﻓﱪﺍﻳﺮ(‬

‫‪February‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫ﺁﺫﺍﺭ )ﻣﺎﺭﺱ(‬

‫‪March‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﻴﺎﻥ )ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ(‬

‫‪April‬‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫ﺃﻳﺎﺭ )ﻣﺎﻳﻮ(‬

‫‪May‬‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ )ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ(‬

‫‪June‬‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫ﲤﻮﺯ )ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ(‬

‫‪July‬‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫ﺁﺏ )ﺃﻏﺴﻄﺲ(‬

‫‪August‬‬

‫‪8‬‬

‫ﺃﻳﻠﻮﻝ )ﺳﺒﺘﻤﱪ(‬

‫‪September‬‬

‫‪9‬‬

‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ )ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ(‬

‫‪October‬‬

‫‪10‬‬

‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ )ﻧﻮﻓﻤﱪ(‬

‫‪November‬‬

‫‪11‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ )ﺩﻳﺴﻤﱪ(‬

‫‪December‬‬

‫‪12‬‬

‫ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ ﻛﺮﻗﻤﲔ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﲔ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺮﺃ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺭﻗﻤﲔ‪-‬ﺭﻗﻤﲔ ﺃﻭ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ ﻛﺮﻗﻢ ﻋـﺎﺩﻱ "ﺃﻟـﻮﻑ"‬‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ ﺭﻗﻤﲔ‪-‬ﺭﻗﻤﲔ‪.‬‬
‫‪nineteen-ninety nine‬‬
‫‪twenty-zero zero‬‬
‫‪sixteen-thirty one‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻳﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ :AD‬ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻮﱘ ﺍﳌﻴﻼﺩﻱ "ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ" ‪،‬‬

‫‪1999‬‬
‫‪2000‬‬
‫‪1631‬‬
‫‪ :AH‬ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻮﱘ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﻱ "ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮﻱ"‬

‫‪ :BC‬ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻮﱘ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﻴﻼﺩﻱ "ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺴﻲ"‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٥‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
2/5/1320AD
3/12/1401AH

www.expenglish.com

two/five/thirteen-twenty AD
three/twelve/fourteen-one AH
1000BC ‫ﺃﻟﻒ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﻴﻼﺩ‬

7th century

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ‬

1st century

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬

٢٦

Omar AL-Hourani

‫الفرق بين اللغتين البريطانية واألميركية‪:‬‬
‫ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻓﺮﻭﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺘﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﻳﻮﺟـﺪ ﻓـﺮﻭﻕ‬‫ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺘﲔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻓﺮﻕ ﻛﺒﲑ ﰲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺘﲔ ﻓﻼ ﻋﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻜـﺜﲑ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﲔ ﻻﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻬﻤﻮﺍ ﻣﺎﻳﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻓﺴﻨﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﲝﻮﺙ ﻻﺣﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ )‪:(-our / -or‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬

‫ﺃﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻈﻠﻞ ‪ ،‬ﳏﻮﺭ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ‬

‫‪Arbor‬‬

‫‪arbour‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﻉ‬

‫‪Armor‬‬

‫‪armour‬‬

‫ﺳﻠﻮﻙ‬

‫‪behavior‬‬

‫‪behaviour‬‬

‫ﻟﻮﻥ‬

‫‪Color‬‬

‫‪colour‬‬

‫ﳛﺎﻭﻝ‬

‫‪endeavor‬‬

‫‪endeavour‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ‪ ،‬ﺧﺪﻣﺔ‬

‫‪Favor‬‬

‫‪favour‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﻫﺞ ‪ ،‬ﲪﺎﺳﺔ‬

‫‪Fervor‬‬

‫‪fervour‬‬

‫ﻓﺘﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺳﺤﺮ‬

‫‪Glamor‬‬

‫‪glamour‬‬

‫ﻣﻴﻨﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻠﺠﺄ‬

‫‪Harbor‬‬

‫‪harbour‬‬

‫ﺷﺮﻑ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺣﺘﺮﺍﻡ‬

‫‪Honor‬‬

‫‪honour‬‬

‫ﻣﺰﺍﺝ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻋﺎﺑﺔ‬

‫‪Humor‬‬

‫‪humour‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬

‫‪Labor‬‬

‫‪labour‬‬

‫ﺟﺎﺭ‬

‫‪neighbor‬‬

‫‪neighbour‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﺋﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻜﻬﺔ‬

‫‪Odor‬‬

‫‪odour‬‬

‫ﺭﺩﻫﺔ‬

‫‪Parlor‬‬

‫‪parlour‬‬

‫ﺣﻘﺪ‬

‫‪Rancor‬‬

‫‪rancour‬‬

‫ﺇﺷﺎﻋﺔ‬

‫‪Rumor‬‬

‫‪rumour‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٧‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

saviour

Savior

‫ ﳐﻠﺺ‬، ‫ﻣﻨﻘﺬ‬

splendour

splendor

‫ ﺭﻭﻋﺔ‬، ‫ﺇﺷﺮﺍﻕ‬

vapour

Vapor

‫ ﺿﺒﺎﺏ‬، ‫ﲞﺎﺭ‬

vigour

Vigor

‫ﻧﺸﺎﻁ‬

:(-re / -er) ‫ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ‬/‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬

centre

Center

‫ ﻭﺳﻂ‬، ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬

fibre

Fiber

‫ﻟﻴﻒ‬

metre

Meter

‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬

piastre

Piaster

‫ﻗﺮﺵ‬

sombre

somber

‫ ﻛﺌﻴﺐ‬، ‫ﻣﻌﺘﻢ‬

theatre

theater

‫ﻣﺴﺮﺡ‬

:(-logue / -log) ‫ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ‬/‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬

catalogue

Catalog

‫ ﻛﺘﺎﻟﻮﺝ‬، ‫ﻧﺸﺮﺓ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬

dialogue

Dialog

‫ﺣﻮﺍﺭ‬

monologue

monolog

‫ﻣﻨﺎﺟﺎﺓ ﺫﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬

prologue

Prolog

‫ﻣﺔ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ‬‫ﻣﻘﺪ‬

:‫ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ‬/‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﹰﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬

counsellor

counselor

‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ‬

www.expenglish.com

٢٨

Omar AL-Hourani

jeweller

jeweler

‫ﺻﺎﺋﻎ ﺟﻮﺍﻫﺮ‬

kidnapper

kidnaper

‫ﺧﺎﻃﻒ‬

programmer

programer

‫ﻣﱪﻣﺞ‬

traveller

traveler

‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮ‬

worshipper

worshiper

‫ﻞ‬‫ﺒﺠ‬‫ﻣ‬

:(-ce / -se) ‫ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ‬/‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﹰﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬

defence

defense

‫ﺩﻓﺎﻉ‬

licence

License

‫ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ‬

offence

offense

‫ ﺃﺫﻯ‬، ‫ﺇﺳﺎﺀﺓ‬

practice

practise

‫ ﳝﺎﺭﺱ‬، ‫ﻳﺘﺪﺭﺏ‬

pretence

pretense

‫ﻋﺎﺀ‬‫ﺍﺩ‬
:‫ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬/‫ﺳﺎﺩﺳﹰﺎ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬

apartment

Flat

‫ﺷﻘﺔ‬

apologize

apologise

‫ﻳﻌﺘﺬﺭ‬

cheque

Check

‫ ﺷﻴﻚ ﻣﺼﺮﰲ‬، ‫ ﻳﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬، ‫ﳛﻘﻖ‬

film

Movie

‫ﻓﻴﻠﻢ‬

grey

Gray

‫ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ‬

holiday

vacation

‫ﻋﻄﻠﺔ‬

moustache

mustache

‫ﺷﺎﺭﺏ‬

petrol

gasoline

‫ﺑﻨﺰﻳﻦ‬

www.expenglish.com

٢٩

Omar AL-Hourani

plough

Plow

‫ ﺟﺮﺍﻓﺔ‬، ‫ﳏﺮﺍﺙ‬

programme

program

‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬

pyjamas

pajamas

(‫ﺛﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ )ﲝﺎﻣﺔ‬

recognize

recognise

‫ﻑ‬‫ﻳﺘﻌﺮ‬

relize

Relies

‫ﻳﺪﺭﻙ‬

sulphur

Sulfur

‫ﻛﱪﻳﺖ‬

tyre

Tire

‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻋﺠﻠﺔ‬

waggon

Wagon

‫ﻋﺮﺑﺔ‬

www.expenglish.com

٣٠

Omar AL-Hourani

Select the ONE lettered answer that is BEST in each question:
1) 102nd is written as:
A. one hundred second.
B. one hundred and second.
C. one hundredth second.
D. one hundredth and second.
2) 8014698 is written as:
A. eight million and fourteen thousand six hundred ninety eight.
B. eight million fourteen thousand six hundred and ninety eight.
C. eight millions fourteen thousands six hundreds ninety eight.
D. eight million fourteen thousand six hundred ninety eight.
3) run + -ed:
A. runned.
B. runed.
C. runied.
D. None of all above.
4) wish + -s:
A. wishes.
B. wishs.
C. wishies.
D. None of all above.
5) matrix + "-s":
A. matrises.
B. matrixs.
C. matrixes.
D. None of all above.
6) lie + -ing:
A. lyeing.
B. lieing.
C. lying.
D. None of all above.
7) read + -ed:
A. read.
B. readed.
C. readded.
D. None of all above.

www.expenglish.com

٣١

Omar AL-Hourani

8) love + -ing:
A. loving
B. loveing
C. lovving
D. None of all above.
9) Choose the correct sentence:
A. Dogs drink a water.
B. Dogs drink water.
C. Dogs drink the water.
D. Dogs drinks water.
E. Dogs drinks the water.
10) Choose the correct sentence:
A. Play with me.
B. Played with me.
C. Playing with me.
D. None of all above.
11) 10:45 is read in British clock as:
A. ten and forty five o'clock.
B. quarter to eleven o'clock.
C. quarter to ten o'clock.
D. quarter past ten o'clock.
E. quarter past eleven o'clock.
12) 9/10/2005AD is written as:
A. nine/ten/twenty-fife AD.
B. nine/ten/two thousand five AD.
C. nine/ten/two thousand five BC.
D. None of all above.
13) The most difference between British and American Language is:
A. Grammar
B. Vocabulary.
C. How to pronounce words.
D. None of all above.
14) About the clock topic, all answers below are correct except:
A. Americans use PM and AM.
B. 8:15 means "quarter past eight o'clock".
C. There is a big difference between American and British clock.
D. 10:22 can be read in British "ten and twenty two o'clock".

www.expenglish.com

٣٢

Omar AL-Hourani

www.expenglish.com

٣٣

Omar AL-Hourani

‫الضمائر الشخصية ‪:Personal Pronouns‬‬
‫ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﺐ ﻭﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﲝﺎﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻋﺮﺍﺑﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ‪:‬‬‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ /‬ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ‪:Subject‬‬
‫‪I‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺃﻧﺎ"‪.‬‬

‫ ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﺣﺮﻑ ‪ I‬ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ًﲝﺮﻑ ﻛﺒﲑ ‪ Capital Letter‬ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻟﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪I play football.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺑﻄﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪I am a hero.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻤﲔ ﲝﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﳓﻦ"‪.‬‬

‫‪We‬‬
‫ﳓﻦ ﻧﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪We play football.‬‬

‫ﳓﻦ ﺃﺑﻄﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫‪You‬‬

‫‪We are heroes.‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﺘﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﱳ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﻧﺚ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺃﻧ ‪‬‬

‫ﺖ ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺗﻠﻌﺒﲔ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻠﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪You play football.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﺗﻠﻌﺒﻮﻥ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﱳ ﺗﻠﻌﱭ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺑﻄﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧ ‪‬‬

‫‪You are a hero.‬‬

‫ﺖ ﺑﻄﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧ ‪‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٣٤‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺑﻄﻼﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺘﻢ ﺃﺑﻄﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‫‪You are heroes.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﱳ ﺑﻄﻼﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻫﻮ"‪.‬‬

‫‪He‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪He plays football.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﺑﻄﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪She‬‬

‫‪He is a hero.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﳌﺆﻧﺚ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻫﻲ"‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪She plays football.‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﺑﻄﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪It‬‬

‫‪She is a hero.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻫﻮ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ"‪.‬‬

‫ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﲤﻄﺮ ﻳﻮﻣﻴﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪It rains daily.‬‬

‫ﺇﻧﻪ ﻛﺒﲑ‪.‬‬

‫‪It is large.‬‬

‫ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪They‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﺒﲔ ﲝﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﻧﺚ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﳘﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻦ"‪.‬‬

‫ﳘﺎ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻢ ﻳﻠﻌﺒﻮﻥ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪They play football.‬‬

‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﻠﻌﱭ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﳘﺎ ﺑﻄﻼﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻢ ﺃﺑﻄﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‫‪They are heroes.‬‬

‫ﻫﻦ ﺑﻄﻼﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٣٥‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺐ ﻭﺍﳉﺮ ‪ :Objective‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪me‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻳﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻢ"‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﲣﱪﻧـﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪She tells me everything.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﻣﻌـﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪us‬‬

‫‪He goes with me.‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻤﲔ ﲝﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﲔ"‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﲣﱪﻧـﺎ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪She tells us everything.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﺮﻓـﻨـﺎ ﺟﻴﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪you‬‬

‫‪He knows us well.‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﻧﺚ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻛﺎﻑ ﺍﳋﻄﺎﺏ"‪.‬‬

‫ﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻔﻀﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺬﻫﺐ ﻣﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻔﻀﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺬﻫﺐ ﻣﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻔﻀﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺬﻫﺐ ﻣﻌﻜﻤﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪She prefers to go with you.‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻔﻀﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺬﻫﺐ ﻣﻌﻜﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻔﻀﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺬﻫﺐ ﻣﻌﻜﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪him‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻋﺮﻓﻪ ﺟﻴﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻫﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮﺓ"‪.‬‬
‫‪I know him well.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﳌﺆﻧﺚ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻫﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﻧﺜﺔ"‪.‬‬

‫‪her‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻋﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﺟﻴﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪it‬‬

‫‪I know her well.‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻫﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺒﺔ ﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ"‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻗﺮﺃﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪them‬‬

‫‪I read it.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﺒﲔ ﲝﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﻧﺚ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻫﻢ"‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻋﺮﻓﻬﻢ ﺟﻴﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪I know them well.‬‬

‫‪٣٦‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ (١‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗ‪‬ﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺇ‪‬ﺎ  ‪ , It‬ﺇ‪‬ﻢ  ‪ , They‬ﺇﻧﻨﺎ  ‪ , We‬ﺇ‪‬ﺎ  ‪ , She‬ﺇﻧﻪ  ‪ , He‬ﺇﻧﲏ  ‪I‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﻪ ﺩﻭﺭﻙ‪.‬‬

‫‪It is your turn.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﲑﺍﻥ ‪ He , him‬ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﻪ ﻛﻠﱯ‪.‬‬

‫‪He is my dog.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﲑﺍﻥ ‪ She , her‬ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﻧﺜﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﻄﱵ‪.‬‬

‫‪She is my cat.‬‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﺣﺎﻟﻴﹰﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﲑﺍﻥ ‪ She , her‬ﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﺍﳌﺆﻧﺜﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﺴﻔﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٥‬ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﲑ ‪ It‬ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﲤﺎﻣﹰﺎ "ﳎﻬﻮﻝ ﺍﳍﻮﻳﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ؟ ﺇﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪Who is there? It is a milkman.‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﲑ ‪ It‬ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﻪ ﺃﺧﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺧﱪﱐ‪.‬‬

‫‪It is my brother who told me.‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻘﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺣﺎﺭ‪.‬‬

‫‪It is a hot day.‬‬

‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﲑ‬

‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺐ ﻭﺍﳉﺮ‬

‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ‬

‫ﻣﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‬

‫‪me‬‬

‫‪I‬‬

‫ﳐﺎﻃﺐ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‬

‫‪you‬‬

‫‪You‬‬

‫ﻏﺎﺋﺐ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬

‫‪him‬‬

‫‪He‬‬

‫ﻏﺎﺋﺐ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬

‫‪her‬‬

‫‪She‬‬

‫ﻏﺎﺋﺐ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ﻏﲑ ﻋﺎﻗﻞ‬

‫‪it‬‬

‫‪It‬‬

‫ﻣﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﲨﻊ‬

‫‪us‬‬

‫‪We‬‬

‫ﳐﺎﻃﺐ ﲨﻊ‬

‫‪you‬‬

‫‪You‬‬

‫ﻏﺎﺋﺐ ﲨﻊ‬

‫‪them‬‬

‫‪They‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٣٧‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ضمائر الملكية ‪:Possessive Pronouns‬‬
‫ ﻗﺪ ﻳﻠﺘﺒﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﳌﻨﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﳝﻜـﻦ‬‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻑ ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﲢﻞ ﳏـﻞ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﺒﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻑ ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ‪Possessive Pronouns‬‬

‫ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ‪Possessive Determiners‬‬

‫‪This house is mine.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﱄ‪.‬‬
‫‪This house is yours.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫‪This house is his.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪This house is hers.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﳍﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪This house is its.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﻟﻪ "ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ"‪.‬‬
‫‪This house is ours.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﻟﻨﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪This house is theirs.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﳍﻢ‪.‬‬

‫‪This is my house.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﺰﻟـﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪This is your house.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﺰﻟـﻚ‪.‬‬
‫‪This is his house.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﺰﻟـﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪This is her house.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﺰﻟـﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪This is its house.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﺰﻟـﻪ "ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ"‪.‬‬
‫‪This is our house.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﺰﻟـﻨﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪This is their house.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﺰﻟـﻬﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ "‪ "of‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﺿﻤﲑ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺻﺪﻳﻖ ﱄ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺻﺪﻳﻘﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪I go to the cinema with a friend of mine.‬‬
‫‪I go to the cinema with my friend.‬‬

‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﺎﻍ ﻟﻠﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻄﻊ ‪ 's‬ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﺰﻝ ﻛﺎﺭﻻ‪.‬‬

‫‪This is Carla's house.‬‬

‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﺎﻍ ﻟﻠﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻄﻊ ' ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻣﺼﺎﻏﹰﺎ ﺑـ‬‫‪ -s‬ﺃﻭ ‪ .-es‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻨﺰﻝ ﺍﻷﻭﻻﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪This is boys' house.‬‬
‫‪٣٨‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫الضمائر االنعكاسية ‪:Reflexive Pronouns‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﻳﺼﺎﻍ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻄﻊ ‪.-self‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﻤﻊ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬

‫‪ourselves‬‬

‫‪myself‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻢ‬

‫‪yourselves‬‬

‫‪yourself‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺐ‬

‫‪themselves‬‬

‫‪himself‬‬
‫‪herself‬‬
‫‪itself‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﺐ‬

‫ﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺟﺮﺣ ‪‬‬

‫‪She hurt herself in the garden.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪He is talking to himself.‬‬
‫"ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ"‬

‫ضمائر اإلشارة ‪:Demonstrative Pronouns‬‬
‫ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﻧﺚ ﻭﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ‪.‬‬‫‪This‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﻧﺚ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻫﺬﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻫﺬﻩ"‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﻃﺎﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪That‬‬

‫‪This is a table.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﻧﺚ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺫﺍﻙ ‪ ،‬ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﻚ"‪.‬‬

‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺧﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪That is my brother.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﻧﺚ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻫﺬﻩ" ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻊ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬

‫‪These‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﻟﻚ‪.‬‬

‫‪These books are yours.‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٣٩‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﻧﺚ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ"‪.‬‬

‫‪Those‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﻫﻢ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪Those are my friends.‬‬
‫ﻻﺣﻆ‬

‫ضمائر االستفھام ‪:Interrogative Pronouns‬‬
‫ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ‬‫?‪ : Who? , Whom‬ﻣﻦ؟‬
‫?‪ :What‬ﻣﺎﺫﺍ؟‬

‫"ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺸﺮ"‬

‫?‪ : Which‬ﺃﻱ؟‬
‫?‪ : Whose‬ﳌﻦ؟‬
‫?‪ : When‬ﻣﱴ؟‬

‫ضمائر الوصل ‪:Relative Pronouns‬‬
‫ ﻫﻲ ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪who‬‬

‫ﺿﻤﲑ ﺭﻓﻊ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ" ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﻓﻘـﻂ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻊ‪.‬‬

‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺧﱪﱐ‪.‬‬

‫‪That is the man who told me.‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ‪The man told me :‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻫﻮ "‪."the man‬‬
‫‪whom‬‬

‫ﺿﻤﲑ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺮ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ" ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍ‪‬ـﺮﻭﺭ ﰲ ﲨﻠـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻊ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺣﺔ‪This is the doctor whom I met him yesterday. .‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ‪I met the doctor yesterday :‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻫﻮ "‪."the doctor‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٤٠‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﻠﻤﺘﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪That is the man whom I talked to.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ‪I talked to the man :‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻭﺭ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻫﻮ "‪."the man‬‬
‫‪which‬‬

‫ﺿﻤﲑ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺮ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ" ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻊ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻳﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪that‬‬

‫‪This is the car which I bought.‬‬

‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﻭﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺐ ﻭﺍﳉﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﳛﻞ ﳏﻞ ‪ who , whom , which‬ﻣﺎﻋﺪﺍ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻓـﻼ ﳝﻜـﻦ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺇﻻ‬
‫‪.who , whom‬‬

‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﺳﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻮﻕ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪This is the man (whom/‬‬
‫(‬
‫‪/that) I can trust.‬‬

‫‪I talked to John (who/that‬‬
‫(‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺗﻜﻠﻤﺖ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻏﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺣﺔ‪that) left yesterday. .‬‬
‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ ‪ which‬ﻣﻊ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺮﺗﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﺮﻳﻘﻨﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪The team which wears in green is our team.‬‬
‫ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ ﻻ ﳚﺐ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﺻـﻞ‪.‬‬‫ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪1) This is the man that I can trust him.‬‬
‫‪him.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ )ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻮﻕ ﺑﻪ(‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬
‫ﺻﺢ )ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻳﺘﻬﺎ(‬

‫‪This is the man that I can trust.‬‬
‫‪2) This is the car which I bought it..‬‬
‫‪This is the car which I bought.‬‬

‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬‫‪This is the doctor (whom‬‬
‫‪(whom/that)) I met him yesterday.‬‬
‫‪This is the car (which/that‬‬
‫(‬
‫‪that) I bought.‬‬

‫ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﲑ ‪ whom‬ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﹰﺎ ﻓﺄﺻﺒﺢ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﲑ ‪ who‬ﻋﻮﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ‪.‬‬‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٤١‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

Select the ONE lettered answer that is BEST in each question:
1) Pronoun "you" is:
A. Singular Subject Personal Pronoun.
B. Plural Subject Personal Pronoun.
C. Singular Object Personal Pronoun.
D. Plural Object Personal Pronoun.
E. All above.
2) Pronoun "him" is:
A. Singular Subject Personal Pronoun.
B. Plural Subject Personal Pronoun.
C. Singular Object Personal Pronoun.
D. Plural Object Personal Pronoun.
E. All above.
3) Pronoun "they" is used to express:
A. People.
B. Things.
C. Animals.
D. A & C.
E. A & B & C.
4) Pronoun "it" is used to express:
A. People.
B. Things.
C. Animals.
D. B & C.
E. A & B & C.
5) Pronoun "those"…
A. is the opposite of these.
B. points to thing that are not near.
C. points to people that are not near.
D. A & B.
E. A & C.
F. B & C.
6) Choose the correct sentence:
A. She wishes to be an artist.
B. i speak English very well.
C. This pen is for a friend of me.
D. Look at all that houses.
E. None of all above.

7) Choose the correct sentence:
www.expenglish.com

٤٢

Omar AL-Hourani

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

This is the building which I work in it.
I read these books which is on the table.
Look at that man, it's my friend.
I will marry that woman that works in the library.
None of all above.

8) Choose the correct sentence:
A. It is mine cat.
B. She is mine cat.
C. It is my cat.
D. He is my cat.
E. None of all above.
9) Choose the correct sentence:
A. I want to play soccer with a brother of your.
B. I want to play soccer with a brother of her.
C. I want to play soccer with a brother of my.
D. I want to play soccer with a brother of our.
E. None of all above.
10) Choose the correct sentence:
A. That is the man who I bought the car from him.
B. That is the man who I bought the car from.
C. That is the man who I bought the car.
D. That is the man which I bought the car.
E. None of all above.
11) Choose the correct sentence:
A. That is the playground which we play in.
B. That is the playground who we play in.
C. That is the playground which we play in it.
D. That is the playground who we play in it.
E. None of all above.
12) Relative pronoun "that" is used to express:
A. Singular.
B. Plural.
C. People
D. Things
E. All above.
F. None of all above.
13) About "that", all answers below are correct except:
A. It is used to introduce a defining relative clause.
B. It is similar to "who" and "which".
C. It is a singular pronoun which indicates something not near.
D. None of all above.

www.expenglish.com

٤٣

Omar AL-Hourani

www.expenglish.com

٤٤

Omar AL-Hourani

‫مقدمة ‪:Introduction‬‬
‫ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﰲ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﱪﺓ ﺍﻟـﱵ‬‫ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﱪﻭﻓﻴﺴﻮﺭ ‪:Geoffrey Leech‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﺪﺩﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻭﻟﻜـﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻌـﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﻮﻯ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ‪ Auxiliary Verbs‬ﺇﱃ ﻗﺴﻤﲔ ﳘﺎ‪:‬‬‫‪ be - have - do :Primary Auxiliary Verbs‬ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺄﰐ ﻛﻔﻌﻞ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻫﻢ‪:‬‬
‫‪ :Modal Auxiliary Verbs‬ﻋﺪﺩﻫﻢ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫‪will - would - can - could - may - might - shall - should‬‬
‫‪must - ought to - used to‬‬
‫ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴـﺎﻋﺪ ﻻ ﻳ‪‬ﻀـﺎﻑ ﻟـﻪ "‪ "-s‬ﺃﻭ "‪ "-ing‬ﺃﻭ‬‫"‪ "-ed‬ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺟﺮ ‪ musts , musting , to must‬ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﰲ‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﹰﺎ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻓﻘـﻂ "‪ "be , have , do‬ﻓـﻴﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﺿـﺎﻓﺔ ﳍـﻢ "‪ "-s‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﹰﺎ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﺴـﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ‪.‬‬
‫"‪ "-ing‬ﺃﻭ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺒﻘﻬﻢ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺟﺮ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻓﻌـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﰲ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻭﺃﺯﻣﻨـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ‪...‬ﺇﱁ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪He wills go.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ )ﻫﻮ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ(‬

‫‪He will go.‬‬

‫ ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ )ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼـﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬‫ﻭﻏﲑ ﻣﻀﺎﻑ ﻟﻪ ‪ –s‬ﺃﻭ ‪(–ing‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٤٥‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺧﻄﺄ "ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ"‬

‫‪He will going.‬‬
‫‪go .‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ )ﻫﻮ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ(‬

‫‪He will go.‬‬

‫ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ‪ will‬ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺳﻮﻑ"‪.‬‬
‫بعض األفعال المساعدة ‪:Auxiliary Verbs‬‬
‫‪be‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻔﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‪:‬‬
‫‪.‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ‪is  He , She , It ,‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ‬
‫‪.‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ ‪are  You , We , They ,‬‬
‫‪am  I.‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻸﻣﺮ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻛ ‪‬ﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻮﱐ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻮﻧﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻮﻧﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻦ‪be  ."‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪.‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ‪was  I , He , She , It ,‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ‬
‫‪.‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ ‪were  You , We , They ,‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪:‬‬
‫‪been  I , He , She , It , You , We , They.‬‬
‫‪- be + -ing‬‬
‫‬‫‪ being.‬‬
‫‪b‬‬
‫‪- were + -s  was.‬‬

‫ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ‪:am , is , are‬‬‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ "ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻳﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻭﺧﱪﻩ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻜﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ‪."...‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻋﺒﻘﺮﻱ ‪ -‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻛﻮﻥ ﻋﺒﻘﺮﻳﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪(I am/I'm‬‬
‫‪m) a genius.‬‬
‫‪genius.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﻘﺮﻱ ‪ -‬ﻫﻮ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺒﻘﺮﻳﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫'‪(He is/He‬‬
‫‪/He's) a genius.‬‬
‫‪genius.‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﻋﺒﻘﺮﻳﺔ ‪ -‬ﻫﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺒﻘﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫'‪(She is/She‬‬
‫‪She's) a genius.‬‬
‫‪genius.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٤٦‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫‪(It is/It's)) a genius.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ‪/‬ﻫﻲ "ﻏﲑ ﻋﺎﻗﻞ" ﻋﺒﻘﺮﻱ‪/‬ﻋﺒﻘﺮﻳﺔ ‪ -‬ﻫﻮ‪/‬ﻫﻲ "ﻏﲑ ﻋﺎﻗﻞ" ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‪/‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺒﻘﺮﻳﹰﺎ‪/‬ﻋﺒﻘﺮﻳﺔ‪genius .‬‬
‫‪(You are/You're‬‬
‫‪are‬‬
‫‪re) a genius.‬‬
‫‪genius.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﻋﺒﻘﺮﻱ ‪ -‬ﺃﻧﺖ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺒﻘﺮﻳﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﳓﻦ ﻋﺒﻘﺮﻳﻮﻥ ‪ -‬ﳓﻦ ﻧﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺒﻘﺮﻳﲔ‪.‬‬

‫'‪(We are/We‬‬
‫‪/We're)) geniuses.‬‬
‫‪es.‬‬

‫ﻫﻢ ﻋﺒﻘﺮﻳﻮﻥ ‪ -‬ﻫﻢ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﻋﺒﻘﺮﻳﲔ‪.‬‬

‫'‪(They are/They‬‬
‫‪are They're) geniuses.‬‬
‫‪geniuses.‬‬

‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬‫‪He is  He's , She is  She's , It is  It's‬‬
‫‪John is  John's , Ali is  Ali's‬‬
‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻓﻘﻂ‪:‬‬‫‪You are  You're , They are  They're , We are  We're‬‬
‫‪I am  I'm‬‬
‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻼﻥ ‪:was , were‬‬‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ "ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻳﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻭﺧﱪﻩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﲟﻌﲎ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ "ﻛـﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻨـﺖ ‪ ،‬ﹸﻛﻨ‪‬ـﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ‪."...‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻫﻨﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬

‫‪I was here.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪He was here.‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﻨﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪She was here.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ‪/‬ﻫﻲ "ﻏﲑ ﻋﺎﻗﻞ" ﻛﺎﻥ‪/‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﻨﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪It was here.‬‬

‫ﺖ ﻫﻨﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬

‫‪You were here.‬‬

‫ﳓﻦ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪We were here.‬‬

‫ﻫﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻫﻨﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪They were here.‬‬

‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪:be‬‬‫ﻼ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﹰﺎ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻳﻜﻮﻥ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﻛﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ‪.‬‬

‫‪I will be there minutes later.‬‬

‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪:been‬‬‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ "ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٤٧‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫‪have‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻔﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‪:‬‬
‫‪.‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ‪has  He , She , It ,‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ‬
‫‪.‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ ‪have  I , You , We ,They ,‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪:‬‬
‫‪had  I , He , She , It , You , We , They.‬‬

‫‪- have + -ing  having.‬‬
‫‪- have + -s  has.‬‬
‫‪- have + -ed  had.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﹰﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ‪ has‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬‫‪He has  He's , She has  She's , It has  It's ,‬‬
‫‪John has  John's , Ali has  Ali 's‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﹰﺎ ﻭﺃﻥ‬
‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ "‪ "have , had‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻓﻘﻂ‪:‬‬
‫‪I have  I've , You have  You've , We have  We've ,‬‬
‫‪They have  They've‬‬
‫)ﻧﺎﺩﺭ( ‪He had  He'd , She had  She'd , It had  It'd‬‬
‫‪I had  I'd , You had  You'd , We had  We'd ,‬‬
‫‪They had  They'd‬‬
‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻼﻥ ‪:has , have‬‬‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ "ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﹰﺎ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﳝﻠﻚ )ﻟﺪﻯ( ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﳚﺮﻱ )ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑـ("‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﻫﻮ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﳝﻠﻚ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‬

‫‪He has friends.‬‬

‫ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﻫﻲ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﲤﻠﻚ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‬

‫‪She has friends.‬‬

‫ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ‪/‬ﻫﻲ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ‪//‬ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﳝﻠﻚ‪/‬ﲤﻠﻚ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ" ﳝﻠﻚ‬
‫"ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ‬
‫ﻫﻮ‪/‬ﻫﻲ ﻏﲑ‬

‫‪It has friends.‬‬

‫ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻧﺎ ﻟﺪﻱ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻣﻠﻚ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‬

‫‪I have friends.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٤٨‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻟﺪﻳﻚ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﲤﻠﻚ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‬

‫‪You have friends.‬‬

‫ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﳓﻦ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‬
‫ﳓﻦ ﳕﻠﻚ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‬

‫‪We have friends.‬‬

‫ﻫﻢ ﳝﻠﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﻫﻢ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪They have friends.‬‬

‫ﻼ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﹰﺎ ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻪ "‪ "to‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪He has to go now.‬‬

‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪She has to go now.‬‬

‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪/‬ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ "ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ" ﺃﻥ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ‪/‬ﺗﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪It has to go now.‬‬

‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻲ‪ ‬ﺃﻥ ﺃﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪I have to go now.‬‬

‫ﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴ ‪‬‬

‫‪You have to go now.‬‬

‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪We have to go now.‬‬

‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺬﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪They have to go now.‬‬

‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪:had‬‬‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﺘﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ "ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﹰﺎ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ‪ has , have‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺪﻯ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺟﺮﻯ )ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑـ("‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪He had friends.‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪She had friends.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ‪/‬ﻫﻲ "ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ" ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ‪/‬ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺪﻱ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪It had friends.‬‬
‫‪I had friends.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻚ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪You had friends.‬‬

‫ﳓﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪We had friends.‬‬
‫‪friends.‬‬

‫ﻫﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪They had friends.‬‬

‫"‪."own‬‬
‫ ﻣﻌﲎ "ﳝﺘﻠﻚ ‪ ،‬ﳝﻠﻚ" ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ‪"own‬‬‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻣﺘﻠﻚ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪He owned a car.‬‬

‫ﻼ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﹰﺎ ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻪ "‪ "to‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ "‪ "have to‬ﺃﻭ "ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪He had to go now.‬‬
‫‪٤٩‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪She had to go now.‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪/‬ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ "ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ" ﺃﻥ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ‪/‬ﺗﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪It had to go now.‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪I had to go now.‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪You had to go now.‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪We had to go now.‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺬﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪They had to go now.‬‬

‫‪do‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻔﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‪:‬‬
‫‪.‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ ‪do  I , You , We , They ,‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ‬
‫‪.‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ‪does  He , She , It ,‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪:‬‬

‫‪did  I , He , She , It , You , We , They.‬‬
‫‪done  I , He , She , It , You , We , They.‬‬
‫‪- doo + -ing  doing.‬‬
‫‪- do + -s  does.‬‬
‫‪- do + -ed  did.‬‬

‫ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ‪:do , does , did‬‬‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ "ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ "ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺸﺮ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺗﻮﻛﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ ﲝﺎﻟﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬

‫‪He does seem good.‬‬

‫ﻼ ﲝﺎﻟﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬

‫‪She does seem good.‬‬

‫ﻼ ﲝﺎﻟﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ‪/‬ﻫﻲ "ﻏﲑ ﻋﺎﻗﻞ" ﻳﺒﺪﻭ‪/‬ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬

‫‪It does seem good.‬‬

‫ﻼ ﲝﺎﻟﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺑﺪﻭ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬

‫‪I do seem good.‬‬

‫ﻼ ﲝﺎﻟﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬

‫‪You do seem good.‬‬

‫ﻼ ﲝﺎﻟﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﳓﻦ ﻧﺒﺪﻭ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬

‫‪We do seem good.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٥٠‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﻼ ﲝﺎﻟﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻢ ﻳﺒﺪﻭﻥ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬

‫‪They do seem good.‬‬

‫ﻼ ﻋﺎﺩﻳﹰﺎ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺠﺰ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑـ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٤‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑـﻌﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻴﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪He does his job well.‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑـﻌﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻴﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪She does her job well.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ‪/‬ﻫﻲ "ﻏﲑ ﻋﺎﻗﻞ" ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑـﻌﻤﻠﻪ‪/‬ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑـﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻗﻮﻡ ﺑـﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻴﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪I do my job well.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑـﻌﻤﻠﻚ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻴﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪You do your job well.‬‬

‫ﳓﻦ ﻗﻤﻨﺎ ﺑـﻌﻤﻠﻨﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻴﺪ‪" .‬ﻣﺎﺿﻲ"‬

‫‪We did our job well.‬‬

‫ﻫﻢ ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺍ ﺑـﻌﻤﻠﻬﻢ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻴﺪ‪" .‬ﻣﺎﺿﻲ"‬
‫‪will‬‬

‫‪It does its job well.‬‬

‫‪They did their job well.‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻔﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‪:‬‬
‫‪will  I , He , She , It , You , We , They.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪:‬‬
‫‪would  I , He , She , It , You , We , They.‬‬
‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪" :will‬ﻳﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻮﺳﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ"‬‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺳﻮﻑ" "ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬

‫ﺳﻮﺯﺍﻥ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‪Susan will be here in half of an hour. .‬‬
‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪" :would‬ﻳﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻮﺳﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ"‬‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺳﻮﻑ" "ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻓﻌﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ‪" Future in the Past‬ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﻴﺔ ‪" Conditional Clauses‬ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺸﺮ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫‪ (٤‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﻬﺬﺏ ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﱄ ﺑﺈﻋﺎﺭﺓ ﻗﻠﻤﻚ؟ "ﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻬﺬﺏ"‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫?‪Would you lend me your pen‬‬

‫‪٥١‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪shall‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻔﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‪:‬‬
‫‪shall  I , He , She , It , You , We , They.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪:‬‬
‫‪should  I , He , She , It , You , We , They.‬‬

‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪:shall‬‬‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺳﻮﻑ" ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪ I‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،We‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﻞ ﳏﻠـﻪ ‪ will‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺻﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻧﺎﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﺎﻳﺴـﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻧﺬﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ؟ "ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻣﻴﺔ"‬

‫?‪Shall we go abroad‬‬

‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ‪ instructions‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻧﺎﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﺎﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻀﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﳊﺼﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪All students shall attend the class.‬‬

‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪:should‬‬‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻔﻀﻞ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻻﳛﺪﺙ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺃﻥ ﲣﻔﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﺍﺋﺐ‪" .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ"‬
‫‪The government should lower taxes.‬‬
‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺄﻣﻚ ﻛﻞ ﺍﺳﺒﻮﻉ‪" .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻚ ﻻﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ"‬
‫‪You should phone your mother every week.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ‪.rules & instructions‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻳ‪‬ﺮﻭﺍ ﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﺴﻤﻌﻮﺍ‪" .‬ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻭﻗﻮﻝ ﺣﻜﻴﻢ ‪"old saying‬‬
‫‪Children should be seen and not heard.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﳏﺘﻤﻞ ﻭﻣﺮﺟﺢ ﺣﺪﻭﺛﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮﺓ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﺒﻂ ﺍﻵﻥ‪" .‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺮﺟﺢ ﺣﺪﻭﺛﻪ"‬
‫‪The plane should land right now.‬‬
‫‪ (٤‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ should + have + V.3‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﺳﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‪ .‬ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﱂ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ؟‬
‫?‪You should have posted those letters. Why didn't you‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٥٢‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻳﻦ ﻫﻮ؟‬
‫?‪He should have been home long ago. Where is he‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻔﻪ‪:‬‬

‫‪may‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‪:‬‬
‫‪may  I , He , She , It , You , We , They.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪:‬‬
‫‪might  I , He , She , It , You , We , They.‬‬
‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪:may‬‬‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺫﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﻟﺸـﻲﺀ ‪" permission‬ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ can‬ﻭ ‪ could‬ﺷـﺎﺋﻊ‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﺃﺳﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ؟ "ﻃﻠﺐ ﺇﺫﻥ"‬

‫?‪May I come in‬‬

‫ﻫﻞ ﺃﺳﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻫﺎﺗﻔﻚ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﻮﻱ؟ "ﻃﻠﺐ ﺇﺫﻥ"‬

‫?‪May I use your cell phone‬‬

‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ‪ possibility‬ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﺿـﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﲟﻌـﲎ "ﺭﲟـﺎ‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫‪."perhaps‬‬
‫ال أعرف يا سيد بيكر‪.‬‬
‫ربما ھو مريض‪.‬‬
‫‪I don't know, Mr Baker.‬‬
‫‪He may be ill.‬‬

‫أين جيمس؟‬
‫لماذا تأخر؟‬
‫?‪Where's James‬‬
‫?‪Why is he late‬‬

‫‪Or he may be too‬‬
‫‪lazy to come to‬‬
‫‪school.‬‬

‫أو ربما ھو كسول جداً ليأتي‬
‫إلى المدرسة‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺧﺒﺎﺭ ﺭﲟﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪The news may be true. OR Perhaps the news is true.‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺭﲟﺎ ﺳﺘﻤﻄﺮ ﻏﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪It may rain tomorrow. OR Perhaps it rains tomorrow.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٥٣‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ may + have + V.3‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻣـﺎ ‪ possibility‬ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺭﲟﺎ ﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪He may have dead.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﺭﲟﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪He may have been ill.‬‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ may + be + V-ing‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺣﺘﻤـﺎﻝ ﻣـﺎ ‪possibility‬‬
‫ﳛﺪﺙ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺭﲟﺎ ﺁﰐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﺪﺍﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪He may be coming to school on foot.‬‬

‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪:might‬‬‫ﻟﻪ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ‪" could‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻻﺣﻘﹰﺎ" ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳـﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﲔ ‪ might‬ﻭﺑﲔ ‪ could‬ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪.‬‬
‫‪can‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻔﻪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‪:‬‬
‫‪can  I , He , She , It , You , We , They.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪:‬‬
‫‪could  I , He , She , It , You , We , They.‬‬
‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪:can‬‬‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳉﺴﺪﻳﺔ ‪ ability‬ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﻜﻦ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﺍﻹﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪He can speak English.‬‬

‫ﻻ ﳝﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﲔ ﻫﻨﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪You cannot smoke here.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺫﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ‪" permission‬ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪."could‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺩﻳﻮ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻏﺪ‪" .‬ﺇﺫﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﻟﺴﻤﺎﺣﻪ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺩﻳﻮ"‬
‫‪You can borrow the radio until tomorrow.‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ‪ possibility‬ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺭﲟـﺎ ‪" "perhaps‬ﻳﻔﻀـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪."may‬‬
‫ﺍﳉﻮ ﺭﲟﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺩﳍﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪The weather can be very hot in Delhi.‬‬

‫‪٥٤‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪:could‬‬‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﺴﺪﻳﺔ ‪ ability‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻉ ‪ ،‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻤﻜﱠـﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻛـﺎﻥ‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻤ‪‬ﻜﻦ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪He could learn English.‬‬

‫ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﻳﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﳝﻜﻨﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﻣﻌﻄﻔﹰﺎ ﺑﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺩﻭﻻﺭﹰﺍ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫‪In those days, you could buy a coat for $20 only.‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺣﺪﻭﺛﻪ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺮﺟﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﲤﻄﺮ ﻏﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻏﻴﻮﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪" .‬ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﺃﻥ ﲤﻄﺮ ﻏﺪﹰﺍ"‬
‫‪It could rain tomorrow, but there are no clouds in the sky today.‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻧﲑﹰﺍ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﺿﺌﻴﻠﺔ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‪" .‬ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻧﲑﹰﺍ"‬
‫‪One day I could become a millionaire, but the chances are‬‬
‫‪very small.‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺫﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ‪.permission‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺩﻳﻮ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻏﺪ‪" .‬ﺇﺫﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﻟﺴﻤﺎﺣﻪ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺩﻳﻮ"‬
‫‪You could borrow the radio until tomorrow.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﺣﺎﺕ ‪ .suggestions‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﶈﺎﺩﺛﺔ ‪:Conversation‬‬
‫‪ (٤‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺳﺄﻓﻌﻞ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ﻟﻐﱵ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ؟‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻢ‪ :‬ﺣﺴﻨﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺎﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ‪" .‬ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ"‬
‫?‪Student: What will I do to improve my English‬‬
‫‪Teacher: Well, you could try some of these grammar exercises.‬‬
‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﻻ ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺛﺎﻟﺚ‪.‬‬

‫‪must‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪:must‬‬

‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﻟﺰﺍﻡ ‪.obligation‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﳛﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﻛﻞ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﻌﻴﺶ‪" .‬ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺴﺘﻤﻮﺕ"‬

‫‪You must eat to live.‬‬

‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﺃﻡ ﻻ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻚ ﺃﻭ ﺷـﻌﻮﺭ‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺎﺗﲔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﲔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ ﻗﺪﱘ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‪" .‬ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ ﻗﺪﱘ"‬

‫‪This mosque is very old.‬‬

‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﺪ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪﳝﹰﺎ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‪" .‬ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪﳝﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻻ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﺮﻩ ﻳﻮﺣﻲ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻗﺪﱘ"‬
‫‪This mosque must be very old.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٥٥‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﶈﺎﺩﺛﺔ ‪:Conversation‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﻧﻌﻢ‪ ،‬ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﺑﲏ‪ .‬ﻫﻮ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪" .‬ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺷﻜﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺍﺑﻨﻪ"‬
‫‪A. There is somebody knocking on the door.‬‬
‫‪B. Yes, it must be my son. He always gets home at this time.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬
‫ ‪ should‬ﺃﻗﻞ ﻗﻮﺓ ﻣﻦ ‪.must‬‬‫ ‪ must‬ﻭ ‪ have to‬ﳍﻤﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺃﻱ ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ‪.must = have to‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ‪ must‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ‪ have to‬ﻭﻫﻮ "‪."had to‬‬
‫ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ‪ could‬ﻭ ‪ :might‬ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ might‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ ،possibility‬ﻭﻳﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ‪ could‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﻃﻠﺐ ﺇﺫﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺧﺼﺔ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ ‪.permission‬‬
‫ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ can , may , could‬ﲨﻴﻌﻬﻢ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﻥ ﻟﻄﻠﺐ ﺇﺫﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﻟﺸﻲﺀ‬
‫‪ ،permission‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ‪ could‬ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻳﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ can‬ﻳﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،may‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﺇﻥ ‪ may‬ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ‪‬ﺬﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ‪.can‬‬
‫ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ‪ can , may , will , must , shall‬ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻬﻢ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺟﺮ‪.‬‬‫ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻳﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺁﺧﺮ‪.‬‬‫‪used to‬‬
‫ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪Verb.1 + Object‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ‪.use to‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪used to‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪Subject‬‬

‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ‪:used to‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺼﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺔ‪" .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺔ"‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪She used to be a teacher.‬‬

‫‪٥٦‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫‪but now she works in news paper.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪She used to be a teacher.‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﻋﻤﻞ ﰲ ﻣﺪﺭﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻵﻥ ﺃﻋﻤﻞ ﰲ ﻛﻮﺍﻻﳌﺒﻮﺭ‪" .‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﻣﺪﺭﻳﺪ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﻣﺪﺭﻳﺪ"‬
‫‪I used to work in Madrid. Now I work in Kuala Lumpur.‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺒﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ‪.past habit‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﻨﺎ ﺃﻃﻔﺎﻻﹰ‪ ،‬ﻛﻨﺎ ﻧﻠﻌﺐ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻠﻌﺐ‪" .‬ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ"‬
‫‪When we were children,‬‬
‫‪children, we used to play in that playground‬‬
‫‪playground.‬‬
‫ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺘﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﻲ ﳘﺎ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﻳﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪ "did not‬ﺃﻭ "‪ "didn't‬ﻭﻧﺒﺪﻝ ﻣﻦ ‪ used to‬ﺇﱃ ‪.use to‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺔ "ﺍﻵﻥ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫‪She (did‬‬
‫)‪did not/didn't‬‬
‫‪not didn't) use to be a teacher.‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ "‪ "not‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ used‬ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺔ "ﺍﻵﻥ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫‪She used‬‬
‫‪use not to be a teacher.‬‬
‫ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺘﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﳘﺎ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﻳﻮﺿﻊ ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "‪ "Did‬ﻭﻧﺒﺪﻝ ﻣﻦ ‪ used to‬ﺇﱃ ‪.use to‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻵﻥ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺔ؟‬

