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Le earning & In mation Serv nform n vices | Library

Cr ing You Re renc Li reati ur efer ce ist & B iogr hy Using Ha ard Bibl raph U arva

Wha Why ow, Whe W at, W , Ho W en & Where W e?

Th guide to using the H his Harvard system of refer rencing com mplies with: BR RITISH STA ANDARDS I INSTITUTIO 1990. B ON. BS5605 :19 990. Recommendations for citing and s a ref ferencing pu ublished ma aterial. 2nd edn. Londo BSI. on:

Th use of the Harvard s he e system of re eferencing h been ac has ccepted as University o Wales, Newport poli of N icy. Th policy, or he riginally acc cepted by Academic B Board in 28 November 1 N 1996, was r re-approved at the Jun d ne 20 and Nov 002 vember 200 meetings of the Boa 02 s ard. The po olicy states t that all unde ergraduates s, po ostgraduates and staff s s should use the Harvard referencin system. d ng

Un niversity of W Wales, New wport suppo the bibli orts iographic management tool RefW m Works™ an online o bib bliography a databas manager that allows users to create their own person bibliogra and se s c nal aphy.

Febru uary 2010

1. What, Why, How, Where & When
1.1 What is a reference?
When writing an assignment, essay or dissertation, you will be expected to acknowledge the materials you have used to write the piece and support your arguments like books, journals or newspaper articles, webpages etc. This list of books, journals, newspaper articles or webpages is known as the list of references or bibliography.

1.2 Why reference?
Unless you are doing creative writing, you will normally be required to research materials and use these sources from books, journals, videos, webpages etc. as evidence in backing up your argument. Therefore, referencing, or letting the reader know the source of your information, is a necessary and important part of academic writing. It is vital to acknowledge all the ideas, arguments and quotations used in your assignment to avoid any accusations of plagiarism. Plagiarism is stealing other people’s words/phrases and/or ideas either blatantly by not referencing, or less blatantly (but just as seriously) by referencing but 'passing off' the words/phrases you have submitted as 'yours' when it is really the words/phrases of another person. JISC Plagiarism Detection Service One way of enabling lecturers to check whether students have referenced their assignments correctly is the use of the electronic Plagiarism Detection Service. This allows your work to be checked against electronic sources of information. The intention is that cheating can be identified, for the benefit of all of the students on the course.

1.3 How do you reference?
There are a number of different methods of citing and listing your references or bibliography, but the accepted method of referencing used at University of Wales, Newport is the Harvard System of referencing.

1.4 Where do you reference?
Both references to sources acknowledged in the text and those works which have been of value (for example, for background reading) but which have not been specifically referred to in the text must be acknowledged in the bibliography.

1.5 When do you reference?
You should reference others’ work whenever you draw on it for inspiration, use it as support for a theory or argument, or use it for particular examples. Whether you are writing a thesis, a dissertation, an essay or just making notes on your own reading, you should always record sufficient detail to identify the book, article or image which you have used for a bibliography or references section later. Write down your references or save into RefWorks™ (see below) when you find the book, illustration, etc. It may be difficult to find the information at a later stage. This is especially important for items borrowed from another library or if you are doing research away from your home base. If you photocopy any items, ensure that you add the full reference at the time you copy. It is almost impossible to identify the item later. If you need to make an extensive number of references (e.g. for a dissertation or thesis) you might find the RefWorks™ bibliographic management tool useful. Please make enquiries at the Information and Enquiry Desks at either Caerleon or Allt-yr-yn Library.

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2. Referencing in the Text (In Text Referencing)
Referencing in the text or in text referencing is where all the sources (text based and electronic) which you have referred to in your assignment, essay or dissertation are acknowledged (cited). Unintentional plagiarism can occur if you fail to follow the rules regarding in text referencing of summarised, paraphrased and quoted work. Every piece of information you use in the text of your assignment, essay or dissertation that is not part of your own original research, be it an argument, opinion, fact, idea or theory must be cited in the text and then later listed in alphabetical order by author/editor/artist surname at the end of the work in the reference section or list.

