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Geographical Information System (Gis)

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INTRODUCTION: A geographical information syst ystem (GIS) captures, stores, analyzes, manages, and presents data that is linked to location. Technically, GIS is geographic information systems which includes mapping software and its application with remote sensing, land surveying, aerial photography, mathe athem matics, photo oto geometry, geogr ography, and tool ools that hat can be implemented with GIS software.




The      

GIS history dates back to 1960 when computer based GIS have been used.       A sound and stable data structure to store and analyze map data became dominant in the the earl early y 1970¶ 1970¶s. s. This This has has lead lead to the the intr introd oduc ucti tion on of topo topollogy into into GIS. GIS. Anot Anothe her  r  sign signif ific ican antt brea breakt kthr hroug ough h occu occurr rred ed with with the the intr introd oduc ucti tion on and and spre spread ad of pers person onal al computers in 1980¶s. 1980¶s.       The 1990¶s can be characterized as a period of the breakthrough of object-orientation in system and database design, recognition of geo-informatics as a professional activity, and spatial information. In Indi Indiaa the the majo majorr deve develo lopm pmen ents ts have have happ happen ened ed duri during ng the the last last one deca decade de with with       sign signif ific ican antt cont contri ribu buti tion on comi coming ng from from Depa Depart rtm ment ent of Spac Spacee empha emphasi sizi zing ng the the GIS GIS appli applicat cation ionss for Natura Naturall Resou Resource rcess Manag Managem ement ent.. Notab Notable le among among them them are Natura Naturall Resource Information System (NRIS), Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development (IMSD) and Bio-diversity Characterization at National Level. IIRS is also playing a major ajor role role in GIS GIS thro throug ugh h educ educat atiion and and train rainin ing g prog progra ram ms at the the Nat Nationa ionall and and International level, natural resource management, infrastructure development, facility management, management, business/market business/market applications applications etc.


Applications: GIS GIS tech techno nollogy ogy can can be used used for  for  scien scientifi tificc inves investigat tigations ions,, resource management,, asset management, management management, archaeology archaeology,, environmental impact assessment,, urba assessment urban n pla planni nning ng,, cartography cartography,, criminology criminology,, geographic history,, marketing history marketing,, logistics logistics,, pros prospec pectiv tivity ity map mappin ping g, and other    pur purpo posses. es. For For exam exampl ple, e, GIS GIS migh mightt allo allow w emer mergenc gency y plan planne ners rs to easily calculate emergency response times (i.e. logistics) in the event of a natural disaster , GIS might be used to find wetlands that need  protection from pollution pollution,, or GIS can be used by a company to site a new business location to take advantage of a previously under-served market.. market



Maximize the efficiency of  planning  planning and decision making for  data distribution and handling  Provide efficient means for data of  redundant data base data  base - minimize duplication  Elimination of redundant  Capacity to integrate information from many sources  Complex analysis/query involving geographical referenced data to generate new information. 

For any For  any application there are five generic questions a GIS can answer: Location - What exists at a  particular location?  particular  location? Condition - Identify locations where certain conditions exist. Trends - What has changed since? spatial  pattern exists? Patterns - What spatial pattern Modeling - What if  «««. ? 5

Elements of A GIS: 1 Hardware Type of Computer  Platforms , Modest Personnel Computers, High   per perfo form rman ance ce work workst stat atio ions ns Mini Mini comp comput uter ers, s, Main Mainfr fram amee comp comput uter erss Inpu Inputt Devic Devices es Scann Scanners ers Digit Digitiz izer erss Tape drive drivers rs ,CD, ,CD, Keyb Keyboar oard, d, Graphi Graphicc Monit Monitor  or  ,Output Devices, Plotters Printers Software are Input Input Module Moduless 2 Softw

diting g Editin

,MR P Manipula Manipulati tion/ on/ Analysi Analysiss Modules Modules

Modeling Capability Capability Data ,Spatial Data ,Remote ,Remote Sensing Data ,Global Database 3 Data- Attribute Data

4 Live ware People responsible for digitizing, Implementing using GIS Trained  personnel


GIS Applications Applications to Power Systems The GIS overlays single line diagrams of the of  the power   power network  network with with updated customer, meter, and network for  network  for system system planning,  planning, data analysis and reporting. Energy audit, asset management, network analysis, network  analysis, customer management customer  management can be can  be accomplished  by GIS functionality. GIS also provides also  provides seamless environment for applications for  applications like transient stability, load flow, short circuit analysis and load forecasting. The features of GIS of  GIS are being are  being introduced into power  into  power systems systems for developing for  developing better   better  working models of various of  various aspects like:  Fault Location determination  based on Geo-referencing.  Topology Analysis & Fault Isolation  Requirement Analysis  Resource Allocation --- Tools, Manpower  Work  Order   Generate Work Order   System Restoration


GIS can be used in distribution systems management for:

Fault Management can  be planned.  planned.  Routine maintenance can be   Network extensions  Network  extensions and optimization   Network reconfiguration  Network  reconfiguration  Improved revenue management can  be integrated with GIS  SCADA can be  Rights of way of  way and compensation 


A. Transmission and Distribution Distribution Planning The GIS overlays single line diagrams of the distribution network with updated customer, meter, and network for distribution planning, data analysis and reporting. The Transmission and Distribution losses in India are in the range of 24-26%. These can be reduced by using Spatial data and GIS and improve energy efficiency in the following areas 100% consumer metering and accurate meter reading i.e. installation of meters at all the transformatio transformation n stages stages and in the consumer¶s consumer¶s premises. premises. 

