GOGH, Vincent Willem van article url: http://www http://www.oxfordartonline.com .oxfordartonline.com:80/subscriber/a :80/subscriber/article/benezit/B00076 rticle/benezit/B00076203 203
GOGH, Vincent Willem van Dutch, 19th century, male. Born 30 March 1853, in Zundert, Holland; died 29 July 1890, in Auvers-sur-Oise. Painter. Figure compositions, figures, portraits, landscapes, still-lifes, flowers. Japonisme, Impressionism, Post-Impressionism. Post-Impressionism.
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Vincent Willem van Gogh was the eldest of six children of the pastor Theodore van Gogh and his wife, Anna Carbentus. His childhood was spent at the family home, amid the forests, fields, and heathlands of northern Brabant. At age 16, he was apprenticed to a branch of the art dealer Goupil & Co. in The Hague (his uncle was a partner in the firm). Van Gogh’s celebrated lifelong correspondence with his brother Theo, five years his junior, began during this period, in August 1872. In the letters, collected and edited by Theo’s son and his widow, Mme Johanna van GoghBonger, Van Gogh writes freely of his joys and hopes, his loves, his troubles and suffering, providing an invaluable account of his short but passionate life. The later correspondence includes detailed descriptions of his paintings and occasional sketches. In May 1873, Van Gogh was sent to the London branch of Goupil & Co. While in England, he began collecting illustrations from periodicals depicting or satirising contemporary British social ills, which made a lasting impression on him. Two years later he transferred to the Paris gallery, but he was never in tune with the commercial imperatives of art dealership, and in 1876, he was dismissed. His deeply held religious faith became increasingly fervent from this period and he spent several months studying theology in Amsterdam with the aim of becoming a minister of the church, before abandoning the idea in favour of a short period of evangelical training in Brussels. In 1879, he left to perform missionary work in the Borinage, a mining region in south-west Belgium, but was dismissed from his duties in the winter of 1879–1880. Van Gogh’s rare early sketches date from this period, drawn from life and clearly influenced by the work of Jean-François Millet, of whom he remained a lifelong admirer. (The two artists’ works were shown together in 1998, at the exhibition Millet/Van Gogh at the Musée d’Orsay in Paris.) In 1881, he returned to Holland to his parents’ home in Etten, where he met his cousin, the painter Anton Mauve. Mauve encouraged his artistic endeavours and Van Gogh soon moved to The Hague, where Mauve lived and worked among a sizeable community of artists. Mauve’s influence is apparent in Van Gogh’s drawings of the period (1881–1883). In 1883, he returned, penniless, to his parents, who were now living in the Brabant town of Nuenen. Apart from a brief spell in Antwerp, he remained with them until November 1885. His first full-fledged paintings (as distinct from sketches and watercolour studies) date from this early, prolific period. As throughout the rest of his short life, these early works express Vincent’s deep compassion and sensitivity to the plight of the poor. He made innumerable sketches depicting every aspect of the harsh, miserable rural life of the region and dreamt of synthesising these studies in a large work on canvas. To this end, he sketched more than a hundred portraits, capturing the tough, morose, brutalised physiognomy of the local peasants —blank with exhaustion, rugged and sour as their native soil. These early studies culminated in the work known as The Potato Eaters (Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam). They are characterised by a pronounced chiaroscuro (the figures are seated in interiors dimly lit by oil lamps) and a sombre palette of blue-green, vert anglais, bottle green, and brown ochre, the harsh lighting emphasising the subjects’ coarse, rustic features still further. Van Gogh’s deep sensitivity to the region’s mood of intense nostalgia and melancholy is expressed in every aspect of his output during this period, including in his flower studies and landscapes. Millet the Idealist presents an apotheosis of rural life; Van Gogh the Realist shows an existence of relentless misery, utterly devoid of consolation. In November 1885, Van Gogh spent three months in Antwerp, studying at the city’s academy and attending drawing classes in the evenings. In 1886, he moved to Paris and shared lodgings with Theo at 54 Rue Lepic, in the 18th Arrondissement . He studied for a time with the French painter Fernand Cormon, but the latter seems to have had little impact on his work. Van Gogh’s early Paris works feature the same drab palette and thick, impasto handling as the paintings executed in Nuenen and The Hague. His style soon evolved, however, toward a lighter touch and paler tones. His flower paintings were influenced by his discovery of works by the French artist Adolphe Monticelli at the Galerie Delarebeyrette. Most important, and thanks in part to Theo’s activities as an art dealer, he encountered the work of the Impressionists Claude Monet, Alfred Sisley, and Camille Pissarro and the Post-Impressionists Georges Seurat and Henri Edmond Cross. He experienced Seurat’s Pointillist use of colour as a striking revelation, leading him to his own early experiments with the principles and use of complementary colours. Japanese art and prints were another
important discovery, inspiring the lifelong use of reed pens as his favoured drawing tool. Indeed, Van Gogh’s work has been characterised by the French art critic Marius-Ary Leblond as that of a Dutchman steeped in the frank sincerity of his country’s native genius, yet dreaming of Japan (Peintres de Race, 1981). In 1887, Van Gogh’s palette underwent a complete transformation, becoming brighter and less opaque. The paintings of this period feature fine ticks and strips of clear, pure colour, skilfully juxtaposed or overlaid, reminiscent of Pointillist or Impressionist work. Based in the heart of Paris, Van Gogh remained drawn to the countryside and painted the still rural landscapes of Montmartre and the surrounding region, often in bright sunshine. From the metamorphosis of his Paris period, Van Gogh emerged as one relatively undistinguished Impressionist painter among many, yet the essential principles of Impressionism went on to define every stage of his subsequent artistic evolution: painting from life, the use of natural light, and the synthetic evocation of colour through Divisionism (the juxtaposition of small touches of pure, unmixed pigment directly on the canvas). Van Gogh’s highly individual, even violent adaptation of the latter technique was to become the tragically expressive trademark of his later works. Exhausted by the pace of life in Paris, Van Gogh left for the Provençal town of Arles in February 1888. He was hungry for still more light, clarity, and sunshine and still wished to fulfill his ambition, inspired by Millet’s work, of becoming a peasant painter. After a brief stay at the Hôtel Carrel at 3 Rue de la Cavalerie, he moved into a small house at 4 Place Lamartine (the so-called Yellow House, destroyed by a bomb in World War II), the setting for his famous painting Vincent’s Bedroom in Arles, now in the Musée d’Orsay, Paris. The sunshine and burnished forms of the Provençal landscape were a revelation, furnishing both the intense light and clarity of line that his evolving brand of ‘deviant Impressionism’ craved. He worked ceaselessly, day and night, painting