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Hospitality & RUM

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SIMÓN BOLIVAR UNIVERSITY GENERAL STUDIES DEPARTMENT HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT ENGLISH VI

RUM
Venezuelan Ambassador in Hospitality Industry

By : Mabel Moina José Miguel Besón Teacher : Alexander Natera
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RUM

Venezuelan Ambassador in the Industry of the Hospitality:

1. HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY: 1.1 .- History 1.2 .- Definition 1.3 .- Service 1.4 .- Service characteristics

2. RUM: 2.1 .- History 2.2 .- Production Method 2.2.1 Fermentation 2.2.2 Distillation 2.2.3 Aging and Blending 2.3 .- Kinds 2.3.1 Molasses Rum 2.3.2 Agricole Rum 2.4 .- Modern Methods Of Making Rum 2.4.1 The Traditional Pot Still 2.4.2 The Column Still 2.5 .- Countries and Marks 2.6 .- Denomination of Origin: “Ron de Venezuela”

3. VENEZUELAN RUM: NATIONAL PRIDE AND ITS SERVICE QUALITY IMPACT: 3.1 .- Service Quality 3.2 .- Truth Moments 3.3 .- Rum in Venezuelan Gastronomy

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Contents

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HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY ...................................................................................... 4 History .................................................................................................................. 4 Definition .............................................................................................................. 4 Service ................................................................................................................. 5 Service characteristics ......................................................................................... 6 RUM......................................................................................................................... 7 History ................................................................................................................. 7 Colonial America............................................................................................... 8 Naval Rum ........................................................................................................ 8 Production Method............................................................................................. 9 Fermentation .................................................................................................. 10 Distillation ....................................................................................................... 10 Aging and Blending......................................................................................... 10 Kinds ................................................................................................................. 11 Molasses Rum ................................................................................................ 11 Agricole Rum .................................................................................................. 11 Modern Methods Of Making Rum .................................................................. 11 The Traditional Pot Still................................................................................... 11 The Column Still ............................................................................................. 12 Countries and Marks ........................................................................................ 12 Spanish-Speaking Islands and Countries ....................................................... 12 English-speaking Islands and Countries ......................................................... 13 French-speaking islands (France) .................................................................. 13 Famous Marks ................................................................................................ 13 Denomination of Origin: “Ron de Venezuela” ............................................... 13 Important Factors............................................................................................ 15
VENEZUELAN RUM: NATIONAL PRIDE AND ITS SERVICE QUALITY IMPACT ..... 15

Service Quality ............................................................................................... 15 The Moment of Truth ...................................................................................... 16 Rum in Venezuelan Cuisine ........................................................................... 17 References ........................................................................................................... 19 3

HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

History:
The word hospitality derives from the Latin hospes, which is formed from hostis, which originally meant “to have power”. The meaning of "host" can be literally read as "lord of strangers." hostire means equalize or compensate. In the Homeric ages, hospitality was under the protection of Zeus, the chief deity of the Greek pantheon. Zeus was also attributed with the title 'Xenios Zeus' ('xenos' means stranger); emphasizing the fact that hospitality was of the utmost importance. A stranger passing outside a Greek house could be invited inside the house by the family. The host washed the stranger's feet, offered food and wine, and only after the guest was comfortable could ask his or her name. Based on the story above and its current meaning, hospitality is about compensating/equalizing a stranger to the host, making him feel protected and taken care of, and at the end of his hosting, guiding him to his next destination.

Definition:
The hospitality industry consists of broad category of fields within the service industry that includes lodging, restaurants, event planning, theme parks, transportation, cruise line, and additional fields within the tourism industry. The hospitality industry is a several billion dollar industry that mostly depends on the availability of leisure time and disposable income. A hospitality unit such as a restaurant, hotel, or even an amusement park consists of multiple groups such as facility maintenance, direct operations (servers, housekeepers, porters, kitchen workers, bartenders, etc.), management, marketing, and human resources. The hospitality industry covers a wide range of organizations offering food service and accommodation. Is divided into sectors according to the skill-sets required for the work involved. Sectors include accommodation, food and beverage, meeting and events, gaming, entertainment and recreation, tourism services, and visitor information. 4

Types: Hospitality industry can be empirically divided into two parts: entertainment areas like clubs and bars, and accommodation. Accommodation takes the form of public houses, resorts, inn, campgrounds, hotels, hostels, serviced apartments, and motels. The clubs and bars category include restaurants, fast foods, and nightclubs. The hospitality industry also includes tourism support commercial activities like airline cabin staff and travel agents. Travel technology like applied information technology (IT) and its workers in hospitality, travel and tourism are included in the hospitality industry. Hospitality is the relationship between guest and host, or the act or practice of being hospitable. Specifically, this includes the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers, resorts, membership clubs, conventions, attractions, special events, and other services for travelers and tourists. "Hospitality" can also mean generously providing care and kindness to whoever is in need.

