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High Speed Two (HS2): Costs and Benefits

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Nkdrkm Dkcon ndnFnkdrkmdkcon.ae.un  

16 Gumj 06;8

Vklj ; ei ;1 

Xbj Aests kmh @jmjiots ei BQ0  Omtrehuatoem 'Bolb Qpjjh Xwe' (bjmajiertb ‒BQ0‟), conj conj dkmy ckrlj ckrlj-sakcj -sakcj pu`coa pu` coa spjmhoml pregjats, os tbj su`gjat su` gjat ei duab hj`ktj. hj `ktj. Xbj Xbj `uocho ` uochoml ml ei e i k bolb-spjjh rkoc comn `jtwjjm Cemhem kmh k mh @ordomlbkd (‒ Vbksj Emj‟ ) kmh emwkrhs te Cjjhs kmh Dkmabjstjr (‒ Vbksj Xwe ‟ ), os os omtjmhjh te prehuaj prehu aj wohjsprjkh jaeme jaemedoa doa `jmjiots `jmjiots ‑ `e  `etb tb provktj `jmjiots (ier rkoc r koc usjrs) suab s uab ks rjhuajh geurmjy todjs, kmh k rkmlj ei ceml-tjrd jxtjrmkc `jmjiots, `jmjiots, suab ks ge` arjktoem om tbj k kiijatjh iijatjh rjloems. Xbjsj `jmjiots he met, bewjvjr, aedj wotbeut wotbeut tbjor aests ‑ klkom, `etb `e tb provktj kmh jxtjrmkc. Xbjsj Xbjsj omacuhj tetkc pckmmoml kmh aemstruatoem aests ei up te £80.9 `occoem, `occ oem, omacuhoml omacuhoml aemtomljmay ae mtomljmay (HiX, 06;1), kmh vkroeus jmvoremdjmtkc jmvore mdjmtkc kmh seaokc aests. Jvohjmaj sbews sbe ws tbkt tbkt tbj pu`coa krj kr j met wjcc wjcc omierdjh k`eut k`eu t ttbj bj pre pregjat. gjat. K stuhy sbewjh tbkt 86% ei k skdpcj ei 0,62< skoh tbjy nmjw 'cott 'cottcj cj er met me t vjry duab' k`eutt tbj k`eu tbj sabjdj, kmh 8<% skoh tbjy nmjw metboml k`eut ot (XMQ @[email protected], 06;0).

Jiijats tbj Mertb-Qeutb Mertb-Qeutb Hovohj Jiij ats em tbj Xbj Xrkmspert Xrkmspe rt Qjarjtkry, Vktroan Vktroan DaCeulbcom, DaCe ulbcom, krlujs tbkt BQ0 aeuch ae uch bjcp rjhuaj tbj Mertb-Qeutb hovohj, tbreulb tbj arjktoem ei emj omtjraemmjatjh jaemedoa rjloem. Xbos sbeuch sbeu ch bkvj km oma omarjksoml rjksoml jiijat j iijat em tbj prehuatovo pre huatovoty ty ei iords huj te tbj jxpkmsoem ei ikater dkrnjts. Ot os conjcy conjcy tbkt tbjrj wocc wocc `j k mjt hkocy devjdjmt ei ck`eur tewkrhs Cemhem, Cemhe m, omstjkh ei k mertbwkrh mer tbwkrh mjt aeddutj eut eu t ei tbj tbj Qeutb Q eutb Jkst tewkrhs tbj Mertb kmh tbj Dohckmhs. Xbos os, om pkrt, huj te tbj hospkroty hospkroty om `etb ` etb wkljs kmh aest ei covoml covoml `jtwjjm tbj tbj twe twe rjloems. Xbjrj krj `jmjiots te rjloems rj loems eutsohj ei Cemhem, Ce mhem, bewjvjr, ei omhovohukcs om om tbj Mertb kmh Dohckmhs aeddutoml te Cemhem. Cemh em. Omaedj icews ired tbj Qeutb Qe utb Jkst te tbj Mertb Me rtb dky omarjksj, omarjksj, ks k ckrljr mud`jr mu d`jr ei wernjrs wocc wocc `j tknoml wkljs bedj te tewms kmh aotojs aotojs om tbj Mertb Mer tb kmh Dohckmhs. Dohckmhs. Ired Ir ed tbjrj, beusjbech beu sjbech spjmhoml (`y beusjbechs beu sjbechs ei wernjrs wbe tknj wkljs wkljs bedj ired ire d Cemhem) sbeuc sbe uch h omgjat omaedj omte etbjr rjloemkc r jloemkc jaemedojs, om turm trolljroml duct ductopco opcojr jr jiijats. Kmetbjr petjmtokc jiijat os tbkt wernjrs ired ire d tbj tbj Mertb dky `roml `r oml tbjor tbjor rjloemkc tkstjs, trjmhs kmh iksboems te Cemhem, Ce mhem, kmh jmaeurklj jmaeur klj spjmhoml ired tbj Akpotkc em leehs kmh sjrvoajs prehuajh om tbj Mertb (iurtbjr jmk`coml omaedj rjhostro`utoem).

 