the town, the denizens of its streets and cafés, and its surroundings—blossoming orchards, golden wheat fields, olive trees, and drawbridges; the sea at Les Stes-Maries-de-la-Mer, the abbey in Montmajour, the landscapes of the Crau, the red and bronze foliage of the parks in autumn. He painted portraits, too—the local postman Roulin, his son Armand, a woman wearing the traditional costume of Arles, a Zouave (a soldier in the French light infantry regiment of the same name, characterised by the Oriental style of their uniform). It was here that Van Gogh discovered sunflowers, the subject of his celebrated series painted to decorate the Yellow House. A large number of still-lifes also date from his time in Arles. The works of the period are characterised by a still higher key than those painted in Paris, with flaming reds and yellows seemingly saturated with the very essence of sunlight. As Leblond observed, ‘Van Gogh’s work is the embodiment of a passionate love of the sun, and a passion suffered for the sun. At once ascension, assumption and calvary, its poignant beauty is the drama of a man feeding on light itself’. If Van Gogh’s Paris period was, seemingly, a time of personal happiness and discovery, his time in Arles was characterised by a kind of dazzled intoxication and limitless, albeit self-consuming, creativity. Van Gogh was joined in Arles by his friend Paul Gauguin, whom he had met in Paris and who, like Van Gogh, discovered his artistic vocation relatively late in life. Van Gogh’s hopes of companionship and collaboration were dashed, however, as their difficult characters and differing tastes led to increasingly violent quarrels. Gauguin had only a passing influence on Van Gogh’s work, discernible briefly in a greater accentuation of pictorial depth and the more frequent use of flat areas of colour. Gauguin tried to persuade Van Gogh to paint from imagination rather than from life, as was his habit. On Christmas Eve 1888, Van Gogh threatened his friend and subsequently cut his own ear in a fit of violent passion. This dramatic incident marked the end of their companionship and of Van Gogh’s Arles period. Gauguin returned to Paris and Van Gogh was taken to the hospital, where he was cared for by Dr Rey, whose portrait he painted. His physical injuries healed quickly, but Van Gogh now experienced the first of his recurrent bouts of insanity. Triggered by the slightest emotional upset, these were to plague him for the rest of his life. On 8 May 1889, Van Gogh institutionalised himself at the St-Paul-de-Mausole hospice in St-Rémyde-Provence. He found no companionship among the other inmates (many of whom were clinically insane) but began painting once more. At first he painted motifs taken from the hospital garden, including tree trunks covered with ivy and, later, olive groves, cypress trees, and scenes from his hospital window (a reaper in a field of wheat, the Alpilles hills). When his nervous condition
prevented him from going out, he painted copies of Millet’s Labours of the Field (Travaux des Champs) and Four Moments in the Day (Les Quatre Heures de la Journée), as well as engravings by Gustave Doré and engraved reproductions of works by Rembrandt, Eugène Delacroix, and Honoré Daumier, among others, for which he improvised versions in colour. The flowers painted from life during this period reveal an over-excited, heightened perception of reality. Van Gogh’s work underwent a significant change between the Arles and St-Rémy periods. The brilliant sunshine and expansive joy of Arles were replaced by darker colours; broader, more vigorous brushwork; and a brooding, more visionary atmosphere. In the surrounding landscape, Van Gogh depicts the ridge of the Alpilles surging up as if to engulf the fleeing clouds, while madly writhing cypress trees reach out to ensnare the molten sun. Conscious that a prolonged stay in the asylum would condemn him to a slow death, Van Gogh left for Auvers-sur-Oise, north-west of Paris, where Theo had arranged for him to be cared for by Dr Gachet. Paul Cézanne, Pissarro, Armand Guillaumin, and other members of the Impressionists’ circle were friends with Gachet, and Gachet himself was an accomplished draughtsman and engraver who had taught the latter technique to some of his visitors. In Auvers, Van Gogh worked with enthusiasm once again, painting the village and its surroundings—the vast crop fields, thatched cottages, and pale yellow hayricks—and a number of portraits, including of Dr Gachet and his daughter. Other paintings from this period include Daubigny’s Garden (Le Jardin de Daubigny ) and landscapes of the surrounding plains. Vincent’s palette during the Auvers period was inevitably affected by the change of landscape and light, but his work continued to reflect the hallucinatory worldview that had evolved in St-Rémy. Through Van Gogh’s eyes, we see the church in Auvers shaken as if by a series of deep-seated tremors, their shockwaves spreading via his brushwork through the sky above. The wheat fields of this period shimmer and tremble in the play of elemental forces; a flock of crows is tossed on a stormy gust of wind. On 27 July 1890, Van Gogh returned from the fields covered with blood. This might have been a suicide attempt or an accident. He finally died in his brother Theo’s arms two days later. Theo outlived him by just six months, and the two brothers were buried together in the cemetery in Auvers some years later, in 1914. Throughout each of the five periods of Van Gogh’s artistic life—in Holland, Paris, Arles, St-Rémy-deProvence, and Auvers—his numerous self-portraits constitute an autobiography in paint, reflecting his thoughts and moods quite as clearly as his correspondence with Theo. In scarcely more than five years as an active artist, he produced over 850 paintings and 900 drawings and watercolours (not including work from the Nuenen and Antwerp periods, now largely lost or destroyed), documenting the increasingly intense personalisation and dramatisation of his technique, handling, and message. In the context of the history of modern Western art, Van Gogh’s work heralds the emergence of Expressionism as a conscious artistic movement. He was an important precursor of Fauvism and of the German movement Die Brücke. Van Gogh strove to create and convey sensations beyond the merely visual in his work. He did not hesitate to distort appearances in the service of a greater intensity of expression and was, to the same end, a masterly colourist. His scientific knowledge of the effect of colour is evident in his letters to Theo, which describe his sometimes seemingly arbitrary use of colour as a means of heightened expression. The effects achievable through colour should, he said, be exaggerated through the diligent application of natural harmonies and contrasts. His haunting images, the product of a lifelong quest to give plastic form to his intensely passionate thoughts and feelings, have touched countless hearts and minds. Van Gogh famously sold only one painting (The Red Vineyard of 1888) and a handful of drawings during his lifetime. He took part in only one exhibition, with the Belgian group Les Vingt in 1890 (where the painting was sold). His late start as a painter, in 1885, precluded membership of the already well-established Impressionist group, whose eighth and final exhibition was held in 1886. Perhaps somewhat perversely, however, his work began to attract an enthusiastic market and increasing acclaim almost immediately after his death, starting with an exhibition held at the Bernheim-Jeune Gallery in Paris in 1901.
