How to Configure a Network In this section you will learn how to configure a network, peer to peer, client server, workstation, server, basic data communication. Peer to Peer network model Before configuring a computer network, you have to decide that, which networking model you require. There are two main types of network models. Peer to peer and client-server network model. In the peer to peer network model you simply use the same Workgroup for all the computers and a unique name for each computer. Additionally, you will have to give a unique IP address of the same class A, B, or C for all the computers in your network and its related subnet mask e.g if you decide to use class A IP address for your three computers in your Peer to Peer network then your IP address/Subnet mask settings can be as follows. Computer Name IP Address Subnet Mask Workgroup PC1 100.100.100.1 255.0.0.0 Officenetwork PC2 100.100.100.2 255.0.0.0 Officenetwork PC3 100.100.100.3 255.0.0.0 Officenetwor Please note that the above example is for only illustration purpose so you can choose any IP address, computer name and workgroup name of your interest. For doing this right click on My Computer and then click Properties then go to the Network Identification section and set these. In a peer to peer network all computers acts as a client because there is not centralized server. Peer to peer network is used where not security is required in the network. If a computer fails to work then all other computers
work normally in peer to peer network. Client/Server Network Model In the client/server network model a computer plays a centralized role and is known as a server all other computers in the network are known as clients. All client computers access the server simultaneously for files, database, docs, spreadsheets, web pages and resources like hard diver, printer, fax modem, CD/DVD ROM and others. In other words, all the client computes depends on the server and if server fails to respond or crash then networking/communication between the server and the client computes stops. If you want to configure a client-server network model then first prepare the server. Install Windows 2000 or Windows 2003 Server from the CD on the server computer and make a domain. You can create a domain by this command on the Run ³DCPROMO´. You can give this command once you install the server successfully. After you give the DCPROMO command you will be asked for a unique domain name. All the client computers will use the same unique domain name for becoming the part of this domain. This command will install the active directory on the server, DNS and other required things. A step by step wizard will run and will guide you for the rest of the steps. Make sure that a network cable is plugged in the LAN card of the server when you run the DCPROMO.exe command. When the Active directory is properly installed on the server, restart the server. You can create network users on the server computer and also name/label the network resources like computers/printers etc. Once you install the server successfully now come to the client computers. Install Windows 2000 professional on your all client computers. Once you install the Windows 2000 professional on the clients the next step is to make this computer (client computer) a part of the network. Configuration Steps
1. Choose a unique name for each client computer 2. Choose unique IP address for each computer and relevant. 3. Use the same domain name for all client PCs. Network/System administrators are required to do these administrative tasks on the server and client computers. Any shared resources on the network either on the server or the clients can be access through the My Network Places in the Windows 2000 platform. There is another way to connect to the shared resources by giving this command in the run \\ComputerName\SharedDriveLetter. Network configurations steps can be implemented by right clicking the My Computer>Properties> For giving the IP address you will have to right click on the My Network places>properties>Local Area Connection>Properties>Internet Protocols (TCP/IP)>Properties and then give the IP address and subnet mask of the same range and class for all the computers in the network. If you are unable to configure your home network you may have to use an IT company such as this IT consulting Burlington Company.
