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How to Write Japanese

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Content

CMxOu PL

637

3 1924 080 779 204

Cornell University Library

The
tine

original of

tiiis

book

is in

Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in
text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924080779204

In compliance with current copyright law, Cornell University Library produced this replacement volume on paper that meets the ANSI Standard

Z39.48-1984 to replace the irreparably deteriorated original.

1995

LIBRARY

ITHACA

MY

14853

Charles

W WasonCdlscJte
onRastAsia

HOW TO WRITE AND
READ JAPANESE
CORRECTLY
[Seisoku Nihongo no Kakihata

Tomikatd)

BY

MINORU YUASA

®
OKAZAKIYA SHOTEN
15,

itchome, Jimbocho, Kanda,

Tokyo

PREFACE
Few
foreigners

from the Occident care

to learn to write

Japanese in cKaracters.

Do

western take no interest in the

study of Japanese thought ?
interest In
it.

To

be

sure, they

do lake much
think-

Whether they admire Japanese ways of
not, they

ing

and doing or
and

would

willingly study the history,

literature,

institutions

of the Oriental Empire through her
if

original

books and papers, only

they could read

and

write

Japanese in characters.

Then

they should take lessons in

Japanese in the same way as Japanese school-children do.

This

little

book

is

an attempt

at paving the

way

for those

who would

care to give their spare

moments

to the study

of the

most important Oriental language.
If the western student gets

a rudimentary knowledge of
it

written Japanese through this pioneer work,

will

amply repay

the pains taken

by

AUTHOR.

DIRECTIONS

1.

suzuRi

m)
(M)
:

2. 3.

suMi

FUDE

m)
the

^

How

to

make

Ink on the 3uzuri (Inkstone).
in the weiU of
iiij^stoue

Four some water

and rub
till

the Sumi (India ink) up and

down on

the

^s,lab

the

water gets blackened enough.

H9W
When
or

to

Use the

Ink.

the ink

is

ready
not

for use,
let

dip the point of the

writing brush in it

Do

the jJmbibe too

much

ink,

you

will
it.

make a

blot

on the paper \^hcn you try to

write on

IV

DIRECTIONS

How
fingers, as

to

Hold the Fude-

Hold the writing Fude (brush) between -the thumb and

shown

in the cut.

How
;

to

make

Strokes.

Hold the charged brush perpendicular to.the paper,
in the Lessons,

and make strokes, as directed

keeping your

hand

off ihe desk

all

the while.

JAPANESE CHARACTERS.
KATA-KANA.

7

A^

^ ^
u

t

4

V,

CHARACTERS

ha

hi

1%

he

ho

ma

mi

"

mu

me

mo

ya

i

yu

-:^

JO

ra

ri

ru

re

ro

7 4 ^ ^ f
wa
i

u

e

Wo

CHARAKTERS

vii

HIRA-GANA.

V^

S
ro

ii
ha

^
ni

^t
ho

t
he
to

h
chi

^
i"i

^
nu

^
ru

i h
wo

^>
ka

^
yo

wa

^
ta

1^
re

t
so

-^
tsu

hi
ne

na

ra

mu

u

VIII

CHARACTERS

<D
no

is

^
ku

~^.t
ya

ma

i,„

ke

fu
f,-,

Vo ko

e

te

fe
a

J
sa

I
ki

* *
yu

me

^ ^
mi
se

I
shi

^
e

lA
hi

k
«iO'

i"
su

/^
n

CHARACTERS


pa

Z^
pi

i^
P"

-<
?=

^
I"

MUMERARS

How

to write Japanese characters

/

2

PENMANSHIP

VOCABULARIES

/\

hito

hata

mm

fl^s

VOCABULARIES

^
^

f
onna

^
otoko

woman

man

VOCABULARIES

/>

^
chichi
father

/\
haha

mother

VOCABULARIES

musurhe

mtisuko

daughter

son

VOCABULARIES

f
ototo
ani

younger brother

elder brother

VOCABULARIES

r
^ne

imoto

younger

sister

elder sister

VOCABULARIES

f
>x
oba

f

oji

aunt

uncle

lo

VOCABULARIES

A--

yane

le

roof

house

VOCABULARIES

U

/
boshi
hat
or

ki-mono
clothing
or

cap

garment
Note :— " ki " means " wearing," and " mono "
means " thing."

I-^

VOCABULARIES

V
ushi

uma

cow

or

bull

horse

VOCABULARIES

13

-y

^
kumb
tsui<i

cloud

moon

14

VOCABULARIES

¥

>>

tori

hana

bird

flower

VOCABULARIES

rg

kasa

ame

umbrella

rain

i6

VOCABULARIES

r
tsuru
asahi

crane

rising
Note
:

sun

— " asa " means

" morning," and " hi "

means "sun."

VOCABULARIES

'7

\

ringo

nashi

Bpple

pear

jg

VOCABULARIES

-e
1

/^

I

^
hako

man

ball

box

VOCABULARIES

xg

yanagl

take

willow

bamboo

zo

VOCABULARIES

a

^ ^
korrie-ya

/

hon-ya

rice-dealer
Note :— Originally " ya
is

book-seller
"

means " shop."