Service

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Service Characteristics: 1. Intangibility: Services are intangible and insubstantial: they cannot be touched, tasted or heard. Thus, there is neither potential nor need for transport, storage or stocking of services. Furthermore, a service cannot be sold or owned by somebody, neither can it be turned over from the service provider to the service consumer nor returned from the service consumer to the service provider. Solely, the service delivery can be commissioned to a service provider who must generate and render the service at the distinct request of an authorized service consumer. 2. Perishability: The service relevant resources, processes and systems are assigned for service delivery during a definite period in time. If the designated or scheduled service consumer does not request and consume the service during this period, the service cannot be performed for him. When the service has been completely

rendered to the requesting service consumer, this particular service irreversibly vanishes as it has been consumed by the service consumer. Example: the passenger has been transported to the destination and cannot be transported again to this location at this point in time. 3. Inseparability: The service provider is indispensable for service delivery as he must promptly generate and render the service to the requesting service consumer. In many cases the service delivery is executed automatically but the service provider must preparatorily assign resources and systems and actively keep up appropriate service delivery readiness and capabilities. Additionally, the service consumer is inseparable from service delivery because he is involved in it from requesting it up to consuming the rendered benefits. Examples: The service consumer must sit in the hair dresser's shop & chair or in the plane & seat; correspondingly, the hair dresser or the pilot must be in the same shop or plane, respectively, for delivering the service. 4. Simultaneity: Services are rendered and consumed during the same period of time. As soon as the service consumer has requested the service (delivery), the particular service must be generated from scratch without any delay and friction and the service consumer instantaneously consumes the rendered benefits for executing his upcoming activity or task. 6

5. Variability: Each service is unique. It is one-time generated, rendered and consumed and can never be exactly repeated as the point in time, location, circumstances, conditions, current configurations and/or assigned resources are different for the next delivery, even if the same service consumer requests the same service. Many services are regarded as heterogeneous or lacking homogeneity and are typically modified for each service consumer or each new situation (consumerised).

RUM
Rum is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane by products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation. The distillate, a clear liquid, is then usually aged in oak and other barrels.

History:
The precursors to rum date back to antiquity. Development of fermented drinks produced from sugarcane juice is believed to have first occurred either in ancient India or China, and spread from there. An example of such an early drink is brum. Produced by the Malay people, brum dates back thousands of years. Marco Polo also recorded a 14th-century account of a "very good wine of sugar" that was offered to him in what is modern-day Iran. The first distillation of rum took place on the sugarcane plantations of the Caribbean in the 17th century. Plantation slaves first discovered that molasses, a by-product of the sugar refining process, can be fermented into alcohol.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rum - cite_noteBlue70-8 Later, distillation of these alcoholic by-products concentrated the alcohol and removed impurities, producing the first true rums. Tradition suggests that rum first originated on the island of Barbados. A 1651 document from Barbados stated, "The chief fuddling they make in the island is Rum bullion, alias Kill-Devil, and this is made of sugar canes distilled, hot, hellish, and terrible liquor".

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Colonial America: After rum's development in the Caribbean, the drink's popularity spread to Colonial North America. To support the demand for the drink, the first rum distillery in the British colonies of North America was set up in 1664 on present-day Staten Island. Boston, Massachusetts had a distillery three years later. The manufacture of rum became early Colonial New England's largest and most prosperous industry. New England became a distilling center due to the superior technical, metalworking and cooperage skills and abundant lumber; the rum produced there was lighter, more like whiskey, and was superior to the character and aroma of the West Indies product. Rhode Island rum even joined gold as an accepted currency in Europe for a period of time. Estimates of rum consumption in the American colonies before the American Revolutionary War had every man, woman, or child drinking an average of 3 Imperial gallons (13.5 liters) of rum each year. To support this demand for the molasses to produce rum, along with the increasing demand for sugar in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries, a labor source to work the sugar plantations in the Caribbean was needed. A triangular trade was established between Africa, the Caribbean, and the colonies to help support this need.[14] The exchange of slaves, molasses, and rum was quite profitable, and the disruption to the trade caused by the Sugar Act in 1764 may have even helped cause the American Revolution. The popularity of rum continued after the American Revolution, with George Washington insisting on a barrel of Barbados rum at his 1789 inauguration. Rum started to play an important role in the political system, since the outcome of an election usually depended on the candidate’s generosity with rum. The people would vote for incompetent candidates simply because they provided more rum. They would attend the election to see which candidate appeared less stingy with their rum. The candidate was expected to drink with the people to show that he was independent and truly a republican. In a Mississippi election, one candidate poured his drinks and socialized with the people. He was more personal and it appeared as if he was going to win. The other candidate announced that he would not be pouring their drinks and they could have as much as they wanted; because he appeared more generous, he won. This shows that colonial voters were not concerned with what the candidate represented or stood for; they were merely looking for who would provide the most rum.