What is Ethernet? In this section you will learn about the lan terminology, basic ethernet networking overview, a general introduction to LAN, introduction to IEEE, lan topologies, wan standards. You can also find these categories in this site such as network tutorials, computer networking guide, what is networking, tech study guides, topologies, what is data recovery, wireless communication, computer interview questions and network certification. The IEEE standards
have been developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO). The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) in 1985 produced a series of standards for the Local Area Networks, which are called IEEE 802 standards. These standards have been accepted widely throughout the IT world. One of the IEEE 802 standards, the IEEE 802.3 is known as ³Ethernet´. Ethernet is the most widely used LAN technology. Ethernet was developed by Xerox corporations in 1972 and it was the first LAN. According to the ISO standards allows manufactures to produce the devices and equipments, which are guaranteed to operate anywhere. The Ethernet in its simplest form uses a passive bus that operates at 10 Mbps. The bus is formed from the co-axial cable, which connects all the PCs in the LAN. A single LAN may have 1024 attached computers, although in the real practice most LANS have fewer computers than this number. One or more segments of the co-axial cable are attached to end to end to create the Ethernet Cable Segment. Each segment is terminated by 50 ohm resistors. In today¶s IT world the reliable and timely access to the information has become vital. Today coworkers thousands of miles apart from each other can share data, voice, video etc with the fractions of seconds. Similarly a larger number of the coworkers can review the research data simultaneously. The Internet allows businesses to share information and resources with their customers. Ethernet is a communication protocol that is embedded in software and hardware devices that intended. Ethernet has become the standard computer networking protocol with the help of the Xerox, Intel and Digital
A basic LAN consists of the following components. Two or more computers. Network Interface card or LAN Card in each PC. Ethernet cable (Cat5, UTP/SPT) cable to connect the two computers. A hub, switch or router to route or direct the network traffic. Software for the communication/computer networking. A network interface card (NIC) is attached and installed in each PC and is assigned a unique address. An Ethernet cable is used to connect two computers; Ethernet cable has RJ45connectors at both ends. There can be two scenarios 1. Two computers can directly connect with each other or 2. Each computer is directly connected with the hub/switch and hence communication occurs in the network. The hub or switch acts as relay. Computer Network can be wireless. Despite of using Ethernet cable for the communication, Wireless Network Interface cards use radio waves to communicate with the wireless switch or hub. A small antenna is used in the wireless NICs, switches and hubs. Although the wireless networks are more easy to use as compared to the cabled networks, but more configurations and extra care is required to setup and run a wireless network. The alternate technologies to Ethernet are ³Token Ring´, which is used in the Ring Topologiesnetworks. Token Ring is designed by the IBM and ATM. In ATM networking, devices are connected with each other over a very large distance (thus forms the WAN), and behaves like LANs. Ethernet is a well established and widely used network standard for small to medium sized Ethernet networks as well as for other networks. Ethernet has been used over the 3 decades and forms a very excellent networking/communication environment. Ethernet Terms Ethernet follows a simple set of rules. To understand these rules its important to understand the
following terminology. Node ± The devices that are attached to the segments are nodes. Frame ± The nodes (computers or network devices) communicates in the form of short messages that are known as frames. The frames are chunks of information with variable size. Segment ± A single shared medium is known as a Ethernet segment. Medium ± The Ethernet devices are attached to a common medium. The frames of the data travel along with that medium. This medium can be coaxial cable. Today most commonly used communication mediums are UTP/STP cable, fiber optic cables. Frames are analogous in human language. We have some rules for constructed the sentences. The Ethernet protocol specifies a set of rules for constructing the frames. The frames length varies. Each frame must contain source and destination address for the identification of the recipient and the send of the message. The nodes can be uniquely and easily identified. Each Ethernet devices must have a single unique address. Compute networking standards has brought a revolution in the network computing and it made the communication very easy and standarized. Now every computer and networking devices has to to follow the same standard to communicate with each other.
Router Commands Overview
In this section you will learn about the router commands, configurations, privileged mode commands, routing protocols, cisco labs and network configurations. There are hundreds of basic and advance level commands of a router. It is not easy to remember all the commands. But some commands are frequently used and can be remembered with some practice. I have provided a list of the most commonly used commands based on their features and usage.
You will find here some basic terminology of a router. Routing: Routing is a process of moving the data (packets) through an inter network. Routing performs the two basic tasks. Define the paths for a packet and then forward the packets on the basis of defined paths. Routing can also be defined as the communication between two or more logically and physical networks and this communication (packet transfer) is brought by a router.