Group Exhibitions 1890, Les Vingt Group, Brussels 1981, Vincent van Gogh and the Birth of Cloisonism, Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto 1990, Vincent van Gogh and the Modern Movement, 1890–1914, Museum Folkwang, Essen, etc. 1990, Van Gogh e la scuola dell’Aia, Palazzo Medici Riccardi, Florence 1998, Millet/Van Gogh, Musèe d’Orsay, Paris 2000, Impression: Painting Quickly in France, 1860–1890 , National Gallery, London 2001, Vincent van Gogh and the Painters of the Petit Boulevard , Saint Louis Art Museum, St Louis (MO) 2002, Van Gogh and Gauguin: Studio of the South, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam, and Art Institute of Chicago (which highlighted works painted during the two artists’ collaboration at the Yellow House in Arles from October to December 1888) 2005, The Hague School and the Young Van Gogh, Germeentemuseum Den Haag, The Hague 2007, Van Gogh and Expressionism, Neue Galerie, New York
Solo Exhibitions 1892, Kunstzaal Panorama, Amsterdam 1901, Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Paris 1905, 1930, 1945, 1958, 1966, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam 1908, Galerie E. Druet, Paris 1920, Montross Gallery, New York 1923, 1926, 1930, Leicester Galleries, London 1927, Otto Wacker Gallery, Berlin 1928, Graphisches Kabinett, Munich 1935, Museum of Modern Art, New York 1937, Exposition Internationale, Paris 1940, Holland House, New York 1942, Museum of Art, Baltimore (MD) 1943, 1955, Wildenstein, New York 1944, Museum of Art, Brooklyn (NY) 1947, Orangerie, Paris 1947, National Gallery, London 1948, 1953, Gemeentemuseum, The Hague 1948, Knoedler, New York 1952, Palazzo Reale, Milan 1952, Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven 1953, Kunsthaus, Zurich 1954, Kunstmuseum, Bern 1960, 1962, Marlborough Fine Art, London 1963, Graves Art Gallery, Sheffield 1970, Museum of Art, Philadelphia (PA) 1971–1972, Musée de l’Orangerie, Paris 1974– , Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam 1975, City Art Gallery, Auckland 1984, Vincent Van Gogh in Arles, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 1985, National Museum of Art, Tokyo 1986, Van Gogh in Saint-Rèmy and Auvers, Metropolitan Museum, New York 1988, Van Gogh in Paris (Van Gogh à Paris), Musée d’Orsay, Paris 1990, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam, and the Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterlo (an exhibition marking the centenary of Van Gogh’s death) 1992, Van Gogh in England , Barbican Art Gallery, London 1994, Van Gogh’s Parisian Self-portraits, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam 1998, Van Gogh’s Van Goghs, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC 1999, Van Gogh and Japan, Fondation Van Gogh, Arles 2002, Vincent Van Gogh: The Paris Sketches (Vincent Van Gogh. Die Pariser Zeichnungen), Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg 2003, Vincent and Hélène (Vincent und Hélène), Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterloo; Vincent’s Choice: The Musée Imaginaire of Van Gogh and Gogh Modern, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam (a series of exhibitions organised by Dutch museums to mark the 150th anniversary of the artist’s birth); Van Gogh’s Arles, Fondation Van Gogh, Arles 2003, Vincent van Gogh: ‘Arlésienne’ , Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart 2005, Vincent van Gogh: The Drawings, Metropolitan Museum, New York 2007, Painted with Words, Vincent van Gogh’s Letters to Émile Bernard , Morgan Library and Museum, New York 2007, The Riddle of the ‘Double Ingres’—Van Gogh’s Drawings in the Kröller-Müller Museum Reconsidered , Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterlo 2008, Van Gogh and the Colours of the Night , Museum of Modern Art, New York 2009, Vincent van Gogh—Between Earth and Heaven: The Landscapes, Kunstmuseum, Basel 2010, The Real Van Gogh: The Artist and His Letters, Royal Academy of Arts, London 2011, Van Gogh and Montmartre, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam
Museum and Gallery Holdings ’s Hertogenbosch (Noordbrabants Mus.): Peasant Woman Seated, with White Cap (1885, oil on canvas on panel); Watermill in Gennep (1884)
Amsterdam (Rijksmus.): Self-portrait with Grey Felt Hat (1886–1887, oil on cardboard) Amsterdam (Van Gogh Mus.): Self-portrait with Straw Hat (1887, oil on cardboard); The Pink Orchard (1888); Peach Tree in Blossom (1888); Vincent’s House in Arles (The Yellow House) (1888, oil on canvas); Peasant Woman Binding Sheaves (1889, oil on canvas); Irises (1890); Wheatfield with Crows (1890, oil on canvas); Wheatfields under Clouded Sky (1890, oil on canvas); Vase with Asters and Phlox (1886, oil on canvas); The Zouave (1888, oil on canvas) Basel (Kunstmus.): Self-portrait with a Japanese Print (1887, oil on canvas) Belgrade (Narodni Muz.): Peasant Woman Standing Indoors (1885, oil on canvas on panel) Berlin (Nationalgal.): Lovers (The Poet’s Garden IV) (1888, oil on canvas); Daubigny’s Garden (1890) Bremen (Kunsthalle): Field with Poppies (1889, oil on canvas) Brussels (Mus. royaux) Buenos Aires: Moulin de la Galette, Montmartre (1886, oil on canvas) Buffalo, NY (Albright-Knox AG): Landscape around St-Rémy ; The Old Mill (1888, oil on canvas) Cambridge, MA (Fogg AM, Harvard University): Self-portrait Dedicated to Paul Gauguin (1888, oil on canvas) Chicago (AI): Montmartre (1886, oil on canvas on panel); The Poet’s Garden (1888); Vincent’s Bedroom in Arles (1889); Mme Roulin Rocking the Cradle (La Berceuse) (1889, oil on canvas) Cleveland, OH (MA): Poplars in St-Rémy (1889, oil on canvas) Cologne: Portrait of Camille Roulin Cologne (Wallraf-Richartz Mus.): The Langlois Bridge in Arles (1888) Copenhagen (Nationalmus.) Edinburgh (Nat. Gal. of Scotland): Olive Trees (1889, oil on canvas) Essen (Folkwang Mus.): Wheat Field behind St Paul Hospital with a Reaper (1889); Portrait of Armand Roulin (1888); Quay with Men Unloading Sand Barges (1889) Frankfurt am Main (MM): Portrait of Doctor Gachet Frankfurt am Main (Städel): Cottage and Woman with Goat (1885) Geneva (MAH): Herrings and Onions (1887?) Göteborg (Konstmus.): Olive Grove: Orange Sky (1889) Helsinki: Back Yards of Old Houses in Antwerp in the Snow (1885) Honolulu, HI (Academy of Arts): Wheatfield with Sheaves (1888) Indianapolis, IN (MA): Enclosed Wheat Field with Peasant (1889) London (Courtauld Institute of Art): Self-portrait with Bandaged Ear (1889, oil on canvas); Peach Blossom in the Crau (1889, oil on canvas) London (NG): Van Gogh’s Chair (1888, oil on canvas); Sunflowers (1888, oil on canvas); A Wheatfield, with Cypresses (1889, oil on canvas); Long Grass with Butterflies (1890, oil on canvas); Two Crabs (1889, oil on canvas, on loan from a private collection); Farms near Auvers (1890, oil on canvas, on loan from the Tate Collection since 1997) London (Tate Collection): Thatched Roofs (1884, pen and ink, pencil and gouache/paper); A Corner of the Garden of St Paul’s Hospital at St Rémy (1889, pencil and pen and ink/paper); The Oise at Auvers (1890, pencil and gouache/paper) Los Angeles (Getty Mus.): Irises (Les Iris) (1889, oil on canvas) Magdeburg (Kulturhistorisches Mus.): The Painter on His Way to Work (destroyed by fire in World War II) Merion, PA (Barnes Foundation): Still-life: Majolica Jug with Wildflowers (1888, oil on canvas); Portrait of the Postman Joseph Roulin (1889, oil on canvas); The Brothel (oil on canvas, four other paintings) Moscow (Pushkin MFA): Seascape at Stes-Maries (1888); Portrait of Doctor Felix Rey (1889); Public Park in Arles (1890); The Red Vineyard (1888); Spectators in the Arena in Arles (1888); Bushes; Prisoners Exercising (1890, after Doré) Munich (Neue Pinakothek): Orchard in Blossom with View of Arles (1889); Plain near Auvers (1890); Still-life: Vase with Twelve Sunflowers (1888); Self-portrait dedicated to Paul Gauguin (1888) New York (Metropolitan Mus. of Art): Mme Joseph Michel Ginoux (Marie Julien, 1848-1911) (L’Arlésienne) (1888); Starry Night (1889); First Steps (1890, after Millet) Oslo (Nasjonalgal.): Self-portrait Otterlo (Kröller-Müller Mus.): Peasant Digging (1885, oil on canvas); Vegetable Gardens in Montmartre (1887); The Sower (1888, oil on canvas); Snow-covered Field with a Harrow (1890, after Millet, and numerous other works); Fisherman’s Wife on the Beach (1882); Fisherman on the Beach (1882); Girl in White in the Woods (1882); Weaver Arranging Threads (1884); The Old Tower in Nuenen, with a Ploughman; Weaver (1884); Weaver, Interior with Three Small Windows (1884); Ox Cart ; Cart with Red and White Ox (1884); Peasant and Peasant Woman Planting Potatoes (1885); Still-life (several works); Old Peasant Woman; Peasant Woman Taking her Meal (1885); Peasant Woman; Peasant Woman in a White Cap; Peasant Women Lifting Potatoes; Still-life with Fruit ; Still-life with Three Birds’ Nests (two works); Sunset ; Head of an Old Peasant Woman in Profile; Head of an Old Peasant Woman (two works); Brabant Peasant Woman; Peasant Digging ; Peasant Woman Sweeping the Floor (1885); Peasant Sitting at a Table (1885); Head of a Peasant Smoking a Pipe; Portrait of a Peasant Man in Profile; Forest Edge; Wheatsheaves; Still-life with Bloaters (1886); Plaster Statuette; The Moulin de la Galette; Vegetable Gardens in Montmartre; Sunflowers; Potatoes; Roses; Carnations; Still-life; Flowers and a Bottle; Basket Filled with Apples; Bouquet of Flowers; Flowers in a White Vase; Interior of a Restaurant (1887); Self-portrait (1887); Tree in Blossom; The Langlois Bridge in Arles with Women Washing (1888); Haystacks in Provence (1888); The Sower (1888); View of Les Stes-Maries; Portrait of the Postman Joseph Roulin (1889); Pair of Shoes (1886); Café Terrace on the Place du Forum, Arles, at Night (1888); Public Park in Arles; Cypresses with Two Female Figures (1889); Zouave (1888); Vineyards; Les Alyscamps: Falling Autumn Leaves (1888); Augustine Roulin (La Berceuse) (1888); Garden of St Paul Hospital ; Portrait of a Young Girl against a Pink Background (1888); Willows at Sunset (1888); Landscape with a Stack of Straw ; Portrait of an Actor ; Pine Trees against a Red Sky with Setting Sun (1889); Chestnut Trees in Blossom (1890); Corner of a Field ; Still-life: Drawing Board, Pipe, Onions and Sealing Wax (1889); Still-life: Bottle, Lemons and Oranges (1888); Wheatfield ; Cypresses with Two Female Figures (1889); Evening Landscape with Rising Moon (1889); Olive Grove with Picking Figures (1889); The Sower ; Enclosed Field ; Garden of the St Paul Hospital ; Ravine (1889); Peasant Women Harvesting ; Road with Cypress and Star (1890); Tree Trunks with Ivy (1889); The Good Samaritan (1890, after Delacroix); Olive Grove (1889); Meadow in the Mountains: Le Mas de St-Paul (1889); Old Man in Sorrow (On the