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Eventually the restrictions on rum from the British islands of the Caribbean, combined with the development of American whiskey, led to a decline in the drink's popularity.

Naval Rum: Rum's association with piracy began with English privateers trading on the valuable commodity. As some of the privateers became pirates and buccaneers, their fondness for rum remained, the association between the two only being strengthened by literary works such as Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island. The association of rum with the Royal Navy began in 1655 when the British fleet captured the island of Jamaica. With the availability of domestically produced rum, the British changed the daily ration of liquor given to seamen from French brandy to rum. While the ration was originally given neat, or mixed with lime juice, the practice of watering down the rum began around 1740. To help minimize the effect of the alcohol on his sailors, Admiral Edward Vernon directed that the rum ration be watered down before being issued, a mixture which became known as grog. While it is widely believed that the term grog was coined at this time in honor of the grogram cloak Admiral Vernon wore in rough weather, the term has been demonstrated to predate his famous orders, with probable origins in the West Indies, perhaps of African etymology (see Grog). The Royal Navy continued to give its sailors a daily rum ration, known as a "tot," until the practice was abolished after July 31, 1970. Today the rum ration (tot) is still issued on special occasions by H.M. Queen Elizabeth II order "Splice the main brace"! Such recent occasions have been Royal marriages/Birthdays, special anniversaries. Splice the main brace in the days of the daily ration meant double rations that day.

Production Method:
Unlike some other spirits, such as Cognac and Scotch, rum has no defined production methods. Instead, rum production is based on traditional styles that vary between locations and distillers.

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Fermentation: Most rum produced is made from molasses. Within the Caribbean, much of this molasses is from Brazil. A notable exception is the French-speaking islands where sugarcane juice is the preferred base ingredient. Yeast and water are added to the base ingredient to start the fermentation process. While some rum producers allow wild yeast to perform the fermentation, most use specific strains of yeast to help provide a consistent taste and predictable fermentation time. Dunder, the yeast-rich foam from previous fermentations, is the traditional yeast source in Jamaica. "The yeast employed will determine the final taste and aroma profile," says Jamaican master blender Joy Spence. Distillers that make lighter rums, such as Bacardi, prefer to use fasterworking yeasts. Use of slower-working yeasts causes more esters to accumulate during fermentation, allowing for fuller-tasting rum.

Distillation: As with all other aspects of rum production, there is no standard method used for distillation. While some producers work in batches using pot stills, most rum production is done using column still distillation. Pot still output contains more congeners than the output from column stills and thus produces fuller-tasting rum.

Aging and Blending: Many countries require that rum be aged for at least one year. This aging is commonly performed in used bourbon casks, but may also be performed in stainless steel tanks or other types of wooden casks. The aging process determines the coloring of the Rum. Rum that is aged in oak casks becomes dark, whereas Rum that is aged in stainless steel tanks remains virtually colorless. Due to the tropical climate common to most rum-producing areas, rum matures at a much faster rate than is typical for Scotch or Cognac. An indication of this faster rate is the angels' share, or amount of product lost to evaporation. While products aged in France or Scotland see about 2% loss each year, rum producers may see as much as 10%. After aging, rum is normally blended to ensure a consistent flavor. Blending is the final step in the Rum making process. As part of this blending process, light rums may be filtered to remove any color gained during aging. For darker rums, caramel may be added to the rum to adjust the color of the final product. 10

KINDS: Basically, there are two Rums:
Molasses Rum: Most of the rum produced in the world is made from waste sugar cane after the sugar extracted from sugar plants. The residue of sugar cane called Molasses, from there called Molasses Rum. A molasses is added to water to achieve the perfect solution of sugars, still contained in the molasses. Then add yeast and fermentation proceeds to a short 24 to 48 hours, after which you get a mash of about 5 ° GL. This must be distilled in a pot still distillation columns to achieve about 65 to 80 ° GL. Young rum is diluted with water can be filtered and can be marketed (white rum) or puts aged in oak barrels to gain some color, but also may be placed a certain proportion of caramel to improve their color.