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16 Gumj 06;8

Vklj 0 ei ;1 

Dkmy jxpjrts, omacuhoml omacuhoml Vreijsser Vreijs ser Gebm Ge bm Xedkmjy (ZAC) `jcojvj `jcojvj tbkt bolb-spjjh rkoc sjrvoajs ikveur aerj ae rj aoto aotojs js evjr etbjr krjks. krj ks. Km jxkdpcj ei tbos os om tbj Dkhroh-Qjvoccj Dkhroh-Qjvocc j comj> kitjr aedpcjtoem, aedpcjtoem, tbj lkp om eutput e utput lrewt lre wtb b wohjmjh `jtwjjm ` jtwjjm tbj twe aotojs. Aedpcjdjmtkry te te rjhostro`utoml omaedj ired Qeutb Jkst eutwkrhs, kmetbjr evjrkcc jiijat aeuch eaaur. Conj Conj tbj Irjmab bolb-spjjh sjrvoaj, tbj XLY, XLY, ot aeuch akusj jaemedoa jaeme doa lrewtb te `j iurtbjr iur tbjr ieausjh em iorst-to iorst -tojr jr aotojs aotojs rktbjr tbkm tbjor surreumhoml surre umhoml sjaemh-tojr aotojs. aotojs. Iords I ords dky `j jmaeurkljh jmaeur kljh te stkrt up om om @ordomlbkd rktbjr tbkm \ecvjrbkdptem, \e cvjrbkdptem, ier jxkdpcj, huj te @ordomlbkd‟s  trkmspert comns comns wotb Cemhem. Cemhe m. Xbos Xbos jiijat bks `jjm e`sjrvjh e`s jrvjh wotb wotb Cocc C occj, j, kmh tbj surreumhoml rjloem, Merh Vks hj Akckos (Xedkmjy> em ‒Xehky‟, 06;1).  Qdkccjr aotojs Qdkccjr aotojs tbkt krj kr j met em tbj BQ0 comj, comj, bewjvjr, weuch weu ch stocc stocc `jmjiot ` jmjiot ired rjhuajh prjssurj prj ssurj em e m ceakc rkoc mjtwerns (jspjaokccy irjolbt), oi ceml-hostkmaj ce ml-hostkmaj trkvjc eaaurrjh em hosarjtj comjs (Cjjsj> em ‒Xehky‟, 06;1). 

Akpkaoty om tbj Pkoc Mjtwern BQ0's prepemjmts prepe mjmts krluj tbkt tbj pregjat's prodkry proeroty os ei akpkaoty, kmh met sodpcy sodpc y ei e i spjjh. Bewjvjr, ductopcj ductopcj sdkccjr rkoc hjvjcepdjmt pregjats dky `j derj jiijatovj om odprevoml mjtwern akpkaoty akpk aoty tbkm horjat aemmjatoems `jtwjjm dkger aotojs. aotojs. BQ0 aeuch, bewjvjr, b ewjvjr, jmaeurklj jmaeurk lj km jxtjmsoem om hjdkmh ier rkoc r koc trkvjc trkvjc oi ikrjs krj kr j cewjr, jmaeurkloml derj rkoc rk oc usklj (omhovohukcs (omhovohukcs swotaboml swotaboml ired kctjrmktovj trkmspert djkms) kmh tbus tbus akusoml ots ots ewm e wm mjjh ier lrjktjr lrj ktjr akpkaoty akpkaoty . K aerj ohjk `jbomh tbj 'akpkaoty' 'akpkaoty' krludjmt kr ludjmt os tbkt tbj usj ei kmetbjr kme tbjr comj wocc wocc rjcojvj prjssurj em tbj dkom mjtwern, mjtwern, kccewoml ier lr lrewtb ewtb om ceakc pkssjmljr sjrvoajs kmh irjolbt rkoc usklj. Ired Ire d 06;1 te te 0681, irjolbt i rjolbt em tbj mktoemkc rkoc mjtwern os jxpjatjh te te lrew lre w ired ;2 doccoem doccoem temmjs akrrojh kmmukccy te te ;18 doccoem doc coem temmjs (k 988% omarjksj). Vkssjmljr lrewt lre wtb b os kcse jxpjatjh te lrew lre w `y ;:6% (Mjtwern (Mjtwern Pkoc, 06;1). @etb @e tb iolurjs iolurjs sbew sbe w tbj tbj mjjh ier iurtbjr omirkstruaturj hjvjcepdjmt te te prevohj pre vohj akpkaoty akpkaoty ier lrewtb. lr ewtb.

Pjcok`ocoty ei BQ0 Zsklj Ierjaksts Ot os odpertkmt te qujstoem wbjtbjr tbjrj os suiioaojmt hjdkmh ier BQ0's bolbspjjh rkoc aemmjatoems. Duab ei tbj umajrtkomt umajr tkomty y cojs cojs om tbkt ZN omhustry kmh eutput lrewtb aeuch ae uch tknj tknj kmy pktb, kmh se tbj ZN aeuch dknj lrjkt usj e eii tbj rkoc comn, comn, er ot aeuch ikoc te djjt hjdkmh jxpjatktoems. jxpjatktoems. Km jxkdpcj ei evjr-jstod evjr -jstodktoem ktoem om hjdkmh os om Jurestkr. Xbj lrkpb lrk pb om Iolurj ; (Kppjmhox O) prjsjmts ;??2 pkssjmljr aeumt ierjaksts ier jaksts om aedpkrosem wot wotb b katukc iolurjs, sbewoml k vkst lkp `jtwjjm tbj twe. Om 0668, 0668 , km jxpjatjh kmmukc

 

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16 Gumj 06;8

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pkssjmljr aeumt ae umt ei 0;.8 doccoem doccoem wks lrjktcy umhjr-djt7 umhjr -djt7 tbj katukc pkssjmljr pkssjml jr aeumt wks <.1 docc doccoem. oem. Kmmukc Jurestkr pkssjmljr lrewtb l rewtb rktjs bkvj `jjm solmoioakmtcy solmoioa kmtcy cewjr, ce wjr, kmh cjss stk`cj, tbkm ks ierjakstjh ie rjakstjh om ;??2. Vrepe mjmts ei BQ0 bkvj krlujh tbkt Vrepemjmts tbk t solmoioakmt solmoioakmt hjarjksjs om hjdkmh om tbos tbos jxkdpcj akm `j kttro`utjh te vkroeus emj-eii jvjmts tbkt bkvj eaaurrjh em tbj Jurestkr comj somaj ;??27 – Abkmmjc tummjc iorjs, Bktiojch, Bktiojch, @QJ kmh omtjrmktoemkc omtjrmktoemkc ossujs suab ks > tjrrerost tjrrer ost omaohjmt omaohjmts, s, kmh QKPQ— (@e (@eez ez & Ae, 06;0). Xbj 0662 Abkmmjc Xummjc Iorj kmh tbj Lrjkt Pjajssoem bkvj `jjm put te te `ckdj ier km ;;.:% hjarjksj om pkssjmljr mud`jrs mu d`jrs ([email protected], ([email protected], 066?). Xbjrj krj aemicoatoml aemicoatoml vojws em e m wbjtbjr BQ0's pkssjmljr ierjaksts ie rjaksts krj, conj conj tbkt ei tbj Jurestkr, Jure stkr, lrjkt evjrjstodktoems evjrjstodktoems ei e i wbkt aeuch dknj umodprjssovj katukc usklj iolurjs. BQ0 khveaktjs krj derj eptodostoa, eptodostoa, wotb tbj epomoem tbkt tbj ierjakstjh ierjak stjh iolurjs iolurjs krj duab derj aemsjrvktovj aems jrvktovj tbkm tbkm tbkt ei tbj Jurestkr.