Threshold of Eternity) (1890); Garden of the St Paul Hospital ; Les Alpilles, Mountainous Landscape near St-Remy (1889); Undergrowth with Two Figures; Study of Pine Trees; Three Trees; The Sea at Les Stes-Maries Paris (Mus. d’Orsay): Head of a Peasant Woman (1885); Restaurant de la Sirène in Asnières (1887); Encampment of Gypsies with Caravans (1888); Portrait of Eugène Boch (1888); Starry Night over the Rhone (1888); Vincent’s Bedroom in Arles (1889); Southern French Girl (La Méridienne) (1889); Portrait of Dr Gachet (1890); The Church in Auvers (1890); Dr Gachet’s Garden in Auvers (1890); Still-life: Japanese Vase with Roses and Anemones; Restaurant de la Sirène in Asnières Paris (Mus. Rodin): View of a Viaduct ; Peasants Harvesting ; Père Tanguy (1887) Philadelphia, PA (MA): Sunflowers (Tournesols) (1888 or 1889) Pittsburgh, PA (Carnegie MA): Wheat Fields (The Plain of Auvers) (1890, oil on canvas) Prague (Národní Muz.): Green Wheatfield with Cypress (1889)
St Louis, Missouri (AM): Stairway in Auvers (L’Escalier d’Auvers) St Petersburg (Hermitage): Thatched Cottages (1890); Landscape with Carriage and Train in the Background (1890) Stockholm: Hayricks Szczecin: Avenue near Arles The Hague (Gemeentemus.): Self-portrait (1886); Peasant Woman; Still-life with Pots, Jar and Bottles (1884); Still-life with Three Birds’ Nests (1885); Flowering Garden with Path (1888, oil on canvas) Tokyo (Yasuda Kasai MA): Sunflowers (Les Tournesols) (1889) Toledo, OH: Houses in Auvers (1890); Plain with Wheatfields near Arles Toledo, OH (MA): Wheat Stacks with Reaper (1888) Vienna (Österreichische Gal. Belvedere): The Plain near Auvers Washington, DC (NGA): Farmhouse in Provence (1888, oil on canvas); Self-portrait (1889, oil on canvas); several paintings, drawings, prints Washington, DC (Phillips Collection): Entrance to the Public Park in Arles (L’Entrée du Jardin Public d’Arles) (1888, oil on canvas); La Mousmé, Sitting (1888) Winterthur (Kunstmus.): Sunset: Wheatfields near Arles (1888) Worcester: Heads of Young Boys Zurich: Sunset ; Two Peasant Women Digging in Field with Snow (1890); Vase with Hollyhocks (1886); Thatched Sandstone Cottages in Chaponval (1890)
Auction Records Paris, 1900: The Midday Meal , FRF 910; Hollyhocks, FRF 1,100; Woman Kneeling , FRF 240; Woman Bending , FRF 200 Paris, 24 March 1900: A Country Cottage, FRF 1,000 Paris, 20 Nov 1918: Snow in Avignon, FRF 7,200; Still-life, FRF 4,800; Landscape around Auvers, FRF 9,050 Paris, 24 Feb 1919: Père Tanguy , FRF 20,200; Still-life with Fish, FRF 15,000 Paris, 27 Feb 1919: Portrait of the Postman Roulin (pen) FRF 720 Paris, 28 March 1919: Woman Spinning Thread (watercolour) FRF 1,550 Paris, 8 April 1919: Reclining Female Nude, FRF 1,700 Paris, 3 March 1920: Coffee-pot, Pears and Apples, FRF 16,000 Paris, 31 March 1920: Pair of Shoes, FRF 6,000; The Plain (pen) FRF 3,000; Factories and Harvesting (pen) FRF 2,900; Bushes (pen) FRF 2,600; Three Boats (pen) FRF 3,000; Garden (pen) FRF 3,000; Wheatsheaves (pen) FRF 2,800; Portrait of a Young Girl (pen) FRF 3,100; Portrait of the Postman Roulin (pen) FRF 3,900 Paris, 4 May 1923: Old Woman (drawing) FRF 500 Paris, 27 June 1924: Houses and Landscapes in Arles (pen and watercolour) FRF 2,450 Paris, 14 Feb 1927: Portrait of a Man, FRF 30,000 Paris, 30-31 March 1927: Stairway Leading to the Moulin de la Galette, FRF 77,000 London, 29 April 1927: Vase of Flowers, GBP 1,260 Paris, 9 June 1927: Flowers in a Vase, FRF 16,000 Paris, 1 March 1928: Self-portrait (ink) FRF 8,700; Les Alyscamps, Arles: The Main Avenue (ink) FRF 13,800; Les Alyscamps, FRF 7,000; The Sower (reed pen and ink) FRF 23,400 London, 8 April 1929: The Reaper (drawing) GBP 37 Paris, 11 March 1931: Stairway Leading to the Moulin de la Galette, FRF 69,500 Paris, 12 Dec 1932: Southern French Girl (La Méridienne), FRF 280,000 Paris, 2 June 1933: Before the Hearth (1881) FRF 62,000 Paris, 26 June 1934: The Seine, FRF 30,000 Paris, 9 March 1935: Self-portrait with Japanese Print , FRF 60,500 London, 13 May 1935: Flowers in a Metal Vase, GBP 9 Paris, 23 April 1937: Before the Hearth (1881) FRF 48,000 New York, 8-9 Jan 1942: Woman in a Garden, USD 7,900 London, 10 Nov 1943: Views in a Park , GBP 1,550 New York, 16 March 1944: Still-life, USD 11,000; Woman by a Hearth, USD 8,250 New York, 12 April 1945: Church with a Pointed Bell-tower (drawing) USD 550; Young Girl with a Red Ribbon, USD 5,000 New York, 17 May 1945: Mother and Child (drawing) USD 500 New York, 6 Feb 1947: Woman Spinning (after Millet) USD 5,000 London, 10 July 1957: Factories in Clichy , GBP 31,000; Sunrise (Indian ink) GBP 3,200 London, 15 Oct 1958: Public Park in London, GBP 132,000 New York, 19 Nov 1958: Boat at Anchor , USD 67,500 Paris, 15 Dec 1958: Two Herrings on a Table (1886) FRF 7,900,000 New York, 14 Jan 1959: Garden of the St-Rémy Hospital , USD 74,000 London, 1 July 1959: Peasant Digging (black chalk, watercolour, and gouache) GBP 6,500 London, 25 Nov 1959: Bridge over the Seine at Asnières, GBP 45,000 London, 4 May 1960: Peasant Woman Gathering Wood (black chalk and wash heightened with white) GBP 5,000 London, 6 July 1960: Thatched Cottage beneath the Trees, GBP 4,200 Versailles, 7 June 1961: Birthplace of the Artist , FRF 50,000 London, 28 June 1961: Thatched Cottage, GBP 7,000 London, 14 June 1962: Still-life with Oranges, Lemons and Blue Gloves (1889) GBP 80,000 London, 24 April 