But now

it

used in the sense of " dealer " or " seller."

VOCABULARIES

21

-t

22

VOCABULARIES

V
kushi

I
kagami

comb

looking-glass

VOCABULARIES

23

7>
isu

X
tsukue

chair

desk

24

VOCABULARIES

9
rr
tarn ago

ko-tori

egg

VOCABULARIES

25

V

it

^
torii

o-miya

shrine

A special structure affording
entrance to a Shinto temple.

Note
is

:

—The word " o "
is

a respectful prefix

which

added to

sacred things.

26

VOCABULARIES

\
minato
fune

port

ship

or

boat

VOCABULARIES

27

ume-no-ki
plum-tree
Note
relation
:

matsu-no-ki
pine-tree
" no,"
usually

—The

particle,

denotes
it

the
its

of ownership

or possession,

so that

has

equivalent in the , English preposition, "of"; but in the

above and other instances,

it

denotes identity, and this

is

28

VOCABULARIES

katatsumuri

kaeru

snail

frog

VOCABULARIES

29

%

30

VOCABULARIES

iJ

7
/
tsubame
swallow

7^
karasu

crow

VOCABULARIES

31

f

^

VOCABULARIES

shokubuts(i

dobutsjii

plant

animal

VOCABULARIES

33

t 3 ^
hiyoko
chick

i-

"V
r

oya-dori

mother bird
Notes
:

— " oya " means

" parent " and " dori "
{or " tori "), " bird."

34

PHRASES

X3

4^
Jf
Shiroi inu.

^^
3
Kuroi neko.

A whitt dog.
Note
:

A black cat.
Note
:

— " Shiro-i "
" white."

{pr

— " Kuroi " means
thing.

" shiro-ki ") means

"black," and "kuro-ki»

means the same

The former
colloquial,

is

used in a
latter

and the

in a literary expression.

PHRASES

3$:

V

Warui kodomo.

Shinsetsu na hito.

A bad child.
Note :— " Waru-i
" waru-ki
")

A kind person.
Note
:

" {or

—" Shinsetsu na "
naru "} means
" kind."

means " bad."

{or " shinsetsu

36.

PHRASES

Oroka na kodomo.

Kashikoi hito.

A foolish boy
Ugirl).
Note
:

A Wiseman
{or

woman).
:

— "Oroka-na "
foolish."
:

Note

— Kashiko-i "

means "

means " wise."
and "
i

Notes
adjectives.

— " Na "
i,"

"

are

endings of Japanese

" Naru " and " ki," which mean the same thing
are used only a literary expression.

as " na " and "

PHRASES

37

/>

,>^
Aoi ha.

t
Note
:

4

Akai hana.

A green leaf.
Note
" aoki
")
:

A red flower.
—Akai "
(or
:

— " Aoi " {or

means " green,"

" akaki ") means " red,"

and "ha," "leaf."

38

PHRASES

4^

t

Semai kawa.

Hiroi michi.

A narrow river.
Note :— " Semai "
and " kawa,""^"
{or

A wide
Note :— "

road.

Hiroi " {or

" scmaki ") mcau^ " narrow "
river."

" hiroki ") means " wide,"

and " michi," "

road,

PHEASES

39

r

40

PHRASES

f
.if

Mijikai-tsue.

Nagaibo.

A short cane.
Note :—"
Mijikai " {or

A long pole.
Note :— " Nagai "
and bo," " pole."
{or

" mijikaki ")
and "

means " short,"
" cane."

" nagaki ") means " long."

tsue,"

PHRASES

41

7 7
Fukai (^
umi.
^ki)

^

^
A
-ki)

Takai

(,

oy

yama.

A deep sea.
Note
:

A high mountain.
Note
:

—" Fukai

—" Takai " means

means "deep,"

" high," and " yama "

and " umi," " sea.

means "mountain."

42

PHRASES

7
Sei-no-hikui onna.

Sei-no-takai shinshi.

A short woman.
Note :— " Sei-no-hikui
means "
^Literal

A tall gentleman.
Note:— "
Sei-no-takai "

short."

means "tall."

inUrpfetation
{or

"Sei"
hikui)

signifies

*'

statue ";
{or

"sei-no-takai"
stature."

means "high

low)

PHRASES

43

Chiisai mushi.

Okii zo.

A small insect.
Note :— "
" small "
Chiisai

A large elephant.
Note :— " Okii
{or

^or " chiisa na ") means
or "
little."

" oki na ") means
« large."

44

PHRASES

Saru to kani.

Inu to neko.

A monkey and
a crab.
Note
:

A dog and
a cat.
Note
:

— " Saru " means
"crab."

— " To "

is

a

" monkey," and "
,

kani," conjunction equivalent to

the English conjunction,

" and

'';

it is

used also in

the sense of " with " a verb comes after

when
it.

PHRASES

45

Tsuru to tsubo.

Kitsune to budo.