Jmvoremdjmtkc Jiijats Xbj jmtorj pregjat os te `j umhjrtknjm wotb wotb tbj kod ei e i me mjt cess cess te `oehovjrsoty. Jmvoremdjmtkc lreups krluj k rluj tbkt tbj Levjrmdjmt sbeuch jvjm `j sjjnoml mjt lkoms om `oehovjrsoty> bewjvjr, om km JKA bjkroml, Hjirk kanmewcjhljh tbkt tbj aurrjmt mjutrkc kods wjrj ks 'kd`otoeus 'kd`otoeus ks ier ie r kmy sodockr sodockr omirkstruaturj pregjat werchwohj' (Jmvoremdjmtkc Kuhot Aeddottjj, Aeddottjj, 06;8). Xbjrj krj b bewjvjr, ewjvjr, me lukrkmtjjs, kmh me ljmuomj aeddotdjmts aeddotdjmts `joml dkhj. K pcjhlj `y tbj Levjrmdjmt ei kt cjkst k mjutrkc jiijat em `oehovjrsoty weuch quksb tbj rosn ei suab aests.

Lkoms om Vrehuatovoty tbreulb Xodj Qkvomls Ot os kssudjh tbkt, huj te tbj todj todj skvomls dkhj `y aeddutjrs, BQ0 wo wocc cc omarjksj omarjks j prehuatov prehu atovoty oty ei wernjrs, kmh aemsjqujmtcy aemsjq ujmtcy ei tbj jaeme jaemedy dy om om ljmjrkc. Quab jxpjatjh prehuatovoty prehuatovoty omarjksjs bkvj cjh te pr edosjs ei omarjksjh ZN aedpjtotovjmjss, aedpjtot ovjmjss, wboab weuch om turm cjkh te k rjhuatoem om tbj ZN trkhj `kckmaj hjioaot. Xbos abkom ei e i rjksemoml, rjkse moml, bewjvjr, os os ickwjh, om tbkt ot os dkhj e em m tbj `ksos tbkt aeddutjrs he met wern wer n huroml trkvjc todj. todj. Ot os ackodjh tbkt `jmjiot-aest rktoe rktoe iolurjs usjh `y tbj Levjrmdjmt Le vjrmdjmt wjrj wjrj rjhuajh r jhuajh `y 2% kitjr tbj tbj u usj sj ei eut-hktjh stktostoas stkto stoas em prehuatovo pre huatovoty ty huroml rkoc aedduto ae ddutoml ml bkh b kh `jjm ` jjm peomtjh eut (Doccwkrh, (Doccwkrh, 06;1). Kmetbjr ickw om tbos tbos krludjmt os tbkt, ei aeursj, aeurs j, met kcc kcc tbesj trkvjccoml trkvjc coml wocc wocc `j `j heoml se ier `usomjss `u somjss purpesjs. purpesj s. Iolurj 0 (Kppjmhox O) sbews tbkt tbkt aurrjmtcy aur rjmtcy emcy :% aeddutj suab hostkmaj, kmh emcy ;?% wocc trkvjc suab hostkmaj hostkmaj ier ie r `usomjss purpesjs.

 

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Pjcok`ocoty ei [email protected] Kmkcysos Xjabmoqujs Jdpceyjh Merdkc aest-`jmjiot kmkcysos strktjlojs krj met me t kppreproktj ier tbos pregjat, huj om pkrt te ots sozj, `ut kcse huj te tbj wky om wboab tbj ceml ceml-rum -rum `jmjiots ei tbj pregjat krj umajrtkom kmh bolbcy vkrok`cj. Ckmh Ckm h usklj pkttjrms wo wocc cc abkmlj evjr todj, kmh tbos wocc dknj ot hoiioauct te djksurj tbj truj omarjksjs om ckmh prehuatov prehu atovoty oty tbkt tbj pregjat pre gjat aeuch akusj (BQ0 Codotjh, Codotjh, 06;1 k). Aest-`jmjiot kmkcysos em tbj pregjat dust kcse kaaeumt ier kcc pesso`cj pe sso`cj eutaedjs, kmh tbj conjcobeeh conjcobeeh ei jkab eaaurroml. eaaurr oml. Xbj `jmjiot-aest rktoes ei ductopcj ductopcj pesso`cj eutaedjs bkvj tbjrjierj tbjrjier j `jjm akcauckt akcaucktjh. jh. Kaaerhoml te te HiX (Hjpkrtdjmt ier Xrkmspert) kmkcysos, derj tbkm <:% ei e i tbjsj pesso`cj rkto rktoe e vkcujs wjrj `jttjr tbkm £0 `jmjiots pjr £; aest (BQ0 Codotjh, Codotjh, 06;1`). Kmetbjr krludjmt kcse jdjrljs7 iolurjs `ksjh em aest-`jmjiot ae st-`jmjiot kmkcysos kmkcysos wocc met tknj omte omte kaaeumt evjr-spjmhoml evjr -spjmhoml em tbj pregjat. Kcrjkhy, levjrmdjmt spjmhoml em aemsuctkmay aemsu ctkmay ier tbj pregjat's pckmmoml bks jxajjhjh ots `uhljt `y £2<d kreumh kreu mh 29% bolbjr bolbjr tbkm tbj kmtoaopktjh kmtoaopktjh iolurj (Aeccoms, 06;8).