First of all you should remember the keyboard shortcuts of a router. Keyboard Shortcuts CTRL-N - show next command CTRL-P - show previous command SHIFT-CTRL-6 ± Break Configuring the Router You will be able to learn the basic commands for configuring a router. sh running-config - details the running configuration file (RAM) sh startup-config - displays the configuration stored in NVRAM setup - Will start the the automatic setup; the same as when you first boot the router config t - use to execute configuration commands from the terminal config mem - executes configuration commands stored in NVRAM; copies startupconfig to running-config config net - used to retrieve configuration info from a TFTP server copy running-config startup-config - copies saved config in running config (RAM) to NVRAM or "write memory" for IOS under ver.11 copy startup-config running-config - copies from non-volatile (NVRAM) to current running config (RAM) boot system flash <put file filename here> - tells router which IOS file in flash to boot
from boot system tftp - tells router which IOS file on the tftp server to boot from boot system rom - tell router to boot from ROM at next boot copy flash tftp - Copies flash to tftp server copy tftp flash - Restores flash from tftp server copy run tftp - Copies the current running-config to tftp server copy tftp run - Restores the running-config from tftp server General Commands Here is a list of the general commands. These are the basic level commands and most commonly used no shutdown - (enables the interface) reload - restarts the router sh ver - Cisco IOS version, uptime of router, how the router started, where system was loaded from, the interfaces the POST found, and the configuration register sh clock - shows date and time on router sh history - shows the history of your commands sh debug - shows all debugging that is currently enabled no debug all - turns off all debugging sh users - shows users connected to router sh protocols - shows which protocols are configured banner motd # Your customized message here # - Set/change banner hostname <give router name> - use to configure the hostname of the router clear counters - clear interface counters Privileged Mode commands of a router Learn how to work in the privileged mode of a router. enable - get to privileged mode disable - get to user mode enable password <give password here> - sets privileged mode password enable secret <give password here> - sets encrypted privileged mode password Setting Passwords on router Here you will be able to learn how to set the password on a router. enable secret <give password here> - set encrypted password for privileged access enable password <give password here> - set password for privileged access (used when there is no enable secret and when using older software) Setting the password for console access: (config)#line console 0 (config-line)#login (config-line)#password <put password here>
Set password for virtual terminal (telnet) access (password must be set to access router through telnet): (config)#line vty 0 4 (config-line)#login (config-line)#password <put password here> Set password for auxiliary (modem) access: (config)#line aux 0 (config-line)#login (config-line)#password <put password here> Router Processes & Statistics By these command you can see the statistics and different processes of the router. sh processes - shows active processes running on router sh process cpu - shows cpu statistics sh mem - shows memory statistics sh flash - describes the flash memory and displays the size of files and the amount of free flash memory sh buffers - displays statistics for router buffer pools; shows the size of the Small, Middle, Big, Very Big, Large and Huge Buffers sh stacks - shows reason for last reboot, monitors the stack use of processes and interrupts routines IP Commands Here is a list of the IP Commands Configure IP on an interface: int serial 0 ip address 220.127.116.11 255.255.0.0 int eth 0 ip address 2008.1.1.4 255.255.255.0 Other IP Commands: sh ip route - view ip routing table ip route <remote_network> <mask> <default_gateway> [administrative_distance] configure a static IP route ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 <put gateway of the last resort here> - sets default gateway ip classless - use with static routing to allow packets destined for unrecognized subnets to use the best possible route sh arp - view arp cache; shows MAC address of connected routers ip address 18.104.22.168 255.255.255.0 secondary - configure a 2nd ip address on an
interface sh ip protocol CDP Commands (Cisco Discovery Protocol uses layer 2 multicast over a SNAPcapable link to send data): sh cdp neighbor - shows directly connected neighbors sh cdp int - shows which interfaces are running CDP sh cdp int eth 0/0 - show CDP info for specific interface sh cdp entry <cdp neighbor here> - shows CDP neighbor detail cdp timer 120 - change how often CDP info is sent (default cdp timer is 60) cp holdtime 240 - how long to wait before removing a CDP neighbor (default CDP holdtime is 180) sh cdp run - shows if CDP turned on no cdp run - turns off CDP for entire router (global config) no cdp enable - turns off CDP on specific interface IPX Commands Enable IPX on router: ipx routing Configure IPX + IPX-RIP on an int: int ser 0 ipx network 4A Other Commands: sh ipx route - shows IPX routing table sh ipx int e0 - shows ipx address on int sh ipx servers - shows SAP table sh ipx traffic - view traffic statistics debug ipx routing activity - debugs IPS RIP packets debug ipx sap - debugs SAP packets Routing Protocols RIP, IGPR and OSPF are the routing protocols and here is a list of the commands for the working on the routing protocols. Configure RIP: router rip network 22.214.171.124 network 126.96.36.199