From here, you can find three types of industrial rum or molasses: White Rum, which has been aging, very light. Gold Rum, two or three years of aging, light and aromatic. Dark Rum can have up to 6 years of aging. Also known as black rum, classes as a grade darker than gold rum... Dark rum has a much stronger flavor than either light or gold rum, and hints of spices can be detected, along with a strong molasses or caramel overtone.

Agricole Rum: These rums, being produced exclusively from sugar cane juice, retain a greater amount of the original flavor of the sugar cane and are generally more expensive than molasses-based rums.

Modern Methods of Making Rum
The Traditional Pot Still: Many artisanal rums are produced by small companies in small quantities. The traditional pot still is a method of distilling fermented product in relatively small batches. The fine art of the distiller is the key to success for the traditional pot still method. The disadvantage is that each distinct batch may vary to some degree and high volume production is not always feasible. 11

The Column Still: Most modern, well known brands of rum are made from molasses distilled in large column stills. The process involves heating the fermented molasses wine (sometimes called beer or wash) in tall columns. Steam in the column strips the alcohol from the fermented wine. The alcohol rich vapor is collected from the top of the column then condensed into a clear high proof alcohol.

Pot Still

Countries and Marks:
Spanish-Speaking Islands and Countries Traditionally produce light rums with a fairly clean taste. Rums from Guatemala, Cuba, Panama, the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, Colombia and Venezuela are typical of this style.

Famous Marks: Cuba: Carta Blanca, Carta Oro and Habana Club. Puerto Rico: Bacardi. Venezuela: Ron Santa Teresa, Pampero, Cacique and Carta Roja.

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English-speaking Islands and Countries: These are known for darker rums with a fuller taste that retains a greater amount of the underlying molasses flavor. Rums from Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Saint Kitts, Trinidad & Tobago, the Demerara region of Guyana, and Jamaica are typical of this style.

Famous Marks: Barbados: West India Rum Refinery, Barbados Distilleries and Mount Gay Distilleries. Jamaica: Plummer, Lamb’s and Captain Morgan.

French-speaking islands (France) These are best known for their agricultural rums (rum agricole). These rums, being produced exclusively from sugar cane juice, retain a greater amount of the original flavor of the sugar cane and are generally more expensive than molasses-based rums. Rums from Haïti, Guadeloupe and Martinique are typical of this style.

Famous Marks: Clément, Duquesne and Saint James.

Denomination of Origin: “Ron de Venezuela”
Sugar cane originally from the Far East came to Venezuela with the Spanish settlers, who used it to sweeten their food and prepare their fermented beverages. It was already cultivated by the beginning of the 16th century in the Aragua Valley. beverage evolved into rum. At the beginning it was produced with rudimentary methods in different areas of the country. Then distilleries became more technical and different Venezuelan rums started to get international recognition. “Ron de Venezuela”. Ron Santa Teresa was the first rum brand registered in Venezuela 1908. "Ron de Venezuela" is an appellation of origin issued in 2003 by the major SAPI rums from Venezuela to qualify to take the total of its components rums a minimum of two years aging in oak barrels white and 40 degrees of anhydrous alcohol. This designation enables the differentiation between Venezuelan rums from the rest of the world. Rum brands under their flag these appellations of origin are: 13 Early fermented

     

Ron Cacique Ron Diplomático Ron Muco Ron Ocumare Ron Pampero Ron Santa Teresa

In order to represent the integration of protected trademarks under the name “Ron de Venezuela”, each of them should use the logo proposed for designation:

Denomination of origin “Ron de Venezuela has been granted by th e Nations Andean Community. It has been proved that Venezuelan geographic and climatic factors make possible the production of extremely high quality rum because of the exceptional characteristics of the raw material.

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Important Factors:
 Geographic Characteristic: Rich and deep soils; Constant winds; Ideal height: guarantees hot temperatures during the day and cold ones at nights, allowing a 15 degrees difference approximated; High solar radiation. These characteristics allow: a) Production of a sweeter sugar cane b) Aging process three times faster than in any other part of the world. 

Human Factor: There is a tradition for growing sugar cane in Venezuela since the 15th century and for a systematic rum production since 1896. This means that Venezuelan rum people have developed expertise, knowledge and special techniques in the art of making rum.



Venezuelan aging regulations: According to the Venezuelan law in order to be called rum, a distilled alcohol has to be aged for a minimum of two years. The already mentioned facts have allowed the production of Venezuelan rum with unique characteristics, which granted its denomination of origin.