Jiijats ei BQ0 em tbj Ckmhsakpj Kaaerhoml te k Xjcjlrkpb krtoacj, krtoacj, 'BQ0 wocc kcse hjdecosb 1:6 prjdosjs, omacuhoml omacuhoml sbeps,, pu`s kmh k`eut :6 ikaterojs' sbeps ikaterojs' (Loccolkm, (Loccolkm, 06;1). Quab hjdecotoem ei prepjrty pr epjrty woccc bkvj ots jiijats em woc e m tbj ZN's ZN's prehuatovj pr ehuatovj akpkaoty. Hjspotj tbj omtkmlo`cj mkturj ei tbj hkdklj te tbj aeum aeumtrysohj, trysohj, tbjrj krj k mud`jr ei jiijats tbkt ckmh hjvjcepdjmt bks em e m tbj surreu surreumhoml mhoml krjk wboab krj djksurjk`cj. Hoiijrjmt tjabmoqujs ier qukmtoiyoml tbj hkdklj te tbj rurkc ru rkc ckmhsakpj wocc wocc prehuaj prehu aj vkryoml rjsucts, ks tbj ikaters ikater s tbkt krj tknjm omte omte kaaeumt k aaeumt woccc met `j aemsostjmt. woc ae msostjmt. Xbj Xbj HiX-pu`cosbjh iolurj iolur j ier tbj tetkc Ckmhsakpj Odpkat Ykcuj ei Vbksj ; wks gust umhjr £;`m (BQ0 Katoem Kccokmaj, 06; 06;1), 1), wbocst wbocst km km kssjssdjmt `y BQ0 Cth om 06;6 r jsuctjh om om k iolurj iolur j ei £8.1`m (Loccolkm, (Loccolkm, 06;0). Xbos vkrokmaj bks omvenjh k lrjkt hjkc ei e i arotoaosd arotoaosd evjr e vjr tbj djtbehs djtbehs usjh usj h `y kcc pkrtojs om qukmtoiyoml tbj ckmhsakpj hkdklj. Xbj BQ0 Katoem Kccokmaj ackod tbkt duab ei e i tbj akusj ei tbj tbj vkrokmaj cojs cojs wotb wotb cjss ljmjreus ljmjr eus vkcuktoem ei tbj ckmh otsjci. otsjc i. Xbj HiX's stkmaj os tbkt tbj omotokc omotokc iolurj ired ire d BQ0 Cth wks wks 'aruhj' kmh tbkt tbj mjw 'HACL' 'HAC L' djtbehecely os gustoiojh. gustoiojh. Jxtrk spjmhoml djksurjs krj kr j `joml odpc odpcjdjmtjh om erhjr er hjr te eiisjt ttbj bj ‒mem dkrnjt‟  er jxtjrmkc aests ei `uochoml k rkocwky comj tbreulb 'aerrohers' - rurkc krjkss tbkt krjk tbkt wocc wocc met `jmjiot horjatcy ired ire d tbj BQ0 sjrvoaj, sjr voaj, `ut wocc wocc stocc omaur jxtjrmkc aests. Km jxkdpcj ei tbos os om tbj pckmmjh aemstruatoem ei k tummjc tbreulb tbj Aboctjrms. Xbos tummjc os jxpjatjh te aest om tbj rjloem ei £:66d (Aeccoms, 06;1). Xbos os tbj su`gjat, s u`gjat, bewjvjr, ei sedj hj`ktj. Xbj aest ei aemstruatoml k comj em tbj surikaj sur ikaj aeuch suppesjhcy rjsuct om jxtjrmkc aests (prodkrocy em tbj te teurosd urosd

 

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Vklj : ei ;1 

omhustry) ei £116d. K rjpert rjper t pu`cosbjh pu`cosbjh em e m `jbkci ei k Aboctjrms Aboctjrms aemsjrvktoem ae msjrvktoem lreup rjkhs7 "Xbj Vrepesjh Qabjdj weuch rjsuct om tbj cess ei ;1 bosteroa sotjs. Xbj Kctjrmktovj Qabjdj kiijats ; bosteroa sotj."  (Aboctjrms  (Aboctjrms Aemsjrvktoem @ekrh, 06;1) Xbj 'Vrepesjh 'Vre pesjh Qabjdj' rjijrs rjijr s te tbj tbj surikaj comj, kmh tbj 'Kctjrmktovj 'Kctjrmktovj Qabjdj' rjijrs te k tummjc secutoem. Xbj cess ei e i gust emj bjrotklj sotj omst omstjkh jkh ei e i tbortjjm tbortjjm dky `j sjjm ks duab derj der j kppjkcoml. BQ0 Cth aemsjqujmtcy ae msjqujmtcy krlujh tbkt k surikaj comj weuch put tbj ckmhsakpj 'em sbew' sbe w' te te pkssoml trkvjccjrs, trkvjccjr s, wbe wbe weuch tbjm `j jmaeurkljh jmaeu rkljh te vosot tbj krjk rjarjktoemkccy (Aecc (Aeccoms, oms, 06;1).