Other RIP Commands: debug ip rip - view RIP debugging info Configure IGRP: router IGRP 200 network 188.8.131.52 network 184.108.40.206 Other IGRP Commands: debug ip igrp events - view IGRP debugging info debug ip igrp transactions - view IGRP debugging info Access Lists Here is a list of the Access list command of a router. sh ip int ser 0 - use to view which IP access lists are applies to which int sh ipx int ser 0 - use to view which IPX access lists are applies to which int sh appletalk int ser 0 - use to view which AppleTalk access lists are applies to which int View access lists: sh access-lists sh ip access-lists sh ipx access-lists sh appletalk access-lists Apply standard IP access list to int eth 0: access-list 1 deny 220.127.116.11 0.0.0.255 access-list 1 permit any int eth 0 ip access-group 1 in Apply Extended IP access list to int eth 0: access-list 100 deny tcp host 18.104.22.168 host 22.214.171.124 eq 23 access-list 100 deny tcp 126.96.36.199 0.0.0.255 any eq 80 int eth 0 ip access-group 100 out Apply Standard IPX access list to int eth 0: access-list 800 deny 7a 8000 access-list 800 permit -1 int eth 0 ipx access-group 800 out Apply Standard IPX access list to int eth 0: access-list 900 deny sap any 3378 -1 access-list 900 permit sap any all -1 int eth 0 ipx access-group 900 out
WAN Configurations Commands Networking over WAN is the main functionality of a router. The most common use of a router is for the WAN connectivity. Here is a list of the commands for the different methods of the WAN connectivity. PPP Configuration Point to point protocol is a method for the WAN connectivity and you will find here some commands of PPP. encapsulation pppppp authentication <chap or pap here> ppp chap hostname <put router name here> ppp pap sent-username <put user name here> sh int ser 0 - use to view encapsulation on the interface Frame-Relay Configuration One of the methods for the WAN connectivity is the Frame Relay. Find here some basic commands for the WAN connectivity through Frame Relay. encapsulation frame-relay ietf - use IETF when setting up a frame-relay network between a Ciscorouter and a non-Cisco router frame-relay lmi-type ansi - LMI types are Cisco, ANSI, Q933A; Cisco is the default; LMI type is auto-sensed in IOS v11.2 and up frame-relay map ip 188.8.131.52 100 broadcast - if inverse ARP won't work, map Other IP to Your DLCI # (local) keep alive 10 - use to set keep alive sh int ser 0 - use to show DLCI, LMI, and encapsulation info sh frame-relay pvc - shows the configured DLCI's; shows PVC traffic stats sh frame-relay map - shows route mapssh frame-relay lmi - shows LMI info Miscellaneous Commands In the last but not least here is a list of the some miscellaneous and useful commands sh controller t1 - shows status of T1 lines sh controller serial 1 - use to determine if DCE or DTE device (config-if)#clock rate 6400 - set clock on DCE (bits per second) (config-if)#bandwidth 64 - set bandwidth (kilobits)
Introduction to ISDN Line Find here ISDN Network, introduction to ISDN line, bri, t1 lines, d1 lines, primary rate interface, connection time and setup instructions. The regular phone line, which is used at home and offices is an analogue phone line. Your voice is picked up by telephone mouthpiece and then sent down the phone line as an analogue wave. Regular modem converts the digital signals of the computer into the analogue waves, which then travels on the regular phone lines. At the other end, modem receives that analogue signals and then convert back into the digital signals that are understandable by a computer ISDN network is a digital communication system that is capable of producing the maximum transmission speed of 1.4Mbps. 128Kbps speed is however more common in the digital technology. It's a international standard for sending data, voice, video over regular digital telephone lines. ISDN uses UTP (unshielded twisted pair cable) for transmission.
Types of ISDN Network There are two basic types Basic Rate Interface (BRI) ± It consists of two 64 B-channels and one D-channel for transmitting control information. Primary Rate Interface (PRI) -- It consists of 23 B-channels and one D-channel (for U.S.) or 30 B-channels and one D-channel (for Europe). The actual version of ISDN employs base band transmission. Another version, called B-ISDN, uses broadband transmission, which is able to support transmission rate of 1.5 Mbps. BISDN mainly requires fiber optic cables. To access the B channel, it is necessary to subscribe the ISDN phone line. Customers are also required to have some special ISDN devices, which are known as terminal adapters, which are used to communication with the telephone company switch or other ISDN devices. How ISDN Works In an analog network, a regular telephone line that is provided by the telephone company supports a single transmission channel, which normally can carry only one service, voice, data or video at a single time. With ISDN, this same pair telephone line is logically divided into the multiple channels. A typical line has two channels. The first type of channel is called B channel. This channel can carry about 64Kbps of data. Typical ISDN line has 2 B channels. One channel is used for voice and other
channel is used for data communication. This data/voice transmission process occurs on the regular one pair copper wire. The second type of channel is used for link and call setup. This channel is known as D channel or Delta Channel. The third channel has only 16Kbps of bandwidth. Advantages Speed There is an upper limit of the speed in the commonly used dial up modems, which is 56kbps. But due to the quality and other factor, the maximum attainable speed is 45kbps. ISDN allows multiple digital channels to operate simultaneously through the same regular one pair copper wire. If the telephone company supports the digital connections then a change can occur. The digital signals instead of the analogue signals, transmitted across the telephone line. In the digital scheme, there is much more data transfer rate than the analog lines. Multiple Devices A separate telephone line is required for using the fax, telephone, computer, router and live video conferencing systems. A separate line is required for each device. ISDN network lines can handle the multiple devices on the single line. Up to eight devices such as, computer, faxes, cash registers, credit card readers or other devices can directly be connected to a single ISDN line, all these devices can work simultaneously. Connection Time V.34 modems typical take 30-60 seconds to establish a connection and on the other end an ISDN call usually takes less than 2 seconds to establish a connection. Disadvantages There are some disadvantages of the ISDN lines, which I have discussed below. 1. ISDN is more expensive than the Plain old telephone system. 2. The telephone company and the ISDN user both are required to have the specialized digital devices. ADSL VS ISDN There is a noticeable difference between the two services. ISDN provides two voice channels or one 128Kbps data channel while ADSL is
