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Geographic information system for mine detection

Published on January 2019 | Categories: Documents | Downloads: 8 | Comments: 0
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Geographic Inform Information ation Systems in Mine Mine Action Authored By

LACROI! "ierre "ierre Marce# Anse#me $ni%ersity of Gene%a & Gene%a Internationa# Centre for 'umanitarian (emining  A land-mine is a perfect soldier: "Ever courageous, never sleeps,  )ourna#  )ourn a# for *R+ *R+ & Mine never misses.“  --- Khmer Rouge - Cambodia Action

+hat is this paper  





Genera# paper! try to propose propose GIS for mine action a ction (iscusses the ad%antage and Capabi#ity of GIS for Mine action "rimiti%e idea based on e,isting GIS feature and mine action reuirement (iscusses GIS too#s ! .( terrain ana#ysis and its e/ect in humanitarian operation

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Landmine and $,e,p#oded ordnance Cha##enges in Landmine- "resent scenario Introduction of GIS Landmine app#ication GIS $se in Mine action Current data System 0 IMSMA Mine Action (ecision Ma1ing GIS maps Connecting GIS 2ith IMSMA .( Ana#ysis Afghanistan Case study Ana#y3ing the Accessibi#ity "rioriti3ing Acti%ities and *%a#uating cost

Introduction of GIS Landmine app#ication 

*/ecti%e (ecision ma1ing in mine action Geographic factor   "opu#ation distribution   Infrastructure    4errain   5egetation  



App#ication of GIS in #andmine action  

Integrating mine data 2ith  4errain! soi#! %egetation! #and use data  Socia# economic data 





Integrating *n%ironmenta# 6 Socio *conomic 6 Cu#tura# Speci7city of mine a/ected areas (ecision and priority management of demining authority

GIS $se in Mine action 

Generate intuiti%e map at %arious sca#e 8or operator in 7e#d  Country #e%e# go%ernance  Internationa# regu#ation body 

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.( ana#ysis of spatia# data Impro%e prioritisation and p#anning of 7e#d operations 'e#p to mode# the nomina# operationa# di9cu#ty of demining  

(etermine suitab#e assets for a gi%en tas1

Current data System IMSMA 



Gene%a Internationa# Centre for 'umanitarian (emining :GIC'(; ha%e de%e#oped the system IMSMA- Information Management System for Mine Action :Information management system 0 <===;  

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It contains maps of di/erent sca#e :country structure! #oca# structure; Landmine a/ected areas represented in po#ygon! each po#ygon has its o2n item tab#e! 2hich contain information on mine Its has theme based too# bar on map :as points in po#ygon;        



Combines R(MS 2ith GIS

Location 'a3ard Accident Associated p#ace of the country structure

IMSMA- Lags in ad%anced too#s and not using the fu## potentia# of GIS

IMSMA 0 Screen 5ie2

Mine Action (ecision Ma1ing 



Information needs to be integrated 2ith geospatia# component 8actors in>uencing main action decision ma1ing  4he geographic #ocation of ha3ards and their type   'istorica# information about ha3ardous areas   Mar1ing in the 7e#d    4he type of mine ris1 education pro%ided or yet to be pro%ided    4he #ocation of popu#ations! interna##y disp#aced persons and returnees    4he #ocation of the 2or1ing teams   Loca# terrain conditions   +eather conditions   Accessibi#ity! eg! information about infrastructure! tra9c! security   Logistica# constraints    4he assets dep#oyed in an area and tas1s carried out?  

GIS maps 



Many maps 2ere created to he#p on demining acti%ity and obser%ing the progress ! p#anning  

Large-sca#e ha3ardous area #ocation maps

 

Contamination density maps

Map information e,traction   Reuired area maps #ayer :e?g? ha3ardous area map; o%er#aid on top of many other #ayers 

 4opography



$rban Areas



Critica# Infrastructure



Land Co%er & Land use changes



(e%e#opment & "opu#ated areas



Base map



S#opes! roads



Meteoro#ogica# condition



Current position of the team

Large sca#e ha3ardous map :C'[email protected]'A; 

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Representing e%ery ha3ardous area by a "o#ygon :de#imited boundary; and point symbo# mar1er  4his Large sca#e map :e?g? 5i##age map; #aid on di/erent #ayer *,amp#e 0 'a3ardous area po#ygon o%er#aid on sate##ite image of the area  

Represent %i##age bui#t-up in the mine c#eared areas



Map up-dation ha%e to be done at #east on a 2ee1#y basis



$pdating Geospatia# information  

In%o#%es recording attributes 



 4ypes of ha3ard



Status of the ha3ard



Co-ordinate information

Information represented on the map  

Symbo# si3ed proportationa# to the obser%ed obser%ed items

(i/erent symbo# or co#or used for each types

Contamination density Map 

Aggregate information on ha3ardous map :indicating a## 'a3ards; become un readab#e due to #arge data :in sma## sca#e maps;



eed for sing#e data! statisfy the reuirement



A density %a#ue is assigned for each #ocation of map depended on number of 'a3ards found 2ithin a distance



GIS (ensity interpo#ator too# used to compute the density



$ses of Contamination density map

Af ghanistan data (ensity data map

 

Sho2s %ariation of #andmine contamination Core data

 

Setting the priority

map

Chorop#eth Map 

Information map on each administrati%e unit



*R+ areas are aggregated by administrati%e unit and co#oured according to the contamination! optiona##y norma#ised by the area of each unit