Jiijats em Zmjdpceydjmt kmh Ge` Arjktoem Xbj pckmmoml, aemstruatoem ae mstruatoem kmh epjrktoem ei Vbksj Emj kcemj os jxpj jxpjatjh atjh te te horjatcy arjktj k tetkc ei kreumh kre umh 86,666 ge`s. ge`s. Xbos wocc wocc omacuhj ?,666 aemstruatoem ge`s, ;,:66 pjrdkmjmt ge`s, kmh 16,666 ge`s om stktoem rjh rjhjvjcepdjmt jvjcepdjmt (BQ0 Codotjh, m.h). Bewjvjr, tbjrj os kcse jvohjmaj tbkt tbkt sbews sbe ws tbkt tbkt BQ0 wocc wocc kcse rjhuaj hjdkmh ier ck`eur tbreulb tbre ulb etbjr djkms. Ier Ie r jxkdpcj, rjkc jstktj jstktj omvjs omvjstdjmt tdjmt trust QJLPE bkh te hjijr tbj rjhjvjcepdjmt r jhjvjcepdjmt ei k \jst Cemhem Cemhe m `rjwjry (\bottjm, (\bottjm, M., 06;1), kitjr k skijlukrhoml erhjr er hjr bkh `jjm put em tbj ckmh, ier sterklj e eii rkoc aemstruatoem aedpemjmts. aedpe mjmts. Xbos Xbos pkrtoauckr pk rtoauckr jxkdpcj bkh kcrjkhy rjajovjh rjaj ovjh pckmmoml pckmmoml pjrdossoem, wotb ackods ackods tbkt tbj pregjat, 'Erolom', weuch arjktj evjr ;,866 pjrdkmjmt ge`s, kmh cjkh te iurtbjr ceakc ce akc trkmspe trkmspert rt kmh omirkstruaturj odprevjdjmts (Lrjktjr Cemhem Kutberoty, 06;;). Xbos os gust emj jxkdpcj. Kmetbjr pregjat, tbj tbj \ksbweeh \ksbwee h Bjktb rjljmjrktoem rjljmjr ktoem sabjdj om @ordomlbkd, wks erolomkcc er olomkccy y ackodjh te `j ` j akpk`cj ei arjktoml up te <,666 ge`s. BQ0's pckms ier usoml tbj ckmh te `uoch k dkomtjmkmaj dkomtjmkmaj hjpet, bewjvjr, be wjvjr, krj emcy jxpjatjh te arjktj 166 ge`s ‑ 9,<66 ge`s ierlemj ier BQ0‟s usj us j ei tbos pkrtoauckr pojaj ei ckmh (Loccolkm, (Loccolkm, 06;1). Ot os acjkr tbkt tbjrj wocc `j ` j k mjt omarjksj om jdpceydjmt ks k rjsuct ei tbj pregjat. Bewjvjr, tbj truj qujstoem wotb wotb rjlkrhs te jdpceydjmt os om wbjtbjr tbj hjdkmh ier ck`eur akusjh `y tbj sdkccjr sdkccjr pregjats tbkt bkvj `jjm ierlemj ie rlemj weuch bkvj `jjm lrjktjr tbkm tbkt ei BQ0. Khveaktjs ei BQ0 krluj krlu j tbkt k ductopco duct opcojr jr jiijat weuch akusj BQ0 te omhorjatcy omhorjatcy arjktj solmoioakmtcy solmoioakmtcy derj de rj ge`s tbkm bks `jjm ` jjm jxpcoaotcy jxpcoaotcy stktjh> bewjvjr, tbj petjmto pe tjmtokc kc ductopcojr ductopcojr jiijats ei tbj etbjr, sdkccjr kctjrmktovj pregjats pre gjats dust dust kcse `j ` j aemsohjrjh. Quab sjmtodjmt os sbewm om k stktjdjmt ired Qodem \kcnjr, Horjater L Ljmjrkc jmjrkc ei tbj OeH7 ‒Ot os todj ier tbj Levjrmdjmt te ceen kt k tbeuskmh tbeus kmh sdkccjr sdkccjr pregjats omstjkh ei ikccoml ier emj lrkmh ieccy.‟ (@@A Mjws, 0 6;1).

 

Nkdrkm Dkcon ndnFnkdrkmdkcon.ae.un

16 Gumj 06;8

Vklj 9 ei ;1 

Eppertumoty aests ei BQ0 Zctodktjcy, Zctodkt jcy, tbj pregjat pr egjat dky akrry dkmy aests kmh pjrbkps dkmy `jmjiots> bewjvjr, kmetbjr njy kspjat ei tbos hosaussoem os om tbj eppertumoty eppe rtumoty aest ei umhjrtknoml tbos pregjat pre gjat omstjkh ei etbjrs. Etbjr Etbjr usjs ier £80.9`m omacuhj omacuhj kctjrmktovj kctjrmktovj omirkstruaturj omirks truaturj pregjats. Xbj 'Lce`kc Aedpjtotovjmjss Aedpjtot ovjmjss Pjpert Pjpe rt 06;1-06;8' (\erch Jaemedoa Jaeme doa Ierud, 06;1) rkmnjh @rotkom's rkocrekhs kt ;8tb eut ei e i ;82 aeumtrojs (Irkmaj wks rkmnjh 8tb). Pjsjkrab omte omirkstruaturj omvjstdjmt omvjstdjmt sulljstjh tbkt omarjksoml jiijatovjmjss ei aurrjmt aurr jmt omirkstruaturj omirkstruaturj bks k duab lrjktjr lrjk tjr jiijat em lrewtb tbkm omvjstoml om mjw omirkstruaturj (Buctjm kmh Qabwk`, ;??9). K rjpert rjper t `y Ktnoms, Ktnoms, 'BQ0 Qtrktjloa Kctjrmktovjs', Kctjrmktovjs', eutco e utcomjs mjs iovj kctjrmktovj trkmspert spjmhoml pkankljs te BQ0, omacuhoml uplrkhoml tbj \jst \ jst Aekst Dkom Dkom Comj te kaaeumt kaae umt ier iuturj akpkaoty mjjhs. Vkanklj Vkanklj '[email protected]' ' [email protected]' os ackodjh ackodjh te yojch k `jmjiot-aest rktoe ei 0.< (Ktnoms, (Ktnoms, 06;1)06;1) - lrjktjr tbkm tbj aeddemcy usjh rktoe (akcaucktjh (akcauckt jh usoml stkmhkrh s tkmhkrh kpprkoskc kppr koskc djtbehs) djtbehs) ei e i 0.1 ier BQ0 (BQ0 Codo C odotjh, tjh, 06;1a). \otb tbos pregjat, pre gjat, bewjvjr, tbjrj os met k solmoioakmt trkhj -eii om omirkstruaturj omirkstruaturj spjmhoml omvecvjh. Kctbeulb dkmy rjperts rjpe rts kmh tbj djhok djhok wocc rjijr rjij r te suab spjmhoml ks km jotbjr-er sotuktoem, ot os, om rjkcoty, umacjkr wbkt kmy trkhj-eii weuch `j, ks suaajssovj jcjatjh levjrmdjmts levjr mdjmts dky dky ceen te iumh iu mh tbj pregjat pre gjat tbreulb hoiijroml djkms. Xbj rjpert 'Lrjkt @rotkom7 aemmjatjh er met5' `y BQP Omhustry Cjkhjrs Lreup (BQPOCL) sulljstjh tbkt, sbeuch tbj BQ0 pregjat pr egjat `j k`kmhemjh om tbj jkr jkrcy cy stkljs, tbj iumhs prjvoeuscy pr jvoeuscy kcceaktjh te ot weuch ckrljcy met `j etbjrwosj spjmt em trkmspert trkmsper t kmh etbjr omirkstruaturj. Duab ei ot weuch omstjkh omstjkh bkvj bk vj `jjm rj kcceaktjh te tbj wrotj-eii ei mktoemkc hj`t. Ykroeus pesso`cj eutaedjs krj kaaeumtjh ier om tbj rjpert, rjpe rt, omacuhoml omacuhoml k :6% hj`t wrotj wrotj -eii, wboab weuch weu ch emcy cjkvj £;.1`m £;.1`m ei e i iumhs tbkt aeuch stocc stocc `j spjmt em rkoc rk oc omirkstruaturj (BQPOCL, 06;8). Xbos Xbos sjrvjs te sulljst tbkt tbj eppertumoty aest ei BQ0 ired k tkxpkyjr pjrspjatovj, os prodkrocy prodkrocy emcy om wrotoml wrotoml eii ei i hj`t.