basically a data pipe. The power for ADSL is sent by carrier over copper wire; as with the local phone service. The line works even when local power fails. This is an advantage over the ISDN lines, wh
Networking Tutorials Overview
Find computer network tutorials, wireless communication guide, LAN/WAN guide, local area network tools, wan introduction, osi layers model and many other advance topics of data communication. This is very informative site for the IT people specially in the field of computer networking. You will also find data communication overview, tech guides , data communication related information, topologies, tech study guide, Router Labs, IT certifications, Ethernet guide, free IT resources, ip addressing tools, telecommunication guide and many other informative resources. Data communication is a process of sharing data and shared resources between two or more connected computers. The shared resources can include printer, Fax modem, Hard disk, CD/DVD Rom, Database and the data files. A computer network can be divided into a small segments called Local Area Network (LAN), networking between computers in a building of a office, medium sized networks (MAN), communication between two offices in a city and wide area networks (WAN) networking between the computers, one is locally placed and the other can be thousands of miles away in another city or another country in the world.
WAN connectivity is achieved by a device known as ³Router´. The internet is the world¶s largest WAN, where millions of computers from all over the globe and connected with each other.
Networking is the practice of linking two or more computers or devices with each other. The connectivity can be wired or wireless. A computer network can be categorized in different ways, depends on the geographical area as mentioned above. There are two main types of the computer networking client-server and peer to peer. In the client server computing, a computer plays a major role known as server, where the files, data in the form of web pages, docs or spread sheet files, video, database & resources are placed.
All the other computers in the client/server networks are called clients and they get the data from the server. In the peer to peer networks all the computers play the same role and no computer act as a centralized server. In the major businesses around the world client-server networks model is in major use. A network topology defines the structure, design or layout of a network. There are different topologies like bus, ring, star, mesh, hybrid etc. The star topology is most commonly used topology. In the star topology, all the computers in the network are connected with a centralized device such as hub or switch. Thus forms a star like structure. If the hubs/switch fails to work for any reason then all the connectivity and communication between the computers will be halted. A common communication language is used by the computers and the communication devices are known as protocols. The most commonly used and popular protocol on the internet and in the home and other networks is called TCP/IP. TCP/IP is not a single protocol but it is a suite of several protocols. A computer network can be a wired or wireless and TCP/IP protocol can work both in types of a network. Data flow or communication can be divided into seven logical layers called OSI layers model that was developed by Intel and Xerox Corporation and was standardized by ISO. 1. Application layer 2. Presentation layer 3. Session layer 4. Transport layer 5. Network layer 6. Data Link layer a. Media access control sub-layer b. Logical link control sub-layer 7. Physical layer A network can be divided into different scales and ranges and it depends on the requirement of the organization and the geographical location. Computer Network can be divided into Local Area Network, Personal Area Network, Campus Area Network, Wireless Local Area Network, Metropolitan Area Network and Wide Area Network. There are several communication connection methods like HomePNA, Power line communication, Ethernet and Wifi connection method. A network can also be categorized into several different types based on the services it provides like Server farms, Storage area networks, Value control networks, Value-Added networks, SOHO networks, Wireless and Jungle networks. I have explained the basic and advance data communication technologies, Router commands, communication devices, certifications, IP addressing basics, subnetting, networking tips, networking interview questions, windows networking, mobile technology and wireless computing. I have tried to cover all the hot topics in the area of computer networking so that maximum users can get benefit from this website. I will warmly welcome any suggestions, tips and unique content from my visitors if they want to share with me. Before working on this website, I personally visited many networking related websites to updated my knowledge to provide most up-to-date, unique information and best experience to my visitors. I have tried to add all the good features, how tos and networking related utilities in my website. I am hopeful that my visitors will like this website and find it very useful for the basic and advance data communication topics.