 4he be#o2 7gure set the correct priority  

+e see both high contamination 6 "opu#ation at Ris1

Connecting GIS 2ith IMSMA 

 



IMSMA contains important updated attribute information eed a connection bet2een GIS and IMSMA GIC'( de%e#oped S4AR4 - Simplifed Toolbar to Accelerate Repeated Tasks START   ArcGIS plug-in used to quickly extract the IMSMA data or GIS analysis  !elp to con"ert #$%#& and G'S date into geo-spatial inormation  !elp in production o maps 

.( Ana#ysis 

GIS can create .( surface:!!:e#e%ation;;



Importance of .( ana#ysis





 

increase the accuracy of area si3e ca#cu#ations of contaminated surfacesD

 

More rea#istic assessment of the operationa# di9cu#ty of demining by integrating s#ope and e#e%ation information into the ana#ysis

 

Better prepare 7e#d operations

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(etermine the potentia# #ocation of mines that may ha%e mo%ed o%er time through 2ater run-o/ or surface mo%ement

 

Report on demining acti%ities in a more %isua##y intuiti%e manner?

A maEor ad%antage of .( GIS is accuracy of surface area ca#cu#ations  

Actua# terrain is ta1en into account :instead of >at proEected surface;

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FH s#ope ! proEected area .H #ess than actua# area

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Reduce the reporting error of contamination

S#ope  

Ate of change of e#e%ation in a adEacent #ocation

Afghanistan 

S#ope date from SR4M :Shutt#e radar topography mission; (*M

Combining s#ope dataset 2ith contamination data   Gi%es information reg- operationa# di9cu#ty of demining  4ransportation  Machine   'i## shade function a#ong 2ith s#ope and e#e%ation image impro%es the %isua#i3ation of theand surface for ana#ysis Ref- (igita# e#e%ation mode# on Afghanistan deri%ed s#ope and hi##shade?:enhance mar1ing and fencing; 

 (ata sourceJ )ar%is et al( )*++,

.( terrain contamination 5isua#i3ation 

5isua#i3ing study area in .( gi%e #ot of inference than Fd "#animetric data .( GIS ana#ysis imp#ement ed by Mine Action Coordinati on Centre of Afghanista n :MACCA ; for s#ope ana#ysis

.d Ana#ysis - 'ydro#ogy 

'ydro#ogy and 2atershed mode#ing



'ydro#ogica# net2or1 can be deri%ed from (*M  Gi%es >o2 #ength ! do2nstream and upstream  4his gi%es information of possib#e disp#aced mines



(is#ocated mines are a#2ays di9cu#t to detect

.( Ana#ysis -4e#ecommunication 

 4o address te#ecommunication issues in the 7e#d   5ie2 shed ana#ysis   Identify optima# sate##ite receptor   5'8 repeater #ocations?   "redict strength of G"S signa#s   'e#p in organising o%er>ight operations 2ith unmanned aeria# %ehic#es :$A5; and airp#ane obser%ations :eg! for #arge-sca#e mapping purposes; 5ery high freuency :5'8 ; co%erage Bro2n ce##s are co%ered by at #east one red obser%ation point  e##o2 ce##s are #ocated in radio

Ana#y3ing the Accessibi#ity 

GIS based Road net2or1 ana#ysis  4a1e into account s#ope! #and co%er and road ua#ity



GIS based 4ransport net2or1 ana#ysis  (ispatching medica# care to %ictims  (etermination of the best #ocation for bui#ding a ne2 hea#th faci#ity  "#anning of in-7e#d operations  Road c#earance management and prioritisation  humanitarian #ogistics to #ocate ne2 2arehousing faci#ities



Minimi3e the tra%e# time and distance in the mined area



Identify nearest medica# faci#ity :based on accessibi#ity & cost;

"rioriti3ing Acti%ities and *%a#uating cost 

GIS ad%antage #ies in its capacity to combine %arious data sources to generate ne2 information



IMSMA data combines 2ith on IMSMA data



Combining many data GIS can 'e#p   "rioritise ha3ard c#earance based on any number of criteria   (etermine ho2 much time and e/ort c#earance of a particu#ar ha3ardous area 2ou#d ta1e! by integrating #oca# terrain and infrastructure conditions   (ecide 2hich type of asset shou#d be dep#oyed by comparing di/erent scenarios based on di/erent asset characteristics under simi#ar terrain conditions   'a%e better 1no2#edge of the accessibi#ity of a p#anned ha3ardous area and 1no2#edge of #oca# terrain conditions for p#anning future tas1s?

"rioriti3ing to (ecision ma1ing 

Attribute based score a##otted to each area to de7ne its priority



GIS capabi#ity o/ers us to prioriti3e demining based on





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Socio-*conomic impact ana#ysis of #andmine ha3ards  Range Munitions  Resources and faci#ities B#oc1ed  umber of recent %ictim

 

C#ose pro,imity to infrastructure of interest :e?g? hospita#;! road! Industry

 4he resu#tant scoring from the process by GIS can be fed to (ecision ma1ing and priority setting Operationa# di9cu#ty of demining   5isua#i3ing the c#earance di9cu#ty due to   4errain  5egetation & Ground softness  "recipitation & 4emperature

8uture de%e#opment 



8ocus on sharing the geospatia# information through 2eb app#ication Geoporta#

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