A crane and a jug. A fox and grapes.
Note :^^" Tsubo
"jug," and
'•

"

means

Note

:

— " Bud5 " means
" fox."

tsuru,"

" grape," and " kitsune,"

46

PHRASES

V

Sobo to magomusume.
her grand-daughter.
Note

Sofu to mago.

A grand-mother and A grand-father and
grand-son or grand-daughter.
his
:

—" Sobo " means

Note

:

— " Sofu " means
"mago,"

" grand-mother," and " mago-musume " means
" grand-daughter."

" grand-father," and

" grand-son."
speech,

Note

:

—In

common

infantile expression, "ojii-san "

and especially in an and " obaa-san " are used

instead of " sofu " and " sobo " respectively.

PHRASES

47

^
}
Chichi ni musuko.

/\

r^ U t^^ %^
Haha
ni

musume.

A father and his A mother and her
son.
Note:

daughter.
the

— In

above

impressions
it

in

which

the

particle, ni, connects

two nouns,

is

of the same
ni

meaning
" (or

as " to," so that wc_

may

say, "

Haha

musume

" Chichi

ni

musuko ").

PHRASES

y
-7Shujin
lii

meshitsukai.

Otto ni tsuma.

A master and his
servant.

A husband and
his wife.

Note
'

:

— " Shujin " means

Note
"

:

— " Otto " means

" master," and

" husband " and
" tsuma," " wife."

meshitsukai," " servant,"

PHRASES

49

Oba

ni mei.

Oji ni

oi.

An

aunt and her
niece.

An uncle and
nephew.

his

so

PHRASES.

^

V

Ushi no tsuno.

Shika no ashi.

The horns
Note
"
:

of

a cow.

The legs of a deer.
Note
:

—" Ushi " means

—" Shika " means
legs."

cow

(or ox), and " tsuno,"

" deer," and " ashi," " leg " or "

" horn " or " horns."

Notes :

—" No," placed before a noun,

denotes source,

origin, possession, or the like.

In the Japanese language,

neither nouns nor verbs have a plural form or termination

opposed to the singular; so that the Japanese for

"horn"

and that

for " horns " are the

same form,

*'

tsuno."

PHRASES

51

4

^

Ki no

eda.

le

no yane.

The branches
{or

The roof of a house.

a branch) of a
tree.

52

PHRASES

if

n
'yf

f
Kogatana no
e.

Tsukue no

ashi.

The handle of a
knife.

The

legs of a desk,

Note
*

:

— " Kogatana " means
and "
literal

knife,'

e,"

'

handle.'

The

meaning of
is

"kogatana"

'small
this
'

sword/ but we use

word

in

the sense of

knife.'

How

to write Japanese characters

54

PENMANSHIP

3

Jk

PHRASES

55

-I
Tsuki ga
iru.

Hi ga deru.

The moon
Note
:

sets.

The sun
Note
:

rises.

— " Tsuki " means

—" Hi " means

" moon," and " iru,"
'•

" sun," and " deru,"

get in," or " disappear."

" to come out," " to get
out," or " appear."

Note

:

—" ga "

(or "

wa ")

is

a particle which denotes
finite

that the preceding noun

is

the subject of a

verb.

56

PHRASES

Kumo ga deru.

Hoshi ga deru.

Clouds appear.

Stars

come

forth.

PHRASES

57

Ame
The

ga

furu.

Yuki ga furu.

rain

falls.

The snow
and ame
(rain)

falls.

Notes

:

—^Yuki

(snow)

are

nouns.

They

are never used

as nouns

and as verbs, while in

English

many words
and the

are used as verbs, so that Japanese
It

has no expressions corresponding to "
rains,"
like.

snows,"

"

It

"

Furu " means "

to fall in drops

"

or

''

in flakes from the sky/'

S8

PHRASES

i

a
Q
Kori ga haru.

•J

Shimo ga

oriru.

To be frozen over,
to be covered with
ice.

The

frost falls.

Note

:

— " Kori " means
we
say,

Note
"

:

— " Shimo " means
and " oriru,"

" ice," and " haru " " to
spread over," " to expand."

frost,"

" to come down."

When

it

freezes,

" kori ga haru."

PHRASES

59

^

6o

PHRASES

m
f
Note
:

9
Kaminari ga naru.
It

Inabikari ga suru.

Lightning flashes.

thunders.

— " inabikari

Note :— " Kaminari"
{God's cry or roar") means " thunder," and " naru," " to sound out."

means " lightning," and
" suru " " to do." We say also " Inabikari ga hikaru In Japanese (flashes)." many nouns with the particle, ga, after them,
often take the verb, suru ;
as,

" Dzutsu {luadache) ga suru," which means, " to

have a headache."

PHRASES

€tl

I
I
Kisha ga hashiru.

ii
Kawa ga nagareru.

A (railway) train
runs.
Note
:

A river runs.
Note
•'
:

— " Kisha " means
" run."

— " Kawa " means
and " nagarcru,'*

" train," « hashiru,"

river,"

" to flow in stream
or streams."