2.1. Summarising the Work of Others
Summarising or briefly describing the work of another person.

2.1a Where the author name is not cited directly - put authors’ name, the year of publication and page number in brackets at the end of the summary. e.g. The 1980 study of the speech of witnesses in Carolina court cases investigated whether gender and weakness or lack or power should be conflated in this way (Barr and Atkins, 1981, p. 5).

2.1b Where the author name is cited directly and is part of the sentence -put the year of publication in brackets after the author’s name. e.g. In 1980, O’Barr and Atkins’s (1981) study of the speech of witnesses in Carolina court cases investigated whether gender and weakness or lack or power should be conflated in this way. Note: For summaries (brief descriptions of work) and for indirect quotations some tutors may ask you to also include a page number. If in doubt, always check.

2.2. Paraphrasing the Work of Others
Paraphrasing the work of another person or putting their theories or ideas in your own words and in your own style must be cited, or it will be viewed a plagiarism. The original: Enormous harm had been done to America, and the country was grieving. Many Americans were angry and vengeful.

The paraphrased version: America had suffered greatly and was damaged and sorrowful. A great number of the people wanted revenge (Poole and Richardson, 2006, p. 126).

2.3. Listing the Work of Others
This is a straight forward list of studies/reports/research in a particular subject field. e.g. Further studies which have pursued the issue of women’s language or powerless language are Leet-Pellegrini (1980), Beattie (1981) and Woods (1989).

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2.4. Quotations
There are two types of quotation you can use when writing your assignment, essay or dissertation - the direct or indirect quote. The direct quote is where you use the author’s own words directly as it was written in the original work. Sometimes, you do not want to use direct quotations i.e. the exact words of the author, but you can still make reference to what they have written; this is indirect quotation. Direct quotes are also treated differently in the text depending on whether they are long or short.

2.4a Direct quotes (Short) Short quotes (under 4 lines of prose) should be placed in the body of the text and enclosed in quotation marks. e.g. As Bell (1993, p.23) says, ‘Finding information in the first place can be hard enough. Finding it again sometimes afterwards can be even harder unless your methods of recording and filing are thorough and systematic.’

2.4b Direct quotes (Long) Longer quotations should be preceded by a colon and begin a new line. They should be set off from the text and indented at least or 2.5 cms (1inch). Quotation marks should not be used. You must include the page number of the quoted passage, with both long and short quotations. e.g. Some of the most sensible advice for anyone carrying out literature search and on keeping records of their findings states that: In the early stages of an investigation it may seem enough to jot down a reference on the back of an old envelope, but old envelopes thrown into a box will not provide you with a reliable resource, and the likelihood is that references will be incomplete and difficult to track down at a later stage. If you are going to need half a dozen references, then scraps of paper may serve, but as your investigation proceeds, you accumulate many sources of information, and an orderly system is necessary from the beginning (Bell 1993, p. 23).

2.4c Secondary referencing If an author has quoted or mentioned the work of another author and you wish to cite this reference, you should first try to read the original item. If that is not possible, you must use secondary referencing to acknowledge both sources. A direct reference: Hutton (1987 cited in Duff, 1992, p.547) concluded that there was 'a considerable homogeneity…'..-

An indirect reference: Duff (1992) cites the work of Hutton (1987) who surveyed the surviving churchwardens' accounts for Mary's reign. When citing the reference in the reference list, cite only the work that you have read i.e. Duff, not Hutton.

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3. Creating Your Reference List and Bibliography
At the end of your assignment you should list, in alphabetical order by author/editor/artist surname, all the sources (text based and electronic) to which you have referred in your text. This is known as references section or list, and will contain information such as the year and place of publication (if it is a book), the title of the website, and so on. You should also add a bibliography to the end of your work. A bibliography is a detailed list (in the same format as the references section) containing those works which have been of value, for example, for background reading, but which have not been specifically referred to in the text. Whether you are writing a thesis, a dissertation, an essay or just making notes on your own reading, you should always record sufficient detail to identify the book or article which you have used for a bibliography or references section later.