‫?‪Did she use to be a teacher‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﺑﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ used‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻵﻥ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺔ؟‬

‫?‪Used she to be a teacher‬‬

‫"ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ used to‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ"‬
‫"ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺷﻴﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ"‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٥٧‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺱ‪ /‬ﻛﻴﻒ ﺳﻨﺘﺮﺟﻢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﻫﻮ ﺳﻴﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ" ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻓﻌـﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻳﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺁﺧﺮ؟ ﲤﻌﻦ ﺟﻴﺪﹰﺍ‪:‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ /‬ﻃﺒﻌﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ ﻛﺒﲑ )ﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻳﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺁﺧﺮ(‬

‫‪He will can do that.‬‬

‫ﺑﻞ ﺗﻜﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺳﻴﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪He will be able to do that.‬‬

‫‪٥٨‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

Select the ONE lettered answer that is BEST in each question:
1) When we ask a permission, we had better use:
A. might.
B. could.
C. may.
D. can.
E. None of all above.
2) "must" is used to express:
A. Possibility.
B. Obligation.
C. Ability.
D. Intention.
3) "may" is used to express:
A. Possibility.
B. Permission.
C. Ability.
D. Suggestion.
4) Choose the correct sentence:
A. Could I get that pen?
B. Can I get that pen?
C. May I get that pen?
D. Might I get that pen?
5) I may ......... able to come to your party if I have the time.
A. be
B. being
C. being to
D. can
6) I ......... speak French without a problem now because I have had many lessons.
A. may
B. can
C. have
D. could
7) "be" is:
A. Modal Auxiliary Verb
B. Primary Auxiliary Verb.
C. All above.
D. None of all above.

www.expenglish.com

٥٩

Omar AL-Hourani

8) We ......... leave to San Francisco tomorrow.
A. will
B. would
C. were
D. have
E. None of all above.
9) When we say an old saying, we had better use:
A. must.
B. could.
C. should.
D. used to.
10) When we say something we do not know if it is true but we have plenty of evidence, we had
better use:
A. must.
B. could.
C. should.
D. may.

www.expenglish.com

٦٠

Omar AL-Hourani

www.expenglish.com

٦١

Omar AL-Hourani

‫مقدمة ‪:Introduction‬‬
‫ ﺗ‪‬ﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﲝﺴﺐ ﺃﺯﻣﻨﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ‪.Present Tense‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ‪.Past Tense‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ‪.Future Tense‬‬
‫ ﻭﻳﺼﺎﻍ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﻨﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ‪.Simple Tense‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ‪.Progressive (Continuous) Tense‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ‪.Perfect Tense‬‬
‫‪ (٤‬ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ‪.Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense‬‬
‫‪ (١‬صيغ الحاضر ‪:Present Tense‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ /‬ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ‪:Present Simple‬‬
‫ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪Object‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪Verb.1‬‬

‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ‬

‫"ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ"‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪Subject‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬

‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪ ، It ، She ، He‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪:‬‬‫ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ "‪ "s‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪.s‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪ ، I ، They ، We ، You‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ‪:‬‬‫ﻻ ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٦٢‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺲ‪.‬‬

‫‪He plays tennis.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻋﻴﺶ ﰲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ‪.‬‬

‫‪I live in New York City.‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‪:‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺲ‪" .‬ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ"‬

‫‪She plays tennis.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻳﻐﻠﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ ١٠٠‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‪" .‬ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ"‬

‫ْ‪Water boils at 100‬‬
‫‪100 C.‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺗﺪﻭﺭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‪" .‬ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ"‬

‫‪The earth moves around the sun.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ‪:Present Progressive‬‬
‫ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪Object‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬

‫‪Verb-ing‬‬
‫‪Verb ing‬‬
‫‪-ing‬‬
‫ﻓﻌﻞ ‪ing +‬‬

‫‪am‬‬
‫‪+ is +‬‬
‫‪are‬‬

‫‪Subject‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ‬
‫‪.-ing‬‬
‫ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ing‬‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪ ، It ، She ، He‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪:‬‬‫ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ‪.is‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪ ، They ، We ، You‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ‪:‬‬‫ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ‪.are‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪:I‬‬‫ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ‪.am‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٦٣‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫'‪(He is/He‬‬
‫‪/He's) playing basketball.‬‬

‫ﻫﻢ ﻳﺸﺎﻫﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺎﺯ‪.‬‬

‫'‪(They are/They‬‬
‫‪are/They're) watching the TV.‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪:‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺎﺯ‪" .‬ﳛﺪﺙ ﺍﻵﻥ"‬

‫‪(She is/She's) watching the TV.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ‪" .‬ﳛﺪﺙ ﺍﻵﻥ"‬

‫‪(I am/I'm) having lunch.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻻ ﺃﺳﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺟﺪ ﺷﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺳﻜﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺧﻲ‪" .‬ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺔ"‬
‫‪I cannot find a flat, so (I am/I'm) living with my brother.‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺐ "ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ‪ will‬ﺃﻭ ‪."be going to‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺴﺎﻓﺮﻭﻥ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ‪" .‬ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ" ‪(They are/They're) traveling on Friday.‬‬
‫ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺲ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ‪ State (Stative) Verbs‬ﻻ ﺗﺄﰐ ﺃﺑـﺪﹰﺍ ﰲ ﺻـﻴﻐﺔ‬‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻳﺘﻤﲎ ‪ , wish‬ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ‪ , want‬ﻳﻜﺮﻩ ‪ , hate‬ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ‪ , prefer‬ﳛﺐ ‪ , love‬ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ‪like‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ‪ , know‬ﻳﺼﺪﻕ ‪ , believe‬ﻳﺘﺨﻴﻞ ‪ , imagine‬ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ‪ , think‬ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ‪need‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻳﺘﺬﻛﺮ ‪ , remember‬ﻳﻔﻬﻢ ‪ , understand‬ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ‪ , mean‬ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ‪realize‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ‪ , seem‬ﳝﻠﻚ ‪ , own‬ﻳﺮﻯ ‪ , see‬ﻳﺮﺟﻮﺍ ‪ , hope‬ﻳﻔﺘﺮﺽ ‪ , suppose‬ﻳﻨﺴﻰ ‪forget‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﳛﺘﻮﻱ ‪ , contain‬ﻳﻼﺀﻡ ‪ , belong‬ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﺻﻮﺗﹰﺎ ‪ , sound‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ‪ , appear‬ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ‪be‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٦٤‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﻛﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮﹰﺍ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪He is wanting to buy a new computer.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ‬

‫‪He wants to buy a new computer.‬‬

‫ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ want‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺲ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ‪ State Verbs‬ﻻ ﻳﺄﰐ ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺘﱪ ‪ State Verb‬ﻭ ‪ .Action Verb‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌـﻞ "‪"think‬‬‫ﻓﻠﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﻴﺎﻥ "ﻳﻔﻜﺮ" ﻭ "ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ" ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﻳﻔﻜﺮ" ﻓﻴ‪‬ﻌﺘﱪ ‪ Action Verb‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳـﺄﰐ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻓﻜﺮ‪.‬‬

‫‪I am thinking.‬‬

‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪:taste‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻵﻳﺲ ﻛﺮﱘ ﺗﻔﻮﺡ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺭﺍﺋﺤﺔ ﻣﺜﲑﺓ ﻟﻼﴰﺌﺰﺍﺯ‪This ice cream tastes disgusting. .‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺘﺬﻭﻕ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺀ ﻟﲑﻯ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻠﺢ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪He is tasting the soup to see if it needs more salt.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪1) She works here until Monday.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ )ﻫﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ(‬

‫‪2) She is working here until Monday.‬‬

‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪2) He is seeming very tired.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ )ﻫﻮ ﻳﺒﺪﻭﺍ ﻣﺘﻌﺒﹰﺎ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ(‬

‫‪3) He seems very tired.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ seem‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺲ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ‪ ،State Verbs‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻻ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻣﻊ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٦٥‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪3) Where is John? He cleans the car.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ )ﺃﻳﻦ ﺟﻮﻥ؟ ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳﻨﻈﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ(‬

‫‪4) Where is John? He is cleaning the car.‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺍﻵﻥ‪ ،‬ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪4) Vegetarians are not‬‬
‫‪not eating meat.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ )ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﻴﻮﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺄﻛﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ(‬

‫‪Vegetarians do not eat meat.‬‬

‫ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ‪:Present Perfect‬‬
‫ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪Object‬‬

‫‪Verb.3‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪has‬‬
‫‪+ have +‬‬

‫‪Subject‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬

‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ‬

‫"ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ"‬

‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪ ، It ، She ، He‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪:‬‬‫ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ‪.has‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪ ، I ، They ، We ، You‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ‪:‬‬‫ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ‪.have‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻗﺮﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺘﲔ‪.‬‬

‫'‪(I have/I‬‬
‫‪/I've) read the book.‬‬
‫'‪(He has/He‬‬
‫‪/He's) watched‬‬
‫‪watch the TV for two hours.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ read‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﺓ ‪ Irregular Verbs‬ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻔﻪ‪:‬‬
‫‪read - read - read‬‬
‫"ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ"‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٦٦‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‪:‬‬
‫ﻟﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﻟﻪ ﺻﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﹰﺍ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺴ‪‬ﺮ ﺳﺎﻗﻬﺎ‪" .‬ﺍﻷﺛﺮ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﺳﺎﻗﻬﺎ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻌﺎﰿ ﺑﻌﺪ"‬
‫‪(He has/He's) broken her leg.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ‪" .‬ﺍﻷﺛﺮ‪ :‬ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ"‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻳ ‪‬‬
‫‪(I have/I've) bought a new car.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ‪" .‬ﺍﻷﺛﺮ‪ :‬ﻫﻲ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺑﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ"‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺫﻫﺒ ‪‬‬
‫‪(She has/She's) gone at home.‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺛﺮ‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﹰﺍ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻵﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻣﻊ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﳘﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﳌﺪﺓ ‪ , for‬ﻣﻨﺬ ‪since‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﺩﺭﺱ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ"‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺃﻥ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﰲ ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ‪" .‬ﻣﺎﺯﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺩﺭﺳ ‪‬‬
‫‪(I have/I've) studied English since I started in a secondary school.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺃﻋﻴﺶ ﰲ ﻫﻮﻧﻎ ﻛﻮﻧﻎ"‬
‫ﺖ ﰲ ﻫﻮﻧﻎ ﻛﻮﻧﻎ ﳌﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ‪" .‬ﻣﺎﺯﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻋﺸ ‪‬‬
‫‪(I have/I've) lived in Hong Kong for twenty years.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﺎﻳﻜﺮﻭﺳﻮﻓﺖ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ‪" .‬ﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﺎﻳﻜﺮﻭﺳﻮﻓﺖ"‬
‫‪(He has/He's) worked for Microsoft for two years.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٦٧‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻵﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺳﻨﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻋﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﲔ ﻷﻧﲏ ﻋﺸ ‪‬‬
‫‪I know a lot about China, because I have lived in China for 3‬‬
‫‪years.‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻨﻚ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺣﱴ ﻟﻮ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﲔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻨﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻷﻥ ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴـﺰ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ (١‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻧﲏ ﻟﺪﻱ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﲔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺄﰐ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪.have + just + Verb.3‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻓﺎﺯ‪.‬‬

‫‪(He has/He's) won.‬‬

‫ﺖ ﻭﺟﺒﺔ ﻟﺬﻳﺬﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟ ‪‬‬

‫‪(I have/I've) just had a delicious meal.‬‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﺙ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﱂ ﳛﺪﺩ ﺯﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ )ﺯﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻬﻤﹰﺎ(‪ .‬ﻭﻳـﺄﰐ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﻣﻊ‪:‬‬
‫ﺑﻌ ‪‬ﺪ ‪ , yet‬ﻣﺮﺓ ‪ , once‬ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ‪ , ever‬ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ‪ , never‬ﺍﻵﻥ ‪ , already‬ﻗﺒﻞ ‪before‬‬
‫‪ , - times‬ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ‪ , many times‬ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪several times‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻢ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺭﺃﻳ ‪‬‬

‫‪(I have/I've) seen that movie twenty times.‬‬

‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺘﻪ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ‪.‬‬

‫)‪(II have/I've‬‬
‫‪have/I've) met him once before.‬‬
‫‪before.‬‬

‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺳﺎﻓﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ‪.‬‬

‫‪People have traveled to the moon.‬‬

‫ﺤﺪ‪‬ﺩ ﺯﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﱂ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٦٨‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫‪ (٥‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻭﺍﻻﳒﺎﺯﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﰲ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ‪" .‬ﲡﺮﺑﺔ"‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬

‫‪(I have/I've) been to France.‬‬

‫ﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ‪" .‬ﺇﳒﺎﺯ"‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻣﺸﻴ ‪‬‬

‫‪(I have/I've) walked on the moon.‬‬

‫ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﲔ‪:‬‬‫‪(I have/I've) been to France.‬‬
‫‪(I have/I've) been in France for six months.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ‪ to France‬ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻭﻋﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ in France‬ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﰲ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻭﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﰲ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٦‬ﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﻋﻤﻞ ﱂ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﻴﻤﺲ ﱂ ﻳﻨﻬﻲ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪(James has/James's) not finished his homework yet.‬‬
‫‪yet‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﺮ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ‪.‬‬

‫‪The rain has nott stopped.‬‬

‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺟﻴﻤﺲ ﱂ ﻳﻨﻬﻲ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃ‪‬ﺎﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﺮ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‪:‬‬
‫ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻓﻴﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺣﺪﺙ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿـﻲ‬‫ﻭﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﹰﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﺃﺛﺮﻩ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻋﻴﺶ ﰲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ‪" .‬ﻫﻮ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ"‬
‫‪I live in New York City.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﰲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ‪" .‬ﺍﻵﻥ ﻻ ﺃﻋﻴﺶ ﰲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺯﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﻛﻨﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻘـﺪ‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻋﺸ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋﺸﺖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﰐ"‬
‫‪(I have/I've) lived in New York City.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﰲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‪" .‬ﻣﺎﺯﻟﺖ ﺃﻋﻴﺶ ﰲ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ"‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻋﺸ ‪‬‬
‫‪(I have/I've) lived in New York City for four years.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٦٩‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﲔ‪:‬‬‫‪I work for that company.‬‬
‫‪(I have/I've) worked for that company since October.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ )ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ( ﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ )ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺗﺎﻡ( ﻫﻮ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ )ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ‪/‬ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ( ﻭﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ‪:Present Perfect Progressive‬‬
‫ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪Object‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪Verb‬‬‫‪Verb-ing‬‬
‫‪ing‬‬

‫‪been‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ‪-ing +‬‬

‫‪has‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫‪have‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪Subject‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ‬
‫ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺄﰐ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﳘﺎ "‪"since , for‬‬‫‪ -‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪.-ing‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻋﻴﺶ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺳﻜﻮ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺃﻥ ﲣﺮﺟﺖ‪.‬‬
‫'‪(I have/I‬‬
‫‪/I've) been living in Moscow since I graduated.‬‬
‫'‪(He has/He‬‬
‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‪/He's) been watching the TV for an hour .‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪:‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﹰﺍ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ‪ .‬ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻣﻊ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺑﺪﺍﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﳘﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﳌﺪﺓ ‪ , for‬ﻣﻨﺬ ‪since‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٧٠‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺖ ﺃﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺘﻬﺎ"‬
‫ﺖ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﻣﺎﺯﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺍﻛﺘﺐ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﳌﺪﺓ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ‪" .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﻣﻀﻴ ‪‬‬
‫‪(I have/I've) been writing a letter for two days.‬‬
‫ﺟﻴﻤﺲ ﻳﺪﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺷﻬﺮ )ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ‪/‬ﺣﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ(‪" .‬ﺟﻴﻤﺲ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻳﻮﻧﻴﻮ ﻭﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ‬
‫ﻳﺪﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ"‬
‫‪(James‬‬
‫)‪James has/James's‬‬
‫‪has/James's) been teaching at the university‬‬
‫‪university since June.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﺩﺭﺳﻬﺎ ﺣﱴ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺩﺭﺱ ﺍﻻﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪" .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻻﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭﻣﺎﺯﺍﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻵﻥ"‬
‫)‪(II have/I've‬‬
‫‪have/I've) been studying Italian since I was ten years old.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻣﻊ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻣﻊ ‪ recently‬ﻭ ‪.lately‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﺆﺧﺮﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪(She has/She's) been watching too much television lately‬‬
‫‪lately.‬‬
‫‪Recently, (I have/I've) been feeling tired.‬‬
‫‪Recently,‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺃﺷﻌﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺐ ﻣﺆﺧﺮﺍﹰ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻣﺎﺭﻱ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺎﻻﻛﺘﺌﺎﺏ‪" .‬ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ"‬

‫‪Mary has been feeling depressed.‬‬
‫‪depressed.‬‬

‫ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﰐ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺲ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ‪ State Verbs‬ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﺄﰐ ﻓﻘﻂ‬‫ﰲ ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ ﺇﻳﻀﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻬـﺬﺍ‬‫ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٧١‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮﹰﺍ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻵﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘـﺎﻡ‬‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺆﺧﺮﹰﺍ"‬
‫ﺖ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺣﻴﺎﰐ‪" .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺘﺒ ‪‬‬
‫‪(I have/I've) written the story of my life.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻛﺘﺐ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺣﻴﺎﰐ‪" .‬ﱂ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺘﻬﺎ"‬
‫‪(I have/I've) been writing the story of my life.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻗﺮﺃ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪" .‬ﱂ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ"‬
‫‪(I have/I've) been reading the book.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ ﻣﺆﺧﺮﹰﺍ"‬
‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪" .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻗﺮﺃ ‪‬‬
‫‪(I have/I've) read the book.‬‬
‫ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻟـﻪ‪،‬‬‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻓﲑﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺷﻄﲑﺗﻚ‪" .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﻛﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﱂ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻫﻨﺎ"‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﻛﻠ ‪‬‬
‫‪(I have/I've) eaten your sandwich.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺁﻛﻞ ﺷﻄﲑﺗﻚ‪" .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺑﻘﻲ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ"‬
‫ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬
‫‪(I have/I've) been eating your sandwich.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺃﻟﻌﺐ ﻓﺎﻷﺳـﺒﻮﻉ ﱂ‬
‫ﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻌﺐ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﻭﻣﺎﺯﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻟﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ‪" .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺑﺪﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ"‬
‫‪(I have/I've) been playing a lot of football this week.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ‪" .‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ"‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻟﻌﺒ ‪‬‬
‫‪(I have/I've) played a lot of football this week.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٧٢‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻓﻴﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻮﺻـﻒ ﻋﻤـﻞ‬‫ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺃﻋﻴﺶ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ"‬
‫ﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﳌﺪﺓ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺳﻨﲔ‪" .‬ﺩﺍﺋﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﺯﻟ ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻋﺸ ‪‬‬
‫‪(I have/I've) lived in Cairo for ten years.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻋﻴﺶ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﳌﺪﺓ ﻳﻮﻣﲔ‪" .‬ﻣﺆﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﺯﻟﺖ ﺃﻋﻴﺶ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﺳﺄﻏﺎﺩﺭ"‬
‫‪(I have/I've) been living in Cairo for two days.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ‪ ،"since , for" :‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﶈﺎﺩﺛﺔ ‪:Conversation‬‬
‫?‪A. What are doing now‬‬
‫‪B. I am teaching.‬‬
‫?‪A. When have you been teaching since‬‬
‫‪B. I have been teaching since three hours.‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻵﻥ؟‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺭ‪‬ﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﻣﻨﺬ ﻣﱴ ﻭﺃﻧﺖ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺪﺭ‪‬ﺱ؟‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺩﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫"ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﶈﺎﺩﺛﺔ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻱ ﻋﺸﺮ"‬
‫ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﻊ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ "‪."since , for‬‬‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪I am playing football for an hour.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ‬

‫‪I have been playing football for an hour.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٧٣‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬صيغ الماضي ‪:Past Tense‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ /‬ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ‪:Past Simple‬‬
‫ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪Object‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪Verb.2‬‬

‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ‬

‫"ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ"‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪Subject‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﺖ ﰲ ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻋﻤﻠ ‪‬‬

‫‪I worked in Germany.‬‬

‫ﳓﻦ ﺫﻫﺒﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺣﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪We went to the cinema yesterday.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ went‬ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ go‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ go‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﺓ ‪ Irregular Verbs‬ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻔﻪ‪:‬‬
‫‪go - went - gone‬‬
‫"ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ"‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﺙ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻓﻴﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺣﺔ‪" .‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﺣﺪﺙ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ"‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺭﺃﻳ ‪‬‬

‫‪I saw a movie yesterday.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺄﰐ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﻣﻊ‪:‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ , all year‬ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪ , from - to , for - , all day‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺣﺔ ‪yesterday‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻀﺖ ‪ , last - , one year ago‬ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ‪last week‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ ‪ , at that moment‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪that day‬‬
‫ﺖ ﰲ ﻛﻨﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ‪ ١٩٩٠‬ﺇﱃ ‪" .١٩٩٥‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ"‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻋﻤﻠ ‪‬‬
‫‪I worked in Canada from 1990 to 1995.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻋﺎﺵ ﰲ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺯﻳﻞ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ‪" .‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻟﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺯﻳﻞ"‬
‫‪He lived in Brazil for two years.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٧٤‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﻫﻢ ﺟﻠﺴﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﺊ ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪They sat at the beach all day.‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻣﺘﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺕ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﺭﺍﺋﻌﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺴﺒﺎﺣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻃﺊ ﻭﻭﺟﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻭﲤﺸﻴ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬‬
‫‪I finished my work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to‬‬
‫‪swim.‬‬
‫‪ (٤‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﻴﺔ ‪" Conditional Clauses‬ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺸﺮ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ‪ .‬ﻗـﺎﺭﻥ ﺑـﲔ‬‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﲔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺴ‪‬ﺮ ﺳﺎﻗﻬﺎ‪" .‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻕ ﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭﹰﺍ"‬
‫‪(He has/He's) broken her leg.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻛﺴ‪‬ﺮ ﺳﺎﻗﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‪" .‬ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻻ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ"‬
‫‪He broke her leg at four o'clock.‬‬
‫ ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﻣﻊ‪:‬‬‫‪ ,‬ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ , all year‬ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪ , from - to , for - , all day‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺣﺔ ‪yesterday‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻀﺖ ‪ , last - , one year ago‬ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ‪last week‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ ‪ , at that moment‬ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪that day‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪(He has/He's) left last year.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ )ﻫﻮ ﻏﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ(‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪He left last year.‬‬

‫‪٧٥‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪(He has/He's) come back yesterday.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ )ﻫﻮ ﻋﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺣﺔ(‬

‫‪He came back yesterday.‬‬

‫ ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﹰﺎ "ﻣﺆﺧﺮﹰﺍ"‪ .‬ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﲔ‪:‬‬‫ﻫﻞ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﻮﺭ ﻟﺘﻮﻙ؟ "ﻣﺆﺧﺮﹰﺍ"‬

‫?‪Have you just had breakfast‬‬

‫ﻫﻞ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟﺖ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﻮﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺎﺡ؟‬

‫?‪Did you have breakfast this morning‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ‪:Past Progressive‬‬
‫ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪Object‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬

‫‪Verb-ing‬‬

‫‪was‬‬
‫‪+ were +‬‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ‪-ing +‬‬

‫‪Subject‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ‬
‫ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺄﰐ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﲨﻠﺘﲔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﻣﺜﻞ‪ ،"when , while" :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧـﺖ‬‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﺖ ﺃﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺻﺮﺧﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬

‫‪I was watching the TV when she cried.‬‬
‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‬

‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬

‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺟﻮﻥ ﻧﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺷﺨﺺ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺮﻕ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺗﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪While John was sleeping last night, someone stole his car.‬‬
‫‪I was living in Argentina last year.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺃﻋﻴﺶ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻨﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﰒ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺁﺧﺮ "ﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺘﻪ ﻓﺒﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎﻡ"‪ ،‬ﻭﳚـﺐ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﲢﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ "‪."when , while‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٧٦‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺕ ﲤﻄﺮ‪" .‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﰒ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﻫـﻮ ﻫﻄـﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺖ ﺃﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﺗﻮﺑﻴﺲ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﺮ"‬
‫‪While I was waiting for the bus, it started raining.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺕ ﲤﻄﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺃﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﺗﻮﺑﻴﺲ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺑﺪﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬
‫‪I was waiting for the bus while it started raining.‬‬
‫‪I was waiting for the‬‬
‫‪bus.‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬

‫‪It started raining.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺔ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﳏﺪﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺃﻟﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬

‫‪I was playing basketball last hour.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﲔ ﳛﺪﺛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻜﻮ‪‬ﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﻣـﻦ ﲨﻠـﺘﲔ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﻫﻮ "‪ ،"while‬ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﲔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺃﺩﺭﺱ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺭﻟﻮﺱ ﻳﻌﺪ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬
‫‪I was studying while Carlos was making dinner.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪While I was studying, Carlos was making dinner.‬‬
‫‪I was studying.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ‪Carlos was making dinner.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﻜﺮﺭ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺩﺍﺋـﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳـﺄﰐ ﻫـﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨـﻮﻉ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﳉﻤـﻞ ﻏﺎﻟﺒـﹰﺎ ﻣـﻊ‪:‬‬
‫‪.always , constantly‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٧٧‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺗﺄﰐ ﻣﺘﺄﺧﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻛﺎﻧ ‪‬‬

‫‪She was always coming to class late.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﱂ ﺃﺣﺒﻬﻢ ﻷ‪‬ﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺘﺬﻣﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪I did nott like them because they were constantly complaining.‬‬
‫ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﰐ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺲ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ‪ State Verbs‬ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﺄﰐ ﻓﻘـﻂ ﰲ‬‫ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪" :‬ﻫﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ"‪.‬‬‫ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ‪ ..‬ﺃﻭ ﻫﻮ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ‬

‫‪He wanted a car.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﲔ‪:‬‬‫)‪(II have/I've‬‬
‫‪have/I've) been thinking.‬‬
‫‪thinking‬‬
‫‪I was thinking.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺃﻓﻜﺮ" ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﻳﺄﺗﻴﺎﻥ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ )ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ( ﱂ ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﻣﺆﺧﺮﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ )ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ( ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ‪:Past Perfect‬‬
‫ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪Object‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪Verb.3‬‬

‫‪had‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪Subject‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬

‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ‬

‫"ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ"‬

‫ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺄﰐ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﲨﻠﺘﲔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺭﺍﺑـﻂ ﻣﺜـﻞ‪"after , before , when" :‬‬‫ﻭﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ "‪ ،"until‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎﻡ ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٧٨‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻛﺘﺐ ﲬﺲ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﲡﻴﺒﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪(He had/He'd) written five letters before she answered him.‬‬
‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‬
‫ﳓﻦ ﺫﻫﺒﻨﺎ ﰲ ﻧﺰﻫﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻴﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪We went on a walk after (we had/we'd) finished dinner.‬‬
‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‬
‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﺍﳌﺴﺮﺣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻏﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪When the play had finished, the audience left.‬‬
‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻟﻨﻔﺮﺽ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ A‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪.B‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ A‬ﺑﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ B‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺁﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ‪.Completed Action Before Something in Past‬‬
‫ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻏﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﺍﳌﺴﺮﺣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪The audience left when the play had finished.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ A‬ﻫﻮ "ﺍﳌﺴﺮﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ" ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ "ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﻏﺎﺩﺭ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ A‬ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ B‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﺮﺣﻴﺔ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﳉﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﳌﻐﺎﺩﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪The‬‬
‫‪audience‬‬
‫‪left.‬‬
‫‪The play‬‬
‫‪finished.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‬

‫‪٧٩‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﺙ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭﻗﺖ ﳏﺪﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺄﰐ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﻣﻊ‪:‬‬
‫‪after , before , when , as soon as‬‬
‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.١٩٨٨‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺯﺭ ‪‬‬
‫‪(I had/I'd) visited the U.S. once before in 1988.‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪) ١٤‬ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ‪/‬ﻛﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ( ﰲ ﻛﺎﺯﻳﻨﻮ ﻻﺱ ﻓﻴﻐﺎﺱ‪ .‬ﰲ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻳﺪﻋﻰ ﺟﻮﺯﻳﻒ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺍﺩ‪‬ﺧﺮ ﺟﻮﺯﻳﻒ ﻣﺒﻠﻐﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻫﻮ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﹰﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﻔـﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ‬
‫ﻳﺼﺮﻑ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺰﻟﻪ‪ .‬ﺃﺧﲑﹰﺍ ﻟﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﻭﻣﻌﻪ ‪ ١٤٥.٠٠٠‬ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﰲ ﺟﻴﺒﻪ‪ ...‬ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪It was afternoon on 14 January in Las Vegas casino. At one of the‬‬
‫‪tables was Joseph. For three years Joseph had saved every penny. He‬‬
‫‪had rarely gone out and he hadn't spent anything on his house.‬‬
‫…‪Finally, he had sold the house and with 145,000 in his pocket‬‬
‫ﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺪﺛﺖ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ‪ ١٤‬ﻳﻨﺎﻳﺮ )ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﻴﺔ ‪" Conditional Clauses‬ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺸﺮ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ‪:Past Perfect Progressive‬‬
‫ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪Object‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ‬

‫‪Verb-ing‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪been‬‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ‪-ing +‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪had‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪Subject‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬

‫ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺗﻪ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬‫ ﻻ ﺗﺄﰐ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﲨﻠﺘﲔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﻣﺜـﻞ‪"after , before , when" :‬‬‫ﻭﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ "‪ ،"until‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴـﺔ ﻣﺎﺿـﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻻ ﺗﺄﰐ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﳘﺎ‪."since , for" :‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٨٠‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﺖ ﺗﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻃﻴﻠﺔ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﻗﻔﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻧ ‪‬‬
‫‪(She had/She'd) been talking for half an hour before she stopped.‬‬
‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻏﺎﺩﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﲔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺪﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪He left to China after (he had/he'd) been teaching at the university for‬‬
‫‪more than a year.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻨﻔﺮﺽ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ A‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪.B‬‬
‫ﻟﻨﻔﺮﺽ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ A‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪.B‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ A‬ﺑﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ B‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ A‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪.B‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧ ‪‬‬
‫‪(She had/She'd) been studying English for two years before she got‬‬
‫‪the job.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ" ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ "ﺳﻨﺘﲔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ A‬ﻫﻮ "ﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻧ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻋﻨـﺪﻣﺎ ﺣﺼـﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ A‬ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ B‬ﺃﻱ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻬ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪She studies‬‬
‫‪English‬‬

‫‪two years‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‬

‫‪She got the‬‬
‫‪job.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺒﺐ ﳊﺪﺙ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﻌﺒﹰﺎ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪John was tired because (he had/he'd) been working.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٨١‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺣﺪﺙ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺁﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻴﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ "‪ "for five days‬ﺃﻭ "‪"for three years‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ "‪ "for two hours‬ﰒ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﲔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻢ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻠﻮﺍ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﻲ ﺣﱴ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻮﺍ ﺟﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪(They‬‬
‫)‪They had/They'd‬‬
‫‪had/They'd) not met an American until they met John.‬‬
‫ﻫﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻃﻮﱐ‪.‬‬
‫‪(They‬‬
‫)‪They had/They'd‬‬
‫‪had/They'd) been talking for an hour before Tony arrived.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ )ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎﻡ( ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺑﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ "ﻫﻢ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻠﻮﺍ" ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒـﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺃﻱ ﻫﻢ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻮﺍ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻮﺍ ﺟﻮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ )ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ( ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬
‫"ﻫﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻤﻮﻥ" ﺑﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ ﰒ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ "ﻫﻢ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻮﺍ ﺗﻮﱐ"‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺗﻜﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭﺻﻮﻝ ﺗﻮﱐ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﰐ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺲ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ‪ State Verbs‬ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﺄﰐ ﻓﻘﻂ‬‫ﰲ ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‬‫‪ (٣‬صيغ المستقبل ‪:Future Tense‬‬
‫ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺃﻱ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﲨﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ "‪."when , while , before , after‬‬‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪I will see a movie when I will finish my homework.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ‬

‫‪I will see a movie when I finish my homework.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٨٢‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪:will /‬‬

‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻓﻘﻂ‪:‬‬‫‪He will  He'll , She will  She'll , It will  It'll‬‬
‫‪You will  You'll , They will  They'll , We will  We'll‬‬
‫‪I will  I'll‬‬
‫‪That will  That'll , This will  This'll‬‬
‫ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ‪ will‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻛﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ‪:‬‬‫ﻼ ‪.prediciton‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻟﻠﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻴﺤﺪﺙ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒ ﹰ‬
‫ﻓﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ )ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻔﻮﺯ‪/‬ﺳﻴﻔﻮﺯ(‪.‬‬

‫‪United States team will win.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻟﻠﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ‪ decision‬ﺃﻭ ﻧﻴﺔ ‪ intention‬ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ )ﺳﻮﻑ ﺃﻏﺎﺩﺭ‪/‬ﺳﺄﻏﺎﺩﺭ( ﻏﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

‫‪(I will/I'll‬‬
‫‪ll) leave tomorrow.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ )ﺳﻮﻑ ﺃﺗﺼﻞ‪/‬ﺳﺄﺗﺼﻞ( ﺑﻚ ﻏﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

‫‪(I will/I'll‬‬
‫‪ll) phone you tomorrow.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﻟﻠﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻭﺗﻮﻗﻌﺎﺗﻚ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﺮﺟﺢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳛﺪﺙ ﺍﻵﻥ‪" .‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﺤﻰ ﻓﻘﻂ"‬
‫ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ‪ .‬ﻧﻮﺭﻣﺎ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻵﻥ‪" .‬ﺗﻮﻗﻌﺎﺗﻚ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻮﺭﻣﺎ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻵﻥ"‬
‫‪It is eleven o'clock. Norma will be in bed by now.‬‬

‫ﺁﻩ‪ ،‬ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺯﻭﺟﻲ‪ .‬ﻫﻮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﺘﺼﻞ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪.‬‬
‫‪Ah, that will be my husband. He said he would phone at this time.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٨٣‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﻟﻠﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺒﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ‪ present habit‬ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺻﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪" .‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﺤﻰ ﻓﻘﻂ"‬
‫ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﺘﺎﺓ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‪ .‬ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ‪‬ﺪﻭﺀ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ‪" .‬ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ"‪،‬‬
‫‪She is a good girl. She will play quietly for hours.‬‬

‫‪ (٥‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﻴﺔ ‪" Conditional Clauses‬ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺸﺮ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴًﹰﺎ‪:would /‬‬

‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻓﻘﻂ‪) :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘﺜﲎ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﲑ ‪(it‬‬‫)ﻧﺎﺩﺭ( ‪He would  He'd , She would  She'd , It would  It'd‬‬
‫‪You would  You'd , They would  They'd ,‬‬
‫‪We would  We'd , I would  I'd‬‬
‫ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ‪ would‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﺷﺎﺋﻊ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ‪ would‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻛﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺰﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺼﺪ ‪" .intention‬ﺃﻗﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ‪"will‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ )ﺳﻮﻑ ﺃﺩﺭﺱ‪/‬ﺳﺄﺩﺭﺱ( ﺟﻴﺪﹰﺍ‪" .‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﺎﺯ ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ"‬

‫'‪(I would/I‬‬
‫‪/I'd)) study well.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ )ﺳﻮﻑ ﺃﺩﺭﺱ‪/‬ﺳﺄﺩﺭﺱ( ﺟﻴﺪﹰﺍ‪" .‬ﺃﻗﻞ ﻋﺰﻣﹰﺎ"‬

‫‪I will study well.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ would + have + V.3‬ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﱂ ﳛﺪﺙ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﻻ ﳝﻜـﻦ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﳛﺪﺙ ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ‪" .unreal past‬ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺸﺮ"‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٨٤‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺖ ﺳﺘﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻮ ﻋﺸ ‪‬‬
‫‪If you had lived in the 19th century, (you would/you'd) not have‬‬
‫‪driven a car.‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﻟﻠﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻬﺬﺏ ‪ willingness‬ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺸﺮﺏ؟ "ﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻬﺬﺏ"‬

‫?‪What would you drink‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺸﺮﺏ؟ "ﺃﻗﻞ ‪‬ﺬﻳﺒﹰﺎ"‬

‫?‪What will you drink‬‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﻟﻠﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ‪ refusal‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﺎﻙ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪﻙ ﺣﱴ ﻟﻮ ﺗﻮﺳﻠﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪" .‬ﺭﻓﺾ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ"‬
‫‪Jack would not help you, even if you begged him.‬‬
‫‪ (٥‬ﻟﻠﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺒﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ‪ past habit‬ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺻﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺳﻠﻮﻙ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ "ﺍﻟﻔـﺮﻕ ﺑـﲔ‬
‫‪ used to‬ﻭﺑﲔ ‪ would‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ‪ would‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺺ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﻻ ﻏﲑ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺰﻭﺟﻮﺍ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻤﻮﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺳﻮﺯﺍﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‪ .‬ﰒ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺬﻫﺒﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻨﺘـﺰﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳـﻮﺯﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻄﻌﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﲑﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪Before they get married, Simon would wait Susan every evening‬‬
‫‪after work. Then they would go to the park, and Susan would feed‬‬
‫‪the ducks on the lake.‬‬
‫‪ (٦‬ﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ‪" Future in the Past‬ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٧‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﻴﺔ ‪" Conditional Clauses‬ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺸﺮ"‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٨٥‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‪:be going to /‬‬
‫ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪Object‬‬

‫‪Verb.1‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ‬

‫"ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ"‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪am‬‬
‫‪Subject + is +‬‬
‫‪are‬‬

‫‪going to‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬

‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ‪ be going to‬ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺐ ‪.near future‬‬‫ﺍﳉﺮﺱ ﻳﺪﻕ‪ .‬ﺃﻧﺎ )ﺳﻮﻑ ﺃﻓﺘﺢ‪/‬ﺳﺄﻓﺘﺢ( ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪The bell is ringing. I am going to open the door.‬‬
‫ ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﲔ‪:‬‬‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺫﺍﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻨﻤﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪I am going to the cinema.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ )ﺳﻮﻑ ﺃﺫﻫﺐ‪/‬ﺳﺄﺫﻫﺐ( ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻨﻤﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪I am going to go to the cinema.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻋﻮﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ‪ be going to‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪.will‬‬‫ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ‪ going to‬ﺇﱃ ‪ .gonna‬ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪:‬‬‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺃﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻨﻤﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪I am gonna go to the cinema.‬‬
‫‪cinema.‬‬

‫‪٨٦‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ‪:Future Simple‬‬
‫ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪+‬‬

‫‪Object‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪Verb.1‬‬

‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ‬

‫"ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ"‬

‫‪will‬‬

‫‪Subject‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﻮﻑ )ﺃﺫﻫﺐ‪/‬ﺳﺄﺫﻫﺐ( ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﻏﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

‫‪(I will/I'll) go to the school tomorrow.‬‬

‫ﺟﻮﻥ )ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‪/‬ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ( ﻫﻨﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪John will be here.‬‬

‫ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﱂ ﳔﺘﺼﺮ ‪ John will‬ﺇﱃ ‪ John 'll‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ "ﺟﻮﻥ ‪ "John‬ﻟـﻴﺲ ﺿـﻤﲑ‬
‫ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﺳﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻴﺤﺪﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ )ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻜﻠﻤﻚ‪/‬ﺳﻴﻜﻠﻤﻚ(‪.‬‬

‫‪(He will/He'll) talk to you.‬‬

‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ‪:Future Progressive‬‬
‫ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪Object‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪Verb-ing‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪will be‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ‪-ing +‬‬

‫‪Subject‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ‬

‫ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺄﰐ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﲨﻠﺘﲔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﻣﺜﻞ‪ ،"when , while" :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٨٧‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﻫﻢ )ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﻮﻥ‪/‬ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻧﻮﻥ( ﻣﻨﺘﻈﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬

‫'‪(They will/They‬‬
‫‪will/They'll) be waiting.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ )ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‪/‬ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ( ﻧﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫'‪(He will/He‬‬
‫‪He'll) be sleeping.‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻴﺠﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻭﺳﻴﻘﻄﻌﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺁﺧﺮ "ﻟﻴﺲ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺘﻪ ﻓﺒﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺗﺎﻡ"‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﺐ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﲢﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ "‪."when , while‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ )ﺳﻮﻑ ﺃﻛﻮﻥ‪/‬ﺳﺄﻛﻮﻥ( ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭﻙ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺗﻮﺑﻴﺲ‪.‬‬
‫)‪(II will/I'll‬‬
‫‪will/I'll) be waiting for you when the bus arrives.‬‬
‫‪arrives‬‬
‫‪I will be waiting for you.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬

‫‪The bus arrives‬‬
‫‪arrives.‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻟﻮﺻﻒ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺆﻗﺘﺔ ﰲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﳏﺪﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ )ﺳﻮﻑ ﺃﻛﻮﻥ‪/‬ﺳﺄﻛﻮﻥ( ﺑﺎﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭﻙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)‪(I will/I'll‬‬
‫‪I'll) be waiting for you at 9 o'clock.‬‬
‫ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﰐ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺲ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ‪ State Verbs‬ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﺄﰐ ﻓﻘـﻂ ﰲ‬‫ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪-‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٨٨‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺳﺎﺩﺳﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ‪:Future Perfect‬‬
‫ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪Object‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ‬

‫‪Verb.3‬‬
‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪will have‬‬

‫‪Subject‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬

‫"ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ"‬

‫ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺄﰐ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﲨﻠﺘﲔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﻣﺜـﻞ "‪"after , before , when‬‬‫ﻭﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ "‪ ،"by -‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺗﺎﻡ ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺭﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﺩ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺳﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﺧﺬﻩ‪.‬‬
‫‪The Post Office will have returned the package before I can take.‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺗﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﱵ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻋﻮﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻛﻤﻠ ‪‬‬
‫‪I will have perfected my English by the time I come back from the U.S.‬‬

‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺗﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻟﻨﻔﺮﺽ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ A‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪.B‬‬

‫‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ A‬ﺳﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻭﺳﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ B‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺳـﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻗﺒـﻞ‬
‫ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺁﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ‪.Completed Action Before Something in Future‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻧﻈﻔ ‪‬‬
‫‪(She will/She'll) have cleaned the house after he gets it.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪After he gets house, (she will/she'll) have cleaned it.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٨٩‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪She will‬‬
‫‪have‬‬
‫‪cleaned‬‬
‫‪the house‬‬

‫‪He will get‬‬
‫‪the house.‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻴﺤﺪﺙ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭﻗﺖ ﳏﺪﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﳕ ‪‬‬

‫‪8 o'clock.‬‬

‫)‪(II will/I'll‬‬
‫‪will/I'll) have slept at 8 o'clock.‬‬
‫‪o'clock.‬‬

‫وقت الكالم‬

‫‪I will be‬‬
‫‪sleeping.‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‬

‫ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ "‪ "by--‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺧﻼﻝ" ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻋﻮﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﰲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻏﺪﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﺳﻨﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺟﺮﻳﻨﺎ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ‪.‬‬
‫‪By this time tomorrow, (we will/we'll) have had the meeting.‬‬
‫ﺳﺎﺑﻌﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ‪:Future Perfect Progressive‬‬
‫ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪Object‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪Verb ing‬‬
‫‪Verb-ing‬‬

‫‪will have been‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ‪-ing +‬‬

‫‪Subject +‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٩٠‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺗﻪ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬‫ ﻻ ﺗﺄﰐ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﲨﻠﺘﲔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﻣﺜﻞ "‪"after , before , when‬‬‫ﻭﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ "‪ ،"by -‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻻ ﺗﺄﰐ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳـﺔ ﳘـﺎ‬‫"‪."since , for‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻋﻤﻠﺖ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺘﲔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻐﺎﺩﺭ ﻃﻴﺎﺭ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪I will have been working for two hours when her plane arrives.‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻨﻔﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ A‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ‪.B‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ A‬ﺳﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻭﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﰒ ﺳﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ B‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳـﻴﻨﺘﻬﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ A‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪.B‬‬
‫ﺖ ‪‬ﺎﺋﻴﹰﺎ‬
‫ﺖ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺃﹸﻏﻠﻘ ‪‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻋﻤﻠ ‪‬‬
‫‪She is going to have been working at that company for three years‬‬
‫‪when it finally closes.‬‬
‫ﺖ" ﻭﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ "ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ"‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ A‬ﻫﻮ "ﻫﻲ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻋﻤﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ A‬ﺳﻴﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ B‬ﺃﻱ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻐﻠﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻢ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻧﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﻮﱐ‪.‬‬
‫‪They will have been talking for an hour by the time Tony arrives.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺗﻮﱐ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻧﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻠﻤﻮﺍ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺒﺐ ﳊﺪﺙ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻐﺔ ﺟﻮﺭﺝ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻐﺎﺩﺭ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﺪﺭﺱ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ‪.‬‬
‫‪George's English will be perfect when he leaves because he will have‬‬
‫‪been studying English in the United States for two years.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٩١‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﰐ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺲ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ‪ State Verbs‬ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﺄﰐ ﻓﻘﻂ‬‫ﰲ ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻴﺤﺪﺙ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺁﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴـﺘﻤﺮ‬‫ﻓﻴﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻭﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻣﺜـﻞ "‪ "for five days‬ﺃﻭ ‪"for‬‬
‫"‪ three years‬ﺃﻭ "‪ "for two hours‬ﰒ ﺳﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺑـﲔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺘﲔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﲔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺕ ﲬﺲ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻏﺮﻓﱵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺮﺃ ‪‬‬
‫‪I will have read five pages when my roommate returns‬‬
‫‪returns.‬‬
‫ﺕ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻏﺮﻓﱵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺮﺃ ‪‬‬
‫‪I will have been reading for an hour when my roommate returns.‬‬
‫‪returns‬‬
‫ﺕ ﲬـﺲ ﺻـﻔﺤﺎﺕ"‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ )ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺗﺎﻡ( ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺳﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ "ﺳﺄﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺮﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﲬﺲ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻏﺮﻓﱵ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺳﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺃﻱ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻛﻤﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ" ﺳﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻭﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ )ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ( ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ "ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺮﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺕ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳـﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺳﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﰒ ﺳﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ "ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻏﺮﻓﱵ" ﺃﻱ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺮﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻏﺮﻓﱵ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﲔ‪:‬‬‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﻛﻮﻥ ﻣﻄﻠﻌﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻏﺮﻓﱵ‪.‬‬
‫‪I will be reading when my roommate returns.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺮﺃﺕ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻏﺮﻓﱵ‪.‬‬
‫‪I will have been reading for an hour when my roommate returns.‬‬
‫‪returns‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ "ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﻄﻠﻌﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻏﺮﻓﺘﻪ"‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ "ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺮﺃ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺄﺗﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ ﻏﺮﻓﺘﻪ"‪.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٩٢‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫المستقبل في الماضي ‪:Future in the Past‬‬
‫ ﻣﺜﻞ‪" :‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺳﺄﺷﺘﺮﻱ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ" ‪" ،‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺳﺄﺳﺎﻓﺮ" ‪ ... ،‬ﺇﱁ‪.‬‬‫ ﻟﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺻﻴﻎ ﻫﻢ‪:‬‬‫‪Object‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪Verb.1‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪would‬‬

‫‪Subject‬‬

‫‪was‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪Object‬‬

‫‪Object‬‬

‫‪Verb.1‬‬
‫‪+‬‬

‫‪going to‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪Verb.1‬‬

‫‪to‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪+ were +‬‬
‫‪was‬‬

‫‪+ were‬‬

‫‪Subject‬‬

‫‪Subject‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﹰﺎ‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﺖ ﺳﺄﺷﺘﺮﻱ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬

‫‪I was going to buy a car.‬‬

‫ﻫﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺳﻴﺬﻫﺒﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻨﻤﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪They would go to the cinema.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪He was to become a president.‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‬
‫‪They will go to the cinema‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺗﻪ‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺷﻚ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺙ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﱂ ﳛﺪﺙ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺳﺄﺷﺘﺮﻱ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ‪" .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﲏ ﱂ ﺃﺷﺘﺮﻱ"‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪I would buy a car.‬‬
‫‪I was going to buy a car.‬‬
‫‪I was to buy a car‬‬
‫‪٩٣‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

Select the ONE lettered answer that is BEST in each question:
1) George hurt his head while he ……
A. ice skates.
B. ice skated.
C. was ice skating.
D. had ice skated.
2) Max …… for the CIA since 1992.
A. will work
B. is working
C. works
D. has been working
3) The last time I …… to Korea, I spent three weeks on Cheju Island.
A. went
B. was going
C. have gone
D. will go
4) Bob …… to Australia thirteen times.
A. goes
B. went
C. has been
D. had gone
5) Before Jack arrived, Jill …… up the hill.
A. is already going
B. has already gone
C. had already gone
D. None of all above.
6) It …… every day since I arrived here.
A. will rain
B. rains
C. rained
D. has rained
7) The fans …… when the game finally started.
A. will cheer
B. cheer
C. cheered
D. have cheered

www.expenglish.com

٩٤

Omar AL-Hourani

8) By the time Sam pays off his student loan, he …… eighty years old.
A. will be
B. is
C. was
D. has been
E. had been
9) By the time Bob gets back from the war, his daughter …… from school.
A. will graduate
B. graduates
C. will have graduated
D. graduated
E. has already graduated
10) Every time we …… to that restaurant, my stomach gets upset.
A. will go
B. go
C. went
D. have gone
11) The weatherman says ……
A. it would rain.
B. it will rain.
C. it will have rained.
D. it have rained.
12) Andrew …… the course on JavaScript programming.
A. had already taken
B. has already taken
C. took already
D. would have already taken
E. has been taking
13) Bill was just going to bed when his wife …… from work.
A. is going
B. is coming home
C. had come home
D. has been coming home
E. came home
14) I should …… my books to school yesterday.
A. brought
B. had brought
C. to bring
D. have brought
E. None of all above.
15) Harrison Ford is a famous actor. He …… in many popular movies.
A. has been appearing
B. has appeared
C. had appeared
D. appeared
www.expenglish.com

٩٥

Omar AL-Hourani

16) I …… about you when I received your email.
A. was just thinking
B. just thought
C. have just been thinking
D. was just thought
17) I …… better start saving some money each month for my retirement.
A. have
B. would
C. had
D. will
18) My mother …… school for thirty years.
A. has taught
B. taught
C. had taught
D. was teaching
19) I …… that Jack is very fluent in Spanish.
A. will have heard
B. was hearing
C. have heard
D. am hearing
20) The bus was late. The passengers were angry because they …… for half an hour.
A. are waiting
B. were waiting
C. have been waiting
D. had been waiting
E. have waited
21) The soccer team …… a championship until last year, when they won first place.
A. has never won
B. is never wining
C. had been never wining
D. had never won
22) We have a cottage at Sylvan Lake. It …… in the family for thirty years.
A. was
B. has been
C. is
D. will be
23) The vegetables should be ready, they …… for at least twenty minutes.
A. are boiling
B. boiling
C. have been boiling
D. were boiling

www.expenglish.com

٩٦

Omar AL-Hourani

24) You look tired. You …… too hard lately.
A. worked
B. work
C. were working
D. have been working
25) I underestimated how much time it …… to prepare for the TOEFL Exam.
A. would take
B. will take
C. took
D. will have taken
26) I …… at the new cafeteria and it was excellent.
A. have eaten
B. was eating
C. had eaten
D. did eat
27) I …… a cold since last Thursday.
A. have
B. had
C. have been having
D. have had
28) The homeless shelter …… a difference to people living on the street.
A. is making
B. has made
C. made
D. makes
29) Steven was upset. He …… his wallet, and could not find it.
A. has lost
B. had lost
C. was losing
D. was lost
30) Look at all this water, it …… very hard.
A. has rained
B. have been raining
C. rained
D. will rain
31) We …… the game at home.
A. will be watching
B. will watch
C. All above.
D. None of all above.

www.expenglish.com

٩٧

Omar AL-Hourani

32) I …… to phone you all morning.
A. I have been trying
B. I have tried
C. All above.
D. None of all above.
33) The Australian swimmer …… the gold medal twice before.
A. has been wining
B. has won
C. All above.
D. None of all above.
34) I …… this new scooter. Do you like it?
A. have been bought
B. have been buying
C. All above.
D. None of all above.
35) I …… to this beach for years.
A. have come
B. have been coming
C. All above.
D. None of all above.

www.expenglish.com

٩٨

Omar AL-Hourani

www.expenglish.com

٩٩

Omar AL-Hourani

‫مقدمة ‪:Introduction‬‬
‫ ﲢﺘﻞ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺍﺳﻢ ‪.Noun‬‬‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‪ .‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻌﺐ ‪play‬‬
‫ﻳﻘﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ‪drive‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺗﺼﺎﻍ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ "‪ "-ing‬ﻵﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻛﻞ ‪  eating‬ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ‪eat‬‬
‫ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺲ ‪  teaching‬ﻳﺪﺭ‪‬ﺱ ‪teach‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺗﺼﺎﻍ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ "‪ "-tion‬ﻵﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ‪  education‬ﻳﻌﻠﱢﻢ ‪educate‬‬
‫‪ (٤‬ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪  choice‬ﳜﺘﺎﺭ ‪choose‬‬
‫ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ‪  question‬ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ‪ask‬‬
‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ‪  development‬ﻳﺘﻄﻮﺭ ‪develop‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ‪  performance‬ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ‪perform‬‬
‫أداتي التنكير ‪:a , an‬‬
‫ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﺩﺍﰐ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻜﲑ "‪ "a , an‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺑـ ‪. Indefinite Articles‬‬‫ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺩﺍﰐ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻜﲑ "‪ "a‬ﻭ "‪ :"an‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ "‪ "a‬ﺗﻀﺎﻑ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻻﺳـﻢ‬‫ﺣﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﻭ "‪ "an‬ﺗﻀﺎﻑ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺻـﻮﰐ "ﺳـﺒﻖ ﺷـﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﺓ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻧﻄﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﺻﺎﺩﻕ ‪ , an honest‬ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ‪ , a university‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ‪an hour‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١٠٠‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ "‪ "hour‬ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ‪ h‬ﻫﻨﺎ ﻻﻳﻠﻔﻆ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ‪ o‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ‪ h‬ﻻﻳﻠﻔﻆ ﻓـﺈﻥ ﻛﻠﻤـﺔ‬
‫‪ hour‬ﺗﻠﻔﻆ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻟﻔﻆ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ‪ our‬ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻑ ‪ o‬ﺣﺮﻑ ﺻﻮﰐ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ‪ an‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ "‪ "honest‬ﻧﻔﺲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ "‪ "university‬ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ‪ u‬ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻠﻔﻆ "ﻳﻮ"‪ .‬ﻓﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤـﺎﺕ ﻣﺜـﻞ "‪"an umbrella‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ‪ u‬ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻠﻔﻆ ﻛﺄﻧﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ‪.a‬‬
‫ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ ﻟﻸﲰﺎﺀ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ‪.‬‬‫ﳓﻦ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﻗﻄﺔ ﻭﻛﻠﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪We have a cat and a dog.‬‬

‫ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻬﻦ‪.‬‬‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻣﺪﺭﺱ‪.‬‬

‫‪(I am/I'm) a teacher.‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﳑﺜﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪(She is/She's) an actress.‬‬

‫ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬‫‪ ,‬ﺯﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ‪ , a pair of‬ﻛﺜﲑ ‪ , a lot‬ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ‪ , a little‬ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ‪a few‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﺭﺑﻊ ‪ , a quarter‬ﻣﺌﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ‪ , a hundreds of‬ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ‪a numbers of‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﺯﻭﺝ ﻣﻦ ‪ , a couple of‬ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﺻﻐﲑﺓ ‪ , a bit‬ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﻦ ‪a half of‬‬
‫ﳓﻦ ﺩﻋﻮﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﻮﻑ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻔﻠﺔ‪We invited a lot of guests to the party .‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺑﻘﻲ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺐ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬

‫‪There is only a little milk left.‬‬

‫ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ ﻋﻮﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ "ﰲ‪،‬ﻟﻜﻞ ‪ ."per‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪once a day. OR once per day.‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺗﲔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺌﺘﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ‪.‬‬

‫‪twice a week. OR twice per week.‬‬
‫‪two hundred a month. OR two hundred per month.‬‬

‫ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺠﺐ ﺑـ "‪ "What‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ‪.‬‬‫ﻳﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺮﺓ! ﺃﻭ ﻳﺎ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻔﺮﺓ!‬

‫!‪What a hole‬‬

‫ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ‪" Abstract Nouns‬ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺸﺮ"‪.‬‬‫ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺒﻘﻬﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ "‪."by‬‬‫ﺖ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺫﻫﺒ ‪‬‬

‫‪I went by a car.‬‬

‫ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ ﺑﻌﺪ "‪."no‬‬‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﺪﻱ ﻗﻠﻢ‪.‬‬

‫‪I have no a pen.‬‬

‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﺪﻱ ﺃﺩﱏ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪I have no an idea.‬‬
‫‪١٠١‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺒﻘﻬﻢ ﺿﻤﲑ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻠﻤﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪This is my a pen.‬‬

‫ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﳉﺒﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻷ‪‬ﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺭﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﻼﺕ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﶈﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪I had a lunch with John.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻮﻥ‪" .‬ﻭﺟﺒﺔ"‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪I bought a Cosmopolitan at a Paddington Station.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﳏﻄﺔ‬
‫ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ‪.‬‬

‫‪Water contains an oxygen.‬‬

‫‪ −‬ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ ﻗﺒـﻞ "… ‪ "any- , some- , someone , anybody ,‬ﻷ‪‬ـﻢ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻧﻜﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺷﺨﺺ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺧﱪﱐ ﺑﺄﻧﻚ ﺭﺣﻠﺖ‪.‬‬

‫‪A Someone told me (that) you left.‬‬

‫أداة التعريف ‪:the‬‬
‫ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ "‪ "the‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺑـ ‪.Definite Article‬‬‫ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻟﻸﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ "ﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻮﻥ ﻣﺎﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﻢ" ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﳉﻤـﻊ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺫﺍﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺑﺮ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺖ "ﺍﳌﺨﺎﻃﺐ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺃﻱ ﺳﻮﺑﺮ ﻣﺎﺭﻛﺖ ﻳﻘﺼﺪﻩ ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻠﻢ"‬
‫‪(I am/I'm) going to the supermarket.‬‬
‫ﳓﻦ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﻗﻄﺔ ﻭﻛﻠﺐ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺔ ﻣﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻦ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﺐ ﺟﺮﻭ‪.‬‬
‫‪We have a cat and a dog. The cat is old, but the dog is puppy.‬‬
‫ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺣـﺪ ﻓﻘـﻂ‪ .‬ﻣﺜـﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸـﻤﺲ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﺍﳌﻠـﻚ‬‫ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ‪...‬ﺇﱁ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺗﺪﻭﺭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‪.‬‬

‫‪The earth moves around the sun.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ‪.‬‬

‫‪The President.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﱪﺝ ﺇﻳﻔﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪The Eiffel Tower.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺐ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﱄ‪.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪The North Pole.‬‬
‫‪١٠٢‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﺩﻕ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﺭﺡ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﻒ ﻭﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﺪ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄﺎﱐ‪.‬‬

‫‪The British Museum.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟـﻤﺤﻴﻂ ﺍﻷﻃﻠﺴﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪The Atlantic.‬‬

‫ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻌﺐ ﺃﻭ ﻗﻮﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺼﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ‪.‬‬‫‪(The‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺯﻳﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﺭﻋﻮﻥ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﰲ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪The)) Brazilians are very good at football. .‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻞ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺣﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪.‬‬

‫‪(The‬‬
‫‪The)) elephant is the largest animal on land.‬‬

‫ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻼﻝ ﻭﺍﳉﺒﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﳉﺰﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ "ﺑﺸـﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻳﺄﺗﻮﺍ ﲨﻌﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﺗﻮﺍ ﻛﺎﲰﲔ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﲔ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﺒﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻛﻲ‪" .‬ﲨﻊ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ"‬

‫‪The Rockies.‬‬

‫ﺍﳍﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪" .‬ﺍﲰﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎﻥ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ"‬

‫‪The West Indies.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﻷﲪﺮ‪" .‬ﺍﲰﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎﻥ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ "‬

‫‪The Red Sea.‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻣﺎﺯﻭﻥ‪" .‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ"‬

‫‪The Amazon.‬‬

‫‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﺯﻭﻥ‪ " .‬ﺍﲰﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎﻥ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ"‬

‫‪The Amazon River.‬‬

‫ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ "ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ"‪.‬‬‫ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺰ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻗﺮﺃ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪.‬‬

‫‪The First Winner.‬‬
‫‪(I am/I'm) reading the second book.‬‬

‫ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻷ‪‬ﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﺭﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺟﺒـﺎﺕ ﻭﺍ‪‬ـﻼﺕ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﶈﻄﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪I had the lunch with John.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻮﻥ‪" .‬ﻭﺟﺒﺔ"‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻟ ‪‬‬
‫‪I bought the Cosmopolitan at the Paddington Station.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﳏﻄﺔ‬
‫ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬‫‪The U.S. , The Netherlands‬‬
‫‪ Nether-lands‬ﺗﻌـﲏ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿـﻲ‬
‫ ‪ Netherlands‬ﻫﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ "ﻫﻮﻟﻨﺪﺍ ‪ ،"Holland‬ﻭ ‪Nether lands‬‬‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻊ ﲢﺖ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﻷﻥ ﻫﻮﻟﻨﺪﺍ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻠﺚ ﺃﺭﺍﺿﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﲢﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٠٣‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺒﻘﻬﻢ ﺿﻤﲑ ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻗﻠﻤﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪This is my the pen.‬‬

‫ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻭﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻫـﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﲰـﺎﺀ‬‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻳﻐﻠﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ ْ ١٠٠‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ْ‪The Water boils at 100‬‬
‫‪100 C.‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺐ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﻟﻚ‪.‬‬

‫‪The Milk is good for you.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻃﺲ‪.‬‬

‫‪I like the potato.‬‬

‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ "ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻳﻐﻠﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ‪ ١٠٠‬ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ"‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ "ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺐ ﲜﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻪ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﻟﻚ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻠﻴﺐ"‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ "ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺣـﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻃﺲ ﲜﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻪ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻌﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻃﺲ"‪.‬‬
‫ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "‪ "go home‬ﻻ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺟﺮ‪.‬‬‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪I (go/went) to home.‬‬

‫ﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ(‬
‫ﺻﺢ )ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺫﻫﺐ‪/‬ﺫﻫﺒ ‪‬‬

‫‪I (go/went) home.‬‬

‫أقسام األسماء‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ /‬ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ‪:Proper Nouns‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﻭﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ ﻭﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﲝﺮﻑ ﻛﺒﲑ ‪ Capital Letter‬ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﳚـﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴـﺒﻘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺃﺩﺍﰐ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻜﲑ "‪ "a , an‬ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ "‪ "the‬ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﻫﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ‪ , Friday‬ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ ‪ , Germany‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ‪ , Cairo‬ﺟﻮﺭﺝ ‪George‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٠٤‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻜﺮﺓ ‪:Common Nouns‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣـﻦ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﲝﺮﻑ ﻛﺒﲑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﲝﺮﻑ ﺻﻐﲑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺒﻘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺃﺩﺍﰐ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻜﲑ "‪ "a , an‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ "‪ "the‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ‪ , city‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ‪ , book‬ﻗﻄﺔ ‪ , cat‬ﻣﺪﺭ‪‬ﺱ ‪ , teacher‬ﺭﺟﻞ ‪man‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ‪:Material Nouns‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﲝﺮﻑ ﻛﺒﲑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﲝـﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺻﻐﲑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻌﻈﻤﻬﺎ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺒﻘﻬﺎ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺃﺩﺍﰐ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻜﲑ "‪ ."a , an‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﻫﻮﺍﺀ ‪ , air‬ﺭﻣﻞ ‪ , sand‬ﻣﺎﺀ ‪ , water‬ﺛﻠﺞ ‪ , snow‬ﻣﻌﺪﻥ ‪ , iron‬ﺃﻭﻛﺴﺠﲔ ‪oxygen‬‬
‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ‪:Collective Nouns‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺗﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﲰـﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻛﻴﺎﻧـﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﲝﺮﻑ ﻛﺒﲑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﲝﺮﻑ ﺻـﻐﲑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛـﺎﻥ ﰲ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﻗﻄﻴﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺮﺍﻑ ‪ , flock‬ﺃﺳﻄﻮﻝ ‪ , fleet‬ﺟﻴﺶ ‪ , army‬ﺣﺸﺪ ‪crowd‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﺃﺳﺎﻃﻴﻞ ‪ , fleets‬ﺟﻴﻮﺵ ‪ , armies‬ﺣﺸﻮﺩ ‪crowds‬‬
‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ‪:Abstract Nouns‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺗﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﲝﺮﻑ ﻛﺒﲑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﲝﺮﻑ ﺻﻐﲑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﺳﺮﻭﺭ ‪ , pleasure‬ﺿﺤﻚ ‪ , laugh‬ﺍﺑﺘﻬﺎﺝ ‪joy‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١٠٥‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫األسماء القابلة للعد وغير القابلة للعد‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ /‬ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ‪:Countable‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻋﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺒﻘﻬﺎ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺃﺩﺍﰐ ﺍﻟﺘـﻨﻜﲑ "‪ "a , an‬ﰲ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ "‪ "the‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﻛﺜﲑﻫﺎ ﺑﻜﻠﻤـﺔ "‪ "many‬ﻭﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ "‪ ."few‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﻮﻥ ‪ , a few men‬ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﻛﺜﲑﻭﻥ ‪ , many men‬ﺭﺟﻞ ‪a man‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ‪ , a few of men‬ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ ‪many of men‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ‪:Uncountable‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻋﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ "ﺃﻱ ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ‪is , has ,‬‬
‫‪...was‬ﺇﱁ"‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺒﻘﻬﺎ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺃﺩﺍﰐ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻜﲑ "‪ "a , an‬ﻭﳚﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺒﻘﻬﺎ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ "‪"the‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ‪:‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ‪:Substances‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻧﺎﻳﻠﻮﻥ ‪ , nylon‬ﺻﻮﻑ ‪ , wool‬ﺣﺮﻳﺮ ‪ , silk‬ﻗﻤﺎﺵ ‪ , cloth‬ﻗﻄﻦ ‪: cotton‬ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ‪Materials‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﻓﻀﺔ ‪ , silver‬ﺫﻫﺐ ‪gold‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻣﻠﺢ ‪ , salt‬ﺳﻜﺮ ‪ , sugar‬ﻗﻤﺢ ‪ , wheat‬ﺧﺒﺰ ‪ , bread‬ﺭﺯ ‪ , rice‬ﻃﺤﲔ ‪: flour‬ﻃﻌﺎﻡ ‪Food‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﻓﻠﻔﻞ ‪pepper‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﺷﻌﺮ ‪ , hair‬ﺟﻠﺪ ‪ , skin‬ﻓﺮﻭ ‪ , fur‬ﻣﺮﰉ ‪ , jam‬ﺟﺒﻨﺔ ‪ , cheese‬ﺯﺑﺪﺓ ‪: butter‬ﺁﺧﺮ ‪Other‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻗﺎﻉ ‪ , ground‬ﻳﺎﺑﺴﺔ ‪ , land‬ﻋﺸﺐ ‪ , grass‬ﺗﺮﺑﺔ ‪ , soil‬ﻣﻄﺮ ‪ , rain‬ﺛﻠﺞ ‪ , snow‬ﺟﻠﻴﺪ ‪ice‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﺻﺨﺮﺓ ‪ , rock‬ﻓﺤﻢ ‪ , coal‬ﺟﻠﺪ ﻣﺪﺑﻮﻍ ‪ , leather‬ﺑﻼﺳﺘﻴﻚ ‪ , plastic‬ﺧﺸﺐ ‪wood‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻻﺻﻖ ‪ , plaster‬ﻃﺒﺎﺷﲑ ‪ , chalk‬ﺍﲰﻨﺖ ‪ , cement‬ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ‪ , paper‬ﺭﻣﻞ ‪sand‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﻃﻼﺀ ‪paint‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١٠٦‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

:Liquids ‫( ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺋﻞ‬٢
water ‫ ﻣﺎﺀ‬, milk ‫ ﺣﻠﻴﺐ‬, coffee ‫ ﻗﻬﻮﺓ‬, tea ‫ ﺷﺎﻱ‬, oil ‫ﻧﻔﻂ‬،‫ ﺯﻳﺖ‬, petrol (‫ ﺑﻨﺰﻳﻦ )ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬,
gasoline (‫ ﺑﻨﺰﻳﻦ )ﺃﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ‬, juice ‫ ﻋﺼﲑ‬, alcohol ‫ ﻛﺤﻮﻝ‬, …
:Gases ‫( ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬٣
air ‫ ﻫﻮﺀ‬, smoke ‫ ﺩﺧﺎﻥ‬, steam ‫ ﲞﺎﺭ‬, oxygen ‫ ﺃﻭﻛﺴﻴﺠﲔ‬, hydrogen ‫ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﲔ‬, …
:‫( ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬٤
music ‫ ﻣﻮﺳﻴﻘﻰ‬, luggage ‫ ﺃﻣﺘﻌﺔ‬, baggage ‫ ﺃﻣﺘﻌﺔ ﳏﺰﻭﻣﺔ‬, pay ‫ ﺃﺟﺮ‬, noise ‫ ﺿﻮﺿﺎﺀ‬,
traffic ‫ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ‬, furniture ‫ ﺃﺛﺎﺙ‬, accommodation ‫ﺗﺴﻮﻳﺔ‬،‫ ﲡﻬﻴﺰ‬,
homework ‫ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ‬, …
."‫ "ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺸﺮ‬Abstract Nouns ‫( ﺃﲰﺎﺀ‬٥
‫ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ‬."little
little" ‫" ﻭﻋﻦ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬much
much" ‫ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ﻳﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﻛﺜﲑﻫﺎ ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬
:‫ ﻣﺜﻞ‬.‫ﻭﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬
water ‫ ﻣﺎﺀ‬, much water ‫ ﻣﺎﺀ ﻛﺜﲑ‬, a little water ‫ﻣﺎﺀ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ‬
sugar ‫ ﺳﻜﺮ‬, much sugar ‫ ﺳﻜﺮ ﻛﺜﲑ‬, a little sugar ‫ﺳﻜﺮ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ‬
water ‫ ﻣﺎﺀ‬, much of water ‫ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬, a little of water ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬
sugar ‫ ﺳﻜﺮ‬, much of sugar ‫ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ‬, a little of sugar ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ‬
.‫ﻫﻲ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻝ‬
She has much of gold and a little of beauty

.‫ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎﻫﺎ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﹰﺎ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ‬Uncountable Nouns ‫ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ‬‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

This water are sterilized.

(‫ﺻﺢ )ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﻘﻢ‬

This water is sterilized.
sterilized.

www.expenglish.com
english.com

١٠٧

Omar AL-Hourani
AL

‫ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻏـﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻠـﺔ‬‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ "‪ "coffee‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ ﻣﻨﻪ "ﻗﻬﻮﺓ" ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺼـﺪ‬
‫ﻼ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﻪ "ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻥ ﻗﻬﻮﺓ" ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﺑ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺭﻳﺪ )ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻥ ﻗﻬﻮﺓ‪/‬ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻬﻮﺓ(‪" .‬ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ"‬

‫‪I want a coffee.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺣﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻬﻮﺓ‪" .‬ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ"‬

‫‪I like coffee.‬‬

‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻟﻸﲰﺎﺀ "… ‪"tea , potato,‬‬
‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﲟﻌﲎ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪ"‬
‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﺭﻣﻰ ﺣﺠﺮﺓ‪" .‬ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬

‫‪The boy threw a stone..‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪ"‬
‫"ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺼﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺠﺮ‪ .‬ﻏﲑ‬

‫‪This wall is made of stone.‬‬
‫‪stone.‬‬

‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻭﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ‬‫"‪ "s‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫‪ , opinions‬ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ‪ideas‬‬
‫‪ , truths‬ﺃﺭﺍﺀ ‪opinion‬‬
‫ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ ‪truth‬‬
‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻭﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﳍﺎ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﳊـﺮﻑ "‪ "s‬ﻋﻨـﺪ‬‫ﺍﳉﻤﻊ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺟﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻠ ‪‬‬

‫‪I met three Johns yesterday.‬‬

‫جمع األسماء ‪:The plural‬‬
‫"‪ "s‬ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻌـﲔ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒـﺎﺭ‬
‫ ﲡﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺣﺮﻑ "‬‫ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪" -s‬ﺳﺒﻖ ﺷﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ"‪.‬‬
‫"‪ "ve‬ﻭﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ .-s‬ﻭﻫﻢ‪:‬‬
‫ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑـ "‪ "f‬ﺃﻭ "‪ "fe‬ﻭﲡﻤﻊ ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺇﱃ "‬‫‪leaf  leaves‬‬
‫‪ , loaf  loaves‬ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﻧﺒﺎﺕ ‪ves‬‬
‫‪ , sheaf‬ﺭﻏﻴﻒ ‪ves‬‬
‫‪shea  sheaves‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﺣﺰﻣﺔ ‪ves‬‬
‫‪thie  thieves‬‬
‫‪thief‬‬
‫‪thie‬‬
‫‪ , calf  calves‬ﻟﺺ‬
‫‪ , self‬ﻋﺠﻞ ‪ves‬‬
‫‪sel  sel‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻧﻔﺲ ‪selves‬‬
‫‪wolff  wolves‬‬
‫‪ , half‬ﺫﺋﺐ ‪ves‬‬
‫‪ , scarf‬ﻧﺼﻒ ‪hal  halves‬‬
‫‪scar  scar‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻭﺷﺎﺡ ‪scarves‬‬
‫‪li  lives‬‬
‫‪life‬‬
‫‪ , wife‬ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ‪ves‬‬
‫‪ , knife‬ﺯﻭﺟﺔ ‪wi  wives‬‬
‫‪kni  kni‬‬
‫ﺳﻜﲔ ‪knives‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻓﺮ ‪hoof  hooves‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٠٨‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﲡﻤﻊ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬‫‪ ,‬ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ‪ :‬ﻧﺴﺎﺀ ‪ , woman  women‬ﺭﺟﻞ ‪ :‬ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ‪man  men‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻗﺪﻡ ‪ :‬ﺃﻗﺪﺍﻡ ‪ , foot  feet‬ﻃﻔﻞ ‪ :‬ﺃﻃﻔﺎﻝ ‪child  children‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻓﺄﺭ ‪ :‬ﻓﺌﺮﺍﻥ ‪ , mouse  mice‬ﺳﻦ ‪ :‬ﺃﺳﻨﺎﻥ ‪tooth  teeth‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻗﻤﻠﺔ ‪ :‬ﻗﻤﻞ ‪ , louse  lice‬ﺇﻭﺯﺓ ‪ :‬ﺇﻭﺯﺍﺕ ‪goose  geese‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻭﺍﺣﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﺣﺎﺕ ‪ , oasis  oases‬ﺛﻮﺭ ‪ :‬ﺃﺛﻮﺍﺭ ‪ox  oxen‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ‪ :‬ﻓﻬﺎﺭﺱ ‪ , index  indices‬ﺧﻄﺄ ﻣﻄﺒﻌﻲ ‪ :‬ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﻣﻄﺒﻌﻴﺔ ‪erratum  errata‬‬
‫ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﳍﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻊ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬‫… ‪ ,‬ﺧﻨﺰﻳﺮ ‪ :‬ﺧﻨﺎﺯﻳﺮ ‪ , swine‬ﺧﺮﻭﻑ ‪ :‬ﺧﺮﺍﻑ ‪ , sheep‬ﻏﺰﺍﻝ ‪ :‬ﻏﺰﻻﻥ ‪deer‬‬
‫ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬‫‪ ,‬ﺷﺮﻃﺔ ‪ , police‬ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ‪ , clergy‬ﻣﺎﺷﻴﺔ ‪ , cattle‬ﺷﻌﺐ ‪people‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﺣﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﻃﻔﻴﻠﻴﺔ ‪ , vermin‬ﲨﻬﻮﺭ ‪ , public‬ﺩﺟﺎﺝ ‪poultry‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻮ‪.‬‬

‫‪Police have just arrived.‬‬

‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺑﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﲟﻌﲎ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ "‪ "people‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺷﻌﺐ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺷﻌﻮﺏ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﺗﺄﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻃﺲ‪.‬‬

‫‪Peoples of Europe eat much of potato.‬‬

‫ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﳍﺎ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ "‪ "s‬ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮﻫﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍ ‪‬ﺳﺘ‪‬ﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬‫‪ ,‬ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ‪ , score : three score‬ﺩﺯﻳﻨﺔ ‪dozen : two dozen‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻣﺌﺔ ‪ , hundred : eight hundred‬ﺃﻟﻒ ‪thousand : five thousand‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﺭﺃﺱ ‪ , head : two head‬ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ‪million : nine million‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺗﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﳏﺪﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﺌﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻻﺩ ‪ , hundreds of boys‬ﺩﺭﺍﺯﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺾ ‪dozens of eggs‬‬
‫ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﲢﻤﻞ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬‫ﻣﺸﻨﻘﺔ ‪ , gallows‬ﻧﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ ‪ , innings‬ﺧﱪ‪،‬ﺃﺧﺒﺎﺭ ‪news‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﺎﺀ ‪ , physics‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎﺕ ‪ , mathematics‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻕ ‪ethics‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﺻﻮﺗﻴﺎﺕ ‪phonetics‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١٠٩‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪ −‬ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻄﻌﺘﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﲡﻤﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻔﺮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﻘـﺺ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﺷﺔ‪ ...‬ﻓﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﳍﺎ ﻗﻄﻌﺘﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪The scissor is lost.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ )ﺍﳌﻘﺺ ﺿﺎﺋﻊ(‬

‫‪The scissors are lost.‬‬

‫التذكير والتأنيث ‪:Gender‬‬
‫ ﻻ ﲢﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺬﻛﲑ ﻭﺗﺄﻧﻴﺚ ﻛﻘﺎﻋﺪﺗﲔ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺘﲔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴـﺔ ﻭﺑﻌـﺾ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳉﻨﺲ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ ﻓﺌﺎﺕ‪:‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻟﻪ ﺑﻀﻤﲑ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ‪ He‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺐ ﻭﺍﳉﺮ ‪ .him‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮ ﻓﻘﻂ‪:‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻋﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺎﻝ ‪ , uncle‬ﺃﺥ ‪ , brother‬ﺃﺏ ‪ , father‬ﺭﺟﻞ ‪ , man‬ﻭﻟﺪ ‪ , boy‬ﺍﺑﻦ ‪son‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﺯﻭﺝ ‪ , husband‬ﻣﻠﻚ ‪ , king‬ﺃﻣﲑ ‪ , prince‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺧﺖ ‪nephew‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﺍﳌﺆﻧﺚ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻟﻪ ﺑﻀﻤﲑ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ‪ She‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺐ ﻭﺍﳉﺮ ‪ .her‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﺆﻧﺚ ﻓﻘﻂ‪:‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﺃﺧﺖ ‪ , sister‬ﺃﻡ ‪ , mother‬ﻣﺮﺁﺓ ‪ , woman‬ﺑﻨﺖ ‪ , girl‬ﺍﺑﻨﺔ ‪daughter‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻣﻠﻜﺔ ‪ , queen‬ﺃﻣﲑﺓ ‪ , princess‬ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﻷﺥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺧﺖ ‪ , niece‬ﻋﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺎﻟﺔ ‪aunt‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﺯﻭﺟﺔ ‪wife‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻟﻪ ﺑﻀﻤﲑ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﺐ ﻭﺍﳉﺮ ‪ .it‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻏـﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗـﻞ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﺩﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﻛﻠﺐ ‪ , dog‬ﻗﻄﺔ ‪ , cat‬ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ‪ , city‬ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ‪ , book‬ﺑﺎﺏ ‪ , door‬ﻃﺎﻭﻟﺔ ‪ , table‬ﻗﻠﻢ ‪pen‬‬
‫‪ (٤‬ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻂ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻼ ﺍﳉﻨﺴﲔ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﺩﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻛﺘﻮﺭﺓ ‪ , doctor‬ﺻﺪﻳﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪﻳﻘﺔ ‪ , friend‬ﻃﻔﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻃﻔﻠﺔ ‪child‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳋﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﳋﺎﻝ ‪ , cousin‬ﻗﺎﺿﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﺿﻴﺔ ‪judge‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫﺓ ‪ , teacher‬ﻓﻨﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻨﺎﻧﺔ ‪artist‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١١٠‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﻠﻤﺘﲔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺘﲔ ﺗﺪﻻﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺆﻧﺚ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻪ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺆﻧﺚ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺬﻛﺮ‬

‫ﳑﺜﻠﺔ ‪actress :‬‬

‫ﳑﺜﻞ ‪actor :‬‬

‫ﺑﻨﺖ ‪girl :‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﺪ ‪boy :‬‬

‫ﺻﺪﻳﻘﺔ ‪girlfriend‬‬

‫ﺻﺪﻳﻖ ‪boyfriend‬‬

‫ﺃﺧﺖ ‪sister :‬‬

‫ﺃﺥ ‪brother :‬‬

‫ﺑﻘﺮﺓ ‪cow :‬‬

‫ﺛﻮﺭ ‪bull :‬‬

‫ﺩﺟﺎﺟﺔ ‪hen :‬‬

‫ﺩﻳﻚ ‪cock :‬‬

‫ﻛﻠﺒﺔ ‪bitch :‬‬

‫ﻛﻠﺐ ‪dog :‬‬

‫ﺃﻡ ‪mother :‬‬

‫ﺃﺏ ‪father :‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻌﻠﺒﺔ‪vixen :‬‬

‫ﺛﻌﻠﺐ ‪fox :‬‬

‫ﻓﺮﺱ ‪mare :‬‬

‫ﺣﺼﺎﻥ ‪horse :‬‬

‫ﺯﻭﺟﺔ ‪wife :‬‬

‫ﺯﻭﺝ ‪husband :‬‬

‫ﻣﻠﻜﺔ ‪queen :‬‬

‫ﻣﻠﻚ ‪king :‬‬

‫ﺳﻴﺪﺓ ﻧﺒﻴﻠﺔ ‪lady :‬‬

‫ﺳﻴﺪ ﻧﺒﻴﻞ ‪lord :‬‬

‫ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ‪woman :‬‬

‫ﺭﺟﻞ ‪man :‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺔ ‪nun :‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﻫﺐ ‪monk :‬‬

‫ﺑﻨﺖ ﺍﻷﺥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺧﺖ ‪niece :‬‬

‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻷﺥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺧﺖ ‪nephew :‬‬

‫ﻧﻌﺠﺔ ‪ewe :‬‬

‫ﻛﺒﺶ ‪ram :‬‬

‫ﻣﺪﺍﻡ ‪madam :‬‬

‫ﺳﻴﺪ ‪sir :‬‬

‫ﺍﺑﻨﺔ ‪daughter :‬‬

‫ﺍﺑﻦ ‪son :‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﻟﺔ ‪aunt :‬‬

‫ﻋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﻝ ‪uncle :‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﳌﺪﻥ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﻣﺆﻧﺜﺔ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ‪ country , city‬ﻳﻌﱪ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻤﲑ ‪.it‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١١١‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫حاالت إعراب االسم ‪:Case of Nouns‬‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‪:‬‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ /‬ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ‪:Nominative‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻓﺎﻋ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻛﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪The boy broke the window.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﺗﺘﻤﺔ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻋﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ ﻭﺗﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﳋﱪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺃﰊ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﰊ‪.‬‬

‫‪This man is my father.‬‬

‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻣﺒﺘﺪﺃ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻉ ﻭ ﺃﰊ ﺧﱪ ﻣﺮﻓﻮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻭ ﺃﰊ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑـﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻫﻮ "ﻳﻜﻮﻥ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪:‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺐ ﻭﺍﳉﺮ ‪:Object‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻟﺪ ﻛﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪The boy broke the window.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻣﻔﻌﻮ ﹰﻻ ﳊﺮﻑ ﺟﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺿﻊ ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻧﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪Put your cup on the table.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺃﺗﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺣﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪He came yesterday.‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ )ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ( ‪ :Possessive‬ﺗﺄﰐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺘﲔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ "‪:"X's Y‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ‪ :‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻄﻊ ‪ 's‬ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪The girl's dress.‬‬

‫ﺛﻮﺏ ﻣﺒﺘﺪﺃ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻀﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﺓ ﻣﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺮﺣﻴﺎﺕ ﺷﻜﺴﺒﲑ‪.‬‬

‫‪Shakespeare's plays.‬‬

‫ﻣﺴﺮﺣﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺒﺘﺪﺃ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻀﺎﻑ ﻭﺷﻜﺴﺒﲑ ﻣﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١١٢‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﳉﻤﻊ‪ :‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻠﺔ ' ﻓﻘﻂ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻣﺼﺎﻏﹰﺎ ﺑـ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪ -s‬ﺃﻭ ‪.-es‬‬
‫ﺛﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪The girls' dresses.‬‬

‫ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻻﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪The boys' books.‬‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺼﺎﻍ ﺑـ ‪ -s‬ﺃﻭ ‪ -es‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻳﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺈﺿـﺎﻓﺔ ‪ 's‬ﰲ ﺁﺧـﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‫‪The men's room.‬‬

‫ﺃﺳﺘﺎﺫ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‫‪The children's teacher.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ "‪ :"Y of X‬ﺗﺼﺎﻍ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ "‪ "of‬ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﳌﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﻜﻦ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺪﺳﲔ‬
‫‪the engineers‬‬

‫‪Names of‬‬

‫ﺩﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻭﻟﺔ‬
‫‪the table‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪of‬‬

‫‪١١٣‬‬

‫‪The leg‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫'‪:"X‬‬
‫ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ "‪X's Y‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺫﻳﻞ ﻗﻄﺔ‪" .‬ﻛﺎﺋﻦ ﺣﻲ"‬

‫‪A cat's tail.‬‬

‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﻝ‪" .‬ﻛﺎﺋﻦ ﺣﻲ"‬

‫‪The men's‬‬
‫‪men room.‬‬

‫ﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‪" .‬ﻛﺎﺋﻦ ﺣﻲ"‬

‫‪The women's‬‬
‫‪women society.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍ‪‬ﺴﺪﺓ ﺃﻱ ﺍﳌﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‫‪The beauty's‬‬
‫‪beauty queen.‬‬

‫ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ "‪:"Y of X‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻏﲑ ﺣﻴﺔ "ﺍﳉﻤﺎﺩﺍﺕ"‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﰐ ﻣﻊ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ "‪."X's Y‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬

‫‪The table's‬‬
‫‪table leg.‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﻔﻀﻞ )ﺩﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻭﻟﺔ(‬

‫‪The leg of the table.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﰐ ﻣﻊ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ "‪."X's Y‬‬
‫‪Names of the engineers.‬‬
‫‪engineers. OR The engineer‬‬
‫‪engineers' names.‬‬
‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﻣﻨﺰﱄ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﺰﻝ ﻣﺎﺭﻙ‪.‬‬
‫‪My house is larger than Mark's.‬‬
‫)‪Mark (= Mark's house‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﻷﺧﱵ‪.‬‬
‫‪These books are my sister's.‬‬
‫)‪sister . (= my sister books‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١١٤‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

- Questions (1-10); select the ONE lettered answer that is BEST in each question:
1) Plural of "spoonful" is:
A. spoonfuls.
B. spoonsful.
C. spoonful.
D. spoons.
2) Plural of "antenna" is:
A. antennas.
B. antenns.
C. antenna.
D. antennes.
3) Plural of "omen" is:
A. omens.
B. omena.
C. omenas.
D. omen.
4) Plural of "sheep" is:
A. sheeps.
B. sheep.
C. All above.
D. None of all above.
5) Plural of "standby" is:
A. standby.
B. standbies.
C. standbys
D. standbyes.
6) Plural of "fish" is:
A. fish.
B. fishes.
C. All of above.
D. None of all above.
7) Noun of "steal" is:
A. steal.
B. stealing.
C. stealance.
D. steel.
E. None of all above.

www.expenglish.com

١١٥

Omar AL-Hourani

8) Noun of "accept" is:
A. accept.
B. acceptance.
C. accepting.
D. None all of above.
9) Noun of "administrate" is:
A. administrate.
B. administrating.
C. administrator.
D. None of all above.
10) Noun of "collect" is:
A. collect.
B. collecting.
C. collection.
D. None of all above.
- Questions (11-14); decide whether they are common, proper, abstract, or collective:
11) That holiday was the best.
A. Common.
B. Proper.
C. Abstract.
D. Collective.
12) He's obviously the leader of the gang.
A. Common.
B. Proper.
C. Abstract.
D. Collective.
13) Every winter we used to go to Scotland for the skiing.
A. Common.
B. Proper.
C. Abstract.
D. Collective.
14) Pauline is so weary of the life she leads.
A. Common.
B. Proper.
C. Abstract.
D. Collective
- Questions (15-21); decide if these statements about articles are (True) or (False):
15) An American man wants to make a business.
16) Water contains a hydrogen.
17) The earth is third planet from the sun.
18) I have just read news from the New York Times.
www.expenglish.com

١١٦

Omar AL-Hourani

19) We have a lots of wood.
20) I visited the Niagara.
21) He went to the college.
- Questions (22-40); choose the correct article (a, an, the, nothing):
22) She is … very nice girl.
23) Next month I'm going to go to … Paris to see … Eiffel Tower.
24) Wait, I have … idea.
25) That is … strangest thing I've ever seen.
26) Yesterday, I talked to … MTV Producer.
27) … Ukrainians are more intelligent than … Italians.
28) Have you ever taken … trip to … North Pole?
29) I'd like to be … President of … United States someday.
30) Who's … guy over there with a duck on his head?
31) I'm … happiest girl in town!
32) I like … cats better than … dogs.
33) We saw … Mr. Smith at … bank.
34) We made some delicious soup using … head of … cow!
35) It should take … hour.
36) Please put … gun on … table and listen to me!
37) This is … Europe car.
38) She had … one dollar note in her hand.
39) In … end we decided not to go to the cinema but to watch television.
40) It is important sometimes to stop and look around you at all the wonderful things in …
nature.

www.expenglish.com

١١٧

Omar AL-Hourani

www.expenglish.com

١١٨

Omar AL-Hourani

:Introduction ‫مقدمة‬
.‫ ﲢﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‬.‫ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺗﺼﻒ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﲔ‬.Adjective ‫ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻟﻪ ﺻﻔﺔ‬.‫ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﲡﻤﻊ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ‬Smarts boys

‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

Smart boys.

(‫ﺻﺢ )ﺃﻭﻻﺩ ﺃﺫﻛﻴﺎﺀ‬

They need smarts.