Venezuelan Rum: National Pride and its Service Quality Impact
Now, examine what relationship exists in the Venezuelan rum and hospitality industry? But it should be defined the following:

Service Quality First, it is essential to note that the service is the most important hospitality industry. The service, moreover, is an intangible product: the respect shown to a guest you can not touch, knowledge of the menu by the landlord, can not be stored for future use. Some hospitality related businesses also produce tangible things like food, but most businesses in the hospitality; the mission itself is the creation of memorable experiences through service. 15

The customer invests time, money and emotion in the hope of receiving employee a pleasant experience. The key is the people who make service delivery conjunction with his attitude, skills and knowledge. They are the ones that add value to the product. So that service quality is determined by the relationship between customer expectations and what they actually receive by the staff. In this way, it enters the second point of interest, “the moment of truth.”

The Moment of Truth:
The very moment the client gets in touch with our service and on the basis of that contact forms an opinion about the quality. A moment of truth, not necessarily what determines human contact. When the customer arrives at the place of service and contact with any element of the company (infrastructure, signs, offices, etc.) Is also a moment of truth. To provide better customer service, is required to control every moment of truth. The client does not know the strategies, processes, systems, areas, departments, problems and successes of the company, knows only what the company does for him at that moment and from this rate the quality of service. On the above basis, it should be noted that the best way to build customer loyalty to the product of hospitality is to provide a quality service, exceeding expectations in all moments of truth that the customer experience. Thus, the Venezuelan rum with denomination of origin "Ron de Venezuela" is a mark of quality at international level, sits on the table next to other well known drinks such as whiskey, gin, vodka, appears in the menus of the best restaurants and bars in the world. The “Ron de Venezuela”, is our Ambassador, is a national pride, dignity represents us abroad in the hospitality industry. Reason for the tourists visiting Venezuela have high expectations about this exquisite national drink, so hope to taste it just walked on our land. This is why people working in the hospitality industry here in Venezuela must know everything about this national drink, their processes, their types, which is manufactured, as it is served, in order to provide a service achieve quality and exceed the expectations of these visitors. Rum is the tangible and knowledge of Venezuelans about it is the intangible part of the product and makes a difference in service delivery and will confirm the excellence of the "Ron de Venezuela" 16

In this way, to know our domestic products, such as rum, allow us to promote them, appreciate them, sell them, and this will impact positively on the quality of service. In addition, it is necessary to unite the efforts of both private companies and the Venezuelan state to conduct a national campaign for the category, in which we can convey the message that domestic rum is our ambassador and for this reason the Venezuelan consumer should be proud of it. And to stimulate initiatives such as the route is many contributions to the country and the reason for the excursion area, produces comprehensive benefits because through visits, sells more rum, it promotes the country and promoted the building of new hotels , inns and restaurants.

Rum in Venezuelan Cuisine: Frankly, in Venezuela until recently, the rum had been rejected, was known only as a rough and cheap drinks. But today, this is changing and now you can see its use in Venezuelan cuisine is rising steadily and are rescuing dishes, desserts, sauces; as well as, creating new dishes where the protagonist is this drink. Rum is commonly used to macerate fruit used in fruitcakes, like drunke cake and is also used in marinades, such as that used in the shrimp and rum soup; which is offered in the school restaurant “Camurí Alto” (RECA) from Simón Bolívar University.

Drunke cake One of the classic pairings is the contrast of dark chocolate with rum. In preparing chocolate desserts: cakes, “bombones”, “ganaches”, etc., add rum to the mixture of chocolate or some companion such as a cream for cakes. Rum may also be used as a base in the manufacture of liqueurs, like orange liqueur. Spiced Rum is made by infusing rum with a combination of spices.

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But its use is more widespread in the preparation of mixed drinks, some Venezuelan rum cocktails: The "Ron, Lola, Ron” is a preparation of white rum, grenadine, Red Bull and lemon. The "Ronmopolitan" is loaded with white rum, grapefruit juice, strawberry juice, triple sec and lemon. "Angostura" contained: vintage rum, orange, bitter Angosture, quince juice, orange juice. "El Dorado" vintage rum mixture, sherry, Perrier water and lemon juice.

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References
Curtis, Wayne (2006). And a bottle of rum - a history of the New World in ten cocktails. Crown Publishers. p. 285

http://www.giftedrums.com/RumBasics.html (June 24, 2010) http://venezolanoes.blogspot.com/2010/02/ron-venezolano-traspasa-susfronteras.html (July 01, 2010). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hospitality_industry (June 22, 2010) http://www.onextrapixel.com/2010/03/02/hospitality-in-web-industry-good-serviceis-good-business/ (July 05, 2010). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service_(economics) (July 11, 2010)

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