63

PHRASES

I''

t'

PHRASES

63

ti

^

64

PHRASES

tff

f ^
<
nigeru.

Nezumi ga

Neko ga naku.

A rat runs away.
(Rats run away.)
Note
"
:

A cat mews.
(Cats iiiews.)
Note
"
:

— " Nezumi " means
and " nigeru,"

—" Naku " means
;

rat,"

to cry

to sing.''

" ruft away:"

How

to write Japanese characters

(See page 88)

66

PENMANSHIP

SENTENCES

67

\i

r

if

X r
Hito ga tegami
kaite imasu.

wo

Kodomo ga
imasu.

asonde

A man is writing

63

SENTENCES

*
^

t

SENTENCES

69

fj

7
J5

-^\

4

Ano

wo Ano gakusei wa hon wo yonde-imasu. kaite-imasu.
rujin

wa

e

That old

man

is

That student

is

painting a picture.
Note
'*
:

reading a book.
Note
:

— " e " means

—" yonde-imasu
is

"

and " kaite " imasu," " is painting
picture,"

means "

reading."

or

" drawing."

70

SENTENCES

T
I
f

•^

X T
kakaete-imasu.

-T

A

Ano otoko-no-ko wa Ano onna-no-ko wa tsutsumi wo akago wo seotteimasu.

That boy
his

is

holding

That girl is carrying
a baby on her
back.
Note
:

a package under
arm.

Note

:

— " kakaetc-imasu "


— " seotte-imasu "

The meaning
is

means " is holding under his arm " or " in his arms."

is carrying on her back," and " akago,"

means "

"baby."

of

"akago"

" red

child."

SENTENCES

71

M"^

^

It
Alio gakusei

wa

Ano rodosha wa
nimotsu

hashitte-imasu.

wo

hakonde-i-masu.

That student
running.
Note :^-" gakusei

is

That labourer

is

carrying a load.
Note
:

— " rodosha "
"
is

means

means " student," and " hashitte-i-inasu " is
running."

" labourer," and " hakondei-tnasu,

carrying."

72

SENTENCES

Tj.

^

t
Ano
onna-no-ko

hoshi

wa Ano junsa wa junkai wo shite-i-masu. wo mitelooking
stars.

i-masu.

That

girl is

up at the
Note
:

That policeman is going his rounds.
Note
:

— " wo mite- i-masu,
is

— " junsa " means
"
is

means "

looking {or

"policeman," and "junkaj

looking up) at," and

wo

shite-i-raasu,"

"hoshi," "star."

going his rounds."

SENTENCES

73

Ir

r
/
if

-f

I

T
'^

r
ni

9

Heya no sumi
naga-isu ga
ari-masu.

Teiburu no soba ni
isu

ga ari-masu.

There
the
{or

is

sofa in

There are chairs

a)

corner

by the

table.

of the room.
Note
" Naga-isu " means " sofa," and
:



" sumi-ni," " in the corner."

" Isu " means Note " chair," " no soba ni means " by."
:



74

SENTENCES

^t
y^^

^
B
/
1/

:$
V

>

^

^
Inu-goya no naka
ni inu

ga

Futon no ue neko ga
ori-masu.

ni

ori-masu.

There

is

a dog

There

is

a cat

in the kennel.

on the cushion.
Note :— " Futon
''

Note

:

— ''Inu-goya

means " kennel."

means " cushion."

SENTENCES

75

^^^
T?
/

76

SENTENCES

Ay

M"V »J

W

I

ir
Oka no ue
jinsha ga
ni

Kago no naka ko-tori ga
ori-masu.

ni

ari-masu.

There
shrine
Note

is

a Shinto
hill.

There

is

a

little

on the
:

bird in the cage.
Note :— " Kago "
means
" cage."

— " Jinsha "
shrine,"

means " Shinto

and "oka." "hill."

SENTENCES

17

&
riaj

^%y

/ail*
-7

V



r
Michino katawara ni yubin-bako ga
ari-masu.

7
Hashi no chikaku
ni

kobanshoga
ari-masu.

There

is

a post-box
side of

by the
:

There is a policebox close by
the bridge.
Note :— " K6ban-sho "
means " police-box," and

the road.
" michi " means Note " road," " no katawara ni," " by the side of," and
'<



" no chikaku

ni,"

" close

" yObin-bako," " post-box " pillar-box." or

by " and " hashi,"
« bridge."

78

SENTENCES

<o
^.

m
f
Sutobu no maeni

>c

t
Kodomo no
sobani
inu ga ori-maru.

kodomo ga
ori-masu.

There

is

a dog

There

is

a child

beside the child.

before the stove.
Note :— " No-mae-ni" means " before " " Sutobu " is derived from English
" stove."

SENTENCES

79

r
I

IT?

/V

o

Kwabin no nakani
hana ga ari-masu.

Teiburu no ueni

kwabin ga
arimasu.

There are flowers
in the flower-vase.

There

is

flower-

vase on the table.
Note
is
:

— " kwabin "
" table."

means
''

" flowcr-vase."