("‫ﺻﺢ )ﻫﻢ ﳛﺘﺎﺟﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺫﻛﻴﺎﺀ "ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺻﻔﺔ‬
:‫ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ‬:‫ ﻣﺜﻞ‬.‫( ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﺎ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﲟﻘﻄﻊ ﳏﺪﺩ‬١

large ~ small ‫ ﺻﻐﲑ‬، ‫ ﻛﺒﲑ‬, old ~ young ‫ ﺻﻐﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻦ‬، ‫ ﺑﺎﻟﻎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻦ‬,
old ~ new ‫ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬، ‫ ﻗﺪﱘ‬, long ~ short ‫ ﻗﺼﲑ‬، ‫ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‬, hard ~ soft ‫ ﻧﺎﻋﻢ‬، ‫ ﺧﺸﻦ‬,
rich ~ poor ‫ ﻓﻘﲑ‬، ‫ ﻏﲏ‬, hot ~ cold ‫ ﺑﺎﺭﺩ‬، ‫ ﺳﺎﺧﻦ‬,
black ~ white ‫ ﺃﺑﻴﺾ‬، ‫ ﺃﺳﻮﺩ‬, good ~ bad ‫ ﺳﻲﺀ‬، ‫ ﺟﻴﺪ‬,
smart ~ stupid ‫ ﻏﱯ‬، ‫ ﺫﻛﻲ‬, …
:‫ﺕ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺣﺘﻤﹰﺎ‬‫ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭ ﹺﺟﺪ‬،‫( ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﲟﻘﻄﻊ ﳏﺪﺩ‬٢
-al: actual , final , general , mental , physical , special , …
-ent: ancient , convenient , excellent , frequent , urgent , …
-ous: anxious , conscious , dangerous , famous , serious , various, …
-ic: atomic , basic , electric , scientific , sympathetic , …
-y: angry , dirty , funny , guilty , healthy , hungry , icy , …
-ive: active , attractive , expensive , native , sensitive , …
-ed: confused , excited , limited , related , surprised , …
-ble: enjoyable , fashionable , possible , probable , sensible , …
-ful: beautiful , careful , faithful , grateful , skillful , …
-an: American , Christian , German , human , Indian , Russian , …
-ing: amusing , disappointing , surprising , willing , …
-less: blameless , careless , childless , harmless , senseless , …
www.expenglish.com

١١٩

Omar AL-Hourani

‫‪-ar:‬‬
‫‪ar: familiar‬‬
‫‪famili , particular‬‬
‫‪particular , popular‬‬
‫‪popul , regular‬‬
‫‪regul , similar‬‬
‫… ‪simil ,‬‬
‫"‪ "-less‬ﳍﺎ ﻣﻌﲎ ﻣﻌﺎﻛﺲ ﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﻄﻊ "‪less‬‬‫‪  careless‬ﻳﻬﺘﻢ ‪care‬‬
‫‪care‬‬
‫ﻣﻬﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻬﻤﻞ ﻋﻜﺲ ﻳﻬﺘﻢ‬
‫"‪ "-less‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﲝـﺬﻑ ﺍﳌﻘﻄـﻊ "‪"-less‬‬
‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﻄﻊ "‪less‬‬‫‪ ."-ful‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻄﻊ "‪ful‬‬
‫‪  helpful‬ﻏﲑ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ‪helpless‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ‪help‬‬
‫‪  hopeful‬ﻣﻴﺌﻮﺱ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪hopeless‬‬
‫ﻣﻔﻌﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﻞ ‪hope‬‬
‫‪  useful‬ﻋﺪﱘ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻯ ‪useless‬‬
‫ﻧﺎﻓﻊ ‪ful‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺗﺼﺎﻍ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ "‪ "a-‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ‪:‬‬
‫‪  asleep‬ﻳﻨﺎﻡ ‪sleep‬‬
‫ﻧﺎﺋﻢ ‪sleep‬‬
‫ﺣﻲ ‪  alive‬ﳛﻴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ‪live‬‬
‫‪  awake‬ﻳﺴﺘﻴﻘﻆ ‪wake‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻴﻘﻆ ‪wake‬‬
‫‪ "dis‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﺬﻩ‬‫"‬
‫‪, un‬‬‫‪un , il- , in‬‬‫‪ (٤‬ﺗﺼﺎﻍ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻃﻊ "‪in , im--‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﺎ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺃﻱ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻔﻆ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫‪  unhappy‬ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ‪happy‬‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ‪happy‬‬
‫‪  inaccurate‬ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ‪accurate‬‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ‪accurate‬‬
‫‪  impossible‬ﻣﺴﺘﺤﻴﻞ ‪possible‬‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﻴﻞ ‪possible‬‬
‫‪  illegal‬ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ‪legal‬‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ ‪legal‬‬
‫‪  dishonest‬ﺃﻣﲔ ‪honest‬‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﺃﻣﲔ ‪honest‬‬
‫ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺃﺩﺍﰐ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻜﲑ "‪ "a , an‬ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻣﻌﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺑـﲔ‬‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﲔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺫﻛﻲ‬

‫‪He is a smart man.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﺫﻛﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪He is smart.‬‬

‫‪١٢٠‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﱂ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻷﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺃﺗﻰ ﻛﻼ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻣﻌﹰﺎ "‪ "smart man‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﳚﺐ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﺗـﻰ ﺍﻟﺼـﻔﺔ‬
‫ﲟﻔﺮﺩﻩ ﻓﻘﻂ "‪ "smart‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻟﺬﺍ ﳚﺐ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ "‪ "hero‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻭﺗﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺑﻄﻞ" ﻭﺻﻔﺘﻬﺎ "‪ "heroic‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺑﻄﻮﱄ"‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﳚـﺐ‬‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺑﻄﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪I am a hero.‬‬

‫ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺗﺄﰐ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﺛﻮﺏ ﺃﲪﺮ‬
‫‪Red dress‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ‬

‫ﻃﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﲨﻴﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺻﻔﺔ‬

‫‪Beautiful table‬‬
‫ﺻﻔﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ‬

‫أنواع الصفات‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻋﻠﻢ‪:‬‬
‫ﺻﻔﺔ ﻣﺸﺘﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﲝﺮﻑ ﻛﺒﲑ ‪.Capital Letter‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‬
‫‪English language‬‬
‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ‬
‫‪New York City‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٢١‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺗﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺮﺩ  ‪my/your/his/her/its‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻊ  ‪our/your/their‬‬
‫"ﺳﺒﻖ ﺷﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ"‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ "‪ "own‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺃﻛﺘﺐ ﺑﻘﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‪.‬‬

‫‪(I will/I'll) write with my own pen.‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻀﺎﻑ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ "‪ "own‬ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﳌﻨﻊ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺒﺎﺱ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﲔ‪:‬‬
‫‪He did his work.‬‬
‫‪He did his own work.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﰎ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﱃ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣـﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﺎﳌﻌﲎ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﳜﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺗﺒﲔ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺷﻜﻠﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻮﻧﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺎﻟﺘـﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚـﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴـﺒﻘﻬﺎ ﺇﺣـﺪﻯ ﺃﺩﺍﰐ ﺍﻟﺘـﻨﻜﲑ‬
‫"‪ "a , an‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ "‪ "the‬ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﺰﻝ ﻗﺪﱘ ‪ , an old house‬ﻓﺘﺎﺓ ﲨﻴﻠﺔ ‪ , a beautiful girl‬ﺷﺎﺭﻉ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪a long street‬‬
‫ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﺘﺎﺓ ﲨﻴﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪She is a beautiful girl.‬‬

‫ﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺃﺗﻰ ﻛﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻣﻌﹰﺎ "‪ "beautiful girl‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﳚﺐ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١٢٢‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫مواقع الصفة‪:‬‬
‫ ﻻ ﺗﺄﰐ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌـﻞ "‪"am , is , are , was , were , be‬‬‫ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ‪ Linking Verbs‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫـﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳊـﺲ ‪ Perception Verbs‬ﻭﺃﻓﻌـﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻈﻬـﻮﺭ ‪ Seeming Verbs‬ﻭﺃﻓﻌـﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻐـﻴﲑ‬
‫‪ Becoming Verbs‬ﻭﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ ‪" .Remaining Verbs‬ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜـﺎﱐ‬
‫ﻋﺸﺮ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺲ ‪:Perception Verbs‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻠﻤﺲ ‪ , feel‬ﻳﺼﺪﺭ ﺻﻮﺗﹰﺎ ‪ , sound‬ﻳﺘﺬﻭﻕ ‪ , taste‬ﺗﻔﻮﺡ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺭﺍﺋﺤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺸﻢ ‪smell‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ‪:Seeming Verbs‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ‪ , look‬ﻳﺒﺪﻭ ‪ , seem‬ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ‪appear‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ‪:Becoming Verbs‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻳﻨﻤﻮ ‪ , grow‬ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ‪ , get‬ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ‪ , end up‬ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ‪become‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﻳﺜﺒﺖ ‪ , prove‬ﳛﻮ‪‬ﻝ ‪ , turn‬ﳛﻮ‪‬ﻝ ‪ , convert‬ﻳﻐﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺒﺪﻝ ‪change‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ ‪:Remaining Verbs‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﳛﻔﻆ ‪ , keep‬ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ‪ ،‬ﳝﻜﺚ ‪ , remain‬ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ‪stay‬‬
‫ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ )ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻑ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻟﺪﻱ ﻛﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪I have a new computer.‬‬

‫ـﻮ‬
‫ـﻪ ﻫـ‬
‫ـﻮﻝ ﺑـ‬
‫ـﻮ "‪ ،"computer‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻌـ‬
‫ـﻢ ﻫـ‬
‫ـﻮﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺳـ‬
‫ـﻲ "‪ ،"new‬ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺻـ‬
‫ـﻔﺔ ﻫـ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼـ‬
‫"‪."a new computer‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ‪ Linking Verbs‬ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﲨﻴﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪(She has/She's) become beautiful.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻮ "‪ ،"beautiful‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻫﻮ "‪ ،"become‬ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺻـﻮﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋـﻞ ﻫـﻮ‬
‫"‪ ."She‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "‪ "become‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ )ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺀ ﺗﻔﻮﺡ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺭﺍﺋﺤﺔ ﻟﺬﻳﺬﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪The soup smells delicious.‬‬

‫‪١٢٣‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻮ "‪ ،"delicious‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻫﻮ "‪ ،"smell‬ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻫﻮ‬

‫‪"The‬‬

‫"‪ .soup‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "‪ "smell‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺲ )ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺑﻘﻲ ﺻﺎﻣﺘﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪The witness kept silent..‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻮ "‪ ،"silent‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻫﻮ "‪ ،"kept‬ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺻـﻮﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋـﻞ ﻫـﻮ‬

‫"‬
‫‪"The‬‬

‫"‪ .witness‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "‪ "kept‬ﻣﺎﺿﻲ "‪ "keep‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ )ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ(‪.‬‬
‫‪witness‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ be‬ﻭﺃﺧﻮﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﺫﻛﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪She is smart.‬‬
‫‪smart.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻮ "‪ ،"smart‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻫﻮ "‪ ،"is‬ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻫﻮ "‪."She‬‬
‫‪ (٤‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ the‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻻ ﻳﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺏ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺘﲏ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﻦ‪.‬‬

‫‪The young should look after the old.‬‬
‫‪old.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻫﻲ "‪ "young‬ﻭ "‪ ،"old‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻫﻮ "‪ ،"The young‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ "‪ ،"the old‬ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ "‪ "look after‬ﺗﻌﲏ "‪ "take care‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺗﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻳﻌﺘﲏ"‪.‬‬‫‪ (٥‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻭﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﻜﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺣﺐ ﻗﻬﻮﰐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﻮﺩﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﱵ ﲢﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﺮﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

‫‪I like my coffee black.‬‬
‫‪black.‬‬
‫‪My sister keeps her room very tidy..‬‬

‫"‪"her room‬‬
‫‪roo‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ "‪ "black‬ﻭ "‪ ،"tidy‬ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ "‪ "my coffee‬ﻭ‬
‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﺪﻱ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺟﻴﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪I have nothing good.‬‬
‫‪good.‬‬

‫‪ ."nothing‬ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻊ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ "‪ ،"good‬ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ "‪nothing‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪."I have nothing is good" :‬‬
‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﺪﻱ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺟﻴﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

‫‪I have nothing not good.‬‬
‫‪good.‬‬

‫‪ ،"good‬ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ "‪ ."nothing‬ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻊ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ "‪good‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪."I have nothing is not good" :‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﻔﻘﻮﺩ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻓﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪There is something missing in this room.‬‬

‫‪١٢٤‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻊ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ‬."something" ‫ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬،"
"missing
missing" ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬
:‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻫﻮ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‬
."There is something is missing in this room"
roo
:Comparative & Superlative ‫مقارنة الصفات‬
:‫ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ‬:Equality ‫( ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ‬١
am
+ is +
are

Subject

as

+

Verb

+

:‫ﻳﺼﺎﻍ‬
+ Object

as

George is as tall as John..‫ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺎﻥ‬
John. ‫ ﺃﻭ ﻃﻮﻻ ﺟﻮﺭﺝ ﻭﺟﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺎﻥ‬.‫ﺟﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻃﻮﻝ ﺟﻮﺭﺝ ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺟﻮﻥ‬
George talks three times as much as John. .‫ﺟﻮﺭﺝ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﺟﻮﻥ‬
.‫ﺳﺄﻋﻮﺩ ﺑﺄﻗﺮﺏ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺳﺘﻄﻴﻊ‬

I will get back as soon as I can.

:Comparative ‫( ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﺛﻨﲔ‬٢
Subject

am
+ is +
are

Verb er
Verb-er

+

than

+

:‫ﻳﺼﺎﻍ‬
Object

George is taller than his brother.

.‫ﺟﻮﺭﺝ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺧﻴﻪ‬

I want a bicycle larger than this.

.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﺩﺭﺍﺟﺔ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ‬

:‫ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬:Superlative ‫( ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬٣
Subject

am
+ is +
are

the

+

Verb-est
Verb est

George is the tallest of his brothers.

+

of

+

:‫ﻳﺼﺎﻍ‬
Object

.‫ﺟﻮﺭﺝ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻃﻮﻝ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺧﻮﺍﺗﻪ‬

"-est" ‫ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﻄـﻊ‬،Comparative ‫" ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑـﲔ ﺍﺛـﻨﲔ‬--er" ‫ ﻧﻀﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﻘﻄﻊ‬.Superlative ‫ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬
www.expenglish.com
english.com

١٢٥

Omar AL-Hourani
AL

‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫﺓ‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻻ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﳘﻬﺎ‪:‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬

‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ‪best :‬‬

‫ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ‪better :‬‬

‫ﺟﻴﺪ ‪good :‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺃ ‪worst :‬‬

‫ﺃﺳﻮﺃ ‪worse :‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ‪most :‬‬

‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ‪more :‬‬

‫ﺳﻲﺀ ‪bad :‬‬
‫‪much , many‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ‪least :‬‬

‫ﺃﻗﻞ ‪less :‬‬

‫ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ‪little :‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺪ ‪farthest :‬‬

‫ﺃﺑﻌﺪ ‪farther :‬‬

‫ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ‪far :‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪He is better than her.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺋﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪He is the best of his friends.‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﱐ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪Tony is the best.‬‬
‫‪best.‬‬

‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﻘﺪﺓ‬
‫"‬
‫"‪"most‬‬
‫‪ "more‬ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﺛـﻨﲔ ﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﺗﻘﺎﺭﻥ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ "‪more‬‬
‫ﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﺼﺎﻍ‪:‬‬
‫‪than + Object‬‬
‫‪of + Object‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺭﺝ ﻣﻬﺘﻢ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪V.1‬‬

‫‪V.1‬‬

‫ﺟﻮﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﹰﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺋﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪more‬‬

‫‪+ am +‬‬

‫‪Subject‬‬

‫‪is‬‬
‫‪+ are +‬‬

‫‪Subject‬‬
‫‪the most +‬‬
‫‪George is more interested than John.‬‬

‫‪George is the most interested of his friends.‬‬

‫ﺱ‪ /‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺛﻮﺏ ﺃﲪﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺏ ﺍﻷﲪﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺏ ﺃﲪﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ‪/‬‬
‫ﺛﻮﺏ ﺃﲪﺮ "ﺻﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﲔ"‬

‫‪Red Dress.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺏ ﺍﻷﲪﺮ‪" .‬ﺻﻔﺔ ﻭﻣﻮﺻﻮﻑ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﲔ"‬

‫‪The red dress.‬‬

‫ﺧﱪﻳﺔ"‬
‫"ﲨﻠﺔ ﺧﱪﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺃﲪﺮ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺏ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﲪﺮﹰﺍﹰ‪ .‬ﲨﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺏ ﺃﲪﺮ‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٢٦‬‬

‫‪The dress is red.‬‬
‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

Select the ONE lettered answer that is BEST in each question:
1) Adjective of "automatic" is:
A. automatic.
B. automatically.
C. automatical.
D. None of all above.
2) Adjective of "late" is:
A. lately.
B. lated.
C. late
D. None of all above.
3) Which word is NOT an adjective:
A. friendly.
B. fully.
C. silly.
D. All above.
4) In the bicycle race, Harold was … than Michael.
A. fastest
B. more fast
C. more faster
D. faster
5) The World Trade Center was the … building in New York City.
A. taller
B. tallest
C. more taller
D. most tall
6) Choose the correct sentence:
A. Clark is gooder than Mark.
B. Clark is more smart than Mark.
C. Clark's cake is most delicious of Mark's.
D. Clark is tallest of his friends.
E. None of all above.
7) Choose the correct sentence:
A. She feels good.
B. She feels gooder.
C. She feels bader.
D. She feels well.

www.expenglish.com

١٢٧

Omar AL-Hourani

8) Choose the correct sentence:
A. Pollution causes damages more than working in miners.
B. Pollution is damager than working in miners.
C. Pollution causes damages most of working in miners.
D. None of all above.
9) Choose the correct sentence:
A. Nice man has helped me.
B. A nice man has helped me.
C. A nice men have helped me.
D. None of all above.
10) Choose the correct sentence:
A. Michael Jackson is popular.
B. Michael Jackson is the most popular.
C. Michael Jackson is a popular man.
D. All above.
E. None of all above.
11) I'm good at football as … as basketball.
A. soon
B. much
C. possible
D. good
E. All above.

www.expenglish.com

١٢٨

Omar AL-Hourani

www.expenglish.com

١٢٩

Omar AL-Hourani

‫مقدمة ‪:Introduction‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺗﻜﻤﻦ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ ﺑﺄ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺮﺑﻂ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺳﻨﻌﺎﰿ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺡ‪.‬‬

‫بعض أدوات العطف ‪:Conjunctions‬‬
‫ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ‪ .‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬‫‪ ,‬ﺇﻣﺎ ‪ , either‬ﻣﻌﹰﺎ ‪ , both‬ﻟﻜﻦ ‪ , but‬ﺃﻭ ‪ , or‬ﻭ ‪and‬‬
‫ﺑﻘﺪﺭ ﻣﺎ ‪ , what‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ‪ , when‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ‪while‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ‪ , as well as‬ﰒ ‪ , then‬ﻻ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻭﻻ ﺫﺍﻙ ‪neither … nor‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ‪ , whether ...‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ‪notwithstanding‬‬
‫صياغة أدوات العطف‪:‬‬
‫ ﺳﻨﺮﺑﻂ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﲔ ﲝﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ "‪ "and‬ﻭ "‪:"or‬‬‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺳﺎﻓﺮ ﺟﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺳﺎﻓﺮﺕ ﻛﺎﺭﻻ‪.‬‬

‫‪John has traveled. Carla has traveled.‬‬

‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺘﲔ ﺑﺄﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ "‪ "and‬ﺃﻭ "‪ "or‬ﳓﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺸـﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﻣـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﻥ ﻭ ﻛﺎﺭﻻ ﻗﺪ ﺳﺎﻓﺮﻭﺍ‪.‬‬

‫‪John and Carla have traveled.‬‬

‫"ﻻﺣﻆ ﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ "‪ "have‬ﺑﺪ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻦ "‪ "has‬ﻷﻥ ‪ John and Carla‬ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﲨﻌﹰﺎ"‬
‫ﺟﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻛﺎﺭﻻ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺪ ﺳﺎﻓﺮ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪John or Carla has traveled.‬‬

‫‪١٣٠‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

:‫" ﻧﻜﺘﺐ‬and" ‫ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺮﺑﻂ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﲝﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ‬.‫ﻫﻮﺍﰐ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﱪﳎﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﺔ‬
My hobbies
hobbies are swimming,
swimming reading,
reading programming and sport.
:‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬
My hobbies
hobbies are swimming and reading and programming and
sport.
.‫" ﻓﻘﻂ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ‬and" ‫ﻧﻀﻊ‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
.‫( ﻫﻲ ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﻛﻠﺘﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺘﲔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﹰﺎ‬١
1) She is studying both English and French.
.‫( ﻻ ﻫﻲ ﻭﻻ ﺃﺧﺘﻬﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻔﻠﺔ‬٢
2) Neither she nor her sister was in the party.
.‫( ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ﰒ ﺍﲣﺬ ﻗﺮﺍﺭﻙ‬٣
3) Meet her first then make your decision.
.‫( ﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﻌﺐ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﺖ‬٤
4) He as well as you is tired.
.‫( ﺍﺑﺬﻝ ﺟﻬﺪﻙ ﻭﺇﻻ ﻫﻮ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺼﺮ‬٥
5) Do your best (or
( else//otherwise
otherwise) he will be the victorious
victorious..
.‫( ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﳓﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻘﺎﺑﻠﻬﻢ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺇﻥ ﺃﻣﻄﺮﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻻ‬٦
6) We should try to meet them whether it iss raining or not
not.
.‫( ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺅﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳋﻂ‬٧
7) This program shows whether your friends are online.
.‫ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ‬I ‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﻄﻮﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﲑ‬−
I and he are going.

‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

He and I are going.

(‫ﺻﺢ )ﻫﻮ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺁﺗﻴﺎﻥ‬

I or he is going.

‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

He or I is going.

(‫ﺻﺢ )ﻫﻮ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻴﺄﰐ‬

www.expenglish.com
english.com

١٣١

Omar AL-Hourani
AL

:Table of Conjunctions ‫جدول أدوات العطف‬
‫ ﻭﻟﻜـﻦ ﻳﻔﻀـﻞ‬،‫ ﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺷﺮﺡ "ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻘﻂ" ﻳﺒﲔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ‬.‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬
meaning or function

simple conjunctions

2- or 3- word
conjunctions

adding, listing:

and

alternatives:
contrast:
negative addition:

or
but
nor

comparison

as , than , like

as if , as thought

condition

if , unless

contrast:

(al)though
while
whereas

seeing , given ,
provided
even though

both …and
not only … but
either … or
not … but
neither … nor

degree or extent:
exception:
place:
preference:

as far as
but (that) ,
except ( that)

as … so
as … as
if … then
although … yet

so … that

where , wherever
rather than , sooner
than

proportion:

as … so
the … the

purpose:

so that ,
in order that

reason and cause:
respect:
result:

because , as , since

indirect question:
same time:
time:
earlier time:
later time:
just after:

whether , if
when(ever) , while , as
before , until , till
after , since
once , when ,
whereupon

www.expenglish.com

double conjunctions

in that
so that ,
such that

١٣٢

whether … or
now (that)

immediately (that)

Omar AL-Hourani

- Questions (1-8); select the ONE lettered answer that is BEST in each question:
1) Which one is a conjunction?
A. never.
B. and.
C. indeed.
D. All above.
2) Which one is a conjunction?
A. too.
B. driver.
C. but
D. All above.
3) Choose the correct sentence:
A. He always eats chicken, egg and chips.
B. He always eats chicken, egg, and chips.
C. All above.
D. None of all above.
4) Choose the correct sentence:
A. The first man has to work bellows and the second must fuel the furnace.
B. The first man has to work bellows, and the second must fuel the furnace.
C. All above.
D. None of all above.
5) We will visit Japan … New Zealand during our next vacation.
A. and
B. but
C. so
D. None of all above.
6) My brother wanted to buy a novel … I went to the book store after I finished work.
A. so
B. or
C. but
D. None of all above.
7) My teeth were hurting … I made an appointment to go the dentist.
A. or
B. so
C. but
D. None of all above.
8) Have you seen … heard the latest musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber?
A. but.
B. so.
C. or.
D. None of all above.
www.expenglish.com

١٣٣

Omar AL-Hourani

- Questions (9-13); choose the best conjunction to join the two sentences:
9) The vacuum cleaner was too small for our needs. We bought a larger one.
A. so
B. since
C. but
D. because
10) The man stopped his bicycle beside the car. The bicycle had a broken chain.
A. and
B. as
C. yet
D. or
11) The tennis match was almost finished. The score was 40 all.
A. yet
B. and
C. nor
D. because
12) The X Files is my favorite TV show. Dawson's Creek is his favorite show.
A. so
B. or
C. and
D. but
13) She was happy when her brother arrived. She had been watching for him for over an hour.
A. and
B. because
C. as
D. but

www.expenglish.com

١٣٤

Omar AL-Hourani

www.expenglish.com

١٣٥

Omar AL-Hourani

‫مقدمة ‪:Introduction‬‬
‫ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺃﺻﻌﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻬﺎ ﺣﺮﻓﻴﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻐـﺔ‬‫ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﺎ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺑﲔ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ‬‫ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺳﺒﺐ‪.‬‬
‫بعض حروف الجر ‪:Prepositions‬‬
‫‪about‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻋﻦ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻋﻨـﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪She is talking about me.‬‬

‫ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﺘﻜﻠﻢ؟‬

‫?‪What are you talking about‬‬

‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪This book is about the Second World War. .‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺑﺸﺄﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑـ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻟﺪﻱ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪I have books about English.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻲﺀ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺑـ" ﺃﻭ "ﰲ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺣﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪I dream about tomorrow.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻓﻜﺮ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻗﺼﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪I think about writing a story.‬‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ‪."approximately‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻋﻤﺮﻱ ‪ ٢٠‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪I am about 20 years old.‬‬

‫‪ (٥‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺣﻮﻝ ‪."around , round‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺗﺪﻭﺭ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‪The earth moves (around/round/about) the sun. .‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١٣٦‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪at‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﳏﺪﺩ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﰲ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ‪.‬‬

‫‪The children were at home.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻛﻨﺖ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻨﺰﻝ ﺟﻮﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪I was at John's house.‬‬

‫‪ ,‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ ‪ , at the center‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ‪ , at the end‬ﰲ ﺍﳋﻠﻒ ‪at the back‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺔ ‪ , at the top‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ ‪at the front‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻭﻗﺖ ﳏﺪﺩ )ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ(‬
‫ﺍﳊﻔﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ‪.‬‬

‫‪The concert starts at 7:30 o'clock.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﳊﻈﺔ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ‪ , at midday‬ﰲ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ ‪ , at lunch time‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ ‪at the moment‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ‪at the present time‬‬
‫‪ (٤‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ "ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮ"‪.‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻨﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﺩ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ‪ ١٠٠‬ﻛﻢ‪/‬ﺱ‪.‬‬

‫‪You can drive at 100kph.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﺗﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﰲ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻨﻚ ﺷﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﻴﺾ ﺑﺴﻌﺮ ‪ ٨٠‬ﻟﻠﺪﺯﻳﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪(I will/I'll) retire at 60.‬‬
‫‪You can buy eggs at 80 per a dozen.‬‬

‫‪ (٥‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﳓﻮ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﲡﺎﻩ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺭﻣﻰ ﺣﺠﺮﹰﺍ ﳓﻮﻱ‪.‬‬

‫‪He threw a stone at me.‬‬

‫‪ (٦‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪.look‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪Look to me.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ )ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱄ(‬

‫‪Look at me.‬‬

‫‪by‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ‪ ، ...‬ﲜﺎﻧﺐ‪"...‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺷﺮﻃﻲ ﻳﻘﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﰐ‪There is a policeman standing by my car. .‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١٣٧‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺻﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﺺ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻐﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺒﲎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳋﻠﻔﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪The thief must have left the building by the back door.‬‬
‫‪I went to school by car.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺫﻫﺒ ‪‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺷﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ ﺭﺷﻔﺔ ﺭﺷﻔﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪I drink tea sip by sip.‬‬

‫ﺍﺩﺧﻠﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

‫‪Enter one by one.‬‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻭﻗﺖ "‪."on or before‬‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ  ‪by Friday‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺟﺎﻫﺰﺓ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ ﻣﻦ )ﻣﺎﻳﻮ‪/‬ﺃﻳﺎﺭ( ﺃﻭ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪The photographs will be ready by 5 May.‬‬
‫‪ (٦‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪.by + Verb-ing‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻓﺌﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪We can increase production by improving wages.‬‬
‫‪By improving wages, we can increase production.‬‬
‫‪ (٧‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ "ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ"‪.‬‬
‫‪due to‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻣﺎ "‪"because of‬‬
‫ﳒﺎﺣﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻕ‪.‬‬
‫‪His success was (due to/because of) his hard work.‬‬
‫‪for‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﳌﺪﺓ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺄﻋﻴﺶ ﻫﻨﺎ ﳌﺪﺓ ﲬﺴﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻚ ﻟﻸﺑﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺄﺣﺒ ‪‬‬

‫‪(I will/I'll) live here for five days.‬‬
‫‪(I will/I'll) love you (for ever/forever).‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻷﺟﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻋﻤﻞ ﻷﺟﻠﻜﻢ‪.‬‬

‫‪(I am/I'm) working for you.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ "ﺍﻟﻼﻡ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﺻﻮﺗﺖ ﻟﻠﺮﺋﻴﺲ؟‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫?‪Did you vote for the President‬‬
‫‪١٣٨‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪from‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ ﲟﻌﲎ " ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﻋﺎﺷ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﰲ ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮﺭﻙ ﻣﻦ ‪ ١٩٩٥‬ﺇﱃ ‪.١٩٩٨‬‬
‫‪She lived in New York from 1995 to 1998.‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﲟﻌﲎ " ‪‬ﻣ ‪‬ﻦ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻨﺪﺍ‪.‬‬

‫‪He moved from Canada.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺸﺄ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﻦ ﺃﺗﻴﺖ؟‬

‫?‪Where did you come from‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺗﻴﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺭﻳﺲ‪.‬‬

‫‪I came from Paris.‬‬

‫‪in‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ‪ ،‬ﰲ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪(He is/He's) in the car.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻣﻊ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺷﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺼﻮﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﺯﻳﻒ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ )ﻣﺎﺭﺱ‪/‬ﺁﺫﺍﺭ(‪.‬‬

‫‪Joseph was born in March.‬‬

‫ﺟﻮﺯﻳﻒ ‪‬ﻭ‪‬ﻟ ‪‬ﺪ ﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪ ١٩٩٠‬ﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪Joseph was born in 1990 AD.‬‬

‫ﺟﻮﺯﻳﻒ ﻏﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻒ‪.‬‬

‫‪Joseph left the city in summer.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﳏﺪﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺭﺟﻨﺘﲔ‪.‬‬

‫‪(I am/I'm) in Argentina.‬‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﻗﺒﻞ ‪" Abstract Nouns‬ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻋﺸﺮ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﻭﻣﻴﻮ ﻭﺟﻮﻟﻴﺖ ﻛﺎﻧﺎ ﻣﺘﺤﺎﺑﺎﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪Romeo was in love with Juliet.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺮﻭﻥ ﰲ ﺧﻄﺮ‪.‬‬

‫‪The passengers are in danger.‬‬

‫‪into‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﳓﻮ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﲡﺎﻩ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺫﻫﺐ ﳓﻮ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻓﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪He went into the room.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺇﱃ" ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺻﹰﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪.divide‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺇﱃ ﳏﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪Airports divide into local and international.‬‬
‫‪١٣٩‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪of‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻟﻠﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻀﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﳌﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ )ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺎﻟﻜﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ ‪ , The owners of the car‬ﺃﻣﲑﺓ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﻧﻴﺎ ‪The Queen of Spain‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻔﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ‪ , An apple of the box‬ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻚ ‪A part of the cake‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ ‪.amounts‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻟﺘﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺖ ‪ , a liter of oil‬ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ‪a lot of noise‬‬
‫ﺁﻻﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺍﺕ ‪ , thousands of balls ,‬ﺩﺭﺍﺯﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺾ ‪dozens of eggs‬‬
‫‪on‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪The books are on the table.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻷﻭﺗﻮﺑﻴﺲ‪.‬‬

‫‪I go to work on the bus.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﻣﻊ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻷﺷﻬﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻨﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﳉﻤﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻨﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻣﻦ )ﻳﻮﻟﻴﻮ‪/‬ﲤﻮﺯ(‪.‬‬

‫‪(We will/We'll) travel on Friday.‬‬
‫‪(We will/We'll) travel on 9th July.‬‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﻛﻮﻻ ﺳﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﰲ ﻳﻮﻡ ‪ ٢٠٠٧/١٠/١‬ﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪This chocolate will expire on 1/10/2008 AD.‬‬
‫‪ (٥‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺭﺧﻴﺺ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪Although this computer is cheap, it is one of the best machines on the‬‬
‫‪market.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‪.‬‬
‫‪This program shows all most sites on the internet.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١٤٠‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪to‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺇﱃ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎﻝ ﺇﻟـﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪Come to me.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻨﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ‪ ١٩٩٠‬ﺇﱃ ‪He went to Canada from 1990 to 1995. .١٩٩٥‬‬
‫ ﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ‪:‬‬‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪Come to here.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ )ﺗﻌﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻫﻨﺎ(‬

‫‪Come here‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ to + Verb.1‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻟﻜﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻟـ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻄﻌﻢ )ﻟﻜﻲ ﺃﻛﻞ‪/‬ﻷﻛﻞ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺫﻫﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﻔﻮﺯ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺪﺭﺏ ﺟﻴﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

‫‪I went to a restaurant to eat.‬‬
‫‪To win, you have to practice well.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ to + have + Verb.3‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻟﻜﻲ" ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﺘـﺮﺟﻢ‬
‫‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ "ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ"‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻣﺴﺮﻭﺭ ﻷﻧﻚ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺖ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺣﺔ‪" .‬ﻣﺎﺿﻲ"‬
‫‪I am delighted to have met your wife yesterday.‬‬
‫"‪ "not‬ﻗﺒﻞ ‪.to‬‬
‫‪ (٤‬ﻟﻠﻨﻔﻲ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺘﲔ ﻧﻀﻊ "‬
‫ﻟﻜﻲ ﻻ ﲣﺴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺪﺭﺏ ﺟﻴﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

‫‪Not to lose, you have to practice well.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺧﱪﺗﻚ ﺑﺄﻻ ﺗﺬﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﰿ‪.‬‬

‫‪I told you not to go skating.‬‬

‫ﳓﻦ ﻣﺘﺄﺳﻔﻮﻥ ﻷﻧﻚ ﱂ ﺗﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪We are sorry not to have met your wife yesterday.‬‬
‫‪ (٥‬ﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ )‪ (٢‬ﻳﺒﲎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪ to + be + Verb.3‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟـﺔ )‪ (٣‬ﻓﻴـﺒﲎ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸــﻜﻞ ‪ to + have + been + Verb.3‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟــﺔ )‪ (٤‬ﻓﻴــﺒﲎ ﻋﻠــﻰ ﺍﻟﺸــﻜﻞ‬
‫‪.not to + be + Verb.3‬‬
‫ﺐ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺠ ‪‬‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬‬

‫‪Everyone likes to be admired.‬‬

‫‪The building appears to have been repainted..‬‬
‫ﺻﹺﺒ ﹶﻎ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪repainted..‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﺒﲎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨﺪ‪‬ﻉ‪ ،‬ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺬﺭﹰﺍ‬
‫ﻟﻜﻲ ﻻ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬‬
‫‪Not to be deceived, you have to be careful.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٤١‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫‪ (٦‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﲔ ﻓﻌﻠﲔ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﻳﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺃ ﹾﻥ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﺃ ﹾﻥ ﺃﺫﻫﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪I want to go.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺭﻳﺪﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺬﻫﺐ ﻣﻌﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪I want you to go with me.‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ )ﺃﻧﺎ ﺫﻫﺒﺖ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺃﺭﺍﻩ(‬

‫‪I went to see him.‬‬

‫‪up to‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺣﱴ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﺑﻘﻰ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ‪.‬‬

‫‪(I will/I'll) stay here up to Saturday.‬‬

‫ﺖ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻣﺸﻴ ‪‬‬
‫‪until‬‬

‫‪I walked up to the tree.‬‬

‫زمان فقط‬

‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺘﻪ ‪.till‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺣﱴ"‪.‬‬
‫‪(I will/I'll) stay here (until‬‬
‫‪until/up‬‬
‫)‪up to/till‬‬
‫‪to‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﺑﻘﻰ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺖ‪Saturday. .‬‬
‫‪with‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻣﻊ ‪."together‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻣﻌﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺫﻫﺒ ‪‬‬

‫‪She went with me.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻣﻌﻚ‪.‬‬

‫‪(I am/I'm) with you.‬‬

‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ‬
‫‪ (١‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﻳ‪‬ﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ ﻣﻔﻌﻮ ﹰﻻ ﳊﺮﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺿﻤﲑﹰﺍ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺘﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺐ ﻭﺍﳉﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪me , you , him , her , it , us , them‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ "‪ "to‬ﻓﻌﻞ ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﳌﺼﺪﺭ "ﺃﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻣﻀﺎﻑ ﻟﻪ‬
‫‪."-ing‬‬
‫‪ -s‬ﺃﻭ ‪ing‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٤٢‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ‬
‫ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﳍﺎ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ‪ at‬ﻭ ‪ into‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻣﻌﲎ "ﳓﻮ"‪:‬‬‫ﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﻳﺄﺗﻴﺎﻥ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﳓﻮ" ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ‪ at‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺃﻣﺎ ‪ into‬ﻓﻴﺄﰐ ﺑﻌـﺪﻩ ﻏﺎﻟﺒـﹰﺎ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ at‬ﻋﻮﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ‪ into‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ‪ by‬ﻭ ‪ on‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‪:‬‬‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ‪ foot‬ﻭ ‪ horseback‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ "‪ "on‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﻓﻼ ﻓﺮﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ‪ of‬ﻭ ‪ from‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺄ‪:‬‬‫ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ‪ of‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ‪ at , on , in‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﳏﺪﺩ‪:‬‬‫‪ :at‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﳏﺪﺩ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﻡ ﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺃﺧﺘﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻚ‪.‬‬
‫‪Tom is waiting for his sister at the bank.‬‬
‫‪bank‬‬

‫‪ :on‬ﺗﻌﲏ "ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ"‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٤٣‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻼﻋﺒﻮﻥ ﻳﺘﺪﺭﺑﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﺔ‪) .‬ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻄﻮﻗﺔ(‬
‫‪The players are practicing on the field.‬‬
‫‪field‬‬

‫‪ :in‬ﺗﻌﲏ "ﺩﺍﺧﻞ"‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻼﻛﻤﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻠﺒﺔ‪) .‬ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﻣﻄﻮﻗﺔ(‬

‫‪The boxers are in the ring.‬‬
‫‪ring.‬‬

‫بعض األخطاء الشائعة في حروف الجر‪.‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ ﺍﳊﺮﻓﻴـﺔ ﻋـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﺮﺯ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺀ‪:‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺟﺮ ﻻ ﻟﺰﻭﻡ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪Please answer to my question.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ )ﺃﺟﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺆﺍﱄ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻀﻠﻚ(‬

‫‪Please answer my question.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﻴﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪I finished from my work.‬‬
‫‪I finished my work.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻠﻢ‪.‬‬

‫‪He needs to a pen.‬‬
‫‪He needs a pen.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٤٤‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

She reached to the school.
She reached the school.

.‫ﻫﻲ ﻭﺻﻠﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ‬

They entered to the room.
They entered the room.

.‫ﻫﻢ ﺩﺧﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻓﺔ‬

We visited him in the next day.
We visited him the next day.

.‫ﳓﻦ ﺯﺭﻧﺎﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‬

You can join to us.
You can join us.

.‫ﳝﻜﻨﻚ ﺍﻻﻧﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﺇﻟﻴﻨﺎ‬
:‫( ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﰲ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺟﺮ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ‬٢

He is knocking the door.
He is knocking at the door.

.‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‬

Please remind me his name.
Please remind me of his name.

.‫ﺫﻛﺮﱐ ﺑﺎﲰﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻀﻠﻚ‬

He can reply her inquires.
He can reply to her inquires.

.‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺘﻬﺎ‬

She waited you.
She waited for you.

.‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮﺗﻚ‬

I went a walk.
I went on a walk.

.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺫﻫﺒﺖ ﰲ ﻧﺰﻫﺔ‬

Don't argue him.
Don't argue with him.

www.expenglish.com

.‫ﻻ ﲡﺎﺩﻟﻪ‬

١٤٥

Omar AL-Hourani

:‫( ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﰲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺟﺮ ﺑﺪ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ‬٣
Be careful from that man.
Be careful of that man.

.‫ﻛﻦ ﺣﺬﺭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‬

He is good in English.
He is good at English.

.‫ﻫﻮ ﺟﻴﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‬

He is sitting on the table.
He is sitting at the table.

.‫ﻫﻮ ﳚﻠﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻭﻟﺔ‬

Look to the picture.
Look at the picture.

.‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬

I am angry from him.
I am angry with him.

.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻏﺎﺿﺐ ﻣﻨﻚ‬

She is afraid from the dog.
She is afraid of the dog.

.‫ﻫﻲ ﲣﺎﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺏ‬

He threw a stone on the cat.
He threw a stone (at/into) the cat.
She was laughing on him.
She was laughing at him.

.‫ﻫﻮ ﺭﻣﻰ ﺣﺠﺮﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺔ‬
.‫ﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻀﺤﻚ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬

She was happy from him.
She was pleased with him.

.‫ﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺴﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﻣﻨﻪ‬

I walked until the tree.
I walked up to the tree.

.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻣﺸﻴﺖ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ‬
.‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ‬until

www.expenglish.com

١٤٦

Omar AL-Hourani

‫ ﻭﻳﻔﻀﻞ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬،‫ ﻭﻟﻜﺜﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻓﻀﻠﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﲝﺮﻭﻑ ﺟﺮ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬−
:‫ ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻫﺠﺎﺋﻴﹰﺎ‬.‫ﳍﺎ ﻛﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻬﻤﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺮﻗﺔ‬

He was accused of stealing.

.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻣﻌﺘﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﺭ‬

I am accustomed to hot weather.
She is afraid of dogs.

.‫ﻫﻲ ﲣﺎﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺏ‬

She agrees with him.

.‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻌﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺃﻱ‬

He is angry with her.

.‫ﻫﻮ ﻏﺎﺿﺐ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬
.‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﹰﺎ ﻟﻪ‬

The matter was apparent to him.

.‫ﻫﻮ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻨﺎﻗﺶ ﻣﻌﻬﻢ‬

He will argue with them.
They will arrive at the village.

.‫ﻫﻢ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺼﻠﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻳﺔ‬

He was ashamed of his conduct.

.‫ﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﻮﻛﻪ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺧﺠ ﹰ‬
.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻣﻨﺪﻫﺶ ﻟﻸﻣﺮ‬

I am astonished at the matter.

.‫ﻫﻢ ﻳﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﺎﷲ‬

They believe in god.

.‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﺘﲏ ﺑﺼﺤﺘﻪ‬

He is careful of his health.

‫ﻫﻞ ﺃﺳﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻋﻠﱠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ؟‬

Can I comment on this?
She always complains of the heat.

.‫ﻫﻲ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﺗﺘﺬﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬

The team is composed of ten players.

‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﺘﺄﻟﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻻﻋﺒﲔ‬

The week consists of seven days.

.‫ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﻳﺘﺄﻟﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ‬

The mountains are covered with snow.

.‫ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻝ ﺗﻐﻄﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬

He cured of his illness.

.‫ﻫﻮ ﺷﻔﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺿﻪ‬

.‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻧﻐﺮﺱ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻲ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﳌﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄﺎﱐ‬
The U.S. Congress corresponds to the British Parliament
She depends on herself.
.‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ‬
.‫ﻛﺘﺎﰊ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻚ‬

My book is different form yours.
She was dressed in black.

.‫ﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺮﺗﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺩ‬

I was engaged in reading.

.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻛﻨﺖ ﻣﺸﻐﻮ ﹰﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬
.‫ﻫﻲ ﳐﻄﻮﺑﺔ ﻻﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﻬﺎ‬

She is engaged to her cousin.

.‫ﻫﻮ ﺭﺳﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬

He failed in history.
www.expenglish.com

١٤٧

Omar AL-Hourani

.‫ﻫﻢ ﻳﺘﻐﺬﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺭﺯ‬

They feed of rice.

.‫ﺎ ﳑﻠﻮﺀﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻳﺖ‬‫ﺇ‬

It is full of oil.

.‫ﺃﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ‬

Get out of here.
He is good at mathematics.

.‫ﻫﻮ ﺑﺎﺭﻉ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎﺕ‬

He is incapable of running.

.‫ﻫﻮ ﻋﺎﺟﺰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻛﺾ‬

She always insists on her opinion.

.‫ﻫﻲ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﺗﺼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﻳﻬﺎ‬

He is interested in music.

.‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﻬﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﳌﻮﺳﻴﻘﻰ‬

She is jealous of her sister.

.‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻐﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺧﺘﻬﺎ‬

He is knocking at the door.

.‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‬
.‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬

Look at the picture.

.‫ﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻀﺤﻚ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬

She was laughing at him.
Can you listen to me?

‫ﻫﻞ ﳝﻜﻨﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﻤﻊ ﺇﱄ؟‬

She is married to a rich man.

.‫ﻫﻲ ﻣﺘﺰﻭﺟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻏﲏ‬
.‫ﻫﻢ ﻣﺴﺮﻭﺭﻭﻥ ﻣﻨﻚ‬

They are pleased with you.

.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻬﻮﺓ‬

I prefer tea to coffee.

.‫ﻫﻮ ﻓﺨﻮﺭ ﺑﺄﺑﻴﻪ‬

He is proud of his father.

.‫ﺫﻛﺮﱐ ﺑﺎﲰﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻀﻠﻚ‬

Please remind me of his name.

.‫ﺎ‬‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺴﺎﺭﺍ‬

He can reply to her inquires.
Are you satisfied with your marks?

‫ﺽ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺗﻚ؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﺃﻧﺖ ﺭﺍ ﹴ‬

I am searching for my book.

.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﲝﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﰊ‬

My book is not similar to his.

.‫ﻛﺘﺎﰊ ﻻ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻚ‬
.‫ﻫﻮ ﳚﻠﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻭﻟﺔ‬

He is sitting at the table.
I am sure of his honesty.

.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻭﺍﺛﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺎﻧﺘﻪ‬

I want to talk to you.

.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻛﻠﻤﻚ‬

He threw a stone (at/into) the cat.

‫ﻫﻞ ﻣﻠﻠﺘﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ؟‬

Are you tired of reading?

.‫ﻼ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﻋﻤ ﹰ‬

I am waiting for a job.