1963: View of the Asylum and Chapel in St-Rémy , GBP 92,000 London, 27 Nov 1964: Working in the Fields (watercolour) Gns 5,200 Palm Beach, 9 Feb 1965: The Reaper , USD 250,000 London, 24 June 1966: Portrait of Mlle Ravoux , Gns 150,000 Bern, 15 June 1967: Peasant Digging (watercolour heightened with white) CHF 90,000 London, 28 June 1968: Portrait of the Artist’s Mother , Gns 110,000 New York, 15 Oct 1969: Zinnias in a Vase, USD 310,000 New York, 25 Feb 1970: Cypress and Tree in Blossom, USD 1,300,000 London, 21 April 1971: View of The Hague (watercolour) GBP 12,500 New York, 5 May 1971: The Hôpital St-Paul in St-Rémy , USD 1,200,000 London, 27 June 1972: Willow Tree (watercolour) GNS 16,000 London, 3 July 1973: Still-life with Gladioli (1886) GBP 113,000 London, 4 July 1973: Pot of Geraniums (1886) GBP 64,000 Hamburg, 3 June 1976: Small Cottage in Drenthe (1883, watercolour, 10! 14# ins/26.2 36.8 cm) DEM 70,000
Bern, 9 June 1976: Man with a Pipe: Portrait of Dr Gachet (1890, etching, 7 ! " 5$ ins/18.2 " 14.7 cm) CHF 48,000 London, 28 June 1976: Midday, or Garden near a House (1888, oil on canvas, 25 " 21 ins/63.5 " 52.5 cm) GBP 480,000 New York, 16 May 1977: Evening: The End of the Day (1889-1890, oil on canvas, after Millet, 28 ! " 37 ins/72 " 94 cm) USD 800,000 Amsterdam, 22 Nov 1977: Motherhood (watercolour and black chalk, 18 $ " 11$ ins/47.5 " 30 cm) NLG 80,000 London, 15 Dec 1977: Man with a Pipe: Portrait of Dr Gachet (1890, etching printed in sanguine, 7 " 6 ins/18 " 15 cm) GBP 4,000 New York, 3 May 1978: Man with a Pipe: Portrait of Dr Gachet (1890, etching printed in sanguine, 7 " 6 ins/18 " 15 cm) USD 16,500 London, 27 June 1978: Arles, View of the Wheatfields (1888, pen and sepia ink, 12 ! " 9# ins/31.2 " 24.2 cm) GBP 200,000 New York, 16 May 1979: Seated Zouave (pen, 19# " 24 ins/49.5 " 61 cm) USD 280,000 New York, 13 Feb 1980: Man with a Pipe: Portrait of Dr Gachet (1890, etching, inscribed on the reverse by Paul Gachet, 7! " 6 ins/18.3 " 15 cm) USD 25,000 New York, 22 Oct 1980: Corner of a Park, Arles (1888, pen and brown ink on paper, 12 # " 9# ins/31.7 " 24.2 cm) USD 290, 000 New York, 12 Nov 1981: Man with a Pipe (1890, etching, 7 ! " 6 ins/18.2 " 15 cm) USD 9,000 Zurich, 14 May 1982: Landscape with Hayricks (1888, oil on canvas, 11 ! " 14# ins/28.5 " 37 cm) CHF 250,000 London, 29 June 1983: Peasant Woman with a Basin (1885, pen and sepia ink, pencil, black chalk and wash, 12 # " 10 ins/32 " 25.7 cm) GBP 66,000 New York, 15 May 1984: La Robine du Roi (1888, oil on canvas, 29 " 24 ins/73.5 " 61 cm) USD 1,600,000 New York, 17 May 1984: Woman Spinning (1884, gouache, 13 " 16! ins/33 " 41 cm) USD 75,000 New York, 24 April 1985: Landscape with Rising Sun (1889, oil on canvas, 28 $ " 36! ins/73 " 92 cm) USD 9,000,000 New York, 17 Nov 1986: Rooftops, Arles (1888, pencil, reed pen and ink on paper, 10 " 13# ins/25.5 " 34.5 cm) USD 390,000 London, 30 March 1987: Sunflowers (1889, oil on canvas, 39 # " 30 ins/100.5 " 76.5 cm) GBP 22,500,000 New York, 12 May 1987: Weaver (1883-1884, gouache, 11$ " 17 ins/30 " 43 cm) USD 260,000 Bern, 17 June 1987: The Smoker, or Man with a Pipe (1890, etching in brick-red ink) CHF 140,000 London, 29 June 1987: The Trinquetaille Bridge, Arles (1888, oil on canvas, 28 $ " 36! ins/73 " 92 cm) GBP 11,500,000 New York, 11 Nov 1987: Irises (1889, oil on canvas, 28 " 36# ins/71 " 93 cm) USD 49,000,000 New York, 11 March 1988: Portrait of Adeline Ravoux (1890, oil on canvas, 29 " 21# ins/73.7 " 54.7 cm) USD 12,500,000 London, 30 March 1988: Stable and Farm (1864, pencil, 7 $ " 11 ins/20 " 27 cm) GBP 22,000; Small Farm (oil on canvas, 13 " 17 ins/33 " 43 cm) GBP 83,600 New York, 11 May 1988: Portrait of Adeline Ravoux (1890, oil on canvas, 29 " 21# ins/73.7 " 54.7 cm) USD 13,750,000 New York, 12 May 1988: Young Blacksmith (black chalk and pencil on paper on card, 17 $ " 9# ins/45.1 " 24.2 cm) USD 110,000 Calais, 13 Nov 1988: Barn and Farm (graphite, 7$ " 11 ins/20 " 27 cm) FRF 410,000 London, 4 April 1989: Country House in Stes-Maries (ink, sepia, and pencil, 12 " 19 ins/30.5 " 47.4 cm) GBP 2,310,000 New York, 18 Oct 1989: The Man Is at Sea (1889, oil on canvas, after Demont-Breton, 26 " 20 ins/66 " 51 cm) USD 7,150,000 New York, 14 Nov 1989: Trunk of an Old Yew Tree (1888, oil on canvas, 36 ! " 28# ins/92 " 72.4 cm) USD 20,350,000 New York, 15 Nov 1989: Quarry near St-Rémy (oil on canvas, 20 # " 25! ins/52 " 64 cm) USD 11,550,000 Paris, 20 March 1990: Rooftops (1882, watercolour and gouache, 15 ! " 22! ins/39 " 56.5 cm) FRF 27,000,000 London, 2 April 1990: Head of a Peasant (1885, oil on canvas, study for The Potato Eaters, 15 # " 12 ins/39.4 " 30.2 cm) GBP 550,000 New York, 15 May 1990: Portrait of Dr Gachet (oil on canvas, 26 " 22# ins/66 " 57 cm) USD 82,500,000 New York, 14 Nov 1990: Flower Garden in Arles (1888, bamboo reed pen with ink, 24 " 19! ins/61 " 49 cm) USD 8,360,000 Paris, 24 Nov 1990: The Beach in Scheveningen (1882, watercolour, 11 " 17$ ins/27 " 45 cm) FRF 2,300,000 Amsterdam, 12 Dec 1990: Sien’s Mother’s House, Seen from the Courtyard (pencil and ink heightened with white on tinted paper, 18 " 11# ins/45.5 " 29 cm) NLG 494,500 New York, 6 Nov 1991: Garden with Weeping Willow (brown ink on pencil on vellum, 14 $ " 9# ins/37.7 " 24.2 cm) USD 1,320,000 London, 3 Dec 1991: Fishing-boats at Anchor (oil on canvas, 20 # " 25# ins/52 " 65 cm) GBP 1,430,000 New