Generic Software: This is a class of software that is can be used for a number of different purposes without requiring modification. The opposite of generic software is 'bespoke software', where the software is specially adapted to suit a client (e.g. spreadsheet). Critical Path Analysis: This is a useful Project anagement Tool which enables managers to calculate the minimum length of time a project will need to be completed. The idea behind it is that in order to complete a project some acti!ities are dependent on other acti!ities being finished in a certain order. Advantages of Pert: ". can pro!ide a probability of completing before a gi!en
date. #. $t can help spot slack times so resources can be mo!ed to more critical acti!ities
Control systems % control system uses one or more control programs running on one or more computers. There are suitable sensors for measurement and feedback, actuators and user interface de!ices to regulate the operation of other de!ices, with some monitoring and recording of physical quantities. There is some analysis of performance and considerable user interaction. The system is described as &real'time(, as it must be able to respond within a specified time to changes in conditions. Automated systems %n automated system is an embedded control system. Typically it uses a microcontroller running a single control program, without a separate operating system, performing a single task with a fi)ed set of hardware including sensors and actuators. There is a simple user interface with limited scope for user interaction and usually limited ability to record and analy*e data. Maintenance: +early all systems will need maintenance o!er their lifetime. This is because
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,omething in the system needs fi)ing -such as unknown errors' (corrective maintenance) .)ternal changes forces a change to the system -ta) rate change' (adaptive maintenance) ,omething can be impro!ed. (perfective maintenance)
$n terms of the ,ystems /ife 0ycle approach this is the 'maintenance' phase of the system. There are many reasons for maintaining a system that fall into the categories gi!en abo!e
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%n error 1 bug is serious enough to need fi)ing % new business process needs to be incorporated. % security !ulnerability in the system has been found and needs patching %n user has identified how the system could be impro!ed The hardware or network is being impro!ed and so the system should take ad!antage of that.
'Phishing' is the nickname gi!en to the sending of fraudulent e-mails that attempt to trick people into re!ealing details about their ban accounts, or other online accounts. 'Pharming' is similar to phishing, but instead of decei!ing you (as phishing does), a pharming attack deceives your com!uter. $n a pharming attack, when you type in a completely genuine "#$ (e.g. for your online banking website), your computer is tricked into displaying a fa e website (often a !ery accurate copy). 'S!am' is the name gi!en to unsolicited e-mails (ones sent without being asked for).
Web 2.0 sites, which allow account-holding users to contribute to the site’s content via a form viewed in a web browser: – Social networking websites – Web forums or message boards – wikis – igital media sharing websites
% wi i is a website that allows users to collaborate (work together) to create the content. The pages of a wiki can be edited by e!eryone (or those who ha!e the password) so that different people can add to the page, edit things, fi) errors, etc. There are many websites that allow users to create, upload and share their own media such as photos, music or !ideo. 2sually other users can rate or comment on the media that is uploaded leading to these sites often being referred to as 'Social Media' sites. % social networ website is a site that allows user to connect with other users who are friends 1 relati!es, or who share similar interests. The word 'blog' is an abbreviation of 'web log'.
% blog is a website where someone (usually a normal person ' not a professional writer) writes about a topic. One form of blogging, where people publish very short posts, is known as ' Microblogging'. %eed #eader $n computing, a news aggregator (collector), also termed a feed aggregator, feed reader, news reader, 3,, (#ich Site Summary) (Really Simple Syndication) reader or simply aggregator, is client software or a web application which aggregates syndicated web content such as news headlines, blogs, podcasts, and !ideo blogs in one location for easy !iewing. Podcast a multimedia digital file made a!ailable on the $nternet for downloading to a portable media player, computer, etc.
P&P: Peer-to-peer (P2P) networking eliminates the need for central servers, allowing all
computers to communicate and share resources as equals. Music file sharing, instant messaging and other popular network applications rely on P2P technology. Mash up: % mashu!, in web de!elopment, is a web page, or web application, that uses content
from more than one source to create a single new ser!ice displayed in a single graphical interface. 4or e)ample, you could combine the addresses and photographs of your library branches with a 5oogle map to create a map mahup. Sam!ling
$n signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous signal to a discrete signal. % common e)ample is the con!ersion of a sound wa!e (a continuous signal) to a sequence of samples (a discrete'time signal).