.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻣﺸﻴﺖ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ‬

I walked up to the tree.
www.expenglish.com

.‫ﻫﻮ ﺭﻣﻰ ﺣﺠﺮﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺔ‬

١٤٨

Omar AL-Hourani

.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺫﻫﺒﺖ ﰲ ﻧﺰﻫﺔ‬

I went on a walk.

www.expenglish.com

١٤٩

Omar AL-Hourani

Select the ONE lettered answer that is BEST in each question:
1) There is an explanation of photosynthesis … chapter 11.
A. at
B. in
C. of
D. to
E. None
2) The answers to the problems are … page 227.
A. at
B. in
C. on
D. to
E. None
3) You have to be … least 18 to vote.
A. at
B. in
C. on
D. to
E. None
4) When did the U.S. send the first men … the moon?
A. at
B. in
C. on
D. to
E. None
5) Are you going to the meeting … Friday?
A. at
B. in
C. on
D. to
E. None
6) The professor wrote several comments … my paper.
A. in
B. on
C. about
D. to
E. None

www.expenglish.com

١٥٠

Omar AL-Hourani

7) The search … the source of the Nile took many years.
A. for
B. from
C. by
D. at
E. None
8) The land was valued … $10,000,000.
A. at
B. for
C. in
D. to
E. None
9) I am going to talk … Clark.
A. to
B. on
C. with
D. in
E. None
10) I am really good … German.
A. in
B. at
C. on
D. with
E. None
11) There was no agreement … the type of copy protection to offer.
A. at
B. for
C. on
D. to
E. None
12) This book expresses … me.
A. about
B. with
C. in
D. at
E. None
13) He is opposed … tax cuts.
A. at
B. for
C. on
D. to
E. None

www.expenglish.com

١٥١

Omar AL-Hourani

14) Seven people were severely injured in the accident, according … doctors.
A. by
B. to
C. with
D. at
E. None
15) I need more time to study; I'm not ready … the test.
A. for
B. of
C. in
D. at
E. None
16) Excuse me, sir. May I ask … you a question?
A. at
B. for
C. to
D. about
E. None
17) Billy, where have you been? You're covered … mud!
A. on
B. with
C. for
D. to
E. None
18) Are you going to the Padres game … this Friday?
A. at
B. in
C. on
D. by
E. None
19) The professor made several comments … my ideas.
A. in
B. on
C. about
D. to
E. None
20) His teaching style is consistent … his personality.
A. in
B. on
C. to
D. with
E. None

www.expenglish.com

١٥٢

Omar AL-Hourani

- Question (21); complete these sentences with the correct preposition (in, at, from, to, on):
21) George and Mary are _____ England. They live _____ London, _____ an old house. They
go _____ work by bus. They work _____ 09.00am _____ 02.00pm. They do not work _____
the afternoons and often stay _____ home then. _____ Saturdays they often visit friends or
play tennis _____ the local club.

www.expenglish.com

١٥٣

Omar AL-Hourani

www.expenglish.com

١٥٤

Omar AL-Hourani

‫مقدمة ‪:Introduction‬‬
‫ ﺗﺒﲎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﳎﻬﻮ ﹰﻻ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ﻫﻮ ﺍﳌـﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠـﻮﻡ‬‫ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ‪ Active‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ‪ Active :‬ﻋﻜﺲ ‪.Passive‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﻥ ﻗﺘ ﹶﻞ ﻛﺎﺭﻟﻮﺱ‪) .‬ﻣﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻡ ‪.(Active‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﺭﻟﻮﺱ ﹸﻗﺘ‪‬ﻞ‪) .‬ﻣﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ‪.(Passive‬‬
‫ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺃﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ﻳ‪‬ﺤﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻭﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻧﺎﺋـﺐ‬‫ﻟﻠﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﳛﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻭﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺇﱃ ﻧﺎﺋﺐ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌـﻞ‬
‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ‪ ،Auxiliary Verb‬ﻭﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﺗﺒﲎ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻧﻀﻊ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﻏﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ‪ ،by + Subject‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺷﺨﺼﹰﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻧﻀﻊ ‪ ،with + Subject‬ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻳﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺿﻤﲑ‬
‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺇﱃ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﺜﻞ‪He  him , She  her … :‬‬
‫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ ﺟﺪﻭ ﹰﻻ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻳﺒﲔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ﻟﻸﺯﻣﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺩﺭﺳـﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻦ ﻧﺸﺮﺡ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺇﻻ ﺳﺘﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻫﻢ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎ ﹰﻻ‪.‬‬
‫صياغة المبني للمجھول ‪:Passive Voice‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ /‬ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻟﺘﻜﻦ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪Subject + Verb.2 + Object‬‬
‫ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻨﺎﺀﻫﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ‪:‬‬‫‪was‬‬
‫‪Object + were + Verb.3‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١٥٥‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪ me , him , her , it‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪:‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻡ ‪i‬‬‫ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ‪.was‬‬
‫‪ you‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ‪:‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻡ ‪ou , us , them‬‬‫ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ‪.were‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ‪"" .‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ"‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫ﹶﺖ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﺳ ﹺﺮﻗﹶﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ ‪‬ﺳ ﹺﺮﻗﹶﺖ‬

‫‪The car was stolen.‬‬
‫‪stolen.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ stolen‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ ‪ steal‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ steal‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻌـﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸـﺎﺫﺓ ‪Irregular‬‬
‫‪ Verbs‬ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻔﻪ‪:‬‬
‫‪steal - stole - stolen‬‬
‫"ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﺸﺮ"‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ"‬
‫"ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‬
‫ﺟﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﰲ‬
‫ﻛﺎﺭﻟﻮﺱ ﹸﻗ‪‬ﺘ ﹶﻞ ﺃﻭ ﹸﻗﺘ‪‬ﻞ ﻛﺎﺭﻟﻮﺱ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺟﻮﻥ‬

‫‪Carlos was killed by John.‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﻘﺘﻞ ﻛﺎﺭﻟﻮﺱ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺘﻠﻪ ﻭﻫﻮ "‪ ."John‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‪:‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﻥ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻛﺎﺭﻟﻮﺱ‪.‬‬

‫‪John killed Carlos.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬

‫ﺱ‪ /‬ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻢ ﺃﺧﺬﻭﺍ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﰐ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) They took my car away.‬‬

‫ﻫﻢ ﻛﺴﺮﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) They broke the window.‬‬

‫ﺝ‪/‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ "‪ "They‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "‪ "took‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ "‪ "my car‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺎﺭﰐ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﺧﺬﹶﺕ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

‫‪My car was taken away by them.‬‬
‫‪them.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ "‪ "They‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "‪ "broke‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ "‪ "the window‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺮ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﹸﻛ ِ‬

‫‪The window was broken by them.‬‬
‫‪them.‬‬
‫"ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﻬﺎ ﺧﻂ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻻ ﺗﻜﺘﺐ"‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٥٦‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻟﺘﻜﻦ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪Subject + Verb.1 + Object‬‬
‫ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻨﺎﺀﻫﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ‪:‬‬‫‪am‬‬
‫‪is + Verb.3‬‬
‫‪Object +‬‬
‫‪are‬‬

‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻡ ‪ him , her , it‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪:‬‬‫ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ‪.is‬‬
‫‪ you‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ‪:‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻡ ‪ou , us , them‬‬‫ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ‪.are‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻡ ‪:me‬‬‫ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ‪.am‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﺼﻠﱠﺢ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳉﺴﺮ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻝ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﻐﻄﱠﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺜﻠﺞ‪.‬‬

‫‪The bridge is repaired everyday.‬‬
‫‪The mountains‬‬
‫‪mountain are covered with snow.‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﻐﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻝ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻏﻄﹼﺎﻫﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ "‪ ،"snow‬ﻭﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ "‪ "with‬ﻋﻮﺿﹰﺎ ﻋـﻦ "‪ "by‬ﻷﻥ‬
‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ "‪ "snow‬ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﺷﺨﺼﹰﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ .‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﻠﺞ ﻳﻐﻄﻲ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‫‪Snow covers the mountains.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٥٧‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺱ‪ /‬ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺋﺎﺏ ﺗﺄﻛﻞ ﺍﳋﺮﺍﻑ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) The wolves eat the sheep.‬‬

‫ﺯﻭﺟﱵ ﺗﺪﻋﻮﱐ ﺑﻴﺎﻋﺰﻳﺰﻱ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) My wife calls me darling.‬‬

‫ﺝ‪/‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ "‪ "The wolves‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "‪ "eat‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ "‪ "the sheep‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﳋﺮﺍﻑ ‪‬ﺗ ﹾﺄﻛﹶﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪The sheep are eaten by the wolves.‬‬
‫‪wolves.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ "‪ "My wife‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "‪ "call‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ "‪ "me‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺩﻋﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻋﺰﻳﺰﻱ‪.‬‬

‫‪I am called darling by my wife.‬‬
‫"ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﻬﺎ ﺧﻂ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻻ ﺗﻜﺘﺐ"‬

‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻟﺘﻜﻦ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪Verb-ing‬‬
‫‪Verb ing + Object‬‬
‫ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻨﺎﺀﻫﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ‪:‬‬‫‪+ Verb.3‬‬

‫‪being‬‬

‫‪am‬‬
‫‪+ is +‬‬
‫‪are‬‬
‫‪am‬‬
‫‪+ is +‬‬
‫‪are‬‬

‫‪Subject‬‬

‫‪Object‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﺟﻮﻥ ‪‬ﻳﺴ‪‬ﺄﻝ‪" .‬ﳛﺪﺙ ﺍﻵﻥ"‬

‫‪John is being asked.‬‬
‫‪asked.‬‬

‫‪The city hall is being rebuilt by the Council‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻳﻌﺎﺩ ﺑﻨﺎﺀﻫﺎ‪" .‬ﳛﺪﺙ ﺍﻵﻥ " ‪ouncil.‬‬
‫‪ ."the‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪:‬‬
‫"‪the council‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﻫﻮ "‪council‬‬
‫ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺲ ﻳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‪" .‬ﳛﺪﺙ ﺍﻵﻥ"‬

‫‪The Council is rebuilding the city hall.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٥٨‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺱ‪ /‬ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He is reading the book.‬‬

‫ﻫﻢ ﻳﺒﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) They are building the house.‬‬

‫ﺝ‪/‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ "‪ "He‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "‪ "read‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ "‪ "the book‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘﺮ‪‬ﺃ‪" .‬ﺍﻵﻥ"‬

‫‪The book is being read by him.‬‬
‫‪him.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ "‪ "They‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "‪ "build‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ "‪ "the house‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﺒﻨ‪‬ﻰ‪" .‬ﺍﻵﻥ"‬

‫‪The house is being built by them.‬‬
‫‪them‬‬
‫"ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﻬﺎ ﺧﻂ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻻ ﺗﻜﺘﺐ"‬

‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻟﺘﻜﻦ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪+ Object‬‬
‫ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻨﺎﺀﻫﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ‪:‬‬‫‪been + Verb.3‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪Verb.3‬‬
‫‪+‬‬

‫‪has‬‬

‫‪+ have‬‬
‫‪has‬‬
‫‪have‬‬

‫‪Subject‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪Object‬‬

‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻡ ‪ him , her , it‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪:‬‬‫ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ‪.has‬‬
‫‪ me , you‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ‪:‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻡ ‪ou , us , them‬‬‫ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﺎﺋﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﰲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ‪.have‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﺷﺨﺺ ﻣﺎ ﺍ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺘﻘ‪‬ﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ ‪‬ﻋ‪‬ﺜ ‪‬ﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪Someone has been arrested.‬‬
‫‪arrested.‬‬
‫‪The car has been found by the police.‬‬

‫‪١٥٩‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﻫﻮ "‪ ."the police‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‪:‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻋﺜﺮﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪The police have found the car.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬

‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪ Someone‬ﻻ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺍﳌﻘﻄﻊ "‪ "by someone‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻏـﲑ ﻣﻌـﺮﻭﻑ ﻷﻥ‬‫‪ Someone‬ﺗﻌﲏ "ﺷﺨﺺ ﻣﺎ" ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻧﻜﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺱ‪ /‬ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺩﻋﻮﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻔﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) The students have invited us to the party.‬‬

‫ﺷﺨﺺ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺳﺮﻕ ﻛﺘﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) Someone has stolen her book.‬‬

‫ﺝ‪/‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ "‪ "The students‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "‪ " invited‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ "‪ "us‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ‪‬ﺩﻋ‪‬ﻴﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻔﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪We have been invited to the party by the students.‬‬
‫‪students.‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ "‪ "Someone‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "‪ "stolen‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ "‪ "her book‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻛﺘﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻗﺪ ‪‬ﺳﺮﹺﻕ‪.‬‬

‫‪Her book has been stolen.‬‬
‫"ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﻬﺎ ﺧﻂ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻻ ﺗﻜﺘﺐ"‬

‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻟﺘﻜﻦ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪Subject + will + Verb.1 + Object‬‬
‫ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻨﺎﺀﻫﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ‪:‬‬‫‪Object + will + be + Verb.3‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳉﺮﳝﺔ ﺳﻮﻑ ‪‬ﺗﺤ‪‬ﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺋﻢ ﺳﻮﻑ ‪‬ﺗ ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺗﻜﹶﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪The crime will be solved.‬‬
‫‪solved.‬‬
‫‪A few of crimes will be committed.‬‬
‫‪committed.‬‬

‫‪١٦٠‬‬

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‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺱ‪ /‬ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻘﺘﻞ ﻣﺎﺭﻙ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He will kill Mark.‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺒﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) She will buy the car.‬‬

‫ﺟـ‪/‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ "‪ "He‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "‪ "kill‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ "‪ "Mark‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﺎﺭﻙ ﺳﻮﻑ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻘﺘ‪‬ﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪Mark will be killed by him.‬‬
‫‪him.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ "‪ "She‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "‪ "buy‬ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ "‪ "the car‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺳﻮﻑ ‪‬ﺗﺒ‪‬ﺎﻉ‪.‬‬

‫‪The car will be bought by her..‬‬
‫"ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﻬﺎ ﺧﻂ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻻ ﺗﻜﺘﺐ"‬

‫ﺳﺎﺩﺳﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪:‬‬
‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ "… ‪."can , should , must ,‬‬‫ ﻟﺘﻜﻦ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ‪ Auxiliary Verbs‬ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪Subject + Aux Verb + Verb.1 + Object‬‬
‫ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﻨﺎﺀﻫﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ‪:‬‬‫‪Object + Aux Verb + be + Verb.3‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ‪‬ﻌﺜﹶﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪The car can be found.‬‬
‫‪found.‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳﻘﹶﺎﻝ ﳍﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪She must be told.‬‬
‫‪told.‬‬

‫‪١٦١‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

:‫ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ‬/‫ﺱ‬
1) They should not park their cars there. .‫ﻢ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻮﻗﻔﻮﺍ ﺳﻴﺎﺭ‬
/‫ﺝ‬
:‫" ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬their cars" ‫" ﻭﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬park" ‫" ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬They" ‫( ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬١
.‫ﻒ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬
 ‫ﻮ ﹶﻗ‬‫ﻢ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻻ ﺗ‬‫ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺍ‬
Their cars should not be parked there by them.
them.
"‫"ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﻬﺎ ﺧﻂ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻻ ﺗﻜﺘﺐ‬

www.expenglish.com
english.com

١٦٢

Omar AL-Hourani
AL

:‫جدول صيغ المبني للمجھول لجميع األزمنة‬

‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ‬

Present Simple
Present Progressive
Present Perfect
Present Perfect Progressive
Past Simple
Past Progressive
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Progressive
Future Simple
Future Progressive
Future Perfect
Future Perfect Progressive
Future in the Past

O + (am/is/are) + V.3
O + (am/is/are) + being + V.3
O + (has/have) + been + V.3
O + (has/have) + been being + V.3
O + (was/were) + V.3
O + had being + V.3
O + had been + V.3
O + had been being + V.3
O + will be + V.3
O + will be being + V.3
O + will have been + V.3
O + will have been being + V.3
O + (was/were) + going to be +
V.3
O + used to be + V.3
O + Aux Verb + be + V.3
O + (am/is/are) + going to be +
V.3

Used to
Auxiliary Verb
be going to

:‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬
O : Object , V.3 : ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬

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١٦٣

Omar AL-Hourani

- Questions (1-9); rewrite these sentences beginning with the words in underline type:
1) They offered William a promotion.
2) They are testing the new system.
3) Someone reported that the riot was under control.
4) They may ban the film.
5) We have not used the car for ages.
6) The company has cut all salaries.
7) Employers must pay all travel expenses for this training course.
8) Nobody informed the college that there had been a mistake.
9) The news about the exam results distressed Sidney.
- Questions (10-17); choose the correct auxiliary verb to make sentence passive:
10) The castle … built in the 15th century.
A. was
B. is
C. has been
D. will be
E. None of all above.
11) Is he … arrested as we speak?
A. being
B. been
C. be
D. will be
E. None of all above.
12) All these houses … neglected for decades.
A. will be
B. are being
C. has been
D. have been
E. None of all above.
13) There is no question that they … delighted when they see her tomorrow.
A. have been
B. had been
C. were
D. will have been
E. None of all above.
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١٦٤

Omar AL-Hourani

14) The children … taken to school by bus every day.
A. are
B. have
C. was
D. had
E. None of all above
15) I can assure you that this box … never been opened before I opened this morning.
A. was
B. will
C. is
D. had
E. None of all above.
16) How many times have you … your house broken into?
A. been
B. had
C. be
D. have
E. None of all above.
17) I'm sorry you can't come in at the moment because we … the house decorated right now.
A. have had
B. will have
C. had
D. are having
E. None of all above.

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١٦٥

Omar AL-Hourani

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١٦٦

Omar AL-Hourani

‫مقدمة ‪:Introduction‬‬
‫ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﺳﻬﻞ ﻭﺳﻮﻑ ﻧﺴﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻷﻧـﻪ ﻣﻬـﻢ‬‫ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

‫صياغة النفي ‪:Make of Negative‬‬
‫ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪:‬‬‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ‪ :Auxiliary Verb‬ﻧﻀﻴﻒ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴـﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤـﺔ‬
‫‪ (١‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﲢﻮﻱ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫"‪) "not‬ﻟﻼﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺍﳌﻘﻄﻊ "‪ "n't‬ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ "ﻣﺎﻋﺪﺍ ‪ will‬ﻓﻴﺨﺘﺼﺮ ﺇﱃ ‪ won't‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ can‬ﻓﻴﺨﺘﺼﺮ ﺇﱃ ‪ can't‬ﻭ ‪ am , may‬ﻓﻼ ﳜﺘﺼﺮﺍﻥ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ"(‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ‪ :Auxiliary Verb‬ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋـﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷـﺮﺓ ‪do not‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻻ ﲢﻮﻱ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫)‪:did not (didn't‬‬
‫(‬
‫‪ does not (doesn't‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫)‪ (don't‬ﺃﻭ )‪doesn't‬‬
‫(‬
‫ﻧﻀﻊ )‪ :do not (don't‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋـﻞ ‪I , You ,‬‬
‫‪ We , They‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻀﻊ )‪ :does not (doesn't‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ ،s‬ﺃﻭ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋـﻞ ‪He ,‬‬
‫‪ She , It‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﺬﻑ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ‪ s‬ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻀﻊ )‪ :did not (didn't‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ "ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ"‪.‬‬
‫‪.-ing‬‬
‫ ﻣﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻣﻀﺎﻑ ﻟﻪ ‪ -s‬ﺃﻭ ‪ing‬‬‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ‪ shall not‬ﺇﱃ ‪.shan't‬‬‫‪ -‬ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺯﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﺍ‪:‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٦٧‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫‪ /١-١‬ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He plays football.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎﻑ ﻟﻪ ‪ s‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ )‪ does not (doesn't‬ﺑﻌـﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋـﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭﳓﺬﻑ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ‪ s‬ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻻ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He (does not/doesn't) play football.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﺗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) You teach English.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ )‪ do not (don't‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﻻ ﺗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) You (do not/don't) teach English.‬‬

‫‪ /٢-١‬ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He is playing football.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "is‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."not‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻻ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He (is not/isn't) playing football.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﺗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) You are teaching English.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "are‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."not‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﻻ ﺗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) You (are not/aren't) teaching English.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﲤﺸﻰ‪.‬‬

‫‪3) I am walking.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "am‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."not‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻻ ﺃﲤﺸﻰ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪3) I am not walking.‬‬

‫‪١٦٨‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪ /٣-١‬ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‪:‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻟﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He has played football.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "has‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."not‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﱂ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He (has not/hasn't) played football.‬‬

‫ﺖ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ‪‬ﺩﺭ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬

‫‪2) You have taught English.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "have‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."not‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﱂ ﺗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) You (have not/haven't) taught English.‬‬

‫‪ /٤-١‬ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺘﲔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1) He has been writing a letter for two hours.‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "has‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."not‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻻ ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺘﲔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1) He (has not/hasn't) been writing a letter for two hours.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) I have been having lunch.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "have‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."not‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﱂ ﺃﻛﻦ ﺃﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) I (have not/haven't) been having lunch.‬‬

‫‪ /١-٢‬ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻟﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He played football.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ )‪ did not (didn't‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷـﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻭﻧﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﱂ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪1) He (did not/didn't) play football.‬‬

‫‪١٦٩‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺖ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺖ ‪‬ﺩﺭ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬

‫‪2) You taught English.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ )‪ did not (didn't‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷـﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻭﻧﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﱂ ﺗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) You (did not/didn't) teach English.‬‬

‫‪ /٢-٢‬ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He was playing football.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "was‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."not‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He (was not/wasn't) playing football.‬‬

‫ﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺻﺮﺧ ‪‬‬
‫‪2) You were watching the TV when she cried.‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "were‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."not‬‬
‫ﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺗﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺻﺮﺧ ‪‬‬
‫‪2) You (were not/weren't) watching the TV when she cried.‬‬
‫‪ /٣-٢‬ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‪:‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻟﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻜﺴ‪‬ﺮ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪1) He had played football before his leg was broken.‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "had‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."not‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﱂ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻜﺴ‪‬ﺮ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪1) He (had not/hadn't) played football before his leg was broken.‬‬
‫‪ /٤-٢‬ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺩﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﺼﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1) He had been studying English for two years before he got the job.‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "had‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."not‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١٧٠‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﱂ ﻳﺪﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﺼﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1) He (had not/hadn't) been studying English for two years before he‬‬
‫‪got the job.‬‬
‫‪ /١-٣‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ )ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ‪/‬ﺳﻴﺬﻫﺐ(‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He will go.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "will‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."not‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He (will not/won't) go.‬‬

‫‪ /٢-٣‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ )ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‪/‬ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ( ﻧﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He will be sleeping.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "will‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."not‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻟﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He (will not/won't) be sleeping.‬‬

‫‪ /٣-٣‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‪:‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻟﻐﱵ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻋﻮﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻛﻤﻠ ‪‬‬
‫‪1) I will have perfected my English by the time I come back from the‬‬
‫‪U.S.‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "will‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."not‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻟﻐﱵ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻋﻮﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻟﻦ ﺃﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻛﻤﻠ ‪‬‬
‫‪1) I (will not/won't) have perfected my English by the time I come‬‬
‫‪back from the U.S.‬‬
‫‪ /٤-٣‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺘﲔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺼﻞ ﻃﺎﺋﺮ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ‪‬‬
‫‪1) I will have been waiting for two hours when her plane arrives‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "will‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."not‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١٧١‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺘﲔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺼﻞ ﻃﺎﺋﺮ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻟﻦ ﺃﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ‪‬‬
‫‪1) I (will‬‬
‫‪will not/won't‬‬
‫‪not won't) have been waiting for two hours when her plane‬‬
‫‪arrives‬‬
‫‪arrives.‬‬
‫‪ /٤‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺬﻫﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He would go.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "would‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."not‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺳﻴﺬﻫﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He (would‬‬
‫‪would not/wouldn't‬‬
‫‪not wouldn't)) go.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺳﺘﺬﻫﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) You were going to go.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "were‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."not‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺳﺘﺬﻫﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) You (were‬‬
‫‪were not/weren't‬‬
‫‪not weren't)) going to go.‬‬

‫‪ /٥‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﻀﻴﻒ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ‪ can‬ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤـﺔ "‪ "not‬ﻓﻨﻜﺘـﺐ ‪ cannot‬ﻭﻟـﻴﺲ ‪can not‬‬‫ﻭﻟﻼﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ‪.can't‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺳﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) I can go.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "can‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."not‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻻ ﺃﺳﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) I (cannot‬‬
‫‪not/can't‬‬
‫‪can't)) go.‬‬

‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺫﻫﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) I should go.‬‬

‫"‪."not‬‬
‫‪"n‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "should‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻻ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺫﻫﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) I (should‬‬
‫‪should not/shouldn't‬‬
‫)‪not shouldn't‬‬
‫‪shouldn't) go.‬‬

‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﱪﺗﻐﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‫‪3) He has to travel to Portugal.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎﻑ ﻟﻪ ‪ s‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ )‪ does not (doesn't‬ﺑﻌـﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋـﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭﳓﺬﻑ ﺍﳊﺮﻑ ‪ s‬ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٧٢‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﻻ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﱪﺗﻐﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫‪3) He (does‬‬
‫)‪(does not/doesn't‬‬
‫‪not/doesn't) have to travel to Portugal.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺑﻄﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪4) He is a hero.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "is‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."not‬‬
‫ﻼ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻄ ﹰ‬

‫‪4) He (is‬‬
‫‪(is not/isn't‬‬
‫‪not isn't) a hero.‬‬

‫ﺱ‪ /‬ﺍﻧﻔﻲ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﱪﺗﻐﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‫‪You have to travel to Portugal.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﻟﺪﻳﻚ ﻗﻠﻤﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪You have a pen.‬‬
‫‪pen.‬‬

‫ﺝ‪/‬‬
‫ﻟﺮﲟﺎ ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫‪You (have‬‬
‫)‪have not/ haven't‬‬
‫‪haven't) to travel to Portugal‬‬
‫‪You (have‬‬
‫)‪have not/haven't‬‬
‫‪not haven't) a pen..‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺧﻄﺄ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ have‬ﻫﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺑﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ" )ﻻﺣـﻆ‬
‫ﻼ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ ‪ to‬ﺑﻌﺪ ‪" have‬ﺩﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ"( ﻣﻌﲎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻻ ﲤﻠﻚ ﻓﻌـ ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "‪ "have‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ )‪ do not (don't‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ have‬ﻫﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺑﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﳝﻠﻚ" ﻣﻌﲎ ﺫﻟـﻚ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "‪ "have‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼـﺪﺭ ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀـﻊ )‪ do not (don't‬ﺑﻌـﺪ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻻ ﲤﻠﻚ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﱪﺗﻐﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‫‪You (do‬‬
‫‪do not/don't‬‬
‫‪don't)) to travel to Portugal.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﺪﻳﻚ ﻗﻠﻤﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪You (do‬‬
‫‪do not/don't‬‬
‫‪not don't)) have a pen.‬‬

‫‪١٧٣‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺱ‪ /‬ﺍﻧﻔﻲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﻗﻠﻤﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪He has a pen..‬‬

‫ﺝ‪/‬‬
‫ﻟﺮﲟﺎ ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫)‪He (does not/doesn't‬‬
‫‪not/doesn't has a pen.‬‬
‫‪pen.‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "has‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻀﺎﻑ ﻟﻪ "‪ "s‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ )‪ does not (doesn't‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋـﻞ‬
‫"‪."have‬‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭﻧﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻮ "‪have‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﻗﻠﻤﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪He (does‬‬
‫‪does not/don't‬‬
‫‪not don't)) have a pen.‬‬

‫ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ‪:‬‬

‫‪- have + -s  has‬‬

‫النفي في األمر‪:‬‬
‫ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﻨﻔﻲ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪ :‬ﻧﻀﻊ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ )‪ Do not (Don't‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﺷـﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻌـﻞ ﰲ‬‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻘﻠﻖ‪ ، .‬ﻻ ﺗﻘﻠﻘﻲ‪ ، .‬ﻻ ﺗﻘﻠﻘﺎ‪ ، .‬ﻻ ﺗﻘﻠﻘﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﻘﻠﻘﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺄﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ، .‬ﻻ ﺗﺄﻛﻠﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ، .‬ﻻ ﺗﺄﻛﻼ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ ، .‬ﻻ ﺗﺄﻛﻠﻮﺍ ﻫﺬﺍ‪.‬‬

‫‪(Do‬‬
‫‪Do not/Don't‬‬
‫‪not Don't) worry.‬‬
‫‪(Do‬‬
‫‪Do not/Don't‬‬
‫‪not Don't) eat this.‬‬

‫ﻻ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻏﺒﻴﹰﺎ‪ ، .‬ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﱐ ﻏﺒﻴﺔ‪ ، .‬ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻧﺎ ﻏﺒﻴﺎﻥ‪ ، .‬ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﺃﻏﺒﻴﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﻜﻦ‪ ‬ﻏﺒﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪(Do‬‬
‫‪Do not/Don't‬‬
‫‪not Don't) be stupid.‬‬
‫النفي بـ ‪:never‬‬
‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ never‬ﻟﻠﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻖ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺒﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﳍﺎ ﻣﻌﲎ "ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻃﻼﻗﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ"‪.‬‬‫‪ -‬ﻳﻮﺿﻊ ‪ never‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻳﻮﺿﻊ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٧٤‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

:never ‫ﺍﻧﻔﻲ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬/‫ﺱ‬
I will talk to you later.
He teaches English.
He can play basketball.
/‫ﺝ‬
.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻟﻦ ﺃﻛﻠﻤﻚ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ‬

I will never talk to you.

.‫ﺱ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ‬‫ﻫﻮ ﻻ ﻳﺪﺭ‬

He never teaches English.

.‫ﻻ ﳝﻜﻨﻪ ﻟﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺔ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ‬

He can never play basketball.

:have no
‫ ﻭﻟﻜـﻦ‬،"I don't have a pen" :‫" ﻧﻜﺘـﺐ‬I have a pen" :‫ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬:‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺷﻴﻮﻋﹰﺎ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‬
I have no pen.

.‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﺪﻱ ﻗﻠﻤﹰﺎ‬

He has no car.

.‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ‬

I have no idea.

.‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﺪﻱ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ‬

www.expenglish.com
english.com

١٧٥

Omar AL-Hourani
AL

Change these sentences to negative:
1) I like cheese.
2) We're married.
3) She has an old house.
4) He plays tennis on Saturdays.
5) I've already been to the bank.
6) I need some money.
7) I had lunch at 2 o'clock.
8) He's going to work.
9) I have a lot of cars.
10) I've already seen the tower of London.
11) He'll be having lunch at that time.
12) I had a shower at 4 o'clock.
13) We live in Madrid.
14) I've ever seen a snake.
15) He likes going to work. (use never)

www.expenglish.com

١٧٦

Omar AL-Hourani

www.expenglish.com

١٧٧

Omar AL-Hourani

‫مقدمة ‪:Introduction‬‬
‫ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﻟﻪ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﻭﺳﻮﻑ ﻧﺴﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻟﻔﻬـﻢ‬‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻧﻮﻋﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺑـ "ﻧﻌﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻻ"‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﻄﻮﻝ‪.‬‬
‫تكوين السؤال ‪:Making Questions‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ /‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺑـ "ﻧﻌﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻻ"‪:‬‬
‫ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺇﻣﺎ "‪ "Yes‬ﺃﻭ "‪ "No‬ﻭﻳﺼﺎﻏﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻼﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺎﻥ‪:‬‬‫‪Yes, +‬‬
‫‪Subject + Aux Verb‬‬
‫‪No, +‬‬
‫‪Subject + Aux Verb + not‬‬
‫ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻪ "ﻧﻌﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻻ" ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪:‬‬‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ‪ :Auxiliary Verb‬ﻧﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻜﻤﻞ‬
‫‪ (١‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﲢﻮﻱ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ "?" ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ‪ :Auxiliary Verb‬ﻧﻀﻊ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ ‪ Do‬ﺃﻭ ‪Does‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻻ ﲢﻮﻱ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪:Did‬‬
‫ﻧﻀﻊ ‪ :Do‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪ I , You , We , They‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻀﻊ ‪ :Does‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ ،s‬ﺃﻭ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋـﻞ ‪ He , She , It‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳـﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﺬﻑ ﺣﺮﻑ ‪ s‬ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻀﻊ ‪ :Did‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ "ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ"‪.‬‬
‫ ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﺯﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﺍ‪:‬‬‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١٧٨‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪ /١-١‬ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He plays football.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎﻑ ﻟﻪ ‪ s‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ‪ Does‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﳓﺬﻑ ﺣـﺮﻑ ‪ s‬ﻣـﻦ ﺁﺧـﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ؟‬

‫?‪1) Does he play football‬‬
‫‪1) Yes, he does. OR No, he (does not/doesn't).‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﺗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) You teach English.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ‪ Do‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﺗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ؟‬

‫?‪2) Do you teach English‬‬
‫‪1) Yes, I do. OR No, I (do not/don't).‬‬

‫‪ /٢-١‬ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He is playing football.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "is‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ؟‬

‫?‪1) Is he playing football‬‬
‫‪1) Yes, he is. OR No, he (is not/isn't).‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﺗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) You are teaching English.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "are‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﺗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ؟‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫?‪2) Are you teaching English‬‬
‫‪1) Yes, I am. OR No, I am not.‬‬

‫‪١٧٩‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

:‫ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‬/٣-١
.‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻟﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‬

1) He has played football.

.‫" ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬has" ‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ‬
1) Has he played football?
1) Yes, he has. OR No, he (has not/hasn't).

‫ﻫﻞ ﻟﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ؟‬

2) You have taught English.

.‫ﺖ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‬
 ‫ﺳ‬‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺩﺭ‬
.‫" ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬have" ‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ؟‬
 ‫ﺳ‬‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻞ‬

2) Have you taught English?
1) Yes, I have. OR No, I (have not/haven't).

:‫ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬/٤-١
.‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺘﲔ‬
1) He has been writing a letter for two hours.
.‫" ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬has" ‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺘﲔ؟‬
1) Has he been writing a letter for two hours?
1) Yes, he has. OR No, he (has not/hasn't).
.‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ‬

2) You have been having lunch.

.‫" ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬have" ‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ‬
2) Have you been having lunch?
1) Yes, I have. OR No, I (have not/haven't).

www.expenglish.com

١٨٠

‫ﺖ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ؟‬
 ‫ﻫﻞ ﻛﻨ‬

Omar AL-Hourani

‫‪ /١-٢‬ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻟﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He played football.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ‪ Did‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻧﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻟﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ؟‬

‫?‪1) Did he play football‬‬
‫‪1) Yes, he did. OR No, he (did not/didn't).‬‬

‫ﺖ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺖ ‪‬ﺩﺭ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬

‫‪2) You taught English.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ‪ Did‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻧﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ‪‬ﺩﺭ‪‬ﺳ ‪‬‬

‫?‪2) Did you teach English‬‬
‫‪1) Yes, I did. OR No, I (did not/didn't).‬‬

‫‪ /٢-٢‬ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He was playing football.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "was‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ؟‬

‫?‪1) Was he playing football‬‬
‫‪1) Yes, he was. OR No, he (was not/wasn't).‬‬

‫ﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺻﺮﺧ ‪‬‬
‫‪2) You were watching the TV when she cried.‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "were‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺗﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺻﺮﺧﺖ‪‬؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬
‫?‪2) Were you watching the TV when she cried‬‬
‫‪1) Yes, I was. OR No, I (was not/wasn't).‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١٨١‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪ /٣-٢‬ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‪:‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻟﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻜﺴ‪‬ﺮ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪1) He had played football before his leg was broken.‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "had‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻟﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﻳ ﹾﻜﺴ‪‬ﺮ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ؟‬
‫?‪1) Had he played football before his leg was broken‬‬
‫‪1) Yes, he had. OR No, he (had not/hadn't).‬‬
‫‪ /٤-٢‬ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺩﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﺼﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪1) He had been studying English for two years before he got the job.‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "had‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﺩﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺣﺼﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ؟‬
‫?‪1) Had he been studying English for two years before he got the job‬‬
‫‪1) Yes, he had. OR No, he (had not/hadn't).‬‬
‫‪ /١-٣‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ )ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ‪/‬ﺳﻴﺬﻫﺐ(‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He will go.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "will‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ )ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ‪/‬ﺳﻴﺬﻫﺐ(؟‬

‫?‪1) Will he go‬‬
‫‪1) Yes, he will. OR No, he (will not/won't).‬‬

‫‪ /٢-٣‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ )ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‪/‬ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ( ﻧﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He will be sleeping.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "will‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ )ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‪/‬ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ( ﻧﺎﺋﻤﺎﹰ؟‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫?‪1) Will he be sleeping‬‬
‫‪1) Yes, he will. OR No, he (will not/won't).‬‬
‫‪١٨٢‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪ /٣-٣‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‪:‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻟﻐﱵ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻋﻮﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻛﻤﻠ ‪‬‬
‫‪1) I will have perfected my English by the time I come back from the‬‬
‫‪U.S.‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "will‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻟﻐﱵ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻋﻮﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﺳﺄﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﻛﻤﻠ ‪‬‬
‫‪1) Will I have perfected my English by the time I come back from the‬‬
‫?‪U.S‬‬
‫‪1) Yes, you will. OR No, you (will not/won't).‬‬
‫‪ /٤-٣‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺘﲔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺼﻞ ﻃﺎﺋﺮ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ‪‬‬
‫‪1) I will have been waiting for two hours when her plane arrives.‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "will‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺕ ﺳﺎﻋﺘﲔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺼﻞ ﻃﺎﺋﺮ‪‬ﺎ؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﺳﺄﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ‪‬‬
‫?‪1) Will I have been waiting for two hours when her plane arrives‬‬
‫‪1) Yes, you will. OR No, you (will not/won't).‬‬
‫‪ /٤‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺬﻫﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) He would go.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "will‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺬﻫﺐ؟‬

‫?‪1) Would he go‬‬
‫‪1) Yes, he would. OR No, he (would not/wouldn't).‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺳﺘﺬﻫﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) You were going to go.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "were‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺳﺘﺬﻫﺐ؟‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫?‪2) Were you going to go‬‬
‫‪1) Yes, I was. OR No, I (was not/wasn't).‬‬
‫‪١٨٣‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪ /٥‬ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺳﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) I can go.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "can‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﺃﺳﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ؟‬

‫?‪1) Can I go‬‬
‫‪1) Yes, you can. OR No, you (cannot/can't).‬‬

‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) He should go.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "should‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫?‪2) Should he go‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ؟‬
‫‪1) Yes, he should. OR No, he (should not/shouldn't).‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺑﻄﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪3) He is a hero.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "is‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻨﻘﻠﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺑﻄﻞ؟‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫?‪3) Is he a hero‬‬
‫‪1) Yes, he is. OR No, he (is not/isn't).‬‬

‫‪١٨٤‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺱ‪ /‬ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﱪﺗﻐﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‫‪You have to travel to Portugal.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﻟﺪﻳﻚ ﻗﻠﻤﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪You have a pen.‬‬
‫‪pen.‬‬

‫ﺝ‪/‬‬
‫ﻟﺮﲟﺎ ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫?‪Have you travel to Portugal‬‬
‫‪Have you‬‬
‫?‪ou a pen‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺧﻄﺄ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ have‬ﻫﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺑﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ" )ﻻﺣـﻆ‬
‫ﻼ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ ‪ to‬ﺑﻌﺪ ‪" have‬ﺩﺭﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ"( ﻣﻌﲎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻻ ﲤﻠﻚ ﻓﻌـ ﹰ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "‪ "have‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ‪ Do‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ have‬ﻫﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺑﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﳝﻠﻚ" ﻣﻌﲎ ﺫﻟـﻚ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "‪ "have‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ‪ Do‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻻ ﲤﻠﻚ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﱪﺗﻐﺎﻝ؟‬

‫?‪Do you have to travel to Portugal‬‬

‫ﻫﻞ ﲤﻠﻚ ﻗﻠﻤﺎﹰ؟‬

‫?‪Do you have a pen‬‬

‫ﺱ‪ /‬ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﳝﻠﻚ ﻗﻠﻤﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪He has a pen..‬‬

‫ﺝ‪/‬‬
‫ﻟﺮﲟﺎ ﺳﺘﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫‪Does he has a pen.‬‬
‫‪pen.‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "has‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻀﺎﻑ ﻟﻪ "‪ "s‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ‪ Does‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻧﻌﻴـﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌـﻞ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻮ "‪."have‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﳝﻠﻚ ﻗﻠﻤﹰﺎ؟‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫?‪Does he have a pen‬‬
‫‪pen‬‬

‫‪١٨٥‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺣﻴﺚ‪:‬‬

‫‪- have + -s  has‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﻄﻮﻝ‪:‬‬

‫ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺒﺪﺃ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻪ ﻣﻄﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻨـﺎ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺸـﺮﺡ ﺿـﻤﺎﺋﺮ‬‫ﻭﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬
‫?‪ :Who‬ﺿﻤﲑ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻣﺎ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻣﻦ؟"‪.‬‬
‫?‪ :Whom‬ﺿﻤﲑ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻣﺎ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻣﻦ؟" ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣـﻞ ﳏﻠـﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻵﻥ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﲑ "?‪"Who‬‬
‫?‪ :What‬ﺿﻤﲑ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻣﺎﺫﺍ؟" ﺃﻭ "ﻣﺎ؟"‪.‬‬
‫?‪ :Which‬ﺿﻤﲑ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﲔ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﻭﳏﺪﺩﺓ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﺘﻤـﺎﻻﺕ ﲟﻌـﲎ‬
‫"ﺃﻱ‪‬؟"‪.‬‬
‫?‪ :Where‬ﺿﻤﲑ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﲔ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺃﻳﻦ؟"‪.‬‬
‫?‪ :Whose‬ﺿﻤﲑ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﳌﻦ؟"‪.‬‬
‫?‪ :When‬ﺿﻤﲑ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻣﻌﲔ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻣﱴ؟"‪.‬‬
‫?‪ :Why‬ﺿﻤﲑ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻣﻌﲔ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﳌﺎﺫﺍ؟"‪.‬‬
‫?‪ :How‬ﺿﻤﲑ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻛﻴﻒ؟" ﺃﻭ "ﻛﻢ؟"‪.‬‬
‫ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻪ ﻣﻄﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪:‬‬‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ‪ :Auxiliary Verb‬ﻧﻀﻊ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟـﺬﻱ ﻧﺮﻳـﺪﻩ ﰲ‬
‫‪ (١‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻚ ﲨﻠﺔ ﲢﻮﻱ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻭﻧﻀﻌﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻜﻤﻞ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﳉـﻮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ "?" ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ )ﻣﺎﻋـﺪﺍ ﺍﻟﻀـﻤﲑﺍﻥ ?‪ Who‬ﻭ ?‪Which‬‬
‫ﻼ "ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺷﺮﺣﻬﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ"(‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺈ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﳜﺎﻟﻔﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻗﻠﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ ‪ :Auxiliary Verb‬ﻧﻀﻊ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺍﻻﺳـﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻻ ﲢﻮﻱ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺮﻳﺪﻩ ﻭﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ‪ do‬ﺃﻭ ‪ does‬ﺃﻭ ‪:did‬‬
‫ﻧﻀﻊ ‪ :do‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪ I , You , We , They‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ‪.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٨٦‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﻧﻀﻊ ‪ :does‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ ،s‬ﺃﻭ ﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋـﻞ ‪ He , She , It‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳـﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﺬﻑ ﺣﺮﻑ ‪ s‬ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻀﻊ ‪ :did‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ "ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ"‪.‬‬
‫ﰒ ﳓﺬﻑ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ "?" ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﲰﻚ ﻫﻮ ﻛﻼﺭﻙ‪" .‬ﺍﺳﺄﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﻬﺎ ﺧﻂ"‬

‫‪1) Your name is Clark.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "is‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ "‪ "What‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﳓﺬﻑ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﻫﻮ "‪."Clark‬‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺍﲰﻚ؟‬

‫?‪1) What is your name‬‬

‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ﳉﻮﻥ‪" .‬ﺍﺳﺄﻝ ﺑـ ﳌﻦ؟"‬

‫‪2) This pen is for John.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "is‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ "‪ "Whose‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﳓﺬﻑ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﻫﻮ "‪."for John‬‬
‫ﳌﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ؟‬

‫?‪2) Whose is this pen‬‬

‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ "ﳌﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ؟"‪.‬‬

‫?‪2) Who is this pen for‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪" .‬ﺍﺳﺄﻝ ﺑـ ﻛﻴﻒ؟"‬

‫‪3) He was sick.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "was‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ "‪ "How‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﳓﺬﻑ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﻫﻮ "‪."sick‬‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻮ؟‬

‫?‪3) How was he‬‬

‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺫﻫﺐ‪" .‬ﺍﺳﺄﻝ ﺑـ ﳌﺎﺫﺍ؟"‬

‫‪4) He has gone.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻫﻮ "‪ "has‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ "‪ "Why‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﺫﻫﺐ؟‬

‫?‪4) Why has he gone‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﰲ ﺗﻜﺴﺎﺱ‪" .‬ﺍﺳﺄﻝ ﺑـ ﺃﻳﻦ؟"‬

‫‪5) He lives in Texas.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎﻑ ﻟﻪ ‪ s‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ "‪ "Where‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻣﺒﺎﺷـﺮﺓ ﻧﻀـﻊ‬
‫‪ does‬ﻭﳓﺬﻑ ‪ s‬ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻭﳓﺬﻑ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﻫﻮ "‪."in Texas‬‬
‫ﺃﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ؟‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫?‪5) Where does he live‬‬

‫‪١٨٧‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺣﺔ‪" .‬ﺍﺳﺄﻝ ﺑـ ﳌﺎﺫﺍ؟"‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﻏﺎﺩﺭ ‪‬‬

‫‪6) She left yesterday.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻫﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ "‪ "Why‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻧﻀﻊ ‪did‬‬
‫ﻭﻧﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺣﺔ؟‬
‫ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﻏﺎﺩﺭ ‪‬‬

‫?‪6) Why did she leave yesterday‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺣﺔ‪" .‬ﺍﺳﺄﻝ ﺑـ ﻣﱴ؟"‬

‫‪7) He died yesterday.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ "‪ "When‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻧﻀـﻊ ‪did‬‬
‫ﻭﻧﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﻭﳓﺬﻑ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﻫﻮ "‪."yesterday‬‬
‫ﻣﱴ ﻣﺎﺕ؟‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺳﻴﻐﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻏﺪ‪" .‬ﺍﺳﺄﻝ ﺑـ ﻣﱴ؟"‬

‫?‪7) When did he die‬‬
‫‪8) He will leave the day after tomorrow.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌــﻞ ﺍﳌﺴــﺎﻋﺪ ﻫــﻮ "‪ "will‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀــﻊ "‪ "When‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠــﺔ ﻭﳓــﺬﻑ ﺍﳉــﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﻫــﻮ‬
‫"‪."the day after tomorrow‬‬
‫ﻣﱴ ﺳﻴﻐﺎﺩﺭ؟‬

‫?‪8) When will he leave‬‬

‫ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺑـ ?‪ :Who‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪ ،‬ﳓﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻀﻊ ﳏﻠﻪ "?‪ "Who‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﻻ‬‫ﻏﲑ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻄﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ‪" .‬ﺍﺳﺄﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﻬﺎ ﺧﻂ"‬

‫‪1) He travels everyday.‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻓﻘﻂ ﳓﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ "‪ "He‬ﻭﻧﻀـﻊ ﳏﻠـﻪ "?‪ "Who‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻜـﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻳﺴﺎﻓﺮ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ؟‬

‫?‪1) Who travels everyday‬‬

‫ﺟﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺎﺭﻙ‪" .‬ﺍﺳﺄﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻮﻥ ﻭﻣﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﺭﻙ"‬

‫‪2) John met Mark.‬‬

‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ "‪ :"John‬ﳓﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ "‪ "John‬ﻭﻧﻀﻊ ﳏﻠﻪ "?‪ "Who‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻜﻮﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺎﺭﻙ؟‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫?‪2) Who met Mark‬‬

‫‪١٨٨‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ "‪ :"Mark‬ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻫﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀﻊ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬
‫"‪ "Who‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻧﻀﻊ ‪ did‬ﻭﻧﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻪ ﺟﻮﻥ؟‬

‫?‪2) Who did John meet‬‬

‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪:‬‬

‫?‪2) Whom did John meet‬‬

‫ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺑـ ?‪ :Which‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ‪:‬‬‫ﺟﻮﻥ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﺗﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺍﺗﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺫﻫﺐ؟‬

‫‪1) John went by his car.‬‬
‫?‪1) Which car of his cars did he go‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﳌﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﻟﻐﺔ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ؟‬
‫ﻫﻢ ﻳﺪﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺃﻛﺴﻔﻮﺭﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻳﺪﺭﺳﻮﻥ؟‬

‫‪2) He speaks German.‬‬
‫?‪2) Which language does he speak‬‬
‫‪3) They study in Oxford University.‬‬
‫?‪3) Which university do they study‬‬

‫السؤال المنفي‪:‬‬
‫ ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬‫ﺃﻻ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ؟‬
‫ﺑﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﻻ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ‪.‬‬

‫?‪Don't you want to go‬‬
‫‪Yes, I do. OR No, I (do not/don't).‬‬

‫ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﻲ‪ :‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻧﻀﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﻘﻄـﻊ "‪ "n't‬ﻵﺧـﺮ ﺍﻟﻔﻌـﻞ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻻ ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) I (do not/don't) want to go.‬‬

‫ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﻻ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ؟‬

‫?‪1) Why don't you want to go‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) She can go.‬‬

‫ﺃﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ؟‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫?‪2) Can't she go‬‬

‫‪١٨٩‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﺫﻛﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪3) He is smart.‬‬

‫ﺃﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﺫﻛﻴﺎﹰ؟‬

‫?‪3)) Isn't he smart‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﻻ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻓﺎﻷﻣﺮ ﻫﻨﺎ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ‪:‬‬
‫ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﻻ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ؟‬

‫?‪1) Why do you not want to go‬‬

‫ﺃﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ؟‬

‫?‪2)) Can she not go‬‬

‫ﺃﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﺫﻛﻴﺎﹰ؟‬

‫?‪3)) Is he not smart‬‬

‫السؤال عن الكمية‪:‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪many‬‬
‫‪How + much + Noun + Aux Verb + Verb.1 + Object‬‬

‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬

‫"ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ"‬

‫ﺍﻻﺳﻢ "ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ"‬

‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ‪ Noun‬ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ‪:‬‬‫ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ How‬ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."many‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ‪ Noun‬ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ‪:‬‬‫ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ How‬ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."much‬‬
‫ﻛﻢ ﺑﻴﻀﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺟﺔ؟‬

‫?‪1) How many eggs are in the refrigerator‬‬
‫?‪refrigerator‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ "‪ "eggs‬ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ How‬ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."many‬‬
‫ﻛﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻭﻟﺔ؟‬

‫?‪2) How much money was on the table‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ "‪ "money‬ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ How‬ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."much‬‬
‫ﻛﻢ ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ؟‬

‫?‪3) How many kilos of sugar do you want‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ "‪ "kilos‬ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ How‬ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪."many‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٩٠‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ؟‬
‫ﻛﻢ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻛﺘﺒ ‪‬‬
‫?‪4) How many letters have you written this week‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ "‪ "letters‬ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ How‬ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ "‪"many‬‬
‫ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺻـﻴﻐﺔ ‪How many , How much‬‬‫ﻷﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ‪ ...‬ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻛﻤﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫?‪How much far did you go‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ )ﻛﻢ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﺸﻴﺖ‪‬؟(‬

‫?‪How far did you walk‬‬

‫السؤال غير المباشر ‪:Indirect Question‬‬
‫ ﻣﺜﻞ‪" :‬ﻫﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺃﻳﻦ ﺫﻫﺐ ﺟﻮﻥ؟" ﺃﻭ "ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺳﺄﻟﻚ ﻣﺎ ﺍﲰﻚ‪ ".‬ﺃﻭ "ﺃﻧﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﺪﻱ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺃﻳﻦ ﺫﻫﺒﺖ‪".‬‬‫ ﺗ‪‬ﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﳌﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﺜﻞ "ﻫﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ‪ "...‬ﺃﻭ "ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺳـﺄﻟﻚ‪ "...‬ﺃﻭ‬‫"ﺃﻧﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﺪﻱ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ‪ ،"...‬ﰒ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺮﻳﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻧﻜﻤﻞ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﺏ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ "‪".‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ "?"‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﻱ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ‪:‬‬‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻻ ﺃﻋﺮﻑ ﺃﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ‪.‬‬

‫‪1) I don't know where he lives.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻻ ﺃﺳﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﲰﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪2) I can't remember what his name is.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺳﺄﻟﻚ ﻣﱴ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺗﻮﺑﻴﺲ‪.‬‬

‫‪3) I'm asking you when the bus arrives.‬‬

‫ﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﺪﻱ ﺃﻱ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﹶﱂ ﻏﺎﺩﺭ ‪‬‬

‫‪4) I have no any idea why she left.‬‬

‫ﻫﻞ ﳝﻜﻨﻚ ﺃﻥ ﲣﱪﱐ ﺃﻳﻦ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺐ؟‬

‫?‪5) Could you tell me where the office is‬‬

‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫?‪1) I don't know. Where does he live‬‬
‫?‪2) I can't remember. What is his name‬‬
‫?‪3) I'm asking. When does the bus arrive‬‬
‫?‪4) I have no any idea. Why did she leave‬‬
‫?‪5) Could you tell me? Where is the office‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٩١‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺟﻮﺍﺑﻪ ﻧﻌﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻓ‪‬ﻴ ﹶﻄﺒ‪‬ﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪:‬‬‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﻟﺘﻪ "ﻫﻞ ﻟﺪﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ"؟‬