References or Bibliography - Points to Remember
a. b. c. Punctuation should be conventional, as shown in the examples. Author’s/editor’s surname precedes his/her initials and should be in capitals. If you are word processing your document the titles of books, journals and theses are in italics, but not the titles of papers within journals, chapters within books or tracks on a sound recording. If you are using a typewriter or handwriting your work it is acceptable to underline titles, etc instead of using italics. Place of publication precedes the name of the publisher. Where there are 3 or more authors use et al in the text e.g. (Thomas, W. et al) but in the references section/bibliography name all three, e.g. Thomas, W., Beeby, C.E. and Oram, M.H. followed by the date. If several works by the same author are included, they should be in date order. If more than one item is published in the same year, a, b, c, d, etc is used e.g. (Thomas, W.,1992a and Thomas, W.1992b). You can break URLs across lines, but if possible, arrange for breaks to occur only at punctuation separators (but not hyphens). The abbreviation of editor or editors is ed. or eds. Edition or editions is abbreviated to edn. or edns. Page references are abbreviated to p. for one specific page e.g. p.15 and pp. when more than one page is referred to e.g. pp. 92-98. For a journal article, you will need to give the journal volume in bold and the number of the volume in brackets, e.g. 10(3).

d. e.

f.

g. h. i.

k.

Below we give some examples of how to present sources in the references or bibliography sections. All sources should be placed in alphabetical order of authors'/editor’s surnames.

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3.1. Referencing Printed Sources
3.1a Reference to a book The format would look like this: AUTHOR/ EDITOR (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year of publication. Title (in italics). Edition (if other than first). Place of publication: Publisher. e.g. RABIGER, M. 2009. Directing the documentary. 5th edn. London: Focal.

3.1b

Reference to a chapter in a book of collected writing The format would look like this: AUTHOR(S) of article/paper (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year of publication. Title of article/paper/chapter. In AUTHOR/ EDITOR of book (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Title (in italics). Place of publication: Publisher. Page number of article/paper/chapter. e.g. SURMAN, D. 2006. Style, consistence and plausibility in the Fable gameworld. In: BUCHAN, S. ed. Animated 'worlds'. Eastleigh : John Libbey. pp. 151-170.

3.1c

Reference to an exhibition catalogue The format would look like this: AUTHOR/ EDITOR/ CORPORATE AUTHOR of catalogue (IN CAPITAL LETTERS) Year of publication. Title of exhibition (in italics). Format [should be indicated in square brackets]. Place of publication: Publisher. e.g. SAATCHI GALLERY. 2009. Shape of things to come : new sculpture. [Exhibition catalogue]. London: Jonathan Cape.

3.1d

Reference to a journal article / newspaper article The format would look like this: AUTHOR(S) of article/paper (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year of publication. Title of article. Title of journal (in italics). Volume number issue number (should be indicated in round brackets). Page number(s). e.g. ROGERS, T. 2005. Measuring value added in higher education: Do any of the recent experiences in secondary education in the United Kingdom suggest a way forward?. Quality Assurance in Education, 13 (2). pp. 95 - 106. For newspapers, give the date instead of the volume and part numbers, e.g. SUGDEN, J. 2008. Thousands of students worse off after error leads to a cut in university grants. The Times. 30 October. p. 11.

3.1e

Reference to papers in conference proceedings The format would look like this: Either: AUTHOR/ EDITOR/ CORPORATE AUTHOR of conference (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Title of conference (in italics). Place of conference. Date of conference. Year of publication. Place of publication: Publisher.
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e.g. COLLEGE OF ART ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. Abstracts 2008 : 96th annual conference. Dallas-Fort Worth. February 20-23, 2008. 2008. New York: College of Art Association of America. Or the conference may be entered under its title if there is no corporate author/author.

3.1f

Reference to anonymous works The format would look like this: Title (in italics). Year of publication. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher. e.g. Dod’s parliamentary companion. 1999. 179th edn. London: Dod’s Parliamentary Companion Ltd.

3.1g

Reference to an unpublished work The format would look like this: AUTHOR/ EDITOR (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year of publication. Title (in italics). Unpublished work. Any other relevant information like University or Conference the paper delivered. e.g. WAREING, A.S. 1995. Gender, speech styles and the assessment of discussion. Unpublished PhD thesis. Glasgow: University of Strathclyde.

