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History of Psychology

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CLPS Spring 2014: Introduction

1/22/2014

ELEMENTARY PSYCHOLOGY

Professor Elena Festa  Spring 2014 1

T EXTBOOK &  O NLINE M ATERIAL

2

Gazzaniga, M.S., Heatherton, T.F., & Halpern,  D.F. (2011).  Psychological Science (Fourth  Edition). W.W. Norton: New York, NY.  https://canvas.brown.edu

C LASSROOMS

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Lectures:  







Metcalf Auditorium (MWF 12‐12:50pm)

Section Meetings:  Metcalf Rm 104 or 105 (Assigned Section Time)

Computer Assignments:  

Metcalf Rm 107 

Open Student Hours M‐Th 7:30‐10:00pm

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CLPS Spring 2014: Introduction

1/22/2014

Section Times

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Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

12:00 – 12:50 pm  10:00 – 10:50 am  11:00 – 11:50 am  (L01)

(L03)

1:00 – 1:50 pm 

(L07)

11:00 – 11:50 am  12:00 – 12:50 pm 

(L02)

(L04)

(L08)

1:00 – 1:50 pm 

1:00 – 1:50 pm 

(L05)

(L09)

3:00 – 3:50 pm  (L06)

S ECTION TA S

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Joanna Korman

[email protected]



Huaiyong Zhao

[email protected]



Laura Flanagan

[email protected]



Julia Franckh

[email protected]



Kristen Gardner

[email protected]



Dennis Gu

[email protected]



Gillian Michaelson

[email protected] 



Stefan Rodriguez

[email protected]



Jessica Sachs

[email protected]

Grade Breakdown

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Exams

68%



Section Participation

17%



ZAPS Lab Activities

10%



Research Participation

5%

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CLPS Spring 2014: Introduction

1/22/2014

Important Dates

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2/17    

Long Weekend



2/21  

Exam 1



3/21  

Exam 2



3/22 – 3/30  

Spring Recess



4/25  

Exam 3



5/15, 2‐5 pm  

Final Exam

O NLINE O RIENTATION

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https://canvas.brown.edu

W HAT IS P SYCHOLOGY ?

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Psychology is the most popular major at  many colleges and universities



Psychology is personally relevant



Psychology is relevant to us all

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CLPS Spring 2014: Introduction

W HAT IS P SYCHOLOGY ?

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1/22/2014



The study of mind, brain and behavior



Important questions 

What are the bases of perceptions, thoughts, memories,  and feelings, or our subjective sense of self?



How does the mind usually allow us to function  effectively in the world?



Why does the mind occasionally function so ineffectively  in the world?

P SYCHOLOGISTS E XPLAIN H UMAN B EHAVIORS IN R EAL L IFE C ONTEXTS 



Most people are interested in figuring  out others’ behavior 

Makes you more aware of how people work. 



Make you more aware at how you work



Can help you be more a more effective student



Can help you be more effective in your career



Can help you relate better to others, including family  members and friends

Goals of psychology: Understand mental  activity, social interactions, and how  people acquire behavior

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CLPS Spring 2014: Introduction

S URPRISING R ESULTS

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1/22/2014



Isn’t psychology just common sense? 



Participants who held a cup of hot  coffee rated another person as  “warmer” and less selfish than did those  who held a cup of iced coffee (Williams  & Bargh, 2008)



Our psychological processes can surprise  us

W HAT DO P SYCHOLOGIST DO B ESIDES T REAT M ENTAL I LLNESS ?

P SYCHOLOGICAL K NOWLEDGE IS U SED I N M ANY P ROFESSIONS

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Some students devote their lives to  studying mind, brain, and behavior



Many professions require a knowledge of  psychology



Opportunities for people with graduate  degrees in psychology are expected to  grow approximately 12 percent between  now and 2018 (U.S. Bureau of Labor  Statistics, 2009)

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CLPS Spring 2014: Introduction

1/22/2014

P SYCHOLOGICAL S CIENCE T EACHES C RITICAL T HINKING

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Humans are intuitive psychologists



Can people intuitively know if claims  related to psychology are fact or fiction? 



Critical thinking: Systematically  evaluating information to reach reasonable conclusions 

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H OW C RITICAL T HINKING W ORKS

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Researchers found listening to Mozart led  research participants to score higher on a  test related to intelligence (Rauscher,  Shaw, & Ky, 1993) 



Subsequent research largely failed to get  the same results



A review of studies testing the Mozart  effect showed that listening to Mozart is  unlikely to increase intelligence (Chabris,  1999)

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CLPS Spring 2014: Introduction

1/22/2014

W AYS OF T HINKING A BOUT M IND , B ODY ,  AND E XPERIENCE

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Nature‐only side 



Nurture‐only side 



Who we are comes from inborn tendencies and  genetically based traits

We are all essentially the same at birth, and we are the  product of our experiences

Nature and nurture are interdependent, not  dichotomous 

Nature through nurture 

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THE 



Position that the environment constantly interacts with  biology to shape who we are, and what we do

N O O NE P ERSPECTIVE T ELLS W HOLE S TORY IN P SYCHOLOGY

How do you determine which perspective  gives the best explanations of psychology? 

The use of science and critical thinking



Making connections between different  perspectives

Adhering rigidly to one school of  psychological thought will invariably lead  to incomplete explanations

P SYCHOLOGY C ROSSES L EVELS OF A NALYSIS

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Researchers can explain behavior at  many levels of analysis -

biological level 

-

individual level 

-

social level

-

cultural level

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CLPS Spring 2014: Introduction

1/22/2014

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HOW THESE APPROACHES  APPLY TO OUR EXPERIENCE OF  THE WORLD?

HOW DID THE PAST SHAPE  OTHER’S EXPERIENCES?

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