York, 12 May 1992: Prayer (1882, pencil, charcoal, and ink heightened with white gouache on paper, 23 # " 19$ ins/60 " 50 cm) USD 495,000 London, 30 June 1992: Study of Peasants at Work, Sowing and Digging (recto); Figure of a Man in front of a Farm (verso) (pencil on paper (recto), black chalk on paper (verso), 9 ! " 12# ins/23.8 " 31.7 cm) GBP 44,000; Still-life with Blossoming Almond Branch (1888, oil on canvas, 9 # " 7# ins/24 " 19 cm) GBP 1,320,000 New York, 10 Nov 1992: Head of Peasant, Full-face (pencil on paper, 13 " 8 ins/33 " 20.3 cm) USD 385,000 London, 1 Dec 1992: Old Man Warming Himself (pencil, charcoal, and ink, 13 ! " 10 ins/33.7 " 25.4 cm) GBP 132,000 Paris, 6 Dec 1992: Garden in Auvers (oil on canvas, 25 ! " 31# ins/64 " 80 cm) FRF 55,000,000 Amsterdam, 26 May 1993: Farmer Chopping Wood with a Small Axe (pencil/paper, 15$ " 7$ ins/40 " 19.5 cm) NLG 138,000 New York, 2 Nov 1993: Bouquet of Flowers (1886, oil on canvas, 21 " 17# ins/53.4 " 44.5 cm) USD 1,487,500 London, 29 Nov 1993: Sien, Left Profile (1883, pencil and black chalk/paper, 11! " 7 ins/28.5 " 18 cm) GBP 84,000 Amsterdam, 31 May 1994: Bridge near Schenkweg, The Hague (ink heightened with white/paper, 8 # " 13 ins/21.3 " 33 cm) NLG 184,000 New York, 8 Nov 1994: Wheatfield with Sheaves (pencil, ink, and sepia/vellum, 9# " 12# ins/24.1 " 31.8 cm) USD 2,092,500 London, 27 June 1995: Corner of a Park (ink/vellum, 12 # " 9# ins/31.7 " 24.2 cm) GBP 474,500; The Reaper (oil on canvas, after Millet, 17 ! " 10 ins/43.5 " 24.5 cm) GBP 2,751,500 New York, 8 Nov 1995: Undergrowth (1890, oil on canvas, 28 $ " 36! ins/73.3 " 92.1 cm) USD 26,952,500 New York, 30 Apr-1 May 1996: Interior of a Restaurant (oil on canvas, 20 " 25$ ins/51.1 " 65.4 cm) USD 10,342,500; View of the Artist’s Bedroom, Rue Lepic (oil on card, 18 " 15 ins/46 " 38.4 cm) USD 1,652,500 London, 24-25 June 1996: Watermill in Gennep (1884, oil on canvas, 33 # " 59# ins/85 " 151 cm) GBP 551,500; Vase with Carnations (oil on canvas, 16 ! " 12# ins/41 " 32 cm) GBP 3,081,500 London, 25 June 1996: Sien with an Umbrella and Prayerbook (c. 1882-1883, black chalk and pencil/paper/card, 18 ! " 9 ins/46.1 " 22.7 cm) GBP 150,000 New York, 13 Nov 1996: Woman in a Garden (1887, oil on canvas, 20 " 24# ins/50.8 " 62.5 cm) USD 3,412,500 New York, 14 Nov 1996: Young Woman of Scheveningen, Knitting, Seen from the Right (1881, watercolour and gouache/paper, 20# " 14! ins/52.2 " 36.5 cm) USD 442,500
17! ins/29.3 " 43.8 cm) GBP 155,500 London, 4 Dec 1996: Two Hands (oil on canvas/panel, 11 " 6$ ins/28 " 17 cm) GBP 40,000 New York, 14 May 1997: Prayer (1882, pencil, charcoal, and ink heightened with white gouache/paper, 23 # " 19$ ins/60 " 50 cm) USD 1,982,500 Amsterdam, 4 June 1997: Portrait of a Woman (pencil/paper, 11# " 8 ins/29.5 " 20.5 cm) NLG 230,640 Paris, 10 June 1997: Man with a Pipe: Portrait of Dr Gachet (1890, etching, 7 " 5$ ins/18 " 14.7 cm) FRF 430,000 London, 24 June 1997: Harvest in Provence (1888, pencil, pen, and brown ink, watercolour and gouache/paper, 19 " 23# ins/48 " 60 cm) GBP 8,801,500 Amsterdam, 2 Dec 1997: Thatched Cottage (c. 1885, oil on canvas/panel, 12 # " 18 ins/32 " 46 cm) NLG 1,383,840 New York, 19 Nov 1998: Self-portrait Without a Beard (Portrait de l’artiste sans barbe) (1889, oil on canvas, 16 " 13 ins/41 " 33 cm) USD 65,000,000 New York, 12 May 1999: La Roubine du Roi (1888, oil on canvas, 29 " 24 ins/74 " 61 cm) USD 18,000,000 New York, 8 Nov 1999: Pont de Trinquetaille (1888, oil on canvas, 26 " 32 ins/65 " 81 cm) USD 14,000,000 New York, 8 May 2000: Entrance to the Parc de Voyer-d’Argenson at Asnieres (oil on canvas, 22 " 27 ins/55 " 68 cm) USD 1,600,000 New York, 10 May 2000: Flowers in a Vase (oil on canvas, 16 " 12 ins/40 " 31 cm) USD 4,200,000 New York, 7 May 2001: Arles Seen from the Wheat Fields (reed pen/sepia ink, 12 " 9 ins/31 " 24 cm) USD 4,000,000 London, 26 June 2001: Eglogue Provence—a Pair of Lovers (1888, oil on canvas, 13 " 9 ins/32 " 23 cm) GBP 2,600,000 New York, 8 May 2002: Peasant Woman, Half-figure, Sitting (1884-1885, oil on canvas/panel, 16 " 11 ins/40 " 29 cm) USD 600,000 New York, 5 Nov 2002: Mother and Child (1885, oil on canvas board, 17 " 13 ins/43 " 34 cm) USD 750,000 New York, 4 Nov 2003: Allée des Alyscamps (1888, oil on canvas, 36 " 29 ins/92 " 73 cm) USD 10,500,000 New York, 5 Nov 2003: Harvest in Provence (watercolour/charcoal/ink, 20 " 24 ins/50 " 61 cm) USD 9,200,000 London, 21 June 2004: Two Crabs (1888–1889, oil on canvas, 19 " 24 ins/47 " 61 cm) GBP 4,600,000 London, 22 June 2004: Peasant Woman Gleaning (1885, chalk and wash heightened with white, 21 " 17 ins/53 " 42 cm) GBP 360,000 New York, 3 Nov 2004: Trinquetaille Bridge (Pont de Trinquetaille) (1888, oil on canvas, 26 " 32 ins/66 " 81.3cm) USD 10,000,000 London, 20 June 2005: Woman in a Garden (1887, oil on canvas, 20 " 24 ins/50.8 " 61cm) GBP 2,600,000. London, 21 June 2005: Novel Reader (Liseuse de romans) (1888, oil on canvas, 29 " 37 ins/73.7 " 94cm) GBP 2,100,000 New York, 2 May 2006: Arlesienne, Madame Ginoux (1890, oil on canvas, 26 " 21 ins/66 " 53.3cm) USD 36,000,000 New York, 7 Nov 2006: A Pair of Shoes (1886, oil on canvas, 15 " 16 ins/38.1 " 40.6cm) USD 8,000,000 New York, 9 May 2007: Pollard Willow (1882, watercolour, gouache, pen, black ink on paper on board, 15 " 22 ins/38.1 " 55.9cm) USD 1,400,000; View from Vincent’s Window (1887, oil on board, 22 " 