3.1h

Reference to published music (music scores) The format would look like this: COMPOSER of music (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year of publication. Title of composition/score (in italics). Format [should be indicated in square brackets]. Place of publication: Publisher. e.g. CAGE, J. 1962. First construction (in metal) : percussion sextet with assistant. [Music score]. New York: Edition Peters.

3.2. Referencing Electronic Sources
In the same way that you need to reference print material you need to follow the same procedures for information obtained electronically. As yet however, there are no fixed standards for electronic references but in order to apply a consistent style throughout, the following examples follow the Harvard system: 3.2a Reference to an electronic book (e-book) The format would look like this: AUTHOR/ EDITOR (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year of publication. Title (in italics). Format [should be indicated in square brackets]. Edition (if other than first). Place of publication: Publisher. URL including filename extension. Date accessed (in round brackets). e.g. NEAL, M. A. 2004. That's the joint! : the hip-hop studies reader. [Online book]. New York: Routledge. http://www.netLibrary.com/urlapi.asp?action=summary&v=1&bookid=116791. (11 January 2010).

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3.2b

Reference to a chapter in an electronic book (e-book) of collected writing The format would look like this: AUTHOR(S) of article/paper (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year of publication. Title of article/paper/chapter. In: AUTHOR/ EDITOR of book (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Title (in italics). Format [should be indicated in square brackets]. Edition (if other than first). Place of publication: Publisher. Page number of article/paper. URL including filename extension. Date accessed (in round brackets). e.g. KRIMS, A. 2003. Marxist music analysis without Adorno: popular music and urban geography. In: MOORE, A. F. ed. Analyzing popular music. [Online book]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://www.netlibrary.com/AccessProduct.aspx?ProductId=120367. (30 November 2009).

3.2c

Reference to an electronic journal article / electronic newspaper article (for a journal/newspaper published online) The format would look like this: AUTHOR (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year of publication. Title of the article. Title of the electronic journal / newspaper (in italics). Format [should be indicated in square brackets]. Volume number issue number (should be indicated in round brackets) or day and month of article. URL including filename extension. Date accessed (in round brackets). e.g. LEARNER, S. 2002. Welsh grants replace free transport and childcare. T.E.S. [Online newspaper]. 22 March. http://www.tes.co.uk/article.aspx?storycode=361346. (13 June 2009).

3.2d

Reference to an electronic journal article / electronic newspaper article (for a journal/newspaper published online & in print and accessed via an online database) AUTHOR (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year of publication. Title of the article. Title of the electronic journal / newspaper (in italics). Format [should be indicated in square brackets]. Volume number issue number (should be indicated in round brackets). URL including filename extension. Date accessed (in round brackets). e.g. GLUCK, R. J. 2007. The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center : educating international composers. [Online journal] . 31 (2). http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=25310222&site=ehost-live. (18 January 2010).

3.2e

Reference to an online image The format would look like this: PHOTOGRAPHER / CREATOR OF IMAGE (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year. Title of the image (in italics). Format [should be indicated in square brackets]. URL including filename extension. Date accessed (in round brackets). e.g. O’NEILL, T. 2002. Jean Shrimpton & Terence Henry Stamp. [Online image]. http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/largerimage.php?LinkID=mp08142&page=1&role=art&r No=6. (30 January 2009).

3.2f

Reference to an online video The format would look like this: CORPORATE AUTHOR / ORIGINATOR if known (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year of production. Online Video Title (in italics). Medium:Format [should be indicated in square brackets]. Series title, if known. URL including filename extension. Date accessed (in round brackets).
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e.g. You Tube WALKER, M. 2005. Astronauts. [Online video]. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VYxr6nhqtfk. (27 January 2010).

e.g. Box of Broadcasts (BoB) BBC4. 2009. Out of Town. [Online video]. Mad Men, Series 3, Episode 1/13. http://bobnational.net/programme.php?archive=22406&view=flash_player. (28 January 2010).