" Teiburu derived from English

8o

SENTENCES

^S
}f

9

^

t
Ki no eda
ori-masu.
ni

T
'

its

karasu ga

Yane ni suzume ga ori-masu.

There

is

a crow

There are sparrows

on a branch
of the tree.
Note
:

on the roof.

— " karasu "

Note

:

—" suzume

means "crow."

means " sparrow."

SENTENCES

8l

'k.'-r

if

Onna-no-ko ga
hari-shigoto wo shite-i-masu.

Otoko-no-ko tachi

ga mari wo
nagete-i-masu.

A girl is engaged
in needlework.
" Hari-shigoto Note wo shite-i-masu "
:

Boys are playing
ball.



"

Note

: " Mari wo nagetei-masu " means " are (is)



means "

is

engaged

in

throwing a

ball."

needlework."

" Tachi " is a Suffix used in forming the plural of a personal noun or pronoun.

.82

SENTENCES

$>
i;

W*
It
"h

^^T\i

t
Ano shikwan wa gorei wo kakete
i-masu.

t
Ano
heishi

wa jii wo

ninatte-i-masu.

That

officer is

That private
his shoulder.

is

giving a

carrying a gun on
" Heishi " means " private soldier," " is carrying— on his shoulder,'' and " jo," " gun."

command.
Note .— " Shikan " means " ofBcer," and
" gorei
i-roasu.

Note

:



wo
'

IS

kakete giving a

command."

SENTENCES

83

7

r

^

>N

_,

^^

Ano

fujin

wa

ami-

84

SENTENCES

iJ4
I

X

7 if ^

h

t
Watashi no ototo

i

Watashi no ane

wa fue wo

fuite-

wa piano WO
soshite-i-masu.

i-masu.

My younger
brother
is

My elder sister is
playing on the
piano.
Note
:

playing

on a
Note
:

flute.
fuite-

— " — wo

i-masu," means " is blowing " and '< fue," " flute."

means "

—" Watakushi no my " " — wo
,

''

s6shite-i-masu," " is playiftg ". Piano ." is on."

derived from the English piano."'

SENTENCES

8S

I
y

'9

^

-.9

)
*rs

>--

^I
»
t?

Boku no ane wa
Shinrui no uchi e yuki-mashita.

Boku no haha wa kaimono ni
yuki-mashita.

My elder sister has
gone to a
Note
:

relatives.

My mother has gone shopping.
Note
" Kaimono ni " means " to make a
:

— " Yukimashita
" has gone,"
relative's."



means

" shinrui no uchi e "

" to a

purchase {or shopping) " " yuki-mashita," " has gone."

Note : Japanese has but one tense for the. English Present Perfect and Past, so that " has {or have) gone and " went " take the same form.



86

SENTENCES

M
7^
m/
-^
+

.a?

9

A

^ ^

»

V
Boku no
ototo

wa

Boku no imoto wa
yubinkyoku e
yuki-mashita.

asobi ni yuki-

mashita.

My younger
brother has gone
for play.
Note :— " Asobi
ni

My younger

sister

has gone to the
post-office.

"

Note

means " for play "; " to play."

" Yubinkyoku " means " post-office."
:



SENTENCES

87

\i

^

t
t
t
ft

-^

\i

I
1t
ani

Boku no

wa

Boku no

chichi

wa

gakko e
yuki-mashita.

yakusho e
yuki-mashita.

My elder brother
has gone to school.
Note
:

My father has gone
to his office.
Note
'

— " Gakko c "
:

:

— " Yakusho e "
by a

means " to school."

Note

—" Boku

no

''

is

of the
is

means " to his office." same meaning as
generally used

" Watakushi no."

The former

young man

or a student.

88

SENTENCES

SENTENCES

89

^}^
H^

Hibachi no nakani sumibi ga
ari-masu.

Heya no mannaka
ni hibachi ga ari masu.

There are burning
charcoals in the brazier.
Note
" No naka ni " means " in, " sumi-bi," " burning charcoal."
: :

There

in the

a brazier middle of the room.
is
"



Note :— " Hibachi
" heya," " room."

means " brazier," " mannaka ni," " in the middle," and

Literal interpretation " Suini " means charcoal,"

and " hi "

" bi ") {fir signifies " fire."

go

SENTENCES

A*
:^2
*

1^X7^

^^
'^

^

^t e.
%

^.^
L

I

Nihon no ichiban hajime no Tenno Jinmu-Tenno to moshimasu.

wo

The first Emperor of Japan is the Emperor of Jimmu.
Note
first
:

called

— " Jimmu "
" you

is

the posthumous
this

name

of the

Emperor who founded

Empire ; " Jimmu " means

" as mighty as a god " and " moshi-masu " means, " they
call "; "

we

call ";

call ";

"

is called."

SENTENCES

gi

3^^

H=

y

^

It f V
This

^

r

Kono tenno ga Nihon-koku wo
kensetsu-nasaremashita.

Emperor founded the country
of Japan.