15 ins/55.9 " 38.1cm) USD 4,400,000 Bern, 6 June 2008: Seamstress by a Window (Die Näherin beim Fenster ) (1881, watercolour over charcoal with pastel and body colour on vellum, 23 # " 17# ins/9.8 " 44cm) CHF 1,550,000 New York, 3 Nov 2009: Weaver (1884, oil on canvas laid down on board, 14 # " 17$ ins/36.6 " 45cm) USD 818,500 London, 23 June 2010: Garden of St Paul Hospital (Parc de l’hôpital Saint-Paul ) (1889, oil on canvas, 26 ! " 20# ins/66.7 " 51.5cm) GBP 9,001,250 New York, 3 Nov 2010: Plaster Statuette: Female Torso, Front View (Statuette de plâtre: torse de femme, vue de face) (1887, oil on canvas, 28 $ " 21# ins/73 " 54.1cm) USD 3,666,500 London, 21 June 2011: Head of a Peasant Woman: Right Profile (1884, oil on canvas laid down on panel, 15 $ " 12 ins/40 " 30cm) GBP 993,250 London, 7 Feb 2012: Vue de l’asile et de la Chapelle de Saint-Rémy (1889, oil on canvas, 18 " 24 ins/45.1 " 60.4 cm) GBP 10,121,250; Pollard Willow (1882, watercolour, gouache and pen and ink on paper, 15 " 22 ins/38.1 " 55.9 cm) GBP 1,273,250 London, 20 June 2012: Sorrow (1882, pencil and wash on paper, 18 # " 12 ins/46.7 " 30.2 cm) GBP 1,329,250 New York, 7 May 2013: Peasant Woman Reeling Yarn (1885, black chalk on paper, 11 ! " 14! ins/28 " 36 cm) USD 785,000 Zürich, 19 June 2013: Pont de Clichy (1887, oil on canvas, 21 $ " 18! ins/55 " 46 cm) CHF 6,575,000 London, 5 Feb 2014: View From the Window of Vincent’s Studio (1883, pen and ink and pencil on paper, 8! " 5# ins/20.7 " 13.5 cm) GBP 962,500; View From the Window of Vincent’s Studio in Winter (gouache, watercolour, and pencil on paper, 15$ " 23# ins/40 " 59.5 cm) GBP 350,500; L’homme est en mer (1889, oil on canvas, 26 " 20! ins/66 " 51 cm) GBP 16,882,500
Bibliography Aurier, G. Albert: Oeuvres posthumes, Mercure de France, Paris, 1893. Meier-Graefe, Julius: Vincent Van Gogh, R. Piper, Munich, 1910–1925. Coquiot, Gustave: Vincent Van Gogh, Ollendorf, Paris, 1923. Duret, Théodore: Vincent Van Gogh, Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, 1924. Piérard, Louis: La Vie tragique de Van Gogh, G. Crès, Paris, 1924. Colin, Paul: Van Gogh, Éd. Rieder, Paris, 1925. Faille, Jacob Baart de la: L’Époque française de Van Gogh, Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, 1927. Meier-Graefe, Julius: Vincent Van Gogh der Zeichner , Otto Wacker Verlag, Berlin, 1928. Faille, Jacob Baart de la: L’Oeuvre de Vincent Van Gogh: catalogue raisonné , 4 vols, Van Oest, Paris and Brussels, 1928–1930.
Doiteau, Victor/Leroy, Edgard: La Folie de Van Gogh, Aesculape, Paris, 1928. Faille, Jacob Baart de la: Les Faux Van Gogh, Van Oest, Paris, 1930. Terrasse, Charles: Van Gogh, Laurens, Paris, 1932. Earp, Thomas Wade: Van Gogh, Thomas Nelson and Sons, London and Edinburgh, 1934. Stone, Irving: Lust for Life, the Novel of Vincent Van Gogh, Longmans, Green and Co., New York, 1934. Florisoone, Michel: Van Gogh, Plon, Paris, 1937. Faille, Jacob Baart de la: Catalogue raisonné des tableaux , Hypérion, Paris, 1939 (text in English, French and German). Rosset, Anne Mary: Van Gogh, Éd. Pierre Tisné, Paris, 1941. Artaud, Antonin: Van Gogh, le suicidé de la société, Gallimard, Paris, 1947. Huyghe, René: Vincent Van Gogh, Flammarion, Paris, 1958. Van Gogh, Vincent: Correspondance complète, Gallimard, Paris, 1960. Hammacher, Abraham Marie, and others: The Works of Vincent van Gogh: His Paintings and Drawings, Reynal in association with Morrow, New York, 1970. Van Gogh, exhibition catalogue, Musée de l’Orangerie, Paris, 1971. The Complete Letters of Vincent van Gogh: With Reproductions of all the Drawings in the Correspondence, Thames and Hudson, London, 1978 (translated from the Dutch by J. van Gogh-Bonger and C. de Dood). Hulsker, Jan: The Complete Van Gogh. Paintings, Drawings, Sketches, catalogue raisonné, Abrams, London and New York, 1980. Zemel, Carol M.: The Formation of a Legend: Van Gogh Criticism, 1890–1920 , UMI Research Press, Ann Arbor (MI), 1980. Pickvance, Ronald: Van Gogh in Arles, exhibition catalogue, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1984. Pickvance, Ronald: Van Gogh in Saint-Rémy and Auvers, exhibition catalogue, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1986. Stein, Susan Alyson: Van Gogh: A Retrospective, Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, New York, 1986. Mothe, Alain: Vincent Van Gogh à Auvers-sur-Oise, Éd. du Valhermeil, Paris, 1987. Van Gogh à Paris, exhibition catalogue, Musée d’Orsay, Paris, 1988. Tilborgh, Louis van (ed.): Van Gogh & Millet , exhibition catalogue, Rijksmuseum van Gogh, Amsterdam, 1988. Metzger, Rainer/Walther, Ingo F.: Catalogue raisonné de l’oeuvre peint de Vincent Van Gogh, 2 vols, Taschen, Cologne, 1990. Arrigoni, Luisa/Testori, Giovanni: Catalogue complet des peintures de Van Gogh, catalogue raisonné, Bordas, Paris, 1991. Faille, Jacob Baart de la: Vincent Van Gogh: The Complete Works on Paper , 2 vols, catalogue raisonné, Alan Wofsy Fine Arts, San Francisco (CA), 1992. Schapiro, Meyer: ‘The Still Life as a Personal Object—A Note on Heidegger and van Gogh’, in Theory and Philosophy of Art: Style, Artist, and Society , George Braziller, New York, 1994. Schapiro, Meyer: ‘Further Notes on Heidegger and van Gogh’, in Theory and Philosophy of Art: Style, Artist, and Society , George Braziller, New York, 1994. Busse, Jacques: L’Impressionnisme: une dialectique du regard , Ides et Calendes, Neuchâtel, 1996.