3.2g

Reference to a podcast The format would look like this: AUTHOR (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year of publication. Title of podcast (in italics). Format [should be indicated in square brackets]. URL including filename extension. Date accessed (in round brackets). e.g. ARCHER, D. 2008. How to become a successful franchisee. [Audio podcast]. http://www.dmubusiness.org/mp3/how_to_become_a_successful_franchisee.mp3. (13 January 2009). CLYNES, M et al. 2008. Are we cyborgs?. [Video podcast]. http://podcast.open.ac.uk/pod/t209ict. (13 January 2009).

3.2h

Reference to a webpage / WWW document The format would look like this: AUTHOR (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year. Title of the webpage / WWW document (in italics). Format [should be indicated in square brackets]. URL including filename extension. Date accessed (in round brackets). e.g. SURREALISM.ORG. 2009. Salvador Dali. [WWW]. http://www.surrealism.org/dali.html. (8 October 2009).

3.2i

Reference to a CD-ROM The format would look like this: AUTHOR (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year. Title of CD-ROM (in italics). Format [should be indicated in square brackets]. Place of Publication: Publisher. e.g. CROMPTON, D. 2003. Magic images : the art of the hand-painted and photographic lantern slide. [CD-ROM]. Hastings: The Projection Box.

3.2j

Reference to a blog or blog posting A blog The format would look like this: AUTHOR (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year of publication. Title of blog (in italics). Format [should be indicated in square brackets]. URL including filename extension. Date accessed (in round brackets). e.g. BLAKEMAN, K. 2005. Karen Blakeman’s blog: news and views on search tools and Internet resources for business information. [Weblog]. http://www.rba.co.uk/wordpress. (19 Dec 2009).
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A blog posting The format would look like this: AUTHOR (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Date posted. Title of the posting. Format [should be indicated in square brackets]. Title of blog (in italics). URL including filename extension. Date accessed (in round brackets). e.g. BLAKEMAN, K.. 29 October 2008. Bosses ’should embrace Facebook’. [Weblog post]. Karen Blakeman’s blog: news and views on search tools and Internet resources for business information. http://www.rba.co.uk/wordpress/2008/10/29/bosses-should-embrace-facebook/. (19 Dec 2008).

3.2k

Reference to an e-mail Email from a discussion list The format would look like this: AUTHOR (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Date posted. Subject line from posting (in italics). Format [should be indicated in square brackets]. Type of posting. Date accessed (in round brackets). e.g. McKAY, J. 25 June 2007. Images debate. [E-mail]. Mailing to artdeslib discussion list at [email protected] (27 June 2007).

Personal email The format would look like this: AUTHOR (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Email of sender (in brackets). Date posted. Subject line from posting (in italics). Format [should be indicated in square brackets]. Type of posting. Date accessed (in round brackets). e.g. BLOGGS, J. ([email protected]). 25 December 2008. Images debate. [E-mail]. E-mail to A. N. Other ([email protected]). (1 January 2009).

3.2l

Reference to a wiki The format would look like this: AUTHOR (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Date updated. Title of the article. Format [should be indicated in square brackets]. Title of wiki (in italics). URL including filename extension. Date accessed (in round brackets). e.g. WILLMORE, B. 23 September 2008. Barton Willmore. [Wiki]. RIBApedia. http://wikiriba01.seoss.co.uk/wiki/Barton_Willmore. (19 Dec 2008)

3.3. Referencing Visual Sources
3.3a Reference to cartographic material/maps The format would look like this: CORPORATE AUTHOR (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year of publication. Title (in italics). Scale. Place of publication: Publisher. Series; sheet number (should be indicated in round brackets).

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e.g. ORDNANCE SURVEY. 1991. Cardiff, Newport & surrounding area. 1:50 000. Southampton: Ordnance Survey. (Landranger; sheet 171).