Aemacusoem Xbj sakcj ei tbj BQ0 pregjat pre gjat djkms djkms tbkt tbj tetkc seaokc `jmjiots kmh aests krj vkst. Ks tbj k`evj k`e vj hosaussoem bks sbewm, ttbj bj ZN aeuch aeu ch `jmjiot lrjktcy ired ire d tbj tbj pregjat, tbreulb `etb `e tb omhorjat omhorjat kmh horjat ge` arjktoem, prehuatov prehu atovoty oty lkoms kmh k rjhuajh Mertb-Qeutb Mer tb-Qeutb Hovohj. Xbos os kt k (cjss qukmtoio q ukmtoiok`cj) k`cj) ckmhsakpj aest kmh hosruptoem te etbjr e tbjr hjvjcepdjmt pregjats. Xbjrj weuch `j cott cottcj cj mjt jiijat em tbj jmvoremdjmt, kmh tbj pregjat hejs met bkvj k solmoioakmt eppertumoty aest ei etbjr trkmspert spjmhoml.

 

Nkdrkm Dkcon ndnFnkdrkmdkcon.ae.un

16 Gumj 06;8

Vklj < ei ;1 

Xbj jiijat ei ceml-rum umajrtkomty bks `jjm khhrjssjh `y kaaeumtoml ier vkroeus pesso`cj eutaedjs, cjkvoml emcy km umkveohk`cj umajrtkomt umajr tkomty y tbkt aedjs wotb wotb iuturj levjrmdjmt levjr mdjmt kljmhks. Xbos Xbos jssky j ssky sbews tbkt jvohjmaj os wjolbtjh wjolbtjh om ikveur ei e i tbj `jmjiots, `jmjiots, kmh se O aemacuhj tbkt tbkt iurtbjr iur tbjr rjsjkrab omte tbj jxtjrmkc aests weuch `j mjjhjh te gustoiy dknoml dknoml solmoioakmt solmoioakmt abkmljs te tbj pregjat pre gjat ks pckmmjh.

 

Nkdrkm Dkcon ndnFnkdrkmdkcon.ae.un

16 Gumj 06;8

Vklj 2 ei ;1 

Kppjmhox O - Iolurjs

Iolurj ; ‑ Jures tkr pkssjmljr pkssjmljr mud`jrs ierjakst ^Qeuraj7 Qjcjat Aeddottjj em Vu`coa Vu`coa  Kaae umts (0669)T  Kaaeumts (0669)T

Vurpesj ei ;66 te ;86-docj ;86-docj ttrops rops Etbjr cjosurj ;6%

Aeddutoml :%

Hky trop 9%

@usomjss ;?%

Becohky 06%

Etbjr mem-cjosurj ;:%

Yosotoml irojmhs kt provktj bedj 0:%

Iolurj 0 ‑ Vurpesj ei c eml-hostkm eml-hostkmaj aj (;66 te ;86-docj) ;86-doc j) trops trops Hktk Qeuraj7 Mktoemkc Xrkvjc Qurvjy, 06;1

 

Nkdrkm Dkcon ndnFnkdrkmdkcon.ae.un

16 Gumj 06;8

Vklj ? ei ;1 

Pjijrjmajs Ktnoms (06;1) ‑ 'BQ0 Qtrktjloa Qtrktjloa Kctjrmktovjs Kctjrmktovjs - Iomkc Pjpert'> Pjpe rt'> prehuajh ier ie r HiX> Xk`cj 9-;< (p??)

@@A Mjws (06;1) ‑ 'BQ07 @usomjssjs 'met aemvomajh' ei jaemedoa `jmjiots' Kvkock`cj ired7  ired7 bttp7//www.``a.ae.un/mjws/`usomjss-01280?02  bttp7//www.``a.ae.un/mjws/`usomjss-01280?02  ^;? Gumj 06;8T

@eez & Ae (06;0) ‑ ‒PJYOJ\ EI BQ; HJDKMH H JDKMH IEPJAKQX IEPJAKQXQ‟> Q‟> pkrt 6.97 ‒Odpcoaktoems ‒Odpcoakt oems ier BQ0‟   Kvkock`cj ired7 bttp7//kssjts.bs0.erl.un/sotjs/hjikuct/ioc js/omsjrts/Pjvojw%06ei%06BQ;%06 06ei%06BQ;%06 bttp7//kssjts.bs0.erl.un/sotjs/hjikuct/iocjs/omsjrts/Pjvojw% hjdkmh%06ierjaksts.phi  ^06  ^06 Gumj 06;8T

Aboctjrms Aemsjrvktoem @ekrh (06;1) ‑ 'Bolb Qpjjh Pkoc om tbj Aboctjrms, Cottcj Dossjmhjm te \jmhevjr7' Kvkock`cj ired7 bttp7//www.aboctjrmskem`.erl/upcekhs/iocjs/bolbUspjjhU0/KssjssdjmtUeiUMem dkrnjtUjiijats%06ei%06UBQ0UaedpkrjhUteUkctjrmktovjUiomkcUrjv0U02;;06;1.p hi  ^06 Gumj 06;8T

Aeccoms, M., (06;1) ‑ 'BQ0  ' BQ0 tummjc tbreulb Aboct Ab octjrms jrms 'aeuch 'ae uch skvj demjy'', Xbj Xbj Xjcjlrkpb, 16 Mevjd`jr Kvkock`cj ired7  ired7 bttp7//www.tjcjlrkpb.ae.un/mjws/unmjws/rekh-kmhrkoc-trkmspert/;682:;:1/BQ0-tummjc-tbreulb-Aboctjrms-aeuch-skvj-demjy.btdc   rkoc-trkmspert/;682:;:1/BQ0-tummjc-tbreulb-Aboctjrms-aeuch-skvj-demjy.btdc ^06 Gumj 06;8T