Note :— "
meaning as "

Kensetsu-nasaremashita "

is

of the same
is

kensetsu-shita," but the
latter.

former

a politer

expression than the

92

SENTENCES

n.

*-

%i
Jc

t

II

«

Nihon wa shima-guni de atte, shiho wa umi ni torimakarete i-masu.
Japan
is

an island-country, and
all sides

is

surrounded on
Note
every "
:

by the

seas.

— " Shitna--gunl "
"
is

means

" island-country," " shih5 waj" " on

" niakarete-i-masu,"

surrounded,"
all sides ").

tori-side " (or

" on

SENTENCES

93

y
•XT

.A

>\

>\

Sono shufu
jinko

wa Tokyo to

moshimashite,
ijo

wa gohyakuman

arimasu.
its

Its capital is called

Tokyo, and

population exceeds five millions.
Note:

—"Shufu"
ijo

means
is

"capital,"

"jinko,"

" population," "

desu," "

more than " or " exceeds,''

and "gohyaku-man ", "five
" Sono
" has

millions."
;

two meanings

one

is

of the same sense

as "its," and the other, "that."

94

SENTENCES

9

yui Stl ^'^

t
Nihon

wa itaru-tokoro

ni takai

yama

ga takusan arimasu.
There are a great

many

high mountains

in every part of Japan.
Note
" takai

:

— " Itaru

tokoro ni " means " in every part,"

yama ga

takusan," " a great

many high mountains."

SENTENCES

95

96

SENTENCES

K

t

f
Nihon

wa

matsu-no-ki no kuni to

iwarete orimasu.

Japan
Note
masu), "
:

is called

the land of pine-trees.
no kuni " means " the land of

— " Matsu-no-ki
called."

pine-trees,"
is

"iwarete orimasu" {or iware-masu; yobare-

SENTENCES

g'j,

^*

^^"'

^*

Desu kara kaigan

wa

taigai

matsu no

taiboku ga haete-i-masu.

And

so

most of the sea-shores are grown
over with large pine-trees.

Note:
"Jcat-gan,"

— "Desu
*'

kara" means

" and

,

so

'';

so that,

sea-shore "; " taigai," " most of ";,?' generally";

"taiboku," "big tree"; "haete-i-masu," "grow (grows)!';

"

matsu-iao-ki

ga haetc

iru ";

" pine-trees grow

";

" kaigan
is

wa

matsu-no-ki ga haete-i-masu," " the sea-shore

grown

over with pine-trees."

98

SENTENCES

2^1 3

I
'^

r
f
The
butterfly
(it is)

Cho wa utsukushii ga gaichu desUi
is

a beautiful

(insect),

but

a noxious
means

insect.
" utsukushi-i,"

Note:— "Ch5
" Ga
tion

"butterfly,"

" beautiful," " gaichu," " noxious insect."
" after a predicate verb or adjective, is

a conjunc-

which means " but."

SENTENCES

59:

0fn

W^
^^z ^•^
MT

r
Cho
ni

wa futatsu no

tsubasa to roppon

no ashi ga ari-masu.
The butterfly has two wings and six
Note
\5ing
(£>/•
:

legs.

— " Futatsu —"
ni

no "

means
").

wings),." roppon

no"

" two " " tsubasa," " (o^ muttsu no"), "six,"

acd " ashi," " leg " (or " legs

Note

:

wa

ga ari-masu " means " has

," The noun which comes before " ni {^ " have ") wa " is the subject of the verb " has " and the noun which Some sentences in this follows " ni wa " is its object. coBstruction may be translated literally. For instance, ''Niwa {ni wa) like £-a ari masu" means "There is

{ffrimasti)

a pond {ike go) in the garden {niiva nizva)."

ICO

SENTENCES

*
I

5i

n^

O
no ha kara

^
Cha wa
cha^no-ki
seishi-masu.

Tea made of the leaves of the
tea plant.
Note
plant,"
:

— " Cha "

means "
leaf,''

tea,"

" cha-no-ki,"

" tea-

" ha/' means "
is

or " leaves," and " kara seishi
from.''

masu, "

made

of," of " is
is

made

" Scisuru "

used

in

the sense of " to prepare."

c

I02

SENTENCES

Ao-zora ni gan no tonde-oru no
go-ran-nasai.

wo

See the wild-geese
,.

fly in

Note:
.

— "Gan
.

no tondcoru no

the blue sky. wo" "the flight

of

wfld-gefese."

When stress is laid upon the doing, we say " gan no tonde iruno wo go-ran nasal," but when it. is laid upon the doer, we say " tonde iru gan wo goran nasai." From a grammatical point of view, the particle "no" between a noun and a verb denotes that the noun is in the same relation to the verb as a noun in the possesive case in English is to a gerund coming after it ; as " Kodomo no rialoi ico ga kikoeru (I hear a child's crying) ; that is, " I hear a child cry."

SENTENCES

^03

Gan wa

aki ni kite haru ni

nam to

kaette-yukimasu
Wild-geese comes here in the autumn,

and go away when
Note
:

it is

spring.