3.3b

Reference to an illustration, photograph, diagram and other images All illustrations, photographs, diagrams and other images should be referenced (for online images see 3.2e Reference to an online image). Where the image is cited in a book/article/catalogue etc. and is not the authors own work, reference should be made of the work itself as well as to the book/article/catalogue it is cited in. The format should look like this: ARTIST (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year. Title of the work (in italics). Material types [should be indicated in square brackets]. Location: Gallery / Museum / Collection. In AUTHOR/ EDITOR of book (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Title (in italics). Place of publication: Publisher. e.g. DURER, A. 1515. Rhinoceros. [Drawing]. London: British Museum. In: SALLEY, V. 2003. Nature's artist : plants and animals by Albrecht Dürer. London: Prestel. (Examples of material types include: ceramics, drawings, engravings, etchings, glass, linocuts, lithographs, paintings, photographs, sculptures, woodcuts.) If the work cited was viewed in the original location and was not viewed reproduced in a book/article/catalogue etc., then this should be made clear. e.g. DA VINCI, L. 1503-1506. Portrait of Lisa Gherardini, wife of Francesco del Giocondo. [Painting]. Paris : Louvre Museum. A List of Figures All illustrations, photographs, diagrams and other images including maps referred in the dissertation, critical paper or long essay should be displayed in a list of figures, following the contents page. This list should include figure number (in order), figure title, and page on which the illustration appears.

A List of Figures Figure 1 Figure 2 Rhinoceros. [Engraving]. Portrait of Lisa Gherardini, wife of Francesco del Giocondo. [Painting]. Page 33 Page 54

The figure number and title must also appear underneath the illustration, in the main body of the work. Figures and tables should be located as close as possible to the relevant part of the text.

Figure 1 Rhinoceros

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3.4 Referencing Audio Visual Sources
3.4a Reference to a film / documentary / play (DVD / video) The format would look like this: Title of the work (in italics). Year of recording / copyright or production. Medium:Format [should be indicated in square brackets]. Subsidiary originator (Director). Place of production / distribution: Producer / distributor. e.g. Nosferatu. 1922. [DVD:Region 2 encoding]. Directed by F. W. Murnau. London: Eureka Video. e.g. A grin without a cat (Le fond de l'air est rouge). 1977. [VHS Video]. Directed by C. Marker. New York: Icarus Films.

3.4b

Reference to an off-air recording (DVD / video) The format would look like this: CORPORATE AUTHOR if known (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year of production. Programme Title (in italics). Medium:Format [should be indicated in square brackets]. Series title, if known. Place of broadcast: Broadcast company. Date of transmission. e.g. CHANNEL 4. 2006. Tony Robinson : me and my mum. [off-air video recording:DVD]. Channel 4. 27 March 2006.

e.g. BBC2. 2001. The psalms of David. [off-air video recording:VHS Video]. Art that shook the world. 5 London: BBC2. 5 May 2001.

3.4c

Reference to a computer game The format would look like this: CORPORATE AUTHOR if known (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year of production. Title of game (in italics). Medium:Format [should be indicated in square brackets]. Series title, if known. Place of Publication: Publisher e.g. SONY COMPUTER ENTERTAINMENT. 2008. Devil may cry 4. [DVD-ROM]. Sony PlayStation 3. London: Capcom Europe Ltd.

3.4d

Reference to a sound recording (audio CD / cassette / vinyl records) The format would look like this: AUTHOR if known (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year of recording / copyright or production. Title of the work (in italics). Medium:Format [should be indicated in square brackets]. Place of production / distribution: Producer / distributor. e.g. CAGE, J. 1999. John Cage : works for percussion. [sound recording:compact disc]. Mainz: Wergo.

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3.4e

Reference to a radio programme The format would look like this: CORPORATE AUTHOR if known (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year of production. Programme Title (in italics). Medium:Format [should be indicated in square brackets]. Series title, if known. Place of broadcast: Broadcast company. Date of transmission. e.g. RADIO 4. 2009. Free for all. [radio programme]. In Business. London: BBC Radio 4. 8 January 2009.

3.5 Referencing Verbal Sources
3.5a Reference to conversation / comment / interview (in person or telephone) The format would look like this: PERSON having conversation / being interviewed (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Date of conversation / interview (in full). Title of conversation / interview (in italics). e.g. WATSON, J.A.D. 7 December 2009. Personal Communication. 3.5b Reference to a formal lecture or speech The format would look like this: LECTURER’S NAME (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year. Title of lecture (in italics). Location/Institution. Date. e.g. WOODS, N. 2010. Communication, culture and learning. University of Wales, Newport. 27 Jan 2010.