Aeccoms, M., (06;8) ‑ 'BQ0  ' BQ0 pkys £2<d evjr `uhljt `uhlj t em khvosjrs', Xbj Xbj Xjcjlrkpb, 08 Dky Kvkock`cj ired7 bttp7//www.tjcjlrkpb.ae.un/mjws/unmjws/bs0/;62:890;/BQ0-pkys-2<devjr-`uhljt-em-khvosjrs.btdc  ^0 Gumj 06;8T evjr-`uhljt-em-khvosjrs.btdc

HiX (06;1) ‑ 'BQ07 Eutcomj Eutcomj @usomjss Aksj'Ak sj'- 'Qjatoem 87 Iomkmaokc Aksj'

 

Nkdrkm Dkcon ndnFnkdrkmdkcon.ae.un

16 Gumj 06;8

Vklj ;6 ei ;1 

Kvkock`cj ired7 bttps7//www.lev.un/levjrmdjmt/upcekhs/s bttps7//www. lev.un/levjrmdjmt/upcekhs/systjd/upcekhs/kttkabdjmt ystjd/upcekhs/kttkabdjmtUhktk/io Uhktk/io cj/029<?</iomkmaokc-aksj-bs0.phi  ^09 Gumj 06;8T

Jmvoremdjmtkc Kuhot Aeddottjj (06;8) ‑ 'BQ0 kmh tbj jmvoremdjmt Jmvoremdjmtkc Kuhot Aeddottjj Aeddottjj Aemtjmts'> uphktjh ;2 Gumj 06;8 Kvkock`cj ired7 bttp7//www ww.pu`coakt .pu`coaktoems.pkrcokdjmt oems.pkrcokdjmt.un/pk/ad06;8;:/ad .un/pk/ad06;8;:/adsjcjat/adjmvkuh/0; sjcjat/adjmvkuh/0; bttp7//w 9/0;968.btd  ^09 Gumj 06;8T 9/0;968.btd

Loccolkm, K., (06;0) ‑ 'Ae  'Aeumtrysohj umtrysohj 'hjvkcujh te te dknj wky wky ie r BQ0'', Xbj Xbj Xjcjlrkpb, 6; Qjptjd`jr Kvkock`cj ired7 bttp7//www.tjcjlrkpb.ae.un/jkrtb/aeumtrysohj/?:;808</Aeumtrysohjhjvkcujh-te-dknj-wky-ier-BQ0.btdc   ^;? Gumj 06;8T hjvkcujh-te-dknj-wky-ier-BQ0.btdc

Loccolkm, K., (06;1) ‑ 'BQ0 wocc 'hjstrey 'hjstre y derj ge`s tbkm ot arjktjs', Xbj Xbj Xjcjlrkpb, 68 Dky Kvkock`cj ired7  ired7 bttp7//www.tjcjlrkpb.ae.un/mjws/unmjws/rekh-kmhrkoc-trkmspert/;661<<;9/BQ0-wocc-hjstrey-derj-ge`s-tbkm-ot-arjktjs.btdc   ^;0 rkoc-trkmspert/;661<<;9/BQ0-wocc-hjstrey-derj-ge`s-tbkm-ot-arjktjs.btdc Gumj 06;8T

Lrjktjr Cemhem Kutberoty (06;;) ‑ 'Vkrn Peykc Eppertumoty Krjk Kr jk Vckmmoml Irkdjwern', Abkptjr ;6 Kvkock`cj ired7  ired7 bttp7//www.cemhem.lev.un/sotjs/hjikuct/iocjs/pkrnreykc-ekpi-abkps;6-;0.phi  ^;8  ^;8 Gumj 06;8T BQ0 Codotjh (m.h) ‑ 'Jaemedoa @jmjiots kmh Ge`s' Kvkock`cj ired7  ired7 bttp7//bs0.erl.un/wbkt-bs0/jaemedoa-`jmjiots-ge`s  bttp7//bs0.erl.un/wbkt-bs0/jaemedoa-`jmjiots-ge`s ^01 Gumj 06;8T

BQ0 Katoem Kccokmaj (06;1) ‑ 'HiX‟s kpprekab kppre kab te ckmhsakpj vkc vkcuj' uj' Kvkock`cj ired7  ired7 bttp7//bs0katoemkccokmaj.erl/wpaemtjmt/upcekhs/06;1/6;/hit-ckmhsakpj-djtbehecely-;6-gkm-06;1-;.phi  ^9  ^9 Gumj 06;8T

 

Nkdrkm Dkcon ndnFnkdrkmdkcon.ae.un

16 Gumj 06;8

Vklj ;; ei ;1 

BQ0 Codotjh Codotjh (06;1k) ‑ 'Xbj Jaemedoa Jaeme doa Aksj ier BQ0'> peomt ;.;.< Kvkock`cj ired7 bttp7//kssjts.bs0.erl.un/sotjs/hjikuct/ioc bs0.erl.un/sotjs/hjikuct/iocjs/omsjrts/Q%09K%06;UJaemedoa%0 js/omsjrts/Q%09K%06;UJaemedoa%0 bttp7//kssjts. 6aksjU6.phi  ^0 Gumj 06;8T

BQ0 Codotjh Codotjh (06;1`) ‑ 'Xbj Jaemedoa Jaeme doa Aksj ier BQ0'> BQ0' > Iolurj ;7 'Qtkmhkrh 'Qtkmhkrh kpprkoskc7 Hostro`utoem Hostro`utoem ei e i @jmjiot-Aest Pktoes ier tbj iucc mjtwern' Kvkock`cj ired7 bttp7//kssjts.bs0.erl.un/sotjs/hjikuct/iocjs/omsjrts/Q%09K%06;UJaemedoa%0 6aksjU6.phi  ^0 Gumj 06;8T

BQ0 Codotjh Codotjh (06;1a) ‑ 'Xbj Qtrktjloa Aksj Ier I er BQ0'> Iolurj Iolur j :.<, 'Qtkmhkrh kpprkoskc ‑ ab  abkmljs kmljs te aests kmh `jmjiots evjr e vjr 96 yjkrs (£ docco doccoem)' em)' Kvkock`cj ired7 bttps7//www.lev.un/levjrmdjmt/upcekhs/s bttps7//www. lev.un/levjrmdjmt/upcekhs/systjd/upcekhs/kttkabdjmt ystjd/upcekhs/kttkabdjmtUhktk/io Uhktk/io cj/096:0:/strktjloa-aksj.phi  ^0 Gumj 06;8T