‫‪I asked him do you have a car.‬‬

‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪:‬‬

‫?‪I asked him. Do you have a car‬‬

‫ ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺣﺪﳘﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺧﺎﻃﺌﺔ‪:‬‬‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫?‪I have decided how much money do I need‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ )ﻟﻘﺪ ﻗﺮﺭﺕ ﻛﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺃﺣﺘﺎﺝ( ‪I have decided how much money I need.‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫?‪I don't know is he coming‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ )ﺃﻧﺎ ﻻ ﺃﻋﺮﻑ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻫﻮ ﻗﺎﺩﻡ(‬

‫‪I don't know if he is coming.‬‬

‫السؤال المذيل ‪:Question tags‬‬
‫ ﺗﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺃﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ؟"‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﺭﺟﻞ ﺍﳒﻠﻴﺰﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ؟‬

‫?‪You are an Englishman, aren't you‬‬

‫ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺍﳌﺬﻳﻞ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ‪ :‬ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺜﺒﺘﺔ "‪ ،",‬ﰒ ﻧﻀـﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌـﻞ‬
‫‪ (١‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﺜﺒﺘﺔ "ﻏﲑ ﻣﻨﻔﻴﺔ" ﻭﲢﻮﻱ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻪ ﺍﳌﻘﻄﻊ "‪ "n't‬ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻨﻔﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﻴﺔ "‪ ،",‬ﰒ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠـﺔ ﺑـﺪﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻄﻊ "‪ "n't‬ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﹰﺍ‪ :‬ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﺜﺒﺘﺔ "‪ ،",‬ﰒ ﻧﻀﻊ ‪don't‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﺜﺒﺘﺔ "ﻏﲑ ﻣﻨﻔﻴﺔ" ﻭﻻ ﲢﻮﻱ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪ doesn't‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،didn't‬ﰒ ﻧﻀﻊ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪١٩٢‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ ﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﳉﻤﻞ ﻣﺜﺒﺘﺔ "ﻏﲑ ﻣﻨﻔﻴﺔ"‪:‬‬‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻨﺪﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ؟‬

‫?‪1) He is from London, isn't he‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ؟‬

‫?‪2) You can swim, can't you‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﺳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻏﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ؟‬

‫?‪3) She will be here tomorrow, won't she‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻌﻴﺶ ﰲ ﻃﻮﻛﻴﻮ‪ ،‬ﺃﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ؟‬

‫?‪4) She lives in Tokyo, doesn't she‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﺃﺗﻴﺖ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﺃﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ؟‬

‫?‪5) You came last week, didn't you‬‬

‫ ﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﳉﻤﻞ ﻣﻨﻔﻴﺔ‪:‬‬‫ﺖ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ؟‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﻟﻴﺴ ‪‬‬

‫?‪1) She isn't here, is she‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ؟‬

‫?‪2) You weren't here, were you‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﱂ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ؟‬

‫?‪3) I haven't finished yet, have I‬‬

‫ﻫﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺬﻫﺒﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻨﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ؟ ?‪4) They don't go to the cinema, do they‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١٩٣‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

- Questions (1-11); write the question for these statements:
1) This is my book. (Whose?)
2) We found it in the street. (Where?)
3) I live in Madrid. (Where?)
4) Sarah is playing basketball. (What?)
5) She's broken her leg. (How?)
6) To work, about 20 minutes by car. (How long?)
7) Mary's gone home. (Why?)
8) I'd like strawberry, please. (What flavor ice-cream…?)
9) We met him yesterday. (When?)
10) I'll stay at home and read a book, or go to the cinema. (What…rains this weekend?)
11) I'd buy a big house in the country. (What…the lottery?)
- Questions (12-23); select the ONE lettered answer that is BEST in each question:
12) Choose the correct sentence:
A. There's a fly in your soup, is there?
B. There's a fly in your soup, isn't it?
C. There's a fly in your soup, isn't there?
D. None of all above.
13) Choose the correct sentence:
A. I think he's from India, doesn't he?
B. I think he's from India, don't I?
C. I think he's from India, isn't he?
D. None of all above.
14) Choose the correct sentence:
A. Let's go swimming, aren't we?
B. Let's go swimming, isn't it?
C. Let's go swimming, shall we?
D. None of all above.
15) Choose the correct sentence:
A. Pass me the salt, aren't I?
B. Pass me the salt, aren't you?
C. Pass me the salt, won't you?
D. None of all above.
www.expenglish.com

١٩٤

Omar AL-Hourani

16) Choose the correct sentence:
A. We had better leave, hadn't we?
B. We had better leave, haven't we?
C. We had better leave, weren't we?
D. None of all above.
17) York is in England, ……
A. is it?
B. isn't it?
18) They've finished their homework, ……
A. have they?
B. haven't they?
19) Let's go out for a walk, ……
A. let we?
B. shall we?
20) Open the window, ……
A. don't you?
B. will you?
21) __________, can't he?
A. He can write
B. He can't sing
C. She can't read
22) __________, don't they?
A. We often talk to our neighbors
B. They don't often talk to our neighbors
C. They often talk to our neighbors
23) __________, aren't they?
A. Pat and John are from Mexico
B. Pat and John aren't from Mexico
C. Pat is from Mexico
- Questions (24-30); put the correct question tag:
24) Barbara could have helped you, ……?
25) He has a car, ……?
26) Angela has ordered pizza, ……?
27) Your friends enjoy swimming, ……?
28) They didn't go to Vienna last week, ……?
29) Mark got up at sever, ……?
30) Susan will be 14 next week, ……?
www.expenglish.com

١٩٥

Omar AL-Hourani

www.expenglish.com

١٩٦

Omar AL-Hourani

‫مقدمة ‪:Introduction‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻓﻬﻮ ﳚﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻘﺪ ﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺎﰲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻫﺠﺎﺋﻴﹰﺎ‪:‬‬
‫قواعد الظروف )األحوال( ‪:Adverbs‬‬
‫ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻑ ﻫﻮ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ‪.‬‬‫ ﲢﺘﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‬‫ ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺇﱃ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ‪ :Time‬ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺯﻣﻦ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﺁﻧﺬﺍﻙ ‪ , then‬ﺍﻵﻥ ‪ , now‬ﺍﻟﻐﺪ ‪ , tomorrow‬ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪ , today‬ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺣﺔ ‪yesterday‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ , afterward‬ﻣﺆﺧﺮﹰﺍ ‪ , recently‬ﻗﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ‪soon‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ ‪ :Place‬ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ‪ , there‬ﻫﻨﺎ ‪ , here‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻡ ‪ , on‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ‪ , in‬ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ‪ , across‬ﺍﳋﻠﻒ ‪back‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﻓﻮﻕ ‪above‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ‪ :Manner‬ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻭﺗﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ‪ , fast‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺻﻌﺐ ‪ , hard‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺳﻲﺀ ‪ , badly‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺟﻴﺪ ‪well‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ‪ , quickly‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺑﻄﻲﺀ ‪slowly‬‬
‫‪ (٤‬ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ ‪ :Frequency‬ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺣﺪﻭﺙ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫‪ ,‬ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ‪ , sometimes‬ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ‪ , never‬ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ‪ , always‬ﻧﺎﺩﺭﹰﺍ ‪ , rarely‬ﻋﻤﻮﻣﹰﺎ ‪generally‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ‪often‬‬
‫‪ (٤‬ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ‪ :Degree‬ﺗﻌﱪ ﻋﻦ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﺙ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪ , so‬ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪ , too‬ﲤﺎﻣﹰﺎ ‪ , quite‬ﺣﻘﹰﺎ ‪ , really‬ﻛﺜﲑ ‪ , much‬ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ‪very‬‬
‫‪ (٥‬ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ‪ :Interrogative‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ‪ , why‬ﻛﻴﻒ ‪ , how‬ﺃﻳﻦ ‪ , where‬ﻣﱴ ‪ , when‬ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ‪what‬‬
‫‪ (٦‬ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ‪ :Linking‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫… ‪ ,‬ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ , nevertheless‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ‪ , therefore‬ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ ‪ , firstly‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺎﻝ ‪however‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪١٩٧‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

:‫ ﻣﺜﻞ‬:Comment & Attitude ‫( ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ‬٧
actually ‫ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ‬, perhaps ‫ ﺭﲟﺎ‬, maybe ‫ ﺭﲟﺎ‬, surely ‫ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑ ﺭﻳﺐ‬,
oddly ‫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳓﻮ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ‬, wisely ‫ ﲝﻜﻤﺔ‬, …
:‫ ﻣﺜﻞ‬:Adding & Limiting
Limiting ‫( ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﳊﺪ‬٨
also ‫ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‬, else ‫ ﺁﺧﺮ‬, too ‫ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‬, only ‫ ﻓﻘﻂ‬, neither ‫ ﻭﻻ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ‬, …
:‫ ﻣﺜﻞ‬:Viewpoint ‫( ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬٩
mentally ‫ ﻋﻘﻠﻴﹰﺎ‬, morally ‫ ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﹰﺎ‬, officially ‫ ﺭﲰﻴﹰﺎ‬, strictly ‫ ﺑﺼﺮﺍﻣﺔ‬, …
:‫ ﻣﺜﻞ‬:Length of Time ‫( ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳌﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ‬١٠
long ‫ ﻃﻮﺍﻝ‬, always ‫ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ‬, never ‫ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ‬, just ‫ ﻓﻘﻂ‬, …
:‫ ﻣﺜﻞ‬.‫" ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬-ly" ‫ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻄﻊ‬Manner ‫ ﻳﺼﺎﻍ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ‬slow ‫  ﺑﻄﻲﺀ‬slowly ‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺑﻄﻲﺀ‬
bad ‫  ﺳﻲﺀ‬badly ‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺳﻲﺀ‬
:‫" ﳚﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‬-ly"
ly" ‫ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻇﺮﻑ ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﻄﻊ‬.noisy  noisily :‫ ﻣﺜﻞ‬."i" ‫" ﻧﺒﺪﻟﻪ ﺇﱃ‬y"
" ‫( ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﲝﺮﻑ‬١
.full  fully :‫ ﻣﺜﻞ‬.‫" ﻓﻨﺤﺬﻑ ﺃﺣﺪﳘﺎ‬ll"
" ‫( ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﲝﺮﻑ‬٢
‫" ﻭﻟﻜـﻦ ﺗﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬brotherly" ‫" ﻣﺜﻞ‬-ly"
"
‫( ﻻﺗﺼﺎﻍ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺑـ‬٣
."in a brotherly manner" :‫ ﻣﺜﻞ‬.‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺄﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬
.‫ﺎ ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﳕﻴﺰ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻓﻬﺎ‬‫( ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺗﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺻﻔﺎ‬٤
It's a fast train.

‫ﺻﻔﺔ‬

It goes very fast.

‫ﻇﺮﻑ‬
:‫ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻮﺍﻝ‬-

Our new neighbor greeted us politely.
politely. (manner)
How long have you lived here?? (place)
We arrived yesterday.
yesterday. (time)
After that we met her quite frequently. (frequency)
However, we learned very little about her. (linking)
However,
I hope you will be really happy. (degree)
www.expenglish.com
english.com

١٩٨

Omar AL-Hourani
AL

‫)‪Strangely, she never talked about herself. (comment & attitude‬‬
‫)‪She talked only about us and the weather. (adding & limiting‬‬
‫)‪Personally, I found that annoying. (viewpoint‬‬
‫)‪Have you ever met anyone like that? (length of time‬‬
‫ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻗﻠﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ "‪ be‬ﻭﺃﺧﻮﺍ‪‬ـﺎ" ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ‬‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ‪" Linking Verbs‬ﺳﺒﻖ ﺷﺮﺣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ"‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈـﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻫـﺬﻩ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻤﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪He has run good.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ )ﻟﻘﺪ ﺟﺮﻯ ﺟﻴﺪﹰﺍ(‬

‫‪He has run well.‬‬

‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ "‪ "good‬ﺻﻔﺔ ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻫﻮ "‪ "run‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ‪ be‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻧﻀـﻊ‬
‫ﻇﺮﻑ ﻭﻇﺮﻑ ‪ good‬ﻫﻮ "‪."well‬‬
‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳛﻞ ﳏﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ ﻇﺮﻑ ﺣﱴ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ‪ be‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ‪.‬‬‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬

‫‪He is well.‬‬

‫ﻳﻔﻀﻞ‬

‫‪He is good.‬‬

‫ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‪ :‬ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﻭﻫﻢ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ )ﻟﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ(‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﺟﻮﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻴﻘﻆ ﻣﺒﻜﺮﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

‫‪Occasionally John wakes up early.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﰲ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ )ﻟﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ(‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ )ﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻘﻆ ﻣﺒﻜﺮﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

‫‪John has occasionally waked up early.‬‬

‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ‪) be‬ﺇﻥ ﻭﺟﺪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ‪.(be‬‬
‫ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺟﻮﻥ ﻧﺎﺋﻤﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪John is occasionally asleep.‬‬

‫ﺟـ‪ -‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ )ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ‪.(be‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﻥ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﻴﻘﻆ ﻣﺒﻜﺮﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

‫‪John occasionally wakes up early.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻴﻘﻆ ﻣﺒﻜﺮﹰﺍ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪John wakes up occasionally.‬‬

‫‪١٩٩‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻇﺮﻑ ﻟﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺷﺎﺋﻊ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻬﻢ‪:‬‬

‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻑ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻊ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ ‪Manner‬‬

‫‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ ‪Place‬‬

‫‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﺎﻥ ‪Time‬‬

‫‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺔ ‪Degree‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ ‪Frequency‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ‪Linking‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ ‪Comment & Attitude‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﳊﺪ ‪Adding or Limiting‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ‪Viewpoint‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ‪Length of time‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‬

‫ ﻻ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ "‪."to‬‬‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪Go to there.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ‬

‫‪Go there.‬‬

‫‪:all‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻛﺼﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﲨﻴﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ‪ ."...‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻴﻎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﺍﺳﻢ ‪:all + of +‬‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬

‫‪:‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‬
‫‪ all of the book.‬ﺍﺳﻢ‬

‫ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪:‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ‬
‫‪ all of the books.‬ﺍﺳﻢ‬

‫ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫‪:‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ‬
‫‪ all of the oil.‬ﺍﺳﻢ‬

‫ﲨﻴﻌﻬﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪ all of them.‬ﺿﻤﲑ‬
‫‪:‬ﺿﻤﲑ‬
‫‪٢٠٠‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

:all + ‫( ﺍﺳﻢ‬٢
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‬: all the book.
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ‬: all the books.
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ‬: all the oil.
:‫ ﺿﻤﲑ‬+ all (٣
.‫ﲨﻴﻌﻨﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺘﻌﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻌﺐ‬

We all enjoyed the play.

.‫ﲨﻴﻌﻜﻢ ﺃﺫﻛﻴﺎﺀ‬

You all are smart.

:‫( ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﻀﻤﲑ‬٤
Would you like to buy anything else?

‫ﻫﻞ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﺁﺧﺮ؟‬

No, thank you. That's all.

.‫ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ‬.‫ ﺷﻜﺮﹰﺍ ﻟﻚ‬،‫ﻻ‬

:although
:‫ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬."‫ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ‬، ‫ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﺤﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ‬−
.‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺭﺧﻴﺺ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺮ‬
Although this computer is cheap, it is one of the best machines on the
market.
:another & other
."‫ ﻳﺄﺗﻴﺎﻥ ﻛﺼﻔﺔ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺁﺧﺮ‬another = an + other ‫ ﺃﻣﺎ‬،‫ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻭﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ‬other ‫ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ‬other ‫ ﻭ‬another ‫ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ‬.‫ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ‬another
I don't like this one. Show me another things.

‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

I don't like this one. Show me another thing.

‫ﺻﺢ‬

I don't like this one. Show me other things.

‫ﺻﺢ‬
.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﻗﺮﺃ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻯ‬

I will read the other books.
www.expenglish.com

٢٠١

Omar AL-Hourani

‫ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﻛﻠﺒﲔ ﻭﺍﻵﻥ ﻳﺮﻳﺪﻭﻥ )ﻛﻠﺒﹰﺎ ﺁﺧﺮ‪/‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﹰﺍ ﺁﺧﺮ(‪.‬‬
‫)‪They have two dogs, and now they want another (dog/one‬‬
‫‪:any & some‬‬
‫ ﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﺻﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ "ﺑﻌﺾ‪."...‬‬‫ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ‪ any‬ﻭ ‪ some‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ‪ any‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻣﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ( ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣـﺎ ‪some‬‬‫ﻓﻴﺄﰐ ﻓﻘﻂ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺾ‪.‬‬

‫‪I want some eggs.‬‬

‫ﻫﻞ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺾ؟‬

‫?‪Do you want any eggs‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻻ ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺾ‪.‬‬

‫‪I don't want any eggs.‬‬

‫‪:as‬‬
‫ ﻟﻪ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻌﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ "ﺳﺒﻖ ﺷﺮﺣﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﺤﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻛـ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺒﺪﻭﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺘﻤﻄﺮ‪.‬‬

‫‪It looks as if it's going to rain.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺟﻴﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﺜﻠﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪He works well as me.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﺤﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﲟﺎ ﺃﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ‪."Because‬‬
‫)ﲟﺎ ﺃﻥ‪/‬ﻷﻥ( ﻟﻴﻨﺪﺍ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﺳﻨﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫‪(As/Because) Linda is the eldest, she has to look after the other‬‬
‫‪children.‬‬
‫‪:because/because of‬‬
‫ ‪ because‬ﻫﻮ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ‪ because of‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺟﺮ‪.‬‬‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻛﻼ ﻣﻦ ‪ because‬ﻭ ‪ because of‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻣﺎ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻷﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﺒﺐ"‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ‪ because‬ﻭ ‪ because of‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ‪ because‬ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﲨﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ‪because‬‬‫‪ of‬ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻤﲑ‪.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٠٢‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

.‫ﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﲤﻄﺮ‬‫ﱂ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻠﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺲ ﻷ‬
We couldn't play tennis because it was raining.
.‫ﱂ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻠﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺲ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﳌﻄﺮ‬
We couldn't play tennis (because of/due to) the rain.
:both
."‫ ﻛﻠﺘﺎ‬، ‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻛﻀﻤﲑ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺜﲎ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻛﻼ‬.‫ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺜﲎ‬both ‫ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‬all ‫ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﻣﻌﲎ‬:‫ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻎ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬:Both … and ‫( ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﺤﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬١
...‫ﻛﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﻪ ﻭﺃﺑﻴﻪ‬

Both his mother and father…

:Both + of + ‫( ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ‬٢
.‫ﻛﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﻋﺒﲔ‬

Both of the players.

(and ‫ﺧﻄﺄ )ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬

Both of his mother and father…

:Both + ‫( ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ‬٣
.‫ﻛﻼ ﺍﻟﻼﻋﺒﲔ‬

Both (the) players.

.‫( ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬٤
.‫ﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﻢ ﺫﻭﻕ ﻣﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ‬

They both have similar tastes.

:‫ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﲨﻊ‬+ both (٥
.‫ﻦ‬‫ﻴﻦ ﳑﺘﺎﺯﻳﻴ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻮﻩ ﻭﺃﻣﻪ ﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻃﺎﻫﻴ‬
His father and mother were both excellent cooks.
:‫( ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﻀﻤﲑ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ‬٦
.‫ ﺃﻋﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻧﲏ ﺳﺄﺷﺘﺮﻱ ﺍﻻﺛﻨﲔ‬.‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺏ ﺃﺭﺧﺺ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺫﳌﻚ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺏ ﺟﺬﺍﺏ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
This dress is cheaper, but that one is more attractive. I think I'll buy
(both/both of them).

www.expenglish.com

٢٠٣

Omar AL-Hourani

:Concert & Abstract Nouns
.‫ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻛﺴﺎﻥ‬Abstract Nouns ‫ ﻭ‬Concert Nouns :‫ ﻣﺜﻞ‬."‫ﻠﻤﺲ "ﺃﻱ ﳍﺎ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻲ‬‫ﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﺗ‬‫ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗ‬:Concert Nouns People: baby , woman , doctor, …
Things: wheel , knife , key , chair, …
Animals: horse , rabbit , snake , fish, …
Places: island , city , mountain , river, …
Substances: iron , flesh , skin , glass, …
Liquids: water , rain , milk, …
Gases: gas , air , steam , oxygen, …
:‫ ﻣﺜﻞ‬."‫ﻠﻤﺲ "ﺃﻱ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻲ‬‫ﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﺗ‬‫ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗ‬:Abstract Nouns love ‫ ﺣﺐ‬, knowledge ‫ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻑ‬, answer ‫ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ‬, start ‫ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ‬, education ‫ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬,
information ‫ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬, power ‫ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ‬, history ‫ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬, advice ‫ ﻧﺼﻴﺤﺔ‬,
space ‫ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬, time ‫ ﻭﻗﺖ‬, anger ‫ ﻏﻀﺐ‬, help ‫ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬, research ‫ ﲝﺚ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ‬, …
.Gases ‫ ﻭ‬Liquids ‫ ﻭ‬Substance ‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺪ ﻣﺎﻋﺪﺍ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ‬Concert Nouns :‫ ﻣﺜﻞ‬.‫ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻌﺪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬Abstract Nouns deed  deeds , difficulty  difficulties , accident accidents ,
example  examples , fact  facts , visit  visits ,
cause  causes , event  events , process  processes ,
poem  poems , month  months , …

www.expenglish.com

٢٠٤

Omar AL-Hourani

‫الجمل الشرطية ‪Conditional Clauses‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ /‬ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﻴﺔ ‪:Present Condition‬‬
‫ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ … ‪ … ,‬ﲨﻠﺔ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ … ‪If +‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺁﻛﻞ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﲰﻴﻨﹰﺎ‪" .‬ﻋﺎﺩﺓ"‬

‫‪If I eat too much, I get fat.‬‬

‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻓﺮﻑ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﺃﲪﺮﹰﺍ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻋﺎﺩ ﹰﺓ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺍﳋﻄﺮ‪" .‬ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ"‬
‫‪If somebody waves a red flag, it usually means danger.‬‬
‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺘﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬
‫‪When I eat too much, I get fat.‬‬
‫‪When somebody waves a red flag, it usually means danger.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﲨﻠﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ‪ ،‬ﲤﻌ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺘﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪:First Condition‬‬
‫ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ … ‪ … ,‬ﲨﻠﺔ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ … ‪If +‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﺖ ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻵﻳﺲ ﻛﺮﱘ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺘﻮﻋﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮ ﺃﻛﻠ ‪‬‬
‫‪If she eats all that ice cream, (she will/she'll) feel terrible.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٠٥‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺃﻗﺮﺿﻚ‪.‬‬
‫‪If I have enough money, (I will/I'll) lend you.‬‬
‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺘﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻵﻳﺲ ﻛﺮﱘ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺘﻮﻋﻚ ﻟﻮ ﺃﻛﻠ ‪‬‬
‫‪(She will/She'll) feel terrible if she eats all that ice cream.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺃﻗﺮﺿﻚ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ‪.‬‬
‫‪(I will/I'll) lend you if I have enough money.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪:‬‬
‫ﻼ ﺇﺫﺍ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻁ‪ ،‬ﲤﻌ‪‬ﻦ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺘﲔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻨﺒﺆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﳏﺘﻤﻞ ﺳﻴﺤﺪﺙ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒ ﹰ‬
‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪:Second Condition‬‬
‫ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪ unreal present‬ﻭ ‪" unreal future‬ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﻻﺣﻘﹰﺎ"‪.‬‬‫ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪ … , …WOULD‬ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ … ‪If +‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﺕ ﻭﺯﻧﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻗﺪ ﻓﻘﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻮ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺗﺄﻛﻞ ﻛﺜﲑﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨ ‪‬‬
‫‪If you didn't eat so much, (you would/you'd) lose your weight.‬‬
‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺳﺘﻔﻘﺪ ﻭﺯﻧﻚ ﻟﻮ ﱂ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺗﺄﻛﻞ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬
‫‪(You would/You'd) lose your weight if you didn't eat so much.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻴﺎﱄ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﻭﺭﲟﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٠٦‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺖ ﻏﻨﻴﹰﺎ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺻﺒﺤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺃﻋﻤﻞ ﲜﺪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻮ ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬

‫‪If I worked hard, I'd be so rich.‬‬
‫‪rich‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﲜﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ "ﻋﻤﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ" ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻏﻨﻴﹰﺎ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻗﺪ ﺫﻫﺒ ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺪﻱ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨ ‪‬‬
‫‪If I had a car, I'd go to work easily.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ "ﻋﻤﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ" ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻻ ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻋﺎﺭﱐ ﺩﺭﺍﺟﺘﻪ ﻏﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺃﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪If he lent me his bicycle tomorrow, I'd go home easily‬‬
‫‪easily.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﺃﻋﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﻌﲑﱐ ﺩﺭﺍﺟﺘﻪ ﻏﺪﹰﺍ "ﻋﻤﻞ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ" ﻷﻧﻪ ﳜﺎﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺟﺘﻪ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻭﺿـﻊ ‪ were‬ﻋﻮﺿـﹰﺎ ﻋـﻦ ‪ was‬ﺣـﱴ ﻭﻟـﻮ ﻛـﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ﺃﻭ ‪ He‬ﺃﻭ ‪ She‬ﺃﻭ ‪.It‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻓﻮﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻗﺪ ﺣﺼﻠ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻚ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻮ ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬
‫‪If I were you, (I would/I'd) get a job immediately.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳏﻠﻪ ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻓﻘﻂ‪) :‬ﻳ‪‬ﺴﺘﺜﲎ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﲑ ‪(it‬‬‫)ﻧﺎﺩﺭ( ‪He would  He'd , She would  She'd , It would  It'd‬‬
‫‪You would  You'd , They would  They'd ,‬‬
‫‪We would  We'd , I would  I'd‬‬
‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ‪:Third Condition‬‬
‫ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪ unreal past‬ﺃﻭ ‪" imaginary past‬ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ﻻﺣﻘﹰﺎ"‪.‬‬‫ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪ … , …WOULD HAVE‬ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎﻡ … ‪If +‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٢٠٧‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺃﻣــﺜــﻠــﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻮ ﺩﺭﺳﻮﺍ ﲜﺪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻗﺪ ﳒﺤﻮﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪If (they had/they'd) studied hard, they would have succeeded.‬‬
‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﺳﻴﻨﺠﺤﻮﻥ ﻟﻮ ﺩﺭﺳﻮﺍ ﲜﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪They would have succeeded if (they had/they'd) studied hard.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﲣﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻴﺎﱄ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺑﺎﻹﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺣﺪﻭﺛﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜـﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻳﺘﺨﻴﻞ ﺃﻭ ﳛﻠﻢ ﲟﺎﺿﻲ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻌﺪ ﺑﺎﻹﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﺎﻟﻪ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻣﺴﻜﲔ! ﻟﻮ ﻗﺎﺩ ﲝﺬﺭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺃﹸﺻﻴﺐ‪.‬‬
‫‪Poor man! If he had driven more carefully, he wouldn't have been‬‬
‫‪injured.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻘﺪ ﲝﺬﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ "ﻋﻤﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ" ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻗﺪ ﺃﹸﺻﻴﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻮ ﱂ ﻳﻜﺘﺸﻒ ﻛﺮﻳﺴﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻛﻮﻟﻮﻣﺒﺲ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﺎ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻗﺪ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﹰﺎ ﲤﺎﻣﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪If Christopher Columbus hadn't discovered America, the history of‬‬
‫‪the world would have been quite different.‬‬
‫ﲣﻴﻞ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﲤﺎﻣﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻘﺪ ﺍﻛﺘﺸﻒ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ "ﻋﻤﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﱄ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻮ ﻋﺸ ‪‬‬
‫‪If you'd lived in the 19th century, you wouldn't have driven a car.‬‬
‫ﲣﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺶ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ "ﻋﻤﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﱄ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ"‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٠٨‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﹰﺎ‪ /‬ﲨﻠﺔ ﺷﺮﻃﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‪:‬‬
‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺃﻣﺮ … ‪ … ,‬ﲨﻠﺔ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ … ‪If +‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻧﺖ ﺟﺎﺋﻊ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪If you are hungry, have lunch.‬‬

‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ … ‪ … ,‬ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ … ‪If +‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻫﻮ ﻟﻦ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪If he won't agree, there will be a problem. .‬‬
‫ﲨﻠﺔ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ … ‪ … ,‬ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ … ‪If +‬‬
‫ﺕ ﺷﻴﺌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﺣﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺭﺩ ‪‬‬

‫‪If I wanted something, I always get it.‬‬

‫‪:each‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻭﻳﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ " ﹸﻛ ﹾﻞ‪ ."...‬ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﻓﺘﺎﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪Each girl in the class has homework.‬‬

‫ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻑ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺗﻠﻔﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﻞ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻑ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺗﻠﻔﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪Each of these rooms has a telephone.‬‬
‫ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ "‪ "has‬ﻋﻮﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ "‪ "have‬ﻣﻊ ﺃﻥ ‪ rooms‬ﲨـﻊ ﻷﻥ ‪Each of‬‬‫‪ these rooms‬ﺗﻌﲏ "ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻑ"‪ ،‬ﻭ"ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ" ﺗﻌﲏ ﻛﻞ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﻫﺎﺗﻒ  ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺩﺧﻠﻮﺍ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﹸﺃ ‪‬ﻋ ‪‬ﻄ ‪‬ﻲ ﻟﻪ ﻫﺪﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪When the children entered, (each‬‬
‫‪each was given a present‬‬
‫‪present/each‬‬
‫‪/each of the‬‬
‫‪children was given a present).‬‬
‫…‪Each rooms‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ )ﻷﻧﻪ ﲨﻊ(‬
‫ﺻﺢ‬

‫…‪Each of rooms‬‬

‫ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ "‪ "each other‬ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﻀـ"‪.‬‬‫ﻫﻞ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻭﺟﻮﻥ ﺗﻌﺮﻓﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﻀﻜﻤﺎ؟‬
‫?‪Do you and John know each other‬‬
‫‪other‬‬
‫ﻧﻌﻢ‪ ،‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﻜﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﻀﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ‪.‬‬
‫‪Yes, we've talked to each other before.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٢٠٩‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫‪:else & also‬‬
‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ‪ also‬ﻛﻈﺮﻑ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ"‪.‬‬‫ﻫﻲ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺲ‪.‬‬

‫‪She also plays tennis.‬‬

‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ‪ else‬ﻛﻈﺮﻑ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺁﺧﺮ"‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﺒﻘﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ ‪ or‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ‬‫"ﻭﺇﻻ ‪."otherwise‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻣﺸﻐﻮﻝ ﺟﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪﻙ‪.‬‬
‫‪I am very busy, there is someone else help you.‬‬
‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻐﺎﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺇﻻ ﻫﻢ ﺳﻴﻤﺴﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻚ‪.‬‬
‫‪You should leave it, (or else/otherwise) they will catch you.‬‬
‫‪:even‬‬
‫ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﺤﺎﻝ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺣﱴ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﰐ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ‪ if‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﻴﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﱂ ﺃﺑﺪﺃ ﺑﻪ ﺣﱴ‪.‬‬

‫‪I haven't even started it.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻟﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻊ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﺣﱴ ﻟﻮ ﺃﻋﻄﻴﺘﲏ ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪I wouldn't sell this house even if you gave me a million dollars.‬‬
‫‪:ever‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻫﻮ ﻇﺮﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪ ever −‬ﻋﻜﺲ ‪.never‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻳﺪﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ "ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗﺖ ‪ "at any time‬ﺃﻭ "ﰲ ﺃﻱ ﻭﻗـﺖ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗـﻚ ‪at any time in your‬‬
‫‪."life‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ ever‬ﻣﻊ ﲨﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺛﻌﺒﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻚ؟ )ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻚ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺛﻌﺒﺎﻥ؟(‬
‫?‪Did you ever see a snake‬‬
‫ﱂ ﺃﺭﻯ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﰐ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺋﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪I haven't ever seen such wonderful paintings.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢١٠‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ‪ ever‬ﻣﻊ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪:‬‬‫ﺕ ﺑﺎﺭﻳﺲ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻚ؟ )ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺪ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﺯﺭﺕ ﺑﺎﺭﻳﺲ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻚ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ؟(‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﺯﺭ ‪‬‬
‫?‪Have you ever visited Paris‬‬
‫‪Paris‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺣﻴﺎﰐ‪.‬‬
‫‪This is the best book I have ever seen.‬‬
‫‪:every‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻟﻪ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻣﻌﲎ ‪.each‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻛﺼﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﲟﻌﲎ " ﹸﻛ ﹾﻞ‪ ."...‬ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﻓﺘﺎﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪Every girl in the class has homework.‬‬

‫‪ −‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﲔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ‪:every +‬‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﻭﻟﺪ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﻗﻠﻢ‪.‬‬

‫‪Every boy has to have a pen.‬‬

‫ﻛﻞ ﻃﻔﻞ ﻳﻨﻤﻮ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﺣﻠﻴﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪Every growing child needs milk.‬‬

‫ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻫﻲ ‪ boy‬ﻭ ‪ child‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪.‬‬‫‪:every + one (٢‬‬
‫ﻗﻄﺘﻨﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﲬﺲ ﻫﺮﺭﺓ ﺻﻐﲑﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺑﻴﻀﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪Our cat had five kittens, and every one of them was white.‬‬
‫ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ‪:every , each‬‬‫‪ every‬ﻭ ‪ each‬ﳍﻤﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻭﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﻳﺄﺗﻴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻫـﻮ ﺃﻥ‬
‫‪ every‬ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﺜﲎ "‪ "two‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺲ ‪.each‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ )ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ‪ parents‬ﻣﺜﲎ ﺍﻷﺏ ﻭﺍﻷﻡ(‬

‫…‪Every one of my parents‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ‬

‫‪(Each‬‬
‫)‪Each/Both‬‬
‫…‪/Both) of my parents‬‬

‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪He was carrying a suitcase in every hand.‬‬
‫‪hand.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ‬

‫‪He was carrying a suitcase in each hand.‬‬
‫‪hand.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٢١١‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫‪:get‬‬
‫ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻭﻟﻪ ﻣﻌﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ get + noun phrase‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﳛﺼﻞ ‪."obtain‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺪﻳﻘﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪He got the car from his friend.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ get + adjective‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ‪."become‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﺳﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﲰﻴﻨﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪You will get fat.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ get + place‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻳﺼﻞ ‪."arrive‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺃﺻﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ‪ ،‬ﺳﺄﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﻚ‪.‬‬

‫‪When I get home, I will phone you.‬‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ get + noun + noun‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﳚﻠﺐ ‪."fetch‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﺟﻠﺐ ﻟﻚ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﺗﺄﻛﻠﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪I will get you something to eat it.‬‬

‫‪ (٥‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ get + noun + adverb‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ‪."take‬‬
‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺁﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ‪.‬‬

‫‪I have to get some money.‬‬

‫‪ (٦‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ get + noun + to + Verb.1‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺃﻥ ﲡﻌﻞ ﺷﺨﺼﹰﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ‪."make someone do something‬‬
‫ﻫﻢ ﺣﺎﻭﻟﻮﺍ ﺃﻥ ﳚﻌﻠﻮﱐ ﺃﺳﺠﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪They tried to get me to sign.‬‬

‫‪ −‬ﻭﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ ‪ get‬ﻣﻌﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫‪ :get to (١‬ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ‪ ، ...‬ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﻔﻌﻞ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﻋﻪ ﻣﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺃﺑﺪﺃ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻻﺣﻘﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪Leave it with me; I’ll get to it later.‬‬

‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺒﺪﺅﻭﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺎﺵ‪ ،‬ﻟﻦ ﻧﻮﻗﻔﻬﻢ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪When they get to arguing, we’ll never stop them.‬‬
‫‪ :get out (٢‬ﳜﺮﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻐﺎﺩﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ :get up (٣‬ﻳﻨﻬﺾ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﱐ ﻳﺮﺟﻰ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ ﻭﻳﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻮﺱ "®‪"Microsoft Encarta‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢١٢‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪:here & there‬‬
‫ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‪.‬‬‫ ‪ here & there‬ﳘﺎ ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﻇﺮﻓﺎ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ‪.‬‬‫ ‪ here‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻫﻨﺎ"‪.‬‬‫ ‪ there‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ"‪.‬‬‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﻲ ‪ here , there‬ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪.be‬‬‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻗﻄﻂ‪" .‬ﻫﻨﺎ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ"‬

‫‪There are cats.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﻗﺎﺑﻠﻚ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‪" .‬ﻫﻨﺎ ﻇﺮﻑ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ"‬

‫‪I'll meet you there.‬‬

‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻗﺒﻞ ‪ here‬ﻭ ‪ there‬ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ ‪.in , up , down , over‬‬‫ﺇﻧﻪ ﻫﻨﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪It is (in) here.‬‬

‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺬﺭﹰﺍ ﻫﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‪.‬‬

‫‪You must be careful (up) here.‬‬

‫‪:home‬‬
‫ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ‪ home‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻣﻮﻃﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺰﻝ" ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﺎ ﳝﻴﺰﻩ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺟﺮ‬‫ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﺎﻋﺪﺍ "‪ ،"from , at‬ﻭﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ‪.‬‬

‫‪Go home.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ‪.‬‬

‫‪I am at home.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺫﺍﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ‪.‬‬

‫‪I am going to home.‬‬

‫ﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻏﺎﺩﺭ ‪‬‬

‫‪I left the home.‬‬

‫أشكال ‪:-ing forms‬‬
‫ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ "‪ "-ing‬ﻟﻠﻔﻌﻞ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ "ﺳﺒﻖ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺲ‪.‬‬

‫‪He is playing tennis.‬‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﻮﺩ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ‪ ١٢٠‬ﻣﻴﻞ‪/‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪She was driving at 120mph.‬‬
‫‪٢١٣‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ "ﺳﺒﻖ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪I have been working since 7:00.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﻀﻴﻒ ﳍﺎ "‪ "-ing‬ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﲰﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻃﺒﺦ ‪  cooking‬ﻳﻄﺒﺦ ‪ , cook‬ﺳﺒﺎﺣﺔ ‪  swimming‬ﻳﺴﺒﺢ ‪swim‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﺣﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺭﻳﺎﺿﱵ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪Swimming is my favorite sport.‬‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﻀﻴﻒ ﳍﺎ "‪ "-ing‬ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺻﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﺗﻦ ‪  fascinating‬ﻳﻔﱳ ‪ , fascinate‬ﻣﻀﺠﺮ ‪  boring‬ﻳﻀﺠﺮ ‪bore‬‬
‫‪ (٥‬ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺲ )‪ (see , hear , feel , watch , smell , notice‬ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﳓﻦ ﺭﺃﻳﻨﺎﻫﻢ ﻳﻐﺎﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ‪" .‬ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ"‬

‫‪We saw them leaving the house.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﻌﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺷﻢ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﻖ‪" .‬ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ"‬

‫‪I could smell the burning.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺳﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺃﲰﻊ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺁﺗﻴﹰﺎ‪" .‬ﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ"‬

‫‪I can hear someone coming.‬‬

‫‪:instead/instead of‬‬
‫ ‪ instead‬ﻫﻮ ﻇﺮﻑ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ‪ instead of‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺟﺮ‪.‬‬‫ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﻼ ﻣﻦ ‪ instead‬ﻭ ‪ instead of‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻋﻮﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻦ ‪."in place of‬‬‫ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ‪ instead‬ﻭ ‪ instead of‬ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ‪ instead‬ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﲨﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ‪instead of‬‬‫ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻤﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺁﺳﻒ ﻻ ﺃﺳﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻋﻄﻴﻚ ﻛﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ‪ .‬ﻫﻞ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﻛﻮﺑﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻬﻮﺓ ﻋﻮﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ؟‬
‫‪I'm sorry I can't give you a cup of tea. Would you like a cup of coffee‬‬
‫?‪instead‬‬
‫ﳝﻜﻨﻚ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﰐ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﺦ ﻋﻮﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻠﻮﺳﻚ ﻫﻨﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪You can help me to clean the kitchen instead of sitting here.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢١٤‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪:let‬‬
‫ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻌﻞ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻳﺪﻉ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﰐ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪.Let + Object + Verb.1‬‬‫ﺩﻋﻪ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ‪.‬‬

‫‪Let him talk.‬‬

‫ﺩﻋﻨﺎ ﻧﺘﻤﺸﻰ‪.‬‬

‫‪(Let‬‬
‫‪Let us/Let‬‬
‫)‪Let's‬‬
‫‪'s) walk.‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ‪ Let us‬ﺇﱃ ‪.Let's‬‬

‫‪:like‬‬
‫ ﻟﻪ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻌﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﻔﻌﻞ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ‪ ،‬ﳛﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﻭﻕ ‪ ،‬ﳝﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ‪."...‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ )ﺃﺣﺐ‪/‬ﺃﻓﻀﻞ( ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻃﺲ‪.‬‬

‫‪I like potato.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ would + like‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ‪ "want‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻬﺬﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﰐ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺳﺆﺍﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻬﻮﺓ‪" .‬ﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻬﺬﺏ"‬

‫‪He would like a coffee.‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ؟ "ﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻬﺬﺏ"‬

‫?‪What would you like to do‬‬

‫ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ "‪ "coffee‬ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ﻷﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻣﻨﻪ "ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻥ ﻗﻬﻮﺓ" ﻭﻟﻴﺲ "ﻗﻬـﻮﺓ"‪ .‬ﺭﺍﺟـﻊ‬‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ﻭﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﺤﺮﻑ ﺟﺮ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻛـ"‪ .‬ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ ‪as‬؟ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﲔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻣﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪My mother works like a slave.‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﻤﻌﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪My mother works as a teacher.‬‬

‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺃﻣﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻫﻲ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺟﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺑﻞ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳉﺎﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻣﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﻤﻌﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ‪ like‬ﻻ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻗﺒﻞ ‪ if‬ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٢١٥‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺒﺪﻭﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺘﻤﻄﺮ‪" .‬ﻧﺎﺩﺭ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ"‬

‫‪It looks like if it's going to rain.‬‬

‫ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺒﺪﻭﺍ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺘﻤﻄﺮ‪" .‬ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ"‬

‫‪It looks as if it's going to rain.‬‬

‫‪:maybe‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﻈﺮﻑ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺭﲟﺎ ‪ ،"perhaps‬ﻭﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﹰﺎ ﻛﺒﲑﹰﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ‪.may‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ‪ maybe‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ :‬ﻳﺄﰐ ‪ maybe‬ﻓﻘﻂ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺲ ‪.may‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ maybe‬ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻋﻮﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ‪ .may‬ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪:‬‬
‫‪He may be coming.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺭﲟﺎ ﺁﰐ‪.‬‬
‫‪Maybe he is coming.‬‬
‫‪You may be a doctor.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﺭﲟﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻃﺒﻴﺒﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪Maybe you are a doctor.‬‬
‫‪They may have gone to shop.‬‬
‫ﻫﻢ ﺭﲟﺎ ﺫﻫﺒﻮﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻕ‪.‬‬
‫‪Maybe they went to shop.‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳚﺐ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ maybe‬ﻋﻮﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ‪ .may‬ﻣﺜﻞ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺭﲟﺎ ﺳﻴﺬﻫﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪Maybe he will go.‬‬

‫ﺧﻄﺄ )ﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻳﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺁﺧﺮ(‬

‫‪He may will go.‬‬

‫‪:neither‬‬
‫ ﻳﺴﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﳌﺜﲎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺒﺘﺔ‪.‬‬‫‪ −‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻎ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﲨﻊ ‪.neither + of +‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻻ ﺃﺣﺐ ﻛﻼ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪I like neither of them.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ‪.neither +‬‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﺘﲔ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﻛﻠﺘﺎ ﺍﻷﻟﺘﲔ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‪.‬‬

‫‪Neither machine works.‬‬

‫‪ + Noun Phrase (٣‬ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ‪ neither +‬ﻭﻳﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ‪."too‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﻻ ﺃﺧﺎﻫﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪She can't play today, and neither can her brother.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢١٦‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺖ ﻟﻦ ﲡﺪﻩ ﺣﺎﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻟﻦ ﲡﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺭﺩﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪You won't find it hot, but neither will you be freezing cold.‬‬
‫‪ neither … nor (٤‬ﻭﻳﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻻ ‪ ...‬ﻭﻻ ‪."...‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻭﻻ ﺯﻭﺟﺘﻪ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺦ‪.‬‬

‫‪Neither my boss nor his wife can cook.‬‬

‫‪ (٥‬ﻛﻀﻤﲑ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺑﲔ ﻫﻮ ﻟﻚ؟‬

‫?‪Which of these two clothes is yours‬‬

‫ﻭﻻ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‪.‬‬

‫!)‪Neither (of them‬‬

‫‪:never‬‬
‫ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ‪.‬‬‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻛﻈﺮﻑ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻖ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺒﺘﺔ ﲟﻌﲎ " ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻃﻼﻗﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻄﻠﻘﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ"‪.‬‬‫ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ‪ never‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻳﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷـﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻜـﻦ‬‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻳﻮﺿﻊ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻟﻦ ﺃﻛﻠﻤﻚ )ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ‪/‬ﺇﻃﻼﻗﹰﺎ(‪.‬‬

‫‪I will never talk to you.‬‬

‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪I will not never talk to you.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ )ﻷﻥ ‪ ever‬ﻋﻜﺲ ‪(never‬‬

‫‪I will not ever talk to you.‬‬

‫‪:Noun Phrase‬‬
‫ ‪ Noun Phrase‬ﻫﻮ ﳝﺜﻞ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎﺮﻭﺭ‪.‬‬‫ ﻳﺄﰐ ‪ Noun Phrase‬ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ‪.determiner‬‬‫ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻳﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻔﺔ ﺗﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻳﺴﺒﻘﻪ ‪ ...determiner‬ﺇﱁ‪.‬‬‫ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺩﺍﻭﺕ ‪:determiner‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻜﲑ "‪."a , an , the‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ "… ‪."my , his , her , John's ,‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ "‪."this , that , these , those‬‬
‫‪.all , some , any , every , each , either , neither , one , another (٤‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢١٧‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

.many , much , more , most , few , fewest , little , least (٥
."what? , which? , whose?"
whose?" :‫( ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬٦
."whatever , wherever , whichever , …" :‫ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬Wh-ever
ever ‫( ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ‬٧
:‫ ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬The City Center - An old man - This book - Your cat - A book The pen - Mary's books - those books
My father gave my mother this book.
book
He gave it to her.
her
The boy went out. They had eaten with no light on the table
table.
‫ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ‬،determiner ‫( ﻫﻢ‬the , a , an , your , 's , those) ‫ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ‬‫ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﳎـﺮﻭﺭ ﰲ‬Noun Phrase ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﻬﺎ ﺧﻂ ﻫﻢ‬
.‫ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬
:over
:‫ﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ ﻟﻪ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻌﺎ‬."‫( ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﻈﺮﻑ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻓﻮﻕ‬١
.‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﺐ ﻗﻔﺰ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺝ‬

The dog jumped over the fence.