" the autumn," " ni naru means " to pass to a certain state or condition from a previous one." The English equivalent of it being " grow " or " beni

— " Aki

" means "

in

come,"

soldiers,"

"heishi ni naru" may be translated "beconie and the literal translation of " haru ni naru " is " become spring-time," that is, " it will be spring-time." " Haru ni naru to " means " when it becomes spring.** " Kite i^f)" and " kaette i^f ';> 7- ) " are the cod" iunctive forms of " kuru (come) " and " kaeru (return)
" Kaeru " means " return "; " \z.tXX.eyuM-masu" means go back," and " kaette ki-masu," " come back."

rc-rpcctively.

i'

104

SENTENCES

t
Kome wa
Rice

Nippon-jin no shiiyo-naru

shoku-ry5-hin desu.
is

the principal food of the Japanese.
"princi-

Note: — "Shuyonaru shokuryo-hin " means
pal food."

"Shoku
(pp)»" 3"

(:^)-r>'o
;

(ifSj-)"

means "eatable," and "hin

article

" shokury5-hin " may be translated " an

article {or articles) of food."

SENTENCES

105

^t

io6

SENTENCES

Nara no daibutsu wa Ninon de ichiban
okii

butsuzo desu.

The Daibutsu at Nara is the biggest image of Buddha in Japan.
Note
(big,
:

— " Daibutsu "

is

a compound

wood

of " dai

"

large\ and " butsu " (Buddha) " Butsuzo " means " the

image of Buddha."
situated near Kyoto.

"Nara"

is

a famous place which Is

ro8

SENTENCES

t 5^
I
'-t

.h

ir
Watakushi

wa

kinjitsu chichi to

kisha-ryoko
I

wo

shimasu.

am going to make a railway-travelling with my father shortly.

Note :^" Kisha-ryoko " means " railway-travelling," " kinjitsu {or chikajika ni)," "shortly," " to," " with," ' Watakushi wa wo shimasu " means " I am ." going to make " Kinjitsu " means " near day." " Watakushi wa wo shimasu " may mean :
(1) I will or (I shall)

do
.

(or

make)

.

{Ftiture).

(2) I

do

or

make

[Fresmt)

SENTENCES

toy

Nihon de ichiban

okii teishaba

wa

Tokyo-eki desu.

The

largest railway-station in Japan
is

Tokyo-Station.

'

Note : " Ichiban 6ki-i " means " largest," " teishaba," railway-station." " eki " • stage."
COMPABISOX OF ADJECTTVKS
Okii (large)
:



{Positive degree).
:

Motto

The

(Conparative). adverb, tnatto (more) is often understood. Ichi-ban (number one) okii (largest) : {^Superlative).
okii (larger)

I

ro

SENTENCES

a
t
I'

-7

It
Watashi-tachi

wa sakujitsu ensoku ni dekake mashita. Yesterday we went on an excursion (or a trip).
:

" Sakujitsu " means " yesterday," " ensoku ni Note dekakeru," " to go on an excursion," and " ensoku ni dekake " -tachi " is a plural mashita," " went on an excursion." teniiinatioii of pjersonal nouns, and pronouns. " En-soku " is composed of two words signifying " far " " and foot;" " mashita " or " ta," which is a familiarism,
is



an auxiliary forming the past tense.

PRESENT
dekake masu dekake rit

PAST
dekake mashita dekake ta

SENTENCES

lii

^
f

f

".

Watashi-tachi wa asa hayaku dekakemashite, yoru osoku kaeri-mashita.

Early
out),

in the morning-,

we went out

and came home
:

(or set late irithe liight.

Note
ing,"

" Asa hayaku " means " early in the morn" dekake-mashita Cor dekaketa)," went out "kaeri-



mashita"

mashiDekake-jz/asu," mashita" and " te" -masn forms the present and the future, -niashita, the past, and -mashite, a 'connecting particle, preceding to the succeeding clause.

..or kilaku-shi-mashita), osoku,'' " late in the night." " '*

"came home," "yoru

112

SENTENCES

^
-r
Kinzoku no uchi de

^i

wa tetsu ga ichiban

yaku
Iron
is

ni tachi-masu.

the most useful (metal) of
all

metals.

means "iron," "ichiban yaku ni tachi-masu," " is the most useful," " kinzoku no uchi de," " of all metals."

Note:

—"Tctsu"

Note:— When "of" comes
superlative degree,
it is

after the adjective of the

always translated " no uchidc " or

" no uchidewa."

SENTENCES

l»3

m

1X4

SENTENCES

Tetsu

wa buki ya hamono wo tsukuru
ni tsukaware-masu.
is

Iron
Note
The
:

used in making weapons

and edged-tools.

— " Buki " means " weapon," " ha-mono " means
"
is

" edged tool " " tsukaware-masu " " tsukuru ni," " in making."
ly
in

(or

are)

used,"

particles ya and to are conjunctives differing slightmeaning and use. " Ya " is generally used in the sense of " by way of example," while " to " is used in a

The particle " ni " after a rather exclusive proposition. verb denotes intention or purpose, " tsukaware-masu " is the passive form of " tsukai masu."