BQP Omhustry Cjkhjrs Lreup (06;8) ‑ 'Lrjkt @rotkom7 Aemmjatjh er met5'> me t5'> Vklj ;; Kvkock`cj ired7  ired7 bttp7//www.rkoc-cjkhjrs.aed/wpaemtjmt/upcekhs/[email protected]  ^;:  ^;: Gumj 06;8T

Buctjm, A.P., Qabwk`, P. (;??9) ‑ Aotjh om Jhhomltem, P. (0669) - "Xbj Jhhomltem Xrkmspert Qtuhy7 Dkom Pjpert7 Yecudj ;"> Iolurj ;.9

Cjjsj, P., (06;1) ‑ 'Xehky' rkhoe pehakst, @@A Pkhoe 8> Kmlus, G. (Jhot (Jhoter)> er)> `rekhakst Demhky 02 Gkmukry 06;1 Kvkock`cj ired7  ired7 bttp7//www.``a.ae.un/mjws/un-0;00<;:<  bttp7//www.``a.ae.un/mjws/un-0;00<;:<  ^;; Gumj 06;8T

Doccwkrh, H., (06;1) ‑ 'BQ0 jaemedoa jaeme doa `jmjiots `jmjiots aut `kan ks Levjrmdjmt Le vjrmdjmt khdots khdots pjepcj akm he wern em tbj trkom', Xbj Xjcjlrkpb, Xjcjlrkpb, 0? Eate`jr Eate`jr Kvkock`cj ired7  ired7 bttp7//www.tjcjlrkpb.ae.un/mjws/unmjws/rekh-kmhrkoc-trkmspert/;68;;081/BQ0-jaemedoa-`jmjiots-aut-`kan-ks-Levjrmdjmtkhdots-pjepcj-akm-he-wern-em-tbj-trkom.btdc   ^;8 Gumj 06;8T khdots-pjepcj-akm-he-wern-em-tbj-trkom.btdc

 

Nkdrkm Dkcon ndnFnkdrkmdkcon.ae.un

16 Gumj 06;8

Vklj ;0 ei ;1 

Mktoemkc Xrkvjc Qurvjy (06;1) ‑ Xk`cj MXQ686<7 ‒Ceml hostkmaj trops wotbom wotbom Lrjkt @rotkom @rotkom `y purpesj pur pesj kmh cjmltb7 Lrjkt @rotkom, @rotkom, 0662 /;0‟   .lev.un/levjrmdjmt/stktostoakc-hktkstoakc-hktkKvkock`cj ired7  ired7 bttps7//www bttps7//www.lev.un/levjrmdjmt/stkto sjts/mts68-purpesj-ei-trops  ^06 Gumj 06;8T sjts/mts68-purpesj-ei-trops

Mjtwern Pkoc (06;1) ‑ 'Ceml Xjrd Vckmmoml Vckmmoml Vreajss7 Vre ajss7 Irjolbt Dkrnjt Qtuhy' Kvkock`cj ired7  ired7 bttp7//www bttp7//www.mjtw .mjtwernrkoc.ae.un/pu`coakt ernrkoc.ae.un/pu`coaktoems/dkrnjtoems/dkrnjtstuhojs/irjolbt-dkrnjt-stuhy-06;1.phi   ^;0 Gumj 06;8T

Qjcjat Aeddottjj em Vu`coa Kaaeumts (0669) ‑ ‒Vu`coa Kaaeumts Kaae umts - Xborty-Jolbtb Xborty-Jolbtb Pjpert ‟> ‟> Iolurj ;  Kvkock`cj ired7 bttp7//www .pu`coaktoems.pkrcokdjmt. oems.pkrcokdjmt.un/pk/ad066:69/adsjcjat un/pk/ad066:69/adsjcjat/adpu`kaa/<0 /adpu`kaa/<0 bttp7//www.pu`coakt </<0<6:.btd  ^;6 Gumj 06;8T   </<0<6:.btd

Qtenjs, A., (06;1) ‑ 'BQ0  ' BQ0 - tbj Aksj Klkomst', Vrjsjmtktoem metjs (prjsjmtjh em Mev ;: 06;1 kt Buhhjrsiojch Zmovjrsoty) Zmovjrsoty) Kvkock`cj ired7  ired7 bttp7//www.:;d.ae.un/wpaemtjmt/upcekhs/06;1/62/Buhhjrsiojch-;:.;;.;1.phi  ^0:  ^0: Gumj 06;8T

XMQ @[email protected] (06;8) ‑ 'Bolb Qpjjh Pkoc (BQ0) Edmo`us Qurvjy ‑ Xepcomj Quddkry Iomhomls'

Xedkmjy, G., (06;1) ‑ 'Xehky' rkhoe pehakst, @@A Pkhoe 8> Kmlus, G. (Jhot (Jhoter)> er)> `rekhakst Demhky 02 Gkmukry 06;1 Kvkock`cj ired7  ired7 bttp7//www.``a.ae.un/mjws/un-0;00<;:<  bttp7//www.``a.ae.un/mjws/un-0;00<;:<  ^;; Gumj 06;8T

[email protected] (066?) ‑ 'Xrjmhs Zphktj', Ossuj ;61, 0? Kproc Kvkock`cj ired7 bttp7//www .vosot`rotko t`rotkom.erl/Odkljs/Xrjmhs%06Zphktj%06;61Ut m.erl/Odkljs/Xrjmhs%06Zphktj%06;61Utad0?ad0?bttp7//www.voso ;820<.phi  ^0< Gumj 06;8T

 

Nkdrkm Dkcon ndnFnkdrkmdkcon.ae.un

16 Gumj 06;8

Vklj ;1 ei ;1 

\bottjm, M. (06;1) ‑ 'QJLPE ierajh te akcc todj em e m Luommjss sotj sotj pckm' Kvkock`cj ired7  ired7 bttp7//www.jlo.ae.un/mjws/krtoacj.kspx5oh4<916;0   ^1 Gumj 06;8T

\erch Jaemedoa Ierud (06;1) ‑ 'Lce`kc Aedpjtotovjmjss Aedpjtotovjmjss Pjpert 06;1-06;8'> 'Xbj Lce`kc Aedpjtotovjmjss Aedpjtotovjmjss Omhjx om Hjtkoc', 0.61

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