'lac bo( Testing 6lack bo) testing is a testing technique that ignores the internal mechanism of the system and focuses on the output generated against any input and e)ecution of the system. $t is also called functional testing. 7hitebo( Testing 7hite bo) testing is a testing technique that takes into account the internal mechanism of a system. $t is also called structural testing and glass bo) testing. 6lack bo) testing is often used for !alidation and white bo) testing is often used for !erification. 'eta Testing
6eta testing is the testing which is done by end users, a team outside de!elopment, or publicly releasing full pre'!ersion of the product which is known as beta !ersion. The aim of beta testing is to co!er une)pected errors. $t falls under the class of black bo) testing.
System testing !ntire system is tested as per the requirements. "lack-#o$ type testing that is #ased on overall requirements specifications, covers all com#ined parts of a system. Alpha testing %n house virtual user environment can #e created for this type of testing. &esting is done at the end of development. 'till minor design changes may #e made as a result of such testing.
A computer that is not connected to a network is known as a standalonecomputer. Routers are the devices that join together the various different networks that together make up the Internet. % hub is a de!ice that connects a number of computers together to make a /%+. % switch, like a hub, is a de!ice that connects a number of computers together to make a /%+. % switch is a more &intelligent( de!ice than a hub8 if it recei!es a message, it checks who it is addressed to, and only sends it to that specific computer. 6ecause of this, networks that use switches are more secure than those that use hubs, but also a little more e(!ensive. % router is a network de!ice that connects together two or more networks. %lternati!ely, the /%+ connection might be wireless (7i4i), making the de!ice a wireless router. (% wireless router is actually a router and wireless switch combined) % !ro(y server is a computer setup to share a resource, usually an $nternet connection. 9ther computers can request a web page !ia the pro)y ser!er. The pro)y ser!er will then get the page using its $nternet connection, and pass it back to the computer who asked for it. Pro)y ser!ers are often used instead of router since additional software can be easily installed on the computer such as anti'!irus, web filtering etc. % bridge is a network de!ice that typically links together two different parts of a /%+ whereas a router is usually used to link a /%+ to a 7%+ (such as the $nternet), a bridge links independent parts of a /%+ so that they act as a single /%+.
Gateway: a de!ice used to connect two different networks, especially a connection to the $nternet. Protocol: a set of rules go!erning the e)change or transmission of data between de!ices.
The !rimary difference between gateways and routers is that a gateway is the single point of access to computers outside your network. :epending on the comple)ity of your network, gateways can only be one or a few since they pro!ide the e)it and entry points like doors of a house. 3outers,
on the other hand, determine the shortest possible path your data can tra!el from 0omputer % to 0omputer 6, like hallways and staircases.
EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) is a standard format for exchanging business data. !nimation is where a series of still images are linked together as "art of a timed se#uence. $his makes the image a""ear to move. Animation
%rame: frames are individual "ictures in a se#uence of images %rame #ate: $his is the s"eed at which each frame is "resented to the viewer. )ey %rame: These are the starting and ending points of any smooth transition. (4irst and the last frame so that in between are created automatically). Tweening: $weening is the "rocess where the content of the frames between the ke%frames
are created automaticall% b% the animation software so that the animation glides smoothl% from one ke%frame to the ne&t. #endering: $his is a "rocess where color, shades, shadows and other effects are added to the basic animation b% the animation software. Mor!hing: orphing is an animation techni#ue in which one image is graduall% turned into another. ata backu"s are used to restore data in case it is corru"ted or destro%ed. 'n contrast, data archives "rotect older information that is not needed for ever%da% o"erations but ma% occasionall% need to be accessed.
'ac ing and Achieving:
Bit treaming: ! bit stream is a contiguous se#uence of bits, re"resenting a stream of data, transmitted continuousl% over a communications "ath, seriall% (one at a time). Data Dictionary: a set of information describing the contents, format, and structure of a database and the relationshi" between its elements, used to control access to and mani"ulation of the database. Integrated software is software for "ersonal com"uters that combines the most commonl% used functions of man% "roductivit% software "rograms into one a""lication.