SENTENCES

11$

y


>^ ^^

9V%

t
^^

7s
Sono-hoka
ni tetsu

wa gunkan ya

ki-

kwansha wo
Besides, iron

tsukuru-ni tsukaware-masu.

is

used in making warships

and locomotives.
Note
:

—" Sono-hoka ni" means " besides," " gunkan,"
" Sono hoka

" warship," and " kikwansha," " locomotive."
(outside) ni " literally

means

"

on outside of

it."

Ii6

SENTENCES

a^
^^'*

^F^"

Nihon de ichiban-tsuyoi kemono
:

wa

kuma

desu.

The strongest beast
Note:

in

Japan

is

the bear.

—"Ichiban

tsuyoi" means "strongest," "ke-

mono," " beast," " kuma," " bear."

SENTENCES.

117;

::^|

Ii8

SENTENCES

>N

m
X
r
>v
Nihon de wa kuma no sanchi Hokkaido desu.

wa

The place of the production of bears
in

Japan
is

is

Hokkaido.
compound word
of Chinese
(place),"

Note :
origin,

—" Sanchi "

a

composed of " san (production)" and " chi

SENTENCES

119

Ml
Sit
J:.'

^

t
Kuma wa

hind-legs."

^>-

ato-ashi de tachi-agaru koto

ga deki-masu.
The bear can stand up on
his hind-legs.

Note : " Tachi-agarukoto ga deki-masu " (or " ga dekiru ") "can stand up," and "ato-ashi de," "on

his

When
do
it."

" can do ";

" dekiru " " is used as a predicate verb, " watakushi wa sore ga deHmasu " As an auxiliary, it means " can."
as,

—"means can
it
I
;

with " koto " after it is a verbal noun ; " kodomo wa asobu ^t?io ga suki " mssns " boys like playing " " tachi-agaru ^oia ga dekiru " means literally " can do standing lip "

A verb

tao

SENTENCES

J:

«

J.
Sono kawa

^
wa
yoi shiki-mono ni

nari-masu.
Its skin
"
I

(fiir)

makes a good
'i

seat.
ni nari-masu,"

Note
'"

:

— " Kawa," means " skin," "
wa

make "
"
."

(or " inakes)."

——
:

nl narimasu "

means "

makes

" Yoi kodomo

wa

yoi hito «/

narimasu" means

''*

A good boy

makes a good man."
sit

" Shikiniono " means

" a thing spread to

or squat upon/' or " seat."

122

SENTENCES

t
Nihon ni wa yoi zaimoku ga takusan ari-masu.

Japan has a great deal of good timber.
Note:
are
(is)

— " Nihon nl

wa

ari-masu" means "there

in Japan," " takusan " means "

many

(or
."

much)

,"

" a great deal of

" or

" plenty of

" Yoi zaimoku," means " good timber."

SENTENCES

124

SENTENCES

y
^

if
Sono uchide sugi ga ichiban hiroku
mochii-rare-masu.

Among them

cryptomeria

is

used

most widely.
Note: — "Sono uchide" means "among them," and
"ichiban hiroku
mochii-rareru," "
mochii-rare-masij "
is

or

"ichiban hiroku

(are) used

most widely."

SENTENCES

125

f
Kore-ra no zaimoku

\i
wa

ita

ya hashira

ni tsukurare-masu.

These timbers are made into planks
(or

boards) and pillars.
means " plank," and " hashira " means

NocE
'

:

—"

Ita "

pillar.",

126

SENTENCES

^?
^tl i^T

7

Mokuzo-kaoku

wa kore-ra no

zairyo

no

dore-ka de tsukuru-no-desu.

Wooden houses

are built of one or

another of these materials.
Note;

—"Mokuzo-kaoku"

means "wooden house,"
no dore ka
de,''

" zairyo," " materials," and "
another of

" one or

——."

SENTENCES

127"

t

1^1

X
<o

r
Nihon de ichiban no ehushin wa Kusunoki Masashige desu.

The most
'

loyal subject in

Japan

is

Masashige Kusunoki.
subject."

Note :-^" Chushin " means " loyal
" Miasashtge "
is is
.

" the personal name, and " Kusunoki

the family name.

128-

SENTENCES

Masashige

wa toki no Tenno no tanie-ni nankwai-mo senso wo shimashita.
many a
battle for the

Masashige fought

sake of the then Emperor.
" Nankwai mo senso wo shimashita '' means Note " fought many a battle," " no tame ni," " fo rthc sake of," " toki no Tenno," " then the Emperor." " Nan kwai," is an interrogative phrase used in the But when it is followed by sen.se of " how many times." the particle, mo, it means " many times," " time after time " or " repeatedly." " nan-nin " means " how many persons," and " nan-nin mo," " many a person."
:



SENTENCES

129,

Shikashi tsui-ni kare

wa

teki no tame-ni

uchi-yaburare-te senshi-shimashita.

But at last, he was defeated by