3.6. Referencing Live/Temporary Sources
3.6a Reference to a live performance (play / dance) The format would look like this: AUTHOR (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year of performance. Title of the work (in italics). Subsidiary originator (Director). Production. Location of performance: Performance venue. Date of performance (in round brackets). e.g. SHAKESPEARE, W. 2008. Hamlet. Directed by G. Doran. Royal Shakespeare Company. Stratford: The Courtyard Theatre. (14 November 2008).

3.6b

Reference to a live performance (music) The format would look like this: ARTIST / BAND / ORCHESTRA (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Year of performance. Title of the work (in italics). Subsidiary originator (Conductor). Location of performance: Performance venue. Date of performance (in round brackets). e.g. PHILHARMONIA ORCHESTRA. 2010. Mendelssohn Violin Concerto . Conducted by V. Ashkenazy. Cardiff: St. David's Hall. (29 January 2010).
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e.g. SUPER FURRY ANIMALS. 2009. The international language of screaming . London: Somerset House. (18 July 2009).

3.6b

Reference to an exhibition The format would look like this: ARTIST(S) (IN CAPITAL LETTERS). Date(s) of exhibition. Title of exhibition (in italics). Location: Exhibition space / Gallery. e.g. MFA DOCUMENTARY PHOTOGRAPHY STUDENTS. 17 - 20 December 2009. Across the line. Penarth: Ffotogallery.

Whatever you need to make a reference to, by following the formats in the examples above, your bibliography will remain orderly and consistent and therefore easier for other people to use the information.

4. Guidelines for the Presentation of a Long Essays / Dissertation
Courses have different rules and regulations relating to presentation. The following are general rules. The long essay / dissertation should: • be word-processed • be double-spaced on one side of A4 paper. • have top and bottom margins of 2.5 cm (1 inch) and left and right margins of 3.75 cm. (1½ inches) • have pages numbered consecutively
• • • • •

have a title page, which includes: the title of the dissertation or the essay question the student's name the degree and subject for which the study is being submitted the year of submission the total number of words

Structure The order of pages should be as follows: • Title page • Contents page • List of figures (if any) • Declaration of originality (if required) • Glossary (if any) • Acknowledgements (if any) • Abstract (if required) • Main body of the dissertation or the essay, in chapters • Bibliography (Harvard System) • Appendices (if any)
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5. Additional Information
Latin Abbreviations
Abbreviation cf. et al. et seq. ff. ib, ibid. id. i.e. loc. cit. op. cit q.v. sic v (vide) English Meaning compare and others and the following and the following pages in the same place the same that is in the place already mentioned / cited in the work already mentioned / cited which see so written, spelt see

Further Help
For further details on making references and compiling references and bibliographies, the following titles can be found in the Library: ALLISON, B. 1993. Guide to dissertation preparation: revised to conform to BS 4821. 4th edn. Leicester: Leicester Polytechnic. (378.1702812 ALL) BELL, J. 1993. Doing your research project: a guide to first-time researchers in educational and social science. 2nd edn. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. (370.78 BEL) BOSWORTH, D.P. 1994. Citing your references: a guide for authors of journal articles and students writing theses or dissertations. 2nd edn. Thirsk: Underhill Press. (Reserve Collection) BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. BS 5605: 1990. Recommendations for citing and referencing published material. 2nd edn. London: British Standards Institution. (Reserve Collection) Chicago manual of style: for authors, editors and copywriters. 1993. 14th edn. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (REF 001.422 CHI) ROBERT GORDON UNIVERSITY. 2006. Guide to Using the Harvard Style. [WWW]. http://www.rgu.ac.uk/files/ACF1580.pdf (21 July 2006). TURABIAN, K.L.1996. Manual for writers of term papers, theses and dissertations. London and Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (378.1702812 TUR) WAREING, S. 2001. How to study successfully: a guide for students at the University of Wales College, Newport. 2nd edn. Newport: University of Wales College, Newport. (378.1702812 WAR and on sale)

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