Feeder and Distribution Transformer metering: Installation of electronic meters on all out going feeders and DT¶s.

The feeder and DT meters record active energy, power factor and load information.

 Energy

received in each substation and outgoing feeders, energy billed and T&D losses at each feeder and DT can be properly accounted for total energy. GIS can be put to operation, in above mentioned mentioned areas, for the creation of consumer consumer database and consumer consumer indexing.


For every For  every substation the elements that were imported in the database and can  be viewed on the map are: 1. Name 1.  Name of the of  the substation 2. Number  2.  Number of  of  busses  busses 3. Type of the of  the substation 4. Transformer data Transformer  data 5. Capacitor  banks  banks 6. Load Demand data

Similarly, the elements for the for  the transmission lines include: 1. Circuit type 2. Circuit length 3. Electrical data such as Resistance, Reactance, and Succeptance 4. Additional information like material  properties, etc.


B. Transmission Line Routing using GIS GIS application for the transmission Line Routing problem, where we are giving more insight into the electric problem, explain in a better way how GIS use can help in resolving the unseen problems, which is not easy to solve unless unless we integrat integratee spatia spatiall concept concept with with traditi traditional onal/c /conve onventio ntional/ nal/ava availa ilable ble rout routin ing g sol solutio utions ns.. The The tra transm nsmissio ssion n line ine rout routin ing g is high highly ly com complex plex,, as transmi transmissio ssion n lines lines are not aesthet aesthetical ically ly pleasing pleasing,, and people people are concerne concerned d about health issues due to the electric and magnetic fields, especially from high voltage transmission lines. GIS is used in transmission line routing as a technical tool.


C. Asset Management   Asse Assett mana manage geme ment nt jobs jobs requ requir ire e infor informa mati tion on from from mult multip iple le sour sources ces within and outside a utility. This may include information on right of  way and public utility easements or external subscriptions on climate zone, weather & traffic conditions , land topography and environment dat data. In combin mbinat atio ion n with ith the the know knowle led dge on the the loc locatio ation n of the the respective assets, GIS helps in building a timely response mechanism to addr addres ess s the the issue issues s of repa repair ir,, recov recover ery y and and repl replac acem emen entt of thes these e assets, thus providing for an uninterrupted and reliable supply.


D. Analysis of Revenue Patterns Main source for revenue in a given power utility is the metering and billing acti activi vity ty.. The The use use of GIS GIS base based d maps aps and and the the mapp apping ing of the the indiv ndivid idua uall customers can help identify the revenue generation patterns and any changes in them on a locality or area basis, which can then be used with other information   bases bases like like locat location ion of slum slums, s, densel densely y popula populate ted d local localit itie iess and other other sociosocioeconomic patterns to identify the chances of revenue leakage. Once these are iden identi tifi fied ed,, prio priori riti ties es can can be set set to addr addres esss the the issu issuee of pilf pilfer erag agee and and mete meter  r  tampering and this information can be made available to the field teams for  effectively curbing such malpractices. In addition, the time series analysis of  the revenue patterns for a customer can help identify sudden increase/decrease of load patterns, leading to an alert in checking whether it is due to the power  system elements or a simple case of a new occupant at that address.


E. Disaster Management and Locating Faults GIS (Geographic Information Systems) enhance visualization of power systems   by assoc associat iating ing spati spatial al data data with with transm transmiss ission ion asset assets, s, such such as conto contouri uring ng and anima animati tion, on, makin making g them them attr attract activ ivee platf platform ormss for displ display aying ing geogra geographi phica cally lly referenced real time power system data such as the voltage and line loading contours. GIS information is stored in geographical map layers making it easy to relate transmission network conditions with other relevant information such as weat weathe herr, vege vegettati ation grow growth th,, and and road road netw networ orks ks.. Real Real--tim time weat weathe herr dat data integrated in GIS increases the operator¶s situational awareness.


Advantages of GIS  Faster insight into data  Better

communication between departments/institutions  Handling of large data volumes  Increased transparency and efficiency in public procedures  Better resource allocation  Needs-oriented regional and municipal planning collection  More efficient land tax collection  Easy identification of appropriate sites for investments and conservation areas The power of a GIS over paper map maps is its ability to select the  The information needed depending upon the intended application.


Conclusion GIS is an ideal tool for performing the analysis and viewing the result on a map superimposed on other geographic layers. It allows power system planners to work work on the the real real repr repres esen enta tati tion on of the the powe powerr syst system em.. The The valu valuee of visu visual al info inform rmat atio ion n is that that hum human inte intell llig igen ence ce can can be clos closel ely y combi combine ned d with with the the dom domain ain of num numbers bers.. Toget ogethe herr wit with the the util utiliz izat atio ion n of a dat databas abasee syst system em,, geographical representation of power systems will become an essential tool for  utility decision makers and the public.




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