:‫ ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﲔ‬upon ‫ ﻭﺑﲔ‬over ‫ ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ‬My hand is upon the table.
table
My hand is over the table.
table
‫ ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻴـﺪﻳﻦ ﻻ ﺗﻠﻤﺴـﺎﻥ‬،‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺗﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻭﻟﺔ‬
.‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻭﻟﺔ‬
.above ‫ ﻭ‬over ‫ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ‬."more than ‫( ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﻈﺮﻑ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬٢
.‫ ﺩﻭﻻﺭﹰﺍ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﲑﺍ‬٥٠ ‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺩﻓﻌﺖ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ‬
I paid (over
(over/more
/more than) 50$ for this camera.

www.expenglish.com
english.com

٢١٨

Omar AL-Hourani
AL

‫‪ (٣‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﺼﻔﺔ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ‪."finished‬‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳉﺮﺱ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳊﺼﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺖ‪.‬‬

‫‪That bell means that the class is over.‬‬

‫‪ over here (٤‬ﻭ ‪ :over there‬ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫أين سوزان؟‬
‫إنھا ھناك بجانب الباب‪.‬‬

‫?‪Where's Susan‬‬

‫‪She's over there‬‬
‫‪by the door.‬‬
‫حسنا ً ‪،‬لماذا ال تطلب منھا أن تأتي إلى ھنا وتكلمنا؟‬

‫‪Well, why don't you ask her to‬‬
‫?‪come over and talk to us‬‬

‫الكالم المنقول ‪:Reported Speech‬‬
‫ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻛﻼﻡ ﻣﻨﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﲰﻬـﺎ ﺍﻟﻜـﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻨﻘـﻮﻝ ‪Reported‬‬‫‪ Speech‬ﺃﻭ ‪.Indirect Speech‬‬
‫ ﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺷﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻛﻼﻡ ﻣﻨﻘﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﳚﺐ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‪:‬‬
‫ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ  ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‪.‬‬‫ﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺣﺒ ‪‬‬

‫‪I love you.‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ ﺃﺧﱪﻫﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺃﺣﺒﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪He told her (that) he loved her.‬‬

‫ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ  ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪.‬‬‫ﻛﻮﻧﻮﺍ ﻫﺎﺩﺋﲔ‪ .‬ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺗﻜﻠﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳍﺎﺗﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪Be quiet. I'm talking on the phone.‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺃﻣﺮﺗﻨﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻧﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺎﺩﺋﲔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﻜﻠﻤﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳍﺎﺗﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪She told us to be quiet while she was talking on the phone.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢١٩‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

.‫ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺗﺎﻡ  ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎﻡ‬.‫ﺍﳌﻄﺮ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ‬

The rain has stopped.
stopped

.‫ﻫﻮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﳌﻄﺮ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ‬

He said (that) the rain had stopped.
stopped

.‫ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺗﺎﻡ  ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺗﺎﻡ‬.‫ﺎ ﺗﻘﻀﻲ ﻭﻗﺘﹰﺎ ﺭﺍﺋﻌﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ‬‫ﺇ‬
She' been having a wonderful time in Italy.
She's
.‫ﺖ ﻭﻗﺘﹰﺎ ﺭﺍﺋﻌﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ‬
 ‫ﺎ ﻗﻀ‬‫ﺃﻡ ﻣﺎﺭﻱ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﺄ‬
Mary's mother said (that) she had been having a wonderful time in
Italy.
:‫ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ‬.‫ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﺪﻡ ﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺣﺐ ﺟﲔ‬

I love Jane.
Jim admitted (that) he (loved/loves) Jane.

.‫ﺟﻴﻢ ﺍﻋﺘﺮﻑ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﳛﺐ ﺟﲔ‬

‫ ﰲ ﻭﻗـﺖ ﺍﻟﻜـﻼﻡ‬Jane ‫ ﻣﻦ ﺍﶈﺘﻤﻞ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﳛﺐ‬Jim ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﰲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﻷﻥ‬
.‫ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻮﻝ‬
:‫( ﺻﻴﻎ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‬٢
.‫ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ  ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎﻡ‬.‫ﺖ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ‬
 ‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺘﻚ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﻨ‬
I met you when you were a student.
.‫ﺖ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ‬
 ‫ﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺘﲏ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﻨ‬‫ﻫﻲ ﺃﺧﱪﺗﲏ ﺑﺄ‬
She told me (that) she had met me when I was a student.
.‫ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ  ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺗﺎﻡ‬.‫ﺖ ﺃﻗﻮﺩ ﲝﺬﺭ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﺙ‬
 ‫ﻛﻨ‬
I was driving carefully when the accident happened.
.‫ﻫﻮ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﺩ ﲝﺬﺭ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺣﺼﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﺩﺙ‬
He told the police (that) he had been driving carefully when the
accident happened.

www.expenglish.com
english.com

٢٢٠

Omar AL-Hourani
AL

:‫( ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬٣
.might ، should ، would ، could  may ، shall ، will ، can
.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺳﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﲑﺍﻥ‬

I can fly.

.‫ﻫﻮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻄﲑﺍﻥ‬

He said (that) he could fly.

.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﻗﺎﺑﻠﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮﺓ‬

I'll meet you at 10.

He promised (that) he would meet her at 10. .‫ﻫﻮ ﻭﻋﺪ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﻘﺎﺑﻠﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺳﻨﻌﻄﻲ ﻟﺒﻴﻞ؟‬

What shall we give Bill?

.‫ﻫﻢ ﺳﺄﻟﻮﺍ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺳﻴﻌﻄﻮﺍ ﻟﺒﻴﻞ‬

They asked what they should give Bill.

.‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﺭ ﺭﲟﺎ ﻳﺘﺄﺧﺮ‬

The train may be late.

.‫ﻫﻮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﺭ ﺭﲟﺎ ﻳﺘﺄﺧﺮ‬

He said (that) the train might be late.

:‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻓﻼ ﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ‬
.‫ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﺮﺧﻲ‬

You must relax.
The doctor said (that) you must relax.

.‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺐ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﺮﺧﻲ‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﲤﺎﻧﻊ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﻌﲑﱐ ﻗﻤﻠﻚ؟‬

Would you mind lending me your pen?
.‫ﺖ ﲤﺎﻧﻊ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﻌﲑﱐ ﻗﻠﻤﻬﺎ‬
 ‫ﺖ ﻣﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧ‬
 ‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﻟ‬
I asked Maria if she would mind lending me her pen.
:‫( ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬٤
.‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺿﻤﲑ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻮﻝ‬
.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺣﺐ ﺍﻵﻳﺲ ﻛﺮﱘ‬

I like ice cream.

.‫ﻫﻮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﳛﺐ ﺍﻵﻳﺲ ﻛﺮﱘ‬

He said (that) he liked ice cream.

.‫ﳓﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺘﻌﻨﺎ ﺑﻐﻨﺎﺋﻚ‬

We enjoyed your singing.
They said (that) they had enjoyed his singing.
www.expenglish.com

٢٢١

.‫ﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺘﻌﻮﺍ ﺑﻐﻨﺎﺋﻪ‬‫ﻫﻢ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﺄ‬
Omar AL-Hourani

:‫( ﺗﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬٥
.that  this
.those  these
.there  here
.at that moment ‫ ﺃﻭ‬then  now
.that day  today
.the previous day  yesterday
.the next day  tomorrow
.‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﻧﺰﻫﺘﻨﺎ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ‬
This is our favorite walk.
.‫ﻫﻢ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﻠﻚ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻧﺰﻫﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ‬
They said (that) that was their favorite walk.
.‫ﳓﻦ ﻧﻔﻀﻠﻪ ﻫﻨﺎ‬
We like it here.
.‫ﻢ ﻳﻔﻀﻠﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬‫ﻫﻢ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﺄ‬
They said (that) they like it there.
‫ﳓﻦ ﺳﻨﺮﺍﻙ ﻏﺪﹰﺍ‬
We'll see you tomorrow.
.‫ﻢ ﺳﲑﻭﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‬‫ﻫﻢ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﺄ‬
They said (that) they would see me the next day.
.‫ﳓﻦ ﻣﻐﺎﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﺍﻵﻥ‬
We're leaving now.
.‫ﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻣﻐﺎﺩﺭﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ‬‫ﻫﻢ ﻗﺎﻟﻮﺍ ﺑﺄ‬
They said (that) they were leaving at that moment.

www.expenglish.com

٢٢٢

Omar AL-Hourani

‫‪:(the) same‬‬
‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻛﺼﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻧﻔﺲ‪."...‬‬‫ﺍﺑﲏ ﻭﺃﻧﺖ ﺗﺬﻫﺒﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪My son and you go to the same school.‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺬﻭﻕ‪ :‬ﳓﻦ ﻧﻔﻀﻞ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳌﻮﺳﻴﻘﻰ ﻭﻧﻘﺮﺃ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﻭﻧﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺎﺯ‪.‬‬
‫‪Mark and I have the same taste: we like the same music, we read the‬‬
‫‪same books, and we watch the same TV programs.‬‬
‫ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ‪.the same + noun = noun phrase :‬‬‫‪:so‬‬
‫ ﻟﻪ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻌﺎ ‪‬ﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ )‪ so + (adjective/adverb/many/much‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﻈﺮﻑ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‬
‫‪."very‬‬
‫ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻣﺘﺄﺧﺮ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ؟‬

‫?‪Why are you (so/very) late‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‪.‬‬

‫‪We had to buy so many things.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺳﺒﻘﻪ ‪ and‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﺤﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ "‪.‬‬
‫ﳓﻦ ﺷﻌﺮﻧﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺐ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﺫﻫﺒﻨﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪We felt tired, and so we went to bed.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ‪ that‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﺤﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺿﻤﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻓﻘﻂ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻟﻜﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻲ"‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻦ ﻫﺎﺩﺋﹰﺎ )ﻟﻜﻲ‪/‬ﻛﻲ( ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﺎﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪Be quiet so (that) she can sleep.‬‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﺤﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ ﻟﻠﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﲨﻠﺘﲔ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻟﺬﺍ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﻞ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﺿﻄﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﲑﻩ ﻣﲏ‪.‬‬
‫‪Bill had lost his key, so he had to borrow it from me.‬‬
‫‪ (٥‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺗﻰ ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﺤﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺇﺫﹰﺍ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻓﻌﻠﺖ؟‬

‫?‪So what did you do‬‬

‫‪ (٦‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ‪ so‬ﺑﺪ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻦ ‪ that‬ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ )ﺃﲤﲎ‪/‬ﺃﺗﻮﻗﻊ‪/‬ﺃﺻﺪﻕ( ﺫﻟﻚ‪.‬‬

‫‪I (hope/expect/believe) so.‬‬

‫‪ (٧‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺄﰐ ‪ so‬ﺑﺪ ﹰﻻ ﻣﻦ ‪ that‬ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻻ ﺃﻋﺘﻘﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪I don't think so.‬‬
‫‪٢٢٣‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪ (٨‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﻈﺮﻑ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ‪."too‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻟﻌﺒﻮﺍ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﳓﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪They have played football, and so have I (= I have too).‬‬
‫ﻫﻢ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺬﻫﺒﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻨﻤﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪They often go to the theater. So do I (= I do too).‬‬
‫‪:still‬‬
‫ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﻈﺮﻑ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻻ ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ"‪.‬‬‫ﳓﻦ ﻣﺎﺯﻟﻨﺎ ﻧﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻧﻌﻄﻴﻪ ﻃﻠﺒﻨﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪We are still waiting to give him my order.‬‬

‫ ﻟﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺻﻴﻎ ﻫﻢ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﻭﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪.Subject + still + Verb.1‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﻫﻨﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪He still lives here.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻭﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪.Subject + be + still + Verb-ing‬‬
‫ﳓﻦ ﻣﺎﺯﻟﻨﺎ ﻧﻨﺘﻈﺮ‪" .‬ﺍﻵﻥ"‬

‫‪We are still waiting.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﻭﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ :Subject + still + (has/have) + Verb.3‬ﻻ ﻳﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻛـﺜﲑﹰﺍ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪:that‬‬
‫ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻧﺪﺭﺱ ‪ that‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻔﺼﻞ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻭﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﻟﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻫﻢ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﻚ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺻﺪﻳﻘﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪That man is my friend.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻳﺘﻪ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻭﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪The pen (that/which) I bought is on the table.‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺃﻥﱠ" ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﹰﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻧﻪ ﻳﱪﻫﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻚ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺻﺪﻳﻘﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪It proves (that) you were his friend.‬‬

‫‪٢٢٤‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﻫﻞ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻣﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻚ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ؟‬
‫?‪Are you sure (that) you want to buy a car‬‬
‫‪:there is , there are‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ there + be + noun‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻳﻮﺟﺪ"‪.‬‬‫)ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‪/‬ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ( ﻗﻄﻂ‪.‬‬

‫‪There are cats.‬‬

‫ﻫﻞ )ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‪/‬ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ( ﺗﻔﺎﺣﺔ؟‬

‫?‪Is there an apple‬‬

‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ there + (be + no/be + not) + noun‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﰐ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ"‪.‬‬‫)ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‪/‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ( ﺗﻔﺎﺣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪There (are no/are not) apples.‬‬

‫‪:too & either‬‬
‫ ﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﻇﺮﻑ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ "ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ"‪.‬‬‫ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻥ ‪ too‬ﻳﺄﰐ ﻓﻘﻂ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺒﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ‪ either‬ﻓﻴﺄﰐ ﻓﻘﻂ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﻔﻴﺔ‪:‬‬‫ﺟﻮﻥ ﳛﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ ﻭﻣﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪John likes to play football, and Mary does, too.‬‬
‫ﺟﻮﻥ ﻻ ﳛﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﻌﺐ ﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻡ ﻭﻣﺎﺭﻱ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪John doesn't like to play football, and Mary doesn't, either.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻮﻥ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪He agreed with John, and I did too.‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺟﻮﻥ ﻭﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪He didn't agree with John, and I didn't either.‬‬
‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ‪:‬‬
‫‪He didn't agree with John, and neither did I.‬‬
‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺟﺎﺀ ‪ too‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ‪ too + adjective‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﻈﺮﻑ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ‪more than‬‬‫‪."is needed‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺬﻟﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﳑﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻟﺰﻭﺟﻲ‪ .‬ﻫﻮ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻘﺎﺱ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪This suit is too big for my husband. He needs a smaller size.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٢٥‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪:Unreal Meaning‬‬
‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ‪.would‬‬‫ ﻳ‪‬ﻘﺴﻢ ﺇﱃ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ‪ :unreal present‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ … , … WOULD‬ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ … ‪If +‬‬
‫ﺕ ﻣﺒﻜﺮﺍ‪ً.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻘﺎﻋﺪ ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺪﻱ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻨ ‪‬‬
‫‪If I had enough money, I would retire early.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ "ﻋﻤﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ"‪.‬‬
‫ ﰲ ‪ unreal present time‬ﳝﻜﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ‪ were‬ﻋﻮﺿﹰﺎ ﻋﻦ ‪ was‬ﺣﱴ ﻭﻟـﻮ ﻛـﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋـﻞ‬‫ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ﺃﻭ ‪ He‬ﺃﻭ ‪ She‬ﺃﻭ ‪" It‬ﺳﺒﻖ ﺷﺮﺣﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻃﻴﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ‪ :unreal past‬ﲣﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﻴﻞ‪ .‬ﲟﻌﲎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻴﺎﱄ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ , … WOULD HAVE‬ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎﻡ … ‪If +‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻗﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺖ ﻗﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﻌ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ‪ ،‬ﳌﺎ ﻛﻨ ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻮ ﻋﺸ ‪‬‬
‫‪If you had lived in the 19th century, you wouldn't have driven a‬‬
‫‪car.‬‬
‫ﲣﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺤﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺶ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ "ﻋﻤﻞ ﺧﻴﺎﱄ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ‪ :unreal future‬ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻣﺮﺟﺢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻟﻦ ﳛﺪﺙ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬
‫ﺻﻴﻎ‪:‬‬
‫‪If + … WOULD … , …WOULD‬‬
‫‪If + … were to … , …WOULD‬‬
‫‪ … , …WOULD‬ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ … ‪If +‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٢٢٦‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

‫ﻟﻮ ﺃﻋﺎﺭﱐ ﺩﺭﺍﺟﺘﻪ ﻏﺪﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻑ ﺃﺫﻫﺐ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪me his bicycle tomorrow, I would go home easily.‬‬

‫‪would lend‬‬
‫‪were to lend‬‬
‫‪lent‬‬

‫‪If he‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﺃﻋﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﻌﲑﱐ ﺩﺭﺍﺟﺘﻪ ﻏﺪﹰﺍ "ﻋﻤﻞ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ" ﻷﻧﻪ ﳜﺎﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺟﺘﻪ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪:Verb-ing‬‬
‫‪Verb ing‬‬
‫"‪ "-ing‬ﻭﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﳍﺎ "‪ing‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ "‪:"love , hate , prefer‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪I prefer watching horror films.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪I prefer to watch horror films.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻼﳘﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ "‪:"like , want , need , know‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻠﻘﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺘﺄﺧﺮﹰﺍ‪" .‬ﻟﻐﺔ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ"‬

‫‪I like lying in bed late.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﺃﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ " .‬ﻟﻐﺔ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ "‬

‫‪I want eating this.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﺮ ﻣﺘﺄﺧﺮﺍ‪" ً.‬ﻟﻐﺔ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ"‬

‫‪I like to lie in the bed late.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺁﻛﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‪ " .‬ﺃﻣﲑﻛﻲ"‬

‫‪I want to eat this.‬‬

‫"ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺘﺎﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺘﺎﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ"‬
‫"‪ "-ing‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﲑﻛﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫"‬
‫‪ −‬ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﳊﺲ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﳍﻢ‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪I want knowing what happened.‬‬
‫‪happened.‬‬

‫ﺻﺢ )ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻋﺮﻑ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺣﺪﺙ(‬

‫‪I want to know what happened.‬‬
‫‪happened.‬‬

‫"‪ "-ing‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﲎ ﳜﺘﻠﻒ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﳍﺎ "‪ing‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ "‪:"remember , forget‬‬
‫ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺃﻧﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ"‪.‬‬

‫‪I remembered meeting her.‬‬

‫ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺃﻧﺎ ﺍﺿﻄﺮﺭﺕ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻓﻌﻠﺖ"‪.‬‬

‫‪I remembered to meet her.‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٢٢٧‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

."‫ﺖ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻭﻟﻦ ﺃﻧﺴﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
 ‫ﲟﻌﲎ"ﺃﻧﺎ ﺭﻗﺼ‬
I won't forget dancing with him that night.
."‫ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﺽ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺭﻗﺺ ﻣﻌﻪ ﻭﻟﻜﲏ ﱂ ﺃﻓﻌﻞ‬
I won't forget to dance with him that night.
:"try" ‫( ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺄﰐ ﺑﻌﺪ‬٢
."‫ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺃﻧﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﱂ ﻳﻨﻔﻊ‬
I tried speaking to her about it, but she still wouldn't listen.
."‫ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺭﺩﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻛﻠﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﱂ ﺃﺳﺘﻄﻊ‬
I tried to speak to her about it, but she wasn't there.
:‫ ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ‬."-ing" ‫ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﳍﺎ‬"finish , enjoy , considerate , give up , feel like , ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻌـﺎﻝ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﺗـﺄﰐ ﺑﻌـﺪ‬
suggest , imagine"
I considerate to emigrating to Australia.
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬
I considerate emigrating to Australia.

(‫ﺻﺢ )ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻓﻜﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻫﺎﺟﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﻟﻴﺎ‬
:yet
:‫ﻥ ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ ﳍﺎ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﻌﺎ‬-

.‫ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﹰﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ‬،"up to now ‫ ﳊﱴ ﺍﻵﻥ‬، ‫( ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﺤﺎﻝ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﺑﻌﺪ‬١
.(‫ﳊﱴ ﺍﻵﻥ‬/‫ﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ )ﺑﻌﺪ‬‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﱂ ﺃ‬

I haven't finished my job yet.

."but ‫( ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﺤﺎﻝ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻟﻜﻦ‬٢
This chair is old, yet very comfortable.

.‫ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻣﺮﻳﺢ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‬،‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺳﻲ ﻗﺪﱘ‬

."nevertheless ‫( ﻳﺄﰐ ﻛﺤﺮﻑ ﻋﻄﻒ ﲟﻌﲎ "ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ‬٣
.‫ ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻣﺎﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﺗﺪﺧﻦ‬،‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﺗﺰﺩﺍﺩ‬
Her problems are increasing, (yet/nevertheless) she's still smiling.

www.expenglish.com

٢٢٨

Omar AL-Hourani

:‫األخطاء الشائعة‬
:‫ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻭﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬−
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

My age is 20 years.

(‫ﺻﺢ )ﻋﻤﺮﻱ ﻋﺸﺮﻭﻥ ﻋﺎﻣًﹰﺎ‬

I am 20 years.
It is seven and half.
It is half past seven.

.‫ﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ‬‫ﺇ‬

This book is to me.
This book is mine.

.‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﱄ‬

The right is with you.
You are right.

.‫ﺍﳊﻖ ﻣﻌﻚ‬

York book is with me.
I have your book.

.‫ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻧﺎ ﻟﺪﻱ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻚ‬.‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻚ ﻣﻌﻲ‬

I opened the radio.
I turned on the radio.

.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺷﻐﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺩﻳﻮ‬

I closed the radio.
I turned off the radio.

.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻏﻠﻘﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺩﻳﻮ‬

She sees herself very much.
She is very proud.

.‫ﻫﻲ ﻣﻌﺠﺒﺔ ﻛﺜﲑﹰﺍ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ‬

She was making herself ill.
She was pretending to be ill.

.‫ﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺽ‬

www.expenglish.com

٢٢٩

Omar AL-Hourani

‫‪I took permission.‬‬
‫‪I got permission.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺧﺬﺕ ﺇﺫﻧﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪Let us go from here.‬‬
‫‪Let us go this way.‬‬

‫ﺩﻋﻨﺎ ﻧﺬﻫﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﲡﺎﻩ‪.‬‬

‫‪I saw her one time or two times.‬‬
‫‪I saw her once or twice.‬‬

‫ﺃﻥ ﺭﺃﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ‪.‬‬
‫اللغة االنجليزية العامة ‪:English Informal‬‬

‫‪ −‬ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ‪ "wanna" :‬ﺃﻱ ﲟﻌـﲎ "‪ "want to‬ﻭ "‪ "gotta‬ﺃﻱ ﲟﻌـﲎ‬
‫"‪ "got to‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺄﰐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪ I , You , We , They‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﻢ ﲨﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺫﻫﺐ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪I wanna go now - I want to go now.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺫﻫﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪I gotta go - I got to go.‬‬

‫ ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ‪ "gimme" :‬ﺃﻱ ﲟﻌـﲎ "‪ "give me‬ﻭ "‪ "gonna‬ﺃﻱ‬‫ﲟﻌﲎ "‪."going to‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﻄﲏ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ‪.‬‬

‫‪Gimme the pen - Give me the pen.‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﺫﻫﺐ‪.‬‬

‫‪I am gonna go - I am going to go.‬‬

‫ ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻳﻀﻌﻮﻥ ‪ in‬ﻗﺒﻞ ‪ here‬ﻭ ‪.there‬‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﺤﻰ "ﺃﻧﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ"‬

‫‪I'm here.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻴﺔ "ﺃﻧﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ"‬

‫‪I'm in here.‬‬

‫ ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺁﺧﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻮ ‪ I‬ﻭ ‪ .me‬ﺗﺮﺟﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ "ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻧﺎ"؟‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﺤﻰ "ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻧﺎ"‬

‫‪This is I.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻴﺔ "ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﻧﺎ"‬

‫‪This is me.‬‬

‫ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺗﻰ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﲑ ‪ I‬ﰒ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ "‪ "too‬ﻳﻘﻠﺐ ﺇﱃ ‪ me‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﺤﻰ "ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ"‬

‫‪I am too.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻴﺔ "ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ"‬

‫‪Me too.‬‬

‫ ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬‫ﺩﻋﻨﺎ ﻧﺬﻫﺐ‪ .‬ﺃﻭ ﻫﻴﺎ ﺑﻨﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪Let us go  Let's go.‬‬
‫‪٢٣٠‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫كيفية كتابة المقاالت ‪:Paragraphs‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺳﻨﺨﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻮ "ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ ‪ ،"Paragraphs‬ﻭﺳـﻨﻌﺮﺽ ﰲ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﲑﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺗﺮﲨﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺳﻨﺤﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻻ ﻧﺘﺮﲨﻬﺎ ﺣﺮﻓﻴﹰﺎ ﻟﻨﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﲨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺼﺔ ﳚﺐ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻣﺎﻳﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻚ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻚ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ ﻭﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺼﺔ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ (١‬ﻧﻜﺘﺐ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺼﻒ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﰒ ﻧﻨﺰﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺮ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻭﻧﺘﺮﻙ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﲬﺴﺔ ﺃﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺮ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﰒ ﻧﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺻﻞ‪...‬ﺇﱁ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٤‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻱ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻱ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﺔ ﻧﺘﺮﻙ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﰒ ﻧﻜﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ "ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ"‪.‬‬
‫ ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺪﺙ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺼﺔ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬‫‪ (١‬ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ )ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﻡ‪...‬ﺇﱁ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٢‬ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (٣‬ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺮﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ "ﺳﺒﻖ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﳉﺮ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ"‪.‬‬
‫‪ −‬ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ "ﺍﻟﺮﺟﺎﺀ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﺟﻴﺪﹰﺍ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺟﺪﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ"‪:‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٣١‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

1) Car
Car is a motor vehicle. It is walking on a substance called
"asphalt" by something made of rubber, it is called a wheel. There
are many types and colors of cars, one of them BMW, Mercedes,
Chevrolet, … etc. First motor car working by gasoline was made in
approximately 1908 AD by Europe, and then America has developed
it as you see it now.
‫( ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ‬١
‫ﻰ ﻋﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﺴﻤ‬
 ‫ﻳ‬ ‫ﻰ "ﺍﻟﺰﻓﺖ" ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﺼﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﻁ‬‫ﺴﻤ‬
 ‫ﺗ‬ ‫ ﺗﺴﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ‬.‫ﺇﱁ‬...‫ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺳﻴﺪﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻔﺮﻭﻟﻴﺖ‬BMW ‫ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬،‫ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻭﺃﻟﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬.(‫)ﺩﻭﻻﺏ‬
.‫ﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﺍﻵﻥ‬‫ﻡ ﰒ ﺟﺎﺀﺕ ﺃﻣﲑﻛﺎ ﻭﻃﻮﺭ‬١٩٠٨ ‫ﺖ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ﻋﺎﻡ‬
 ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﺻﹺﻨ‬
 ‫ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺰﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‬
.‫" ﰲ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻷﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺘﻠﻜﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻌﻴﲔ ﺃﻭ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ‬the" ‫ ﱂ ﻧﻀﻊ‬"‫ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ "ﺳﺒﻖ ﺷﺮﺣﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‬ ‫ ﻻ ﻧﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬I saw a substance is made of rubber.

‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

(‫ﺖ" ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻁ‬
 ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﺻﹺﻨ‬
 " ‫ﺻﺢ )ﺃﻧﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬
I saw a substance made of rubber.
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

I saw a man is killed.

(‫ﻞ‬‫ﻳ ﹾﻘﺘ‬ ‫ﻼ‬
‫ﺻﺢ )ﺃﻧﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬

I saw a man killed.

:‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺻﺢ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺒﲏ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‬
I saw a man as he is killed.
I know someone wanting this car.

‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬
(‫ﺻﺢ )ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻋﺮﻑ ﺷﺨﺼﹰﺎ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓ‬

I know someone wants this car.

.-ing
ing ‫ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﻟﻪ‬State Verbs ‫ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ‬want ‫ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬

www.expenglish.com
english.com

٢٣٢

Omar AL-Hourani
AL

2) Risk
I was living at my sister and her husband's house. One day they
traveled for a period and I stayed alone. I looked from the window
then I found a house burning. I went out to see the fire. I saw a
woman crying "Tommy, Tommy, Tommy's still inside". I entered the
house to save Tommy. After I entered, something had hit me and I
had passed out. I woke up suddenly
suddenly and I found myself out of the
house. The firemen saved me. Then I cried "Tommy's still inside". I
saw the woman again. She said me "Tommy's OK" and she was
carrying a cat. She said me this is Tommy. I have risked my life for a
cat.
‫( ﳐﺎﻃﺮﺓ‬٢
‫ﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓـﺬﺓ‬
 ‫ ﻧﻈﺮ‬.‫ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻫﻢ ﺳﺎﻓﺮﻭﺍ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻭﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﺃﻧﺎ ﻭﺣﻴﺪﹰﺍ‬.‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﻋﻴﺶ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺰﻝ ﺃﺧﱵ ﻭﺯﻭﺟﻬﺎ‬
."‫ ﺗﻮﻣﻲ ﻣـﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﺪﺍﺧﻞ‬،‫ ﺗﻮﻣﻲ‬،‫ﺖ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺗﺼﺮﺥ "ﺗﻮﻣﻲ‬
 ‫ ﺭﺃﻳ‬.‫ﺖ ﻷﺭﻯ ﺍﳊﺮﻳﻖ‬
 ‫ ﺧﺮﺟ‬.‫ﺕ ﻣﻨﺰ ﹰﻻ ﳛﺘﺮﻕ‬
 ‫ﻭﻭﺟﺪ‬
‫ﺕ ﻧﻔﺴـﻲ‬
 ‫ﺖ ﻓﺠﺄﺓ ﻭﻭﺟﺪ‬
 ‫ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻘﻈ‬.‫ﺕ ﻭﻋﻲ‬
 ‫ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻣﺎ ﺿﺮﺑﲏ ﻭﻓﻘﺪ‬،‫ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺧﻠﺖ‬.‫ﺖ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﻷﻧﻘﺬ ﺗﻮﻣﻲ‬
 ‫ﺩﺧﻠ‬
‫ﺖﱄ‬
 ‫ ﻗﺎﻟـ‬.‫ﺖ ﺍﳌﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
 ‫ ﺭﺃﻳ‬."‫ ﰒ ﺻﺮﺧﺖ "ﺗﻮﻣﻲ ﻣﺎﺯﺍﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ‬.‫ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻃﻔﺎﺀ ﺃﻧﻘﺬﻭﱐ‬.‫ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ‬
.‫ﺕ ﲝﻴﺎﰐ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻗﻄﺔ‬
 ‫ ﻟﻘﺪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ‬.‫"ﺗﻮﻣﻲ ﲞﲑ" ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﲢﻤﻞ ﻗﻄﺔ‬

‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
.‫ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻭﺿﻊ ﰲ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﻨﻜﲑ‬"‫ﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ "ﺳﺒﻖ ﺷﺮﺣﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‬ ‫ ﻻ ﻧﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

I saw a house is burning.

(‫ﺻﺢ )ﺃﻧﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﻣﻨﺰ ﹰﻻ ﳛﺘﺮﻕ‬

I saw a house burning.
I saw a house burned before.

‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

I saw a burned house before.
before.

(‫ﺻﺢ )ﺃﻧﺎ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﻣﻨﺰﻻ ﺍﺣﺘﺮﻕ "ﻣﻨﺰ ﹰﻻ ﳏﺮﻭﻗﺎ" ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ‬

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english.com

٢٣٣

Omar AL-Hourani
AL

3) The haunted house
We loved the house when we first moved in. Then two years after
moving in, I woke up suddenly one night. There was an old woman
standing at the foot of our bed. She was crying. I tried to shout, but I
couldn't. I could feel something covering my face. I watched a ghost
walking toward the well. After it had disappeared, I woke up my
husband, but suddenly I heard a young son screaming in the next
bathroom. I ran to see what was wrong. He has seen someone moving
through the well from our room. It was an old
old woman. After that we
didn't like living in the house any more. We felt as if there were eyes
watching us all the time. Strange things started happening. We heard
voices in the middle of the night. We sold the house, but the new
people didn't stay there very long. There is nobody living there now.
‫( ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﺍﳌﺸﺒﺢ‬٣
‫ ﻛـﺎﻥ‬.‫ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻟﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻘﻈﻨﺎ ﻓﺠـﺄﺓ‬،‫ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﻨﺘﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻨﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬.‫ﳓﻦ ﺃﺣﺒﺒﻨﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻠﻨﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺖ ﺃﻥ‬
 ‫ ﺍﺳـﺘﻄﻌ‬.‫ﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺻﻴﺢ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﲏ ﱂ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﻊ‬
 ‫ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺣﺎﻭﻟ‬.‫ﺖ ﺗﺒﻜﻲ‬
 ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﺴﻨﺔ ﺗﻘﻒ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻗﺪﻡ ﺳﺮﻳﺮﻧﺎ ﻭﻛﺎﻧ‬
‫ﺖ ﺯﻭﺟﻲ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻓﺠﺄﺓ‬
 ‫ ﺃﻳﻘﻈ‬،‫ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺧﺘﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺢ‬.‫ﺕ ﺷﺒﺤﹰﺎ ﳝﺸﻲ ﳓﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﻂ‬
 ‫ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ‬.‫ﺃﺷﻌﺮ ﺑﺸﻲﺀ ﻳﻐﻄﻲ ﻭﺟﻬﻲ‬
‫ ﻟﻘﺪ ﺭﺃﻯ ﺷﺨﺼﹰﺎ ﻳﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﻋﱪ ﺍﳊﺎﺋﻂ ﻣﻦ‬.‫ﺖ ﻷﺭﻯ ﻣﺎ ﺍﳋﻄﺐ‬
 ‫ ﺭﻛﻀ‬.‫ﺎﻭﺭ‬‫ﺖ ﻭﻟﺪﹰﺍ ﺻﻐﲑﹰﺍ ﻳﺼﺮﺥ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻡ ﺍ‬
 ‫ﲰﻌ‬
‫ ﺷﻌﺮﻧﺎ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﻋﻴﻮﻧﹰﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﻗﺒﻨﺎ‬.‫ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﳓﻦ ﱂ ﻧﻌﺪ ﳓﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﺶ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ‬.‫ﺖ ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﺴﻨﺔ‬
 ‫ ﻛﺎﻧ‬.‫ﻏﺮﻓﺘﻨﺎ‬
‫ ﺑﻌﻨﺎ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺍﳉﺪﺩ ﱂ ﻳﺒﻘـﻮﺍ‬.‫ ﲰﻌﻨﺎ ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺗﹰﺎ ﰲ ﻭﺳﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻞ‬.‫ ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻏﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﲢﺪﺙ‬.‫ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
.‫ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﻨﺰﻝ‬.‫ﻼ‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻃﻮﻳ ﹰ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬
.‫" ﰲ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻌﺔ ﻷﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺘﻜﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺰﻝ ﻣﻌﲔ‬the" ‫ ﻭﺿﻌﻨﺎ‬-

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english.com

٢٣٤

Omar AL-Hourani
AL

4) Crossing the border
The customs officer was suspicious when the man appeared at the
border crossing. He made him open his suitcase, but there was
nothing valuable in it. So the officer let him cross the border. Every
week after that the same thing happened. The man arrived and the
customs officer stopped him and searched his suitcase. Sometimes he
made the man wait for several hours, hoping he would confess, but
he always had to let the man go. He was sure that the man smuggling
something, but he never found anything.
The years passed and the customs officer became a senior customs
officer. He no longer worked on the customs desk, but every week
from his office window he saw the man arriving, and every week he
had the man stopped and searched by the customs officer, but
nothing was ever found.
Then the day came when the senior customs officer was to retire,
and he decided that before he left he would get the man to tell the
truth. So he got the customs officer on the desk to stop the man and
had him brought to the officer. 'I am retiring tomorrow,' he said. 'I
know that you have been smuggling all these years. Please tell me
what it is. I promise that I won't tell anyone.' The man looked at him,
smiled, and said, 'Suitcases.'
‫( ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ‬٤
‫ ﻫﻮ ﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﺘﺢ ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘﻪ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ‬.‫ﻣﻮﻇﻒ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﺭﻙ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺸﻚ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﱪ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ‬
‫ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‬.‫ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﺳﺎﺑﻴﻊ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ‬.‫ ﻟﺬﺍ ﻣﻮﻇﻒ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﺭﻙ ﲰﺢ ﻟﻪ ﺑﻌﺒﻮﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ‬.‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﹰﺎ ﺟﻌﻠﻪ ﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﻟﻌﺪﺓ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺘﺮﻑ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﻮ‬.‫ﻭﺻﻞ ﻭﻣﻮﻇﻒ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﺭﻙ ﺃﻭﻗﻔﻪ ﻭﲝﺚ ﰲ ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘﻪ‬
.‫ ﻫﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﺄﻛﺪﹰﺍ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻳﻬﺮﺏ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﱂ ﳚﺪ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﺑﺪﹰﺍ‬.‫ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ‬
‫ ﻫﻮ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻫﻮ ﻳﺮﻯ‬.‫ﻣﺮﺕ ﺳﻨﲔ ﻭﻣﻮﻇﻒ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﺭﻙ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﹰﺍ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﻣﻜﺘﺒﻪ ﻛﻞ ﺍﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻗﺪ ﻭﺻﻞ ﻭﻛﻞ ﺍﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻣﻮﻇﻔﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﻗﻔﻪ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺤـﺚ ﰲ‬
.‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘﻪ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
.‫ﺭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺃﻥ ﳜﱪﻩ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻣﻐﺎﺩﺭﺗـﻪ‬‫ﰒ ﺟﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﺭﻙ ﺳﻴﺘﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻗﺮ‬
،‫ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﺭﻙ "ﺃﻧﺎ ﺳﺄﺗﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﻏﺪﺍﹰ‬.‫ﻟﺬﺍ ﺃﺣﻀﺮ ﻣﻮﻇﻔﹰﺎ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﺎﺭﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺐ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻭﳛﻀﺮﻩ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬

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٢٣٥

Omar AL-Hourani

‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻋﺮﻑ ﺃﻧﻚ ‪‬ﺮﺏ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻃﻮﺍﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﲔ"‪ .‬ﺃﺧﱪﱐ ﺭﺟﺎ ًﺀ ﻣﺎﻫﻮ‪ .‬ﺃﻋﺪﻙ ﺑﺄﻧﲏ ﻟﻦ ﺃﺧﱪ ﺃﺣﺪﹰﺍ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺇﻟﻴـﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺑﺘﺴﻢ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ "ﺣﻘﺎﺋﺐ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ‬
‫ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ "ﺣﺪﻭﺩ" ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﳒﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ "‪ "border‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ "‪."borders‬‬‫ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺘﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺘﲔ‪:‬‬‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﻭﻗﻔ ‪‬‬

‫‪I had stopped‬‬
‫‪sto ped the man.‬‬

‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺟﻌﻠ ‪‬‬

‫‪I had the man stopped.‬‬

‫ﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ "ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺴـﻴﻂ" ﺃﻧـﺎ ﱂ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ "ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎﻡ" ﺃﻱ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻭﻗﻔ ‪‬‬
‫ﺖ ﺷﺨﺼﹰﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻴﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻗﻔﻪ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﺑﻞ ﺃﺭﺳﻠ ‪‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬
‫‪AL‬‬

‫‪٢٣٦‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬
‫‪english.com‬‬

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C
D
D
A
C

Chapter 1:
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A
8
A
9
B
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A

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E
C
E
D
E

Chapter 2:
6
A
7
D
8
C
9
E
10
B

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Chapter 3:
B
6
B
7
A
8
A
9
A
10

B
C
A
C
A

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Chapter 4:
B
21
B
22
E
23
D
24
B
25
A
26
C
27
A
28
C
29
D
30

D
B
C
D
A
A
D
B
B
B

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Chapter 5:
A
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D
22
B
23
C
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True
25
False
26
False
27
False
28
False
29
False
30

False
a
non - the
an
the
an

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32
33
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35
36
37
38
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40

C
D
A
C
C
D
C
A
C
B

A
A
A
B
C
C
B
B
D
C

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14

B
A
C
C

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A
E
D

non - non

a - the
the - the
the

C
A
B
D
B

the
non - non

non - the
the - a
an
the - the
a
a
the
non

Omar AL-Hourani

A
C
B
D
B

Chapter 6:
6
E
7
D
8
A
9
B
10
D

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5

B
C
A
C
A

Chapter 7:
6
A
7
B
8
B
9
A
10
B

B
C
A
D
C

Chapter 8:
6
B
11
C
16
7
A
12
E
17
8
A
13
D
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9
A
14
B
19
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B
15
A
20
from - in - in - to - from - to - in - at - On - at

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5

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2
3
4
5
21

B

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13

D
D
B

E
B
E
C
D

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Chapter 9:
William was offered a promotion.
The new system is being tested.
The riot was reported to be under control.
The film may be banned.
The car has not been used for ages.
All salaries have been cut.
All travel expenses for this training course must be
paid by employers.
The college was not been informed that there had
been a mistake.
Sidney was distressed by the news about the exam
results.
A
13
E
16
B
A
14
A
17
D
D
15
D

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Chapter 10:
I don't like cheese.
We aren't married.
She doesn't have an old house.
He doesn't play tennis on Saturdays.
I haven't been to the bank yet.
I don't need any money.
I didn't have lunch at 2 o'clock.
He isn't going to work.
I don't have a lot of cars.
I haven't seen the tower of London yet.
He won't be having lunch at that time.

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www.expenglish.com

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٢٣٨

Omar AL-Hourani

www.expenglish.com

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I didn't have a shower at 4 o'clock
We don't live in Madrid.
I have never seen a snake.
He never likes going to work.

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Chapter 11:
Whose is this book?
Where did you find it?
Where do you live?
What is Sarah playing?
How has she broken her leg?
How long does it take you to get to work by car?
Why has Mary gone?
What flavor ice-cream would you like?
When did we meet him?
What will you do if it rains this weekend?
What would you do if you won the lottery?
C
16
A
20
B
C
17
B
21
A
C
18
B
22
C
C
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B
23
A
couldn't she
doesn't he
hasn't she
don't they
did they
didn't he
won't she

٢٣٩

Omar AL-Hourani

www.expenglish.com

٢٤٠

Omar AL-Hourani

.‫ ﻟﻘﺪ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ * ﲜﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﺫ‬:‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬
"‫"ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﲎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ‬
"‫"ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬
"‫"ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﻔﻌﻮﻝ‬

A
abide *

‫ ﻳﻘﻴﻢ‬، ‫ﻳﺒﻘﻰ‬

abode

abode

awake

‫ ﻳﺮﺗﻔﻊ‬، ‫ﻳﻨﻬﺾ‬

awoke

awaken

arise *

‫ ﻳﻮﻗﻆ‬، ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻴﻘﻆ‬

arose

arisen

B
be/am/is/are

‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬

was/were

been

bear

‫ ﺗﻠﺪ‬، ‫ﲢﻤﻞ‬

bore

borne

beat

‫ ﳜﻔﻖ‬، ‫ﻳﻀﺮﺏ‬

beat

beaten

become

‫ﻳﺼﺒﺢ‬

became

become

befall

‫ﳛﺪﺙ‬

befell

befallen

beget

‫ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ‬، ‫ﻳﻨﺠﺐ‬

begot

begotten

begin

‫ﻳﺒﺪﺃ‬

began

begun

behold

‫ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ‬، ‫ﻳﺸﺎﻫﺪ‬

beheld

beheld

bend

‫ﻳﻨﺤﲏ‬

bent

bent

beseech

‫ ﻳﺘﻮﺳﻞ‬، ‫ﻳﻠﺘﻤﺲ‬

besought

besought

beset

‫ ﻳﻄﻮﻕ‬، ‫ﻳﺰﻋﺞ‬

beset

beset

bet *

‫ﻳﺮﺍﻫﻦ‬

bet

bet

betake

‫ ﻳﻌﻤﺪ ﺇﱃ‬، ‫ﻳﺬﻫﺐ‬

betook

betaken

bethink

‫ ﻳﺘﺬﻛﺮ‬، ‫ﻳﺘﺄﻣﻞ‬

bethought

bethought

bid

‫ ﻳﺪﻋﻮ‬، ‫ﻳﺄﻣﺮ‬

bade

bidden

bide *

‫ ﻳﻘﺎﻭﻡ‬، ‫ﻳﺒﻘﻰ‬

bode

bide

bind

‫ ﻳﻘﻴﺪ‬، ‫ﻳﺮﺑﻂ‬

bound

bound

bite

‫ ﻳﻠﺪﻍ‬، ‫ﻳﻌﺾ‬

bit

bitten

bleed

‫ﻳﻨﺰﻑ‬

bled

bled

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٢٤١

Omar AL-Hourani

bless *

‫ﻳﺒﺎﺭﻙ‬

blest

blest

blow

‫ ﻳﻨﻔﺦ‬، ‫ﻳﻬﺐ‬

blew

blown

break

‫ ﻳﻨﻜﺴﺮ‬، ‫ﻳﻜﺴﺮ‬

broke

broken

breed

‫ ﻳﻮﻟﺪ‬، ‫ﻳﻠﺪ‬

bred

bred

bring

‫ ﳛﻀﺮ‬، ‫ﳚﻠﺐ‬

brought

brought

broadcast

‫ﻳﺬﻳﻊ‬

broadcast

broadcast

build

‫ﻳﺒﲏ‬

built

built

burn *

‫ ﳛﺘﺮﻕ‬، ‫ﳛﺮﻕ‬

burnt

burnt

burst

‫ ﻳﻨﻔﺠﺮ‬، ‫ﻳﻔﺠﺮ‬

burst

burst

buy

‫ﻳﺸﺘﺮﻱ‬

bought

bought

C
can

‫ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ‬

could

could

cast

‫ﻳﺮﻣﻲ‬

cast

cast

catch

‫ﳝﺴﻚ‬

caught

caught

chide

‫ﻳﻮﺑﺦ‬

chided

chidden

choose

‫ﳜﺘﺎﺭ‬

chose

chosen

cleave

‫ﻳﺸﻖ‬

cleft

cleft

cline

‫ﻳﺘﻤﺎﺳﻚ‬

clung

clung

come

‫ﻳﺄﰐ‬

came

come

cost

‫ﻳﻜﻠﻒ‬

cost

cost

creep

‫ﻳﺰﺣﻒ‬

crept

crept

cut

‫ﻳﻘﻄﻊ‬

cut

cut

D
deal

‫ ﻳﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬، ‫ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬

dealt

dealt

dig

‫ﳛﻔﺮ‬

dug

dug

do

‫ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‬، ‫ﻳﻔﻌﻞ‬

did

done

draw

‫ﻳﺮﺳﻢ‬

drew

drawn

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٢٤٢

Omar AL-Hourani

dream *

‫ﳛﻠﻢ‬

dreamt

dreamt

drink

‫ﻳﺸﺮﺏ‬

drank

drunk

drive

‫ﻳﺴﻮﻕ‬

drove

driven

dwell *

‫ﻳﺴﻜﻦ‬

dwelt

dwelt

ate

eaten

E
eat

‫ﻳﺄﻛﻞ‬
F

fall

‫ ﻳﻘﻊ‬، ‫ﻳﺴﻘﻂ‬

fell

fallen

feed

‫ﻳﻄﻌﻢ‬

fed

fed

feel

‫ ﳛﺲ‬، ‫ﻳﻠﻤﺲ‬

felt

felt

fight

‫ ﻳﺘﺸﺎﺟﺮ‬، ‫ﻳﺘﻘﺎﺗﻞ‬

fought

fought

find

‫ ﻳﻜﺘﺸﻒ‬، ‫ﳚﺪ‬

found

found

flee

‫ﻳﻔﺮ‬

fled

fled

fling

‫ﻳﻘﺬﻑ ﺑﻘﻮﺓ‬

flung

flung

fly

‫ﻳﻄﲑ‬

flew

flown

forbid

‫ ﳝﻨﻊ‬، ‫ﳛﻔﺮ‬

forbade

forbidden

foreknow

‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﹰﺎ‬

foreknew

foreknown

foresee

‫ﻳﺘﻨﺒﺄ‬

foresaw

foreseen

foretell

‫ﻳﺘﻜﻬﻦ‬

foretold

foretold

forget

‫ﻳﻨﺴﻰ‬

forgot

forgotten

forgive

‫ ﻳﺼﻔﺢ‬، ‫ﻳﻐﻔﺮ‬

forgave

forgiven

forsake

‫ ﻳﻬﺠﺮ‬، ‫ﻳﺘﺨﻠﻰ ﻋﻦ‬

forsook

forsaken

freeze

‫ﻳﺘﺠﻤﺪ‬

froze

frozen

G
get

‫ﻳﻨﺎﻝ‬

got

give

‫ﻳﻌﻄﻲ‬

give

<U.S> gotten
<G.B> got
given

go

‫ﻳﺬﻫﺐ‬

went

gone

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٢٤٣

Omar AL-Hourani

grind

‫ﻳﻄﺤﻦ‬

ground

ground

grow

‫ ﻳﻨﺒﺖ‬، ‫ﻳﻨﻤﻮ‬

grew

grown

H
hang

‫ﻳﻌﻠﻖ‬

hung

hung

have

‫ﳝﻠﻚ‬

had

had

hear

‫ﻳﺴﻤﻊ‬

heard

heard

hide

‫ ﳜﺘﺒﺊ‬، ‫ﳜﺒﺊ‬

hid

hidden

hit

‫ﻳﻀﺮﺏ‬

hit

hit

hold

‫ ﳛﺘﻔﻆ‬، ‫ﳝﺴﻚ‬

held

held

hurt

‫ ﻳﺆﺫﻱ‬، ‫ﳚﺮﺡ‬

hurt

hurt

inlaid

inlaid

I
inlay

‫ﻳﻄﻌﻢ‬
K

keep

‫ ﻳﻈﻞ‬، ‫ﳛﻤﻲ‬

kept

kept

kneel *

‫ﻳﺮﻛﻊ‬

knelt

knelt

knit *

‫ﻳﻘﻄﺐ ﺣﺎﺟﺒﻴﻪ‬

knit

knit

know

‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ‬

knew

known

L
lay

‫ﻳﻀﻊ‬

laid

laid

lead

‫ ﻳﺮﺷﺪ‬، ‫ﻳﻘﻮﺩ‬

led

led

lean *

‫ ﳝﻴﻞ‬، ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬

leant

leant

leap *

‫ﻳﻘﻔﺰ‬

leapt

leapt

learn *

‫ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬، ‫ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‬

learnt

learnt

leave

‫ﻳﻐﺎﺩﺭ‬

left

left

lend

‫ﻳﻘﺮﺽ‬

lent

lent

let

‫ﻳﺪﻉ‬

let

let

lie

‫ ﻳﻜﺬﺏ‬، ‫ﻳﺘﻤﺪﺩ‬

lay

lain

light

‫ ﻳﺸﺘﻌﻞ‬، ‫ﻳﺸﺮﻕ‬

lit

lit

www.expenglish.com

٢٤٤

Omar AL-Hourani

lose

‫ﻳﻔﻘﺪ‬

lost

lost

M
make

‫ ﳚﻌﻞ‬، ‫ﻳﺼﻨﻊ‬

made

made

may

‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬

might

might

mean

‫ﻳﻌﲏ‬

meant

meant

meet

‫ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬

met

met

mislay

‫ﻳﻀﻴﻊ‬

mislaid

mislaid

mislead

‫ ﳜﺪﻉ‬، ‫ﻳﻀﻠﻞ‬

misled

misled

misspend

‫ﻳﺒﺪﺩ‬

misspent

misspent

mistake

‫ﳜﻄﺊ‬

mistook

mistaken

misunderstand

‫ﻳﺴﺊ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ‬

misunderstood

misunderstood

mow *

‫ﳛﺼﺪ‬

mowed

mowed

O
outdo

‫ ﻳﺘﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ‬، ‫ﻳﻬﺰﻡ‬

outdid

outdone

overbear

‫ ﻳﺴﺘﺒﺪ‬، ‫ﻳﻘﻬﺮ‬

overborne

overborne

overcast

‫ﻳﻌﺘﻢ‬

overcast

overcast

overcome

‫ ﻳﻨﻬﻚ‬، ‫ﻳﻘﻬﺮ‬

overcame

overcome

overdo

‫ﻳﺒﺎﻟﻎ‬

overdid

overdone

overfeed

‫ﻳﺘﺨﻢ‬

overfed

overfed

overrun

‫ﳚﺘﺎﺡ‬

overran

overrun

oversee

‫ ﻳﻔﺤﺺ‬، ‫ﻳﺮﺍﻗﺐ‬

oversaw

overseen

oversleep

‫ﻳﺴﺘﻐﺮﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ‬

overslept

overslept

overtake

‫ ﻳﻔﺎﺟﺊ‬، ‫ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‬

overtook

overtaken

overthrow

‫ ﻳﺪﻣﺮ‬، ‫ﻳﻬﺰﻡ‬

overthrew

overthrown

P
partake

‫ ﻳﺸﺎﺭﻙ‬، ‫ﻳﻘﺎﺳﻢ‬

partook

partaken

pay

‫ﻳﺪﻓﻊ‬

paid

paid

put

‫ﻳﻀﻊ‬

put

put

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٢٤٥

Omar AL-Hourani

Q
quit *

‫ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﻴﻞ‬، ‫ﻳﻐﺎﺩﺭ‬

quit

quit

R
read

‫ﻳﻘﺮﺃ‬

read

read

rebuild

‫ﻳﻌﻴﺪ ﲟﺎﺀ‬

rebuilt

rebuilt

redo

‫ﻳﻌﻴﺪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ‬

redid

redone

remake

‫ﻳﺼﻨﻊ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

remade

remade

rend

‫ﻳﻨﺰﻉ ﺑﻌﻨﻒ‬

rent

rent

repay

‫ ﻳﺮﺩ‬، ‫ﻳﻔﻲ‬

repaid

repaid

retell

‫ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

retold

retold

rewrite

‫ﻳﻌﻴﺪ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ‬

rewrote

rewritten

rid *

‫ ﳛﺮﺭ‬، ‫ﳜﻠﺺ‬

rid

rid

ride

‫ﻳﺮﻛﺐ‬

rode

ridden

ring

‫ﻳﺮﻥ‬

rang

rung

rise

‫ﻳﻨﻬﺾ‬

rose

risen

run

‫ ﻳﺸﻐﻞ‬، ‫ﻳﻌﺪﻭ‬

ran

run

S
saw *

‫ﻳﻨﺸﺮ‬

sawed

sawn

say

‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬

said

said

see

‫ﻳﺮﻯ‬

saw

seen

seek

‫ﻳﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ‬

sought

sought

sell

‫ﻳﺒﻴﻊ‬

sold

sold

send

‫ﻳﺮﺳﻞ‬

sent

sent

set

‫ﻳﻘﺮﺭ‬

set

set

sew *

‫ﳜﻴﻂ‬

sewed

sewn

shake

‫ ﻳﻬﺘﺰ‬، ‫ﻳﻬﺰ‬

shook

shaken

shall

‫ﺳﻮﻑ‬

should

should

shed

‫ ﻳﺴﻔﺢ‬، ‫ﻳﺬﺭﻑ‬

shed

shed

www.expenglish.com

٢٤٦

Omar AL-Hourani

shine *

‫ ﻳﻠﻤﻊ‬، ‫ﻳﺘﺄﻟﻖ‬

shone

shone

shoot

‫ﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ‬

shot

shot

show *

‫ ﻳﺒﲔ‬، ‫ﻳﺮﻯ‬

showed

shown

shrink

‫ﻳﺘﻘﻠﺺ‬

shrank

shrunk

shut

‫ ﳛﺒﺲ‬، ‫ﻳﻐﻠﻖ‬

shut

shut

sing

‫ ﻳﻐﺮﺩ‬، ‫ﻳﻐﲏ‬

sang

sung

sink

‫ ﻳﻐﺮﻕ‬، ‫ﻳﻐﻄﺲ‬

sank

sunk

sit

‫ﳚﻠﺲ‬

sit

sit

slay

‫ﻳﺬﺑﺢ‬

slew

slain

sleep

‫ﻳﻨﺎﻡ‬

slept

slept

slide

‫ﻳﻨﺰﻟﻖ‬

slid

slid

slit

‫ﻳﺸﻖ‬

slit

slit

smell *

‫ﻳﺸﻢ‬

smelt

smelt

smite

‫ﻳﻀﺮﺏ ﺑﻘﻮﺓ‬

smote

smitten

sow

‫ﻳﺒﺬﺭ‬

sowed

sown

speak

‫ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ‬

spoke

spoken

speed *

‫ﻳﺴﺮﻉ‬

sped

sped

spell *

‫ﻳﺘﻬﺠﻰ‬

spelt

spelt

spend

‫ﻳﻨﻔﻖ‬

spent

spent

spin

‫ ﻳﺪﻭﺭ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬، ‫ﻳﻐﺰﻝ‬

span

spun

spit

‫ﻳﺒﺼﻖ‬

spat

spat

split

‫ﻳﺸﻖ‬

split

split

spoil *

‫ ﻳﺪﻟﻞ‬، ‫ﻳﺘﻠﻒ‬

spoilt

spoilt

spread

‫ ﻳﻨﺘﺸﺮ‬، ‫ﻳﻨﺸﺮ‬

spread

spread

spring

‫ﻳﻘﻔﺰ‬

sprang

sprung

stand

‫ ﻳﺼﻤﺪ‬، ‫ﻳﻘﻒ‬

stood

stood

steal

‫ﻳﺴﺮﻕ‬

stole

stolen

www.expenglish.com

٢٤٧

Omar AL-Hourani

stick

‫ﻳﻠﺼﻖ‬

stuck

stuck

sting

‫ ﻳﻠﺪﻍ‬، ‫ﻳﻠﺴﻊ‬

stung

stung

stink

‫ﻳﻨﱳ‬

stank

stunk

stride

‫ﳝﺸﻲ ﲞﻄﻰ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ‬

strode

stridden

strike

‫ﻳﻀﺮﺏ‬

struck

struck

strive *

‫ﻳﻜﺎﻓﺢ‬

strove

striven

swear

‫ﻳﻘﺴﻢ‬

swore

sworn

sweep

‫ ﻳﻜﺘﺴﺢ‬، ‫ﻳﻜﻨﺲ‬

swept

swept

swell

‫ ﻳﺘﻮﺭﻡ‬، ‫ﻳﻨﺘﻔﺦ‬

swelled

swollen

swim

‫ﻳﺴﺒﺢ‬

swam

swum

swing

‫ﻳﺘﺄﺭﺟﺢ‬

swung

swung

T
take

‫ﻳﺄﺧﺬ‬

took

taken

teach

‫ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‬

taught

taught

tear

‫ﳝﺰﻕ‬

tore

torn

tell

‫ ﻳﻘﺺ‬، ‫ﻳﺮﻭﻱ‬

told

told

think

‫ ﻳﻔﻜﺮ‬، ‫ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ‬

thought

thought

thrive *

‫ﻳﺰﺩﻫﺮ‬

throve

thriven

throw

‫ﻳﻘﺬﻑ‬

threw

thrown

thrust

‫ ﻳﻄﻌﻦ‬، ‫ ﻳﻘﺤﻢ‬، ‫ﻳﺪﻓﻊ‬

thrust

thrust

tread

‫ ﻳﺴﺤﻖ‬، ‫ﻳﻄﺄ‬

trod

trodden

U
undergo

‫ ﻳﻘﺎﺳﻰ‬، ‫ﻳﺘﺤﻤﻞ‬

underwent

undergone

understand

‫ﻳﻔﻬﻢ‬

understood

understood

undertake

‫ ﻳﺘﻮﱃ‬، ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻬﺪ‬

undertook

undertaken

upset

‫ ﻳﻔﺴﺪ‬، ‫ﻳﻘﻠﻖ‬

upset

upset

woke

woken

W
wake *
www.expenglish.com

‫ ﻳﺴﺘﻴﻘﻆ‬، ‫ﻳﻮﻗﻆ‬
٢٤٨

Omar AL-Hourani

waylay

‫ﳝﻜﻦ‬

waylaid

waylaid

wear

‫ﻳﺮﺗﺪﻱ‬

wore

worn

weave

‫ﻳﻨﺴﺞ‬

wove

woven

wed *

‫ ﻳﺘﺰﻭﺝ‬، ‫ﻳﺰﻭﺝ‬

wed

wed

weep

‫ﻳﺒﻜﻲ‬

wept

wept

wet *

‫ﻳﺒﻠﻞ‬

wet

wet

will

‫ﺳﻮﻑ‬

would

would

win

‫ ﻳﺮﺑﺢ‬، ‫ﻳﻔﻮﺯ‬

won

won

wind

‫ ﻳﻠﻒ‬، ‫ﻳﻨﻔﺦ‬

wound

wound

withdraw

‫ ﻳﻨﺴﺤﺐ‬، ‫ﻳﺴﺤﺐ‬

withdrew

withdrawn

withhold

‫ ﳝﺘﻨﻊ ﻋﻦ‬، ‫ﻳﻜﺒﺢ‬

withheld

withheld

withstand

‫ ﻳﺼﻤﺪ‬، ‫ﻳﻘﺎﻭﻡ‬

withstood

withstood

wring

‫ ﻳﻠﻮﻱ‬، ‫ﻳﻌﺼﺮ‬

wrung

wrung

write

‫ ﻳﺆﻟﻒ‬، ‫ﻳﻜﺘﺐ‬

wrote

written

www.expenglish.com

٢٤٩

Omar AL-Hourani

www.expenglish.com

٢٥٠

Omar AL-Hourani

‫‪A‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻳﻀﹰﺎ‬

‫‪also‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﺪﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫‪able‬‬

‫ﺩﺍﺋﻤﹰﺎ‬

‫‪always‬‬

‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ‬

‫‪about‬‬

‫ﺃﻛﻮﻥ )ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻜﻠﻢ(‬

‫‪am‬‬

‫ﻓﻮﻕ‬

‫‪above‬‬

‫ﺑﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻂ‬

‫‪among‬‬

‫ﻳﻀﻴﻒ‬

‫‪add‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻒ‬

‫‪and‬‬

‫ﺧﺎﺋﻒ‬

‫‪afraid‬‬

‫ﻏﻀﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻐﻀﺐ‬

‫‪anger‬‬

‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬

‫‪after‬‬

‫ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺔ ‪ ،‬ﳚﻴﺐ‬

‫‪answer‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬

‫‪again‬‬

‫ﺃﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺃﳝﺎ‬

‫‪any‬‬

‫ﺿﺪ‬

‫‪against‬‬

‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺒﺪﻭ‬

‫‪appear‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﺮ‬

‫‪age‬‬

‫ﺗﻔﺎﺣﺔ‬

‫‪apple‬‬

‫ﺽ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺬ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﹴ‬

‫‪ago‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ )ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻊ(‬

‫‪are‬‬

‫ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬

‫‪agree‬‬

‫ﻳﺼﻞ‬

‫‪arrive‬‬

‫ﻫﻮﺍﺀ‬

‫‪air‬‬

‫ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺄﻥ‬

‫‪as‬‬

‫ﻛﻞ ‪ ،‬ﲨﻴﻊ‬

‫‪all‬‬

‫ﻳﺴﺄﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻄﻠﺐ‬

‫‪ask‬‬

‫ﻳﺴﻤﺢ‬

‫‪allow‬‬

‫‪B‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺃﺳﻮﺩ‬

‫‪black‬‬

‫ﺭﺿﻴﻊ ‪ ،‬ﺻﻐﲑ‬

‫‪baby‬‬

‫ﺩﻡ‬

‫‪blood‬‬

‫ﺧﻠﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻇﻬﺮ‬

‫‪back‬‬

‫ﺃﺯﺭﻕ‬

‫‪blue‬‬

‫ﺳﻲﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺭﺩﻱﺀ‬

‫‪bad‬‬

‫ﻟﻮﺡ ﺧﺸﱯ‬

‫‪board‬‬

‫ﻛﺮﺓ‬

‫‪ball‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﺭﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺯﻭﺭﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﻛﺐ‬

‫‪boat‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺯ‬

‫‪banana‬‬

‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬

‫‪body‬‬

‫ﺑﻨﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺿﻔﺔ‬

‫‪bank‬‬

‫ﻋﻈﻢ‬

‫‪bone‬‬

‫ﻗﻀﻴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺭ‬

‫‪bar‬‬

‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬

‫‪book‬‬

‫ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬

‫‪base‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٥١‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﻛﻼ‬

‫‪both‬‬

‫ﻣﻀﺮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺧﻔﺎﺵ‬

‫‪bat‬‬

‫ﻳﺰﻋﺞ‬

‫‪bother‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﺒﺢ‬

‫‪be‬‬

‫ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ‬

‫‪box‬‬

‫ﳛﻤﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺤﻤ‪‬ﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﺪ‬

‫‪bear‬‬

‫ﻭﻟﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺻﱯ‬

‫‪boy‬‬

‫ﻳﻀﺮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻬﺰﻡ‬

‫‪beat‬‬

‫ﺧﺒﺰ‬

‫‪bread‬‬

‫ﲨﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺎﻣﺔ‬

‫‪beauty‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺴﺮ‬

‫‪break‬‬

‫ﺳﺮﻳﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺍﺵ‬

‫‪bed‬‬

‫ﻳﺘﻨﻔﺲ‬

‫‪breath‬‬

‫ﻗﺒﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎﻡ‬

‫‪before‬‬

‫ﳛﻀﺮ‬

‫‪bring‬‬

‫ﻳﺒﺪﺃ‬

‫‪begin‬‬

‫ﺃﺥ‬

‫‪brother‬‬

‫ﺧﻠﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺍﺀ‬

‫‪behind‬‬

‫ﺑﲏ‬

‫‪brown‬‬

‫ﻳﺆﻣﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﺪﻕ‬

‫‪believe‬‬

‫ﻳﺒﲏ‬

‫‪build‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ‬

‫‪best‬‬

‫ﳛﺘﺮﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺸﺘﻌﻞ ‪ ،‬ﳛﺮﻕ‬

‫‪burn‬‬

‫ﺃﺣﺴﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ‬

‫‪better‬‬

‫ﻣﺸﻐﻮﻝ‬

‫‪busy‬‬

‫ﺑﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻂ‬

‫‪between‬‬

‫ﻟﻜﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﻯ‬

‫‪but‬‬

‫ﻛﺒﲑ‬

‫‪big‬‬

‫ﲜﺎﻧﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬

‫‪by‬‬

‫ﻃﺎﺋﺮ‬

‫‪bird‬‬

‫‪C‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻳﻐﻠﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻔﻞ‬

‫‪close‬‬

‫ﻧﺪﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺎﺩﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﺮﺥ‬

‫‪call‬‬

‫ﺳﺤﺎﺑﺔ‬

‫‪cloud‬‬

‫ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﺪﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﺒﺔ‬

‫‪can‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﺭﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺯﻛﺎﻡ‬

‫‪cold‬‬

‫ﻋﺎﺻﻤﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺭﺃﺱ ﻣﺎﻝ‬

‫‪capital‬‬

‫ﻟﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻠﻮﻥ‬

‫‪color‬‬

‫ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺓ‬

‫‪car‬‬

‫ﻳﺄﰐ ‪ ،‬ﳚﻲﺀ‬

‫‪come‬‬

‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﻟﻌﺐ‬

‫‪card‬‬

‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺭﻓﻘﺔ‬

‫‪company‬‬

‫ﻳﻌﺘﲏ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻬﺘﻢ‬

‫‪care‬‬

‫ﻳﻘﺎﺭﻥ‬

‫‪compare‬‬

‫ﳛﻤﻞ‬

‫‪carry‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻤﻞ‬

‫‪complete‬‬

‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﺒﺔ‬

‫‪case‬‬

‫ﻳﻄﺒﺦ‬

‫‪cook‬‬

‫ﻗﻄﺔ‬

‫‪cat‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٥٢‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺘﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﱪﻭﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺭﺩ ‪،‬‬

‫ﳝﺴﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﺒﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫‪cool‬‬

‫‪catch‬‬

‫ﳑﺘﺎﺯ‬
‫ﻳﻨﺴﺦ ‪ ،‬ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬

‫‪copy‬‬

‫ﺳﺒﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺒﺐ‬

‫‪cause‬‬

‫ﺫﺭﺓ‬

‫‪corn‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻂ ‪ ،‬ﳏﻮﺭ‬

‫‪center‬‬

‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ‬

‫‪corner‬‬

‫ﻓﺮﺻﺔ‬

‫‪chance‬‬

‫ﻳﺼﺤﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﺪﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬

‫‪correct‬‬

‫ﻳﻐﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺒﺪﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﺮﻑ‬

‫‪change‬‬

‫ﲦﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻠﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺜﻤﻦ‬

‫‪cost‬‬

‫ﻳﺸﺤﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻬﻢ‬

‫‪charge‬‬

‫ﻳﻌﺪ ‪ ،‬ﳛﺼﻲ‬

‫‪count‬‬

‫ﻏﺸﺎﺵ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻐﺶ ‪ ،‬ﳛﺘﺎﻝ‬

‫‪cheat‬‬

‫ﺑﻠﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﻦ‬

‫‪country‬‬

‫ﺩﺟﺎﺟﺔ‬

‫‪chicken‬‬

‫ﻏﻄﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻐﻄﻲ‬

‫‪cover‬‬

‫ﻃﻔﻞ‬

‫‪child‬‬

‫ﺑﻘﺮﺓ‬

‫‪cow‬‬

‫ﳜﺘﺎﺭ‬

‫‪choose‬‬

‫ﳜﻠﻖ‬

‫‪create‬‬

‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺪﻭﺭ‬

‫‪circle‬‬

‫ﺟﺮﳝﺔ‬

‫‪crime‬‬

‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬

‫‪city‬‬

‫ﺻﻠﻴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﱪ‬

‫‪cross‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼﻞ‬

‫‪class‬‬

‫ﻳﺼﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺒﻜﻲ‬

‫‪cry‬‬

‫ﻧﻈﻴﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﻈﻒ‬

‫‪clean‬‬

‫ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻮﺏ‬

‫‪cup‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ‪ ،‬ﺻﺎﻑ‬

‫‪clear‬‬

‫ﻳﻘﺺ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻄﻊ‬

‫‪cut‬‬

‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺣﺎﺋﻂ‬

‫‪clock‬‬

‫‪D‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺻﻌﺐ‬

‫‪difficult‬‬

‫ﺭﻗﺼﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﻗﺺ‬

‫‪dance‬‬

‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻮﺟﻪ‬

‫‪direct‬‬

‫ﺧﻄﺮ‬

‫‪danger‬‬

‫ﻳﻨﺎﻗﺶ‬

‫‪discuss‬‬

‫ﺩﺍﻛﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﰎ‬

‫‪dark‬‬

‫ﻳﻘﺴﻢ‬

‫‪divide‬‬

‫ﻳﻮﻡ‬

‫‪day‬‬

‫ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‬

‫‪do‬‬

‫ﻳﻘﺮﺭ‬

‫‪decide‬‬

‫ﺩﻛﺘﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻃﺒﻴﺐ‬

‫‪doctor‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﻴﻖ‬

‫‪deep‬‬

‫ﻛﻠﺐ‬

‫‪dog‬‬

‫ﻳﻬﺰﻡ‬

‫‪defeat‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٥٣‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﺧﻞ‬

‫‪door‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺷﻬﺎﺩﺓ‬

‫‪degree‬‬

‫ﻣﺰﺩﻭﺝ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ‬

‫‪double‬‬

‫ﻳﺆﺟﻞ‬

‫‪delay‬‬

‫ﺷﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺸﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﺗﺎﺏ‬

‫‪doubt‬‬

‫ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫‪depend‬‬

‫ﲢﺖ‬

‫‪down‬‬

‫ﻳﻮﺩﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻋﺮﺑﻮﻥ‬

‫‪deposit‬‬

‫ﻳﺴﺤﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﺳﻢ‬

‫‪draw‬‬

‫ﻳﺼﻒ‬

‫‪describe‬‬

‫ﺣﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﳛﻠﻢ‬

‫‪dream‬‬

‫ﺻﺤﺮﺍﺀ‬

‫‪desert‬‬

‫ﻣﺸﺮﻭﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺸﺮﺏ‬

‫‪drink‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﻤﻢ‬

‫‪design‬‬

‫ﻳﻘﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﻮﻕ‬

‫‪drive‬‬

‫ﻳﻄﻮﺭ‬

‫‪develop‬‬

‫ﺟﺎﻑ ‪ ،‬ﳚﻔﻒ‬

‫‪dry‬‬

‫ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺱ‬

‫‪dictionary‬‬

‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺧﻼﻝ‬

‫‪during‬‬

‫ﳝﻮﺕ‬

‫‪die‬‬

‫ﳐﺘﻠﻒ‬

‫‪different‬‬

‫‪E‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﻬﻲ‬

‫‪end‬‬

‫ﺃﺫﻥ‬

‫‪ear‬‬

‫ﺧﺼﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﻭ‬

‫‪enemy‬‬

‫ﻣﺒﻜﺮ‬

‫‪early‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﰲ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻜﻔﻲ‬

‫‪enough‬‬

‫ﺷﺮﻕ‬

‫‪east‬‬

‫ﻣﺴﺎﻭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬

‫‪equal‬‬

‫ﺳﻬﻞ‬

‫‪easy‬‬

‫ﺣﱴ‬

‫‪even‬‬

‫ﻳﺄﻛﻞ‬

‫‪eat‬‬

‫ﻣﺴﺎﺀ‬

‫‪evening‬‬

‫ﺑﻴﻀﺔ‬

‫‪egg‬‬

‫ﻳﺸﺮﺡ‬

‫‪explain‬‬

‫ﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬

‫‪eight‬‬

‫ﻋﲔ‬

‫‪eye‬‬

‫ﺃﻱ ﻣﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺣﺪﺍﳘﺎ‬

‫‪either‬‬

‫ﻓﺮﺍﻍ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻔﺮﻍ‬

‫‪empty‬‬

‫‪F‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﲰﻜﺔ‬

‫‪fish‬‬

‫ﻭﺟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻮﺍﺟﻪ‬

‫‪face‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٥٤‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﻳﻼﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟـ‬

‫‪fit‬‬

‫ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﻘﻂ‬

‫‪fall‬‬

‫ﲬﺴﺔ‬

‫‪five‬‬

‫ﺯﺍﺋﻒ‬

‫‪false‬‬

‫ﻳﺼﻠﺢ‬

‫‪fix‬‬

‫ﺑﻌﻴﺪ‬

‫‪far‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻢ‬

‫‪flag‬‬

‫ﻣﺰﺭﻋﺔ‬

‫‪farm‬‬

‫ﺫﺑﺎﺑﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻄﲑ‬

‫‪fly‬‬

‫ﲰﲔ‬

‫‪fat‬‬

‫ﻃﻌﺎﻡ‬

‫‪food‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺜﻰ‬

‫‪female‬‬

‫ﻗﺪﻡ‬

‫‪foot‬‬

‫ﳝﻼ ‪ ،‬ﳛﺸﻮ‬

‫‪fill‬‬

‫ﻳﻨﺴﻰ‬

‫‪forget‬‬

‫‪‬ﺎﺋﻲ‬

‫‪final‬‬

‫ﺷﻮﻛﺔ‬

‫‪fork‬‬

‫ﳚﺪ‬

‫‪find‬‬

‫ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ‬

‫‪four‬‬

‫ﺇﺻﺒﻊ‬

‫‪finger‬‬

‫ﺣﺮ ‪ ،‬ﳛﺮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﳎﺎﱐ‬

‫‪free‬‬

‫ﻳﻨﻬﻲ‬

‫‪finish‬‬

‫ﳑﺘﻠﻰﺀ‬

‫‪full‬‬

‫ﻧﺎﺭ‬

‫‪fire‬‬

‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬

‫‪future‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬

‫‪first‬‬

‫‪G‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ‬

‫‪gray‬‬

‫ﻓﺘﺎﺓ‬

‫‪girl‬‬

‫ﻋﻈﻴﻢ‬

‫‪great‬‬

‫ﻳﻌﻄﻲ‬

‫‪give‬‬

‫ﺃﺧﻀﺮ‬

‫‪green‬‬

‫ﻳﺬﻫﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻖ‬

‫‪go‬‬

‫ﺑﻨﺪﻗﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺪﺱ‬

‫‪gun‬‬

‫ﺫﻫﺐ‬

‫‪gold‬‬

‫ﺟﻴﺪ‬

‫‪good‬‬

‫‪H‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺛﻘﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻔﺮﺓ‬

‫‪hole‬‬

‫ﺷﻌﺮ‬

‫‪hair‬‬

‫ﺑﻴﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺰﻝ‬

‫‪home‬‬

‫ﻳﺪ‬

‫‪hand‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺄﻣﻞ‬

‫‪hope‬‬

‫ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‬

‫‪happy‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٥٥‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﺣﺼﺎﻥ‬

‫‪horse‬‬

‫ﺻﻌﺐ‬

‫‪hard‬‬

‫ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ‬

‫‪hospital‬‬

‫ﻗﺒﻌﺔ‬

‫‪hat‬‬

‫ﺣﺎﺭ‬

‫‪hot‬‬

‫ﳝﻠﻚ‬

‫‪have‬‬

‫ﻓﻨﺪﻕ‬

‫‪hotel‬‬

‫ﻫﻮ‬

‫‪he‬‬

‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬

‫‪hour‬‬

‫ﺭﺃﺱ‬

‫‪head‬‬

‫ﺑﻴﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺰﻝ‬

‫‪house‬‬

‫ﻳﺴﻤﻊ‬

‫‪hear‬‬

‫ﻛﻴﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻢ‬

‫‪how‬‬

‫ﻗﻠﺐ‬

‫‪heart‬‬

‫ﻳﺆﱂ ‪ ،‬ﳚﺮﺡ‬

‫‪hurt‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎ‬

‫‪here‬‬

‫ﻋﺎﱄ‬

‫‪high‬‬

‫‪I‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬

‫‪is‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺎ‬

‫‪I‬‬

‫ﺟﺰﻳﺮﺓ‬

‫‪island‬‬

‫ﺛﻠﺞ‬

‫‪ice‬‬

‫ﺿﻤﲑ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ ﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ‬

‫‪it‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﻳﺾ‬

‫‪ill‬‬

‫ﻣﻬﻢ‬

‫‪important‬‬

‫‪J‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻋﻤﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺷﻐﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬

‫‪job‬‬

‫ﻏﻴﻮﺭ‬

‫‪jealous‬‬

‫ﻏﺎﺑﺔ‬

‫‪jungle‬‬

‫ﻳﺮﺑﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﻞ‬

‫‪join‬‬

‫‪K‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺭﻛﺒﺔ‬

‫‪knee‬‬

‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ‬

‫‪key‬‬

‫ﺳﻜﲔ‬

‫‪knife‬‬

‫ﻳﻘﺘﻞ‬

‫‪kill‬‬

‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‬

‫‪know‬‬

‫ﻟﻄﻴﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﻉ‬

‫‪kind‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٥٦‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪L‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻳﺼﻐﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﺼﺖ‬

‫‪listen‬‬

‫ﺳﻴﺪﺓ‬

‫‪lady‬‬

‫ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺻﻐﲑ‬

‫‪little‬‬

‫ﺃﺭﺽ‬

‫‪land‬‬

‫ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﳛﺐ‬

‫‪live‬‬

‫ﻟﻐﺔ‬

‫‪language‬‬

‫ﺷﻔﺔ‬

‫‪lip‬‬

‫ﺁﺧ‪‬ﺮ‬

‫‪last‬‬

‫ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‬

‫‪long‬‬

‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬

‫‪learn‬‬

‫ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﺍﻗﺐ‬

‫‪look‬‬

‫ﻳﻐﺎﺩﺭ‬

‫‪leave‬‬

‫ﳜﺴﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻀﻴﻊ‬

‫‪lose‬‬

‫ﻳﺴﺎﺭ‬

‫‪left‬‬

‫ﻋﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ‪ ،‬ﺻﺎﺧﺐ‬

‫‪loud‬‬

‫ﺳﺎﻕ‬

‫‪leg‬‬

‫ﺣ‪‬ﺐ ‪ ،‬ﳛﺐ‬

‫‪love‬‬

‫ﺃﻗﻞ‬

‫‪less‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬

‫‪low‬‬

‫ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﻏﺐ‬

‫‪like‬‬

‫ﺧﻂ‬

‫‪line‬‬

‫‪M‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻗﻤﺮ‬

‫‪moon‬‬

‫ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺼﻨﻊ‬

‫‪make‬‬

‫ﺻﺒﺎﺡ‬

‫‪morning‬‬

‫ﺫﻛﺮ‬

‫‪male‬‬

‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬

‫‪most‬‬

‫ﺭﺟﻞ‬

‫‪man‬‬

‫ﺃﻡ‬

‫‪mother‬‬

‫ﻛﺜﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﻳﺪ‬

‫‪many‬‬

‫ﻛﺜﲑ‬

‫‪much‬‬

‫ﻳﺘﺰﻭﺝ‬

‫‪marry‬‬

‫ﻓﻢ‬

‫‪mouth‬‬

‫ﺭﲟﺎ‬

‫‪may‬‬

‫ﳚﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻮﺟﺐ‬

‫‪must‬‬

‫ﻣﺰﻳﺞ ‪ ،‬ﳝﺰﺝ ‪ ،‬ﳜﻠﻂ‬

‫‪mix‬‬

‫‪N‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺗﺴﻌﺔ‬

‫‪nine‬‬

‫ﻇﻔﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﻤﺎﺭ‬

‫‪nail‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٥٧‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﻻ‬

‫‪no‬‬

‫ﺿﻴﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻀﻴﻖ‬

‫‪narrow‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ‬

‫‪noon‬‬

‫ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﺘﺮﺏ‬

‫‪near‬‬

‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬

‫‪normal‬‬

‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ‬

‫‪necessary‬‬

‫ﴰﺎﻝ‬

‫‪north‬‬

‫ﺭﻗﺒﺔ‬

‫‪neck‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﻒ‬

‫‪nose‬‬

‫ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﳛﺘﺎﺝ‬

‫‪need‬‬

‫ﻻﺷﻲﺀ‬

‫‪nothing‬‬

‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ‬

‫‪net‬‬

‫ﺍﻵﻥ‬

‫‪now‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬

‫‪new‬‬

‫ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﺩ‬

‫‪number‬‬

‫ﻟﻴﻞ‬

‫‪night‬‬

‫‪O‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻳﻔﺘﺢ‬

‫‪open‬‬

‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ‬

‫‪office‬‬

‫ﻋﻜﺲ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎﻡ‬

‫‪opposite‬‬

‫ﺯﻳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻔﻂ‬

‫‪oil‬‬

‫ﺃﻭ‬

‫‪or‬‬

‫ﻛﺒﲑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪﱘ‬

‫‪old‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﺗﻘﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺗﻘﺎﱄ‬

‫‪orange‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬

‫‪one‬‬

‫ﺁﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻏﲑ ‪ ،‬ﺧﻼﻑ‬

‫‪other‬‬

‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬

‫‪only‬‬

‫‪P‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻃﺒﻖ ‪ ،‬ﺻﺤﻦ‬

‫‪plate‬‬

‫ﳝﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‬

‫‪pass‬‬

‫ﻳﻠﻌﺐ‬

‫‪play‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬

‫‪past‬‬

‫ﻳﺴﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﺿﻲ‬

‫‪please‬‬

‫ﻳﺪﻓﻊ‬

‫‪pay‬‬

‫ﻓﻘﲑ‬

‫‪poor‬‬

‫ﻗﻠﻢ‬

‫‪pen‬‬

‫ﳑﻜﻦ ‪ ،‬ﳏﺘﻤﻞ‬

‫‪possible‬‬

‫ﻗﻠﻢ ﺭﺻﺎﺹ‬

‫‪pencil‬‬

‫ﺧﺎﺹ‬

‫‪private‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬

‫‪people‬‬

‫ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﺎﻉ ‪ ،‬ﲨﻬﻮﺭ‬

‫‪public‬‬

‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ‬

‫‪picture‬‬

‫ﻳﻀﻊ‬

‫‪put‬‬

‫ﺧﻨﺰﻳﺮ‬

‫‪pig‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٥٨‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﻃﺎﺋﺮﺓ‬

‫‪plane‬‬

‫‪Q‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺳﺆﺍﻝ‬

‫‪question‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫‪quantity‬‬

‫ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬

‫‪quick‬‬

‫ﺭﺑﻊ‬

‫‪quarter‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﻒ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻐﺎﺩﺭ‬

‫‪quit‬‬

‫ﺃﻣﲑﺓ‬

‫‪queen‬‬

‫ﲤﺎﻣﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ‬

‫‪quite‬‬

‫ﲝﺚ ‪ ،‬ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ‬

‫‪quest‬‬

‫‪R‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺔ ‪ ،‬ﳚﻴﺐ‬

‫‪reply‬‬

‫ﻣﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﲤﻄﺮ‬

‫‪rain‬‬

‫ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻝ ﻋﻦ‬

‫‪responsible‬‬

‫ﻳﻘﺮﺃ‬

‫‪read‬‬

‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﳝﲔ‬

‫‪right‬‬

‫ﺟﺎﻫﺰ‬

‫‪ready‬‬

‫ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺰ‬

‫‪room‬‬

‫ﺃﲪﺮ‬

‫‪red‬‬

‫ﻳﺮﻛﺾ‬

‫‪run‬‬

‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻲ‬

‫‪regular‬‬

‫‪S‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻳﺒﻄﻰﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻤﻬﻞ‬

‫‪slow‬‬

‫ﺣﺰﻳﻦ‬

‫‪sad‬‬

‫ﺻﻐﲑ‬

‫‪small‬‬

‫ﺁﻣﻦ‬

‫‪safe‬‬

‫ﺍﺑﺘﺴﺎﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺒﺘﺴﻢ‬

‫‪smile‬‬

‫ﲣﻔﻴﺾ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺒﺤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﳜﻔﺾ‬

‫‪sail‬‬

‫ﺩﺧﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺪﺧﻦ‬

‫‪smoke‬‬

‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ‬

‫‪same‬‬

‫ﻧﺎﻋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻃﺮﻱ‬

‫‪soft‬‬

‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ‬

‫‪say‬‬

‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬

‫‪some‬‬

‫ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ‬

‫‪school‬‬

‫ﺃﻏﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫‪song‬‬

‫ﲝﺮ‬

‫‪sea‬‬

‫ﺻﻮﺕ‬

‫‪sound‬‬

‫ﻳﺒﺤﺚ‬

‫‪search‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٥٩‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

second

‫ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬، ‫ﺛﺎﱐ‬

south

‫ﺟﻨﻮﺏ‬

secret

‫ﺳﺮ‬

speak

‫ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ‬

see

‫ﻳﺮﻯ‬

special

‫ﺧﺎﺹ‬

send

‫ﻳﺮﺳﻞ‬

spell

‫ﻳﺘﻬﺠﻰ‬

serious

‫ ﺟﺪﻱ‬، ‫ﺟﺎﺩ‬

spend

‫ ﳝﻀﻲ‬، ‫ﻳﻨﻔﻖ‬

set

‫ ﻳﺮﺗﺐ‬، ‫ﳚﻠﺲ‬

spoon

‫ﻣﻠﻌﻘﺔ‬

seven

‫ﺳﺒﻌﺔ‬

spring

‫ ﻳﻨﺒﻮﻉ‬، ‫ ﺯﻧﱪﻙ‬، ‫ﺭﺑﻴﻊ‬

sharp

‫ ﺫﻛﻲ‬، ‫ﺣﺎﺩ‬

stand

‫ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ‬، ‫ﻗﻒ‬

she

‫ﻫﻲ‬

star

‫ﳒﻤﺔ‬

ship

‫ﺳﻔﻴﻨﺔ‬

start

‫ﻳﺒﺪﺃ‬

shirt

‫ﻗﻤﻴﺺ‬

stick

‫ﻳﻠﺼﻖ‬

shoe

‫ ﺣﺬﺍﺀ‬، ‫ﻧﻌﻞ‬

stomach

‫ﻣﻌﺪﺓ‬

short

‫ﻗﺼﲑ‬

store

‫ ﳜﺰﻥ‬، ‫ﳏﻞ‬

shut

‫ﻳﻐﻠﻖ‬

story

‫ﻗﺼﺔ‬

side

‫ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬، ‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬

strange

‫ﻏﺮﻳﺐ‬

sign

‫ ﻳﻮﻗﻊ‬، ‫ ﺭﻣﺰ‬، ‫ﻻﻓﺘﺔ‬

street

‫ﺷﺎﺭﻉ‬

silver

‫ ﻓﻀﺔ‬، ‫ﻓﻀﻲ‬

strong

‫ﻗﻮﻱ‬

simple

‫ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‬

study

‫ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬، ‫ﻳﺪﺭﺱ‬

single

‫ ﻣﻔﺮﺩ‬، ‫ﺃﻋﺰﺏ‬

sudden

‫ﻣﻔﺎﺟﻰﺀ‬

sister

‫ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺔ‬، ‫ ﳑﺮﺿﺔ‬، ‫ﺃﺧﺖ‬

sugar

‫ﺳﻜﺮ‬

sit

‫ ﻳﻘﻌﺪ‬، ‫ﳚﻠﺲ‬

summer

‫ﺻﻴﻒ‬

six

‫ﺳﺘﺔ‬

sun

‫ﴰﺲ‬

size

‫ ﻣﻘﺎﺱ‬، ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬

sure

‫ﺃﻛﻴﺪ‬

skin

‫ﺟﻠﺪ‬

sweet

‫ﺣﻠﻮ‬

sky

‫ﲰﺎﺀ‬

swim

‫ﻳﺴﺒﺢ‬

sleep

‫ﻳﻨﺎﻡ‬

www.expenglish.com

٢٦٠

Omar AL-Hourani

‫‪T‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻭﻗﺖ‬

‫‪time‬‬

‫ﻃﺎﻭﻟﺔ‬

‫‪table‬‬

‫ﻣ‪‬ﺘﻌﺐ‬

‫‪tired‬‬

‫ﻳﺄﺧﺬ‬

‫‪take‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﹰﺎ‬

‫‪together‬‬

‫ﻳﺘﻜﻠﻢ‬

‫‪talk‬‬

‫ﻏﺪﹰﺍ‬

‫‪tomorrow‬‬

‫ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‬

‫‪tall‬‬

‫ﻟﺴﺎﻥ‬

‫‪tongue‬‬

‫ﻳﺪﺭﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‬

‫‪teach‬‬

‫ﺳﻦ‬

‫‪tooth‬‬

‫ﻓﺮﻳﻖ‬

‫‪team‬‬

‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﺪﺓ‬

‫‪town‬‬

‫ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﳜﱪ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﻭﻱ‬

‫‪tell‬‬

‫ﻗﻄﺎﺭ‬

‫‪train‬‬

‫ﻋﺸﺮﺓ‬

‫‪ten‬‬

‫ﻳﺘﺮﺟﻢ‬

‫‪translate‬‬

‫ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﳜﺘﱪ‬

‫‪test‬‬

‫ﻳﺴﺎﻓﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻔﺮ‬

‫‪travel‬‬

‫ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬

‫‪that‬‬

‫ﻃﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺻﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬

‫‪tray‬‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬

‫‪there‬‬

‫ﺷﺠﺮﺓ‬

‫‪tree‬‬

‫ﻫﻢ‬

‫‪they‬‬

‫ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺻﺎﺩﻕ‬

‫‪true‬‬

‫ﺷﻲﺀ‬

‫‪thing‬‬

‫ﳛﺎﻭﻝ‬

‫‪try‬‬

‫ﻳﻔﻜﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻈﻦ‬

‫‪think‬‬

‫ﻳﻠﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺪﻳﺮ ‪ ،‬ﳛﻮﻝ‬

‫‪turn‬‬

‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬

‫‪this‬‬

‫ﺍﺛﻨﲔ‬

‫‪two‬‬

‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬

‫‪three‬‬

‫ﻧﻮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻄﺒﻊ‬

‫‪type‬‬

‫ﺣﻠﻖ‬

‫‪throat‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺖ‬

‫‪time‬‬

‫ﺧﻼﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬

‫‪through‬‬

‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺬﻛﺮﺓ‬

‫‪ticket‬‬

‫‪U‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ‬

‫‪use‬‬

‫ﻣﻈﻠﺔ‬

‫‪umbrella‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺘﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺄﻟﻮﻑ‬

‫‪usual‬‬

‫ﻳﻔﻬﻢ‬

‫‪understand‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٦١‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫‪V‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻧﺼﺮ‬

‫‪victory‬‬

‫ﺇﺟﺎﺯﺓ‬

‫‪vacation‬‬

‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ‬

‫‪video‬‬

‫ﺷﺮﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺻﺎﱀ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻧﻮﱐ‬

‫‪valid‬‬

‫ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺸﺎﻫﺪ‬

‫‪view‬‬

‫ﺃﳘﻴﺔ‬

‫‪value‬‬

‫ﻗﺮﻳﺔ‬

‫‪village‬‬

‫ﻳﻐﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻐﲑ‬

‫‪vary‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺋﻲ‬

‫‪visible‬‬

‫ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻉ‬

‫‪various‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﺘﺮﻉ‬

‫‪vote‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﹰﺍ‬

‫‪very‬‬

‫‪W‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬

‫‪which‬‬

‫ﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮ‬

‫‪wait‬‬

‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺜﻤﺎ‬

‫‪while‬‬

‫ﻳﺴﺘﻴﻘﻆ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻨﻬﺾ‬

‫‪wake up‬‬

‫ﺃﺑﻴﺾ‬

‫‪white‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﺍﺭ‬

‫‪wall‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ‬

‫‪who‬‬

‫ﻳﺮﻳﺪ‬

‫‪want‬‬

‫ﳌﺎﺫﺍ‬

‫‪why‬‬

‫ﺣﺮﺏ‬

‫‪war‬‬

‫ﺯﻭﺟﺔ‬

‫‪wife‬‬

‫ﺩﺍﰱﺀ‬

‫‪warm‬‬

‫ﺳﻮﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﻏﺐ‬

‫‪will‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬

‫‪was‬‬

‫ﻳﺮﺑﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻔﻮﺯ‬

‫‪win‬‬

‫ﻳﻐﺴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻐﺘﺴﻞ‬

‫‪wash‬‬

‫ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ‬

‫‪window‬‬

‫ﻳﺮﻗﺐ ‪ ،‬ﳛﺮﺱ ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻳﺪ‬

‫‪watch‬‬

‫ﺷﺘﺎﺀ‬

‫‪winter‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺮﻭﻱ‬

‫‪water‬‬

‫ﺣﻜﻴﻢ‬

‫‪wise‬‬

‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬

‫‪way‬‬

‫ﻣﻊ‬

‫‪with‬‬

‫ﳓﻦ‬

‫‪we‬‬

‫ﺍﻣﺮﺃﺓ‬

‫‪woman‬‬

‫ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻫﻦ‬

‫‪weak‬‬

‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫‪word‬‬

‫ﻳﺮﺗﺪﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻠﺒﺲ‬

‫‪wear‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺷﻐﻞ‬

‫‪work‬‬

‫ﺃﺳﺒﻮﻉ‬

‫‪week‬‬

‫ﻋﺎﱂ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻧﻴﺎ‬

‫‪world‬‬

‫ﺟﻴﺪﹰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﲤﺎﻣﹰﺎ‬

‫‪well‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٦٢‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

‫ﻗﻠﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻠﻖ‬

‫‪worry‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ‬

‫‪were‬‬

‫ﻳﻜﺘﺐ‬

‫‪write‬‬

‫ﻏﺮﺏ‬

‫‪west‬‬

‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬

‫‪wrong‬‬

‫ﺭﻃﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺒﺘﻞ‬

‫‪wet‬‬

‫ﺃﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬

‫‪which‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ‬

‫‪what‬‬

‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺜﻤﺎ‬

‫‪while‬‬

‫ﻣﱴ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬

‫‪when‬‬

‫ﺃﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬

‫‪where‬‬

‫‪Y‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺃﻣﺲ‬

‫‪yesterday‬‬

‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬

‫‪year‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﺖ‬

‫‪you‬‬

‫ﺃﺻﻔﺮ‬

‫‪yellow‬‬

‫ﺷﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺻﻐﲑ ﺳﻦ‬

‫‪young‬‬

‫ﻧﻌﻢ‬

‫‪yes‬‬

‫‪Z‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﺣﺪﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ‬

‫‪zoo‬‬

‫ﲪﺎﺭ ﻭﺣﺸﻲ‬

‫‪zebra‬‬

‫ﺻﻔﺮ‬

‫‪zero‬‬

‫‪Omar AL-Hourani‬‬

‫‪٢٦٣‬‬

‫‪www.expenglish.com‬‬

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