OSI 7 Layers Reference Model Here you will learn OSI Model Layer Introduction, overview of the 7 OSI reference model, applicaion, session, transport, network and physical layers. If you want to remember the sequence of the OSI layers model name then the following two sentences can help you a lot for this purpose.³All People Seems To Need Data Processing´. Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is developed by ISO (International organization for standardization) in 1984. OSI reference model is a logical framework for standards for the network communication. OSI reference model is now considered as a primary standard for internetworking and inter computing. Today many network communication protocols are based on the standards of OSI model. In the OSI model the network/data communication is defined into seven layers. These 7 layers further divide the tasks of moving the data across the network into subtask and hence complete one communication cycle between two computers or two network devices. Each layer is assigned a task and the task is completed independently. The OSI layers have the clear and independent characteristics and tasks.
The 7 layers of the OSI models can be divided into upper and lower layers. I have defined the characteristics, tasks and features of each layer separately. Layer 7: Application Layer The application layer defines the interfaces for communication and data transfer. This layer also provides and support services such as job transfer, handles network access, e-mail, supports user applications and error recovery. Protocols: FTP, DNS, SNMP, SMTP, FINGER, TELNET, TFTP, BOOTP and SMB protocol are operated on the application layer. Network Devices: Gateway network device is operated on the application layer. Layer 6:Presentation Layer The presentation layer presents the data into a uniform format and masks the difference of data format between two dissimilar systems. It also translates the data from application to the network format. Presentation layer is also responsible for the protocol conversion, encryption, decryption and data compression. Presentation layer is a best layer for cryptography. Network Devices: Gateway Redirector is operates on the presentation layer. Layer 5: Session Layer
Session layer establish and manages the session between the two users at different ends in a network. Session layer also manages who can transfer the data in a certain amount of time and for how long. The examples of session layers and the interactive logins and file transfer sessions. Session layer reconnect the session if it disconnects. It also reports and logs and upper layer errors. Protocols: The protocols that work on the session layer are NetBIOS, Mail Slots, Names Pipes, RPC Network Devices: Gateway Layer 4: Transport Layer Transport layer manages end to end message delivery in a network and also provides the error checking and hence guarantees that no duplication or errors are occurring in the data transfers across the network. Transport layer also provides the acknowledgement of the successful data transmission and retransmits the data if no error free data was transferred. It also provides and error handling and connectionless oriented data deliver in the network. Protocols: These protocols work on the transport layer TCP, SPX, NETBIOS, ATP and NWLINK. Network Devices: The Brouter, Gateway and Cable tester work on the transport layer. Layer 3: Network Layer The network layer determines that how data transmits between the network devices. It also translates the logical address into the physical address e.g computer name into MAC address. It is also responsible for defining the route, managing the network problems and addressing. Router works on the network layer and if a sending device does not break the data into the similar packets as the receiving device then network layer split the data into the smaller units and at the receiving end the network layer reassemble the data. Network layer routes the packets according to the unique network addresses. Router works as the post office and network layer stamps the letters (data) for the specific destinations. Protocols: These protocols work on the network layer IP, ICMP, ARP, RIP, OSI, IPX and OSPF. Network Devices: Network devices including Router, Brouter, Frame Relay device and ATM switch devices work on the network layer. Layer 2:Data Link Layer
Defines procedures for operating the communication links Frames packets Detects and corrects packets transmit errors Protocols: Logical Link Control error correction and flow control manages link control and defines SAPs 802.1 OSI Model 802.2 Logical Link Control Media Access Control communicates with the adapter card controls the type of media being used: 802.3 CSMA/CD (Ethernet) 802.4 Token Bus (ARCnet) 802.5 Token Ring 802.12 Demand Priority Network Devices: Bridge Switch ISDN Router Intelligent Hub NIC Advanced Cable Tester Layer 1: Physical Layer Physical layer defines and cables, network cards and physical aspects. It defines raw bit stream on the physical media. It also provides the interface between network and network communication devices. It is also responsible for how many volts for 0 and how many for 1. Physical layer also checks the number of bits transmitted per second and two ways or one way transmission. Physical layer also dealing with the optical, mechanical and electrical features. Protocols: Protocols that work on the physical layer are ISDN, IEEE 802 and IEEE 802.2 Network Devices: Hubs, Repeaters, Oscilloscope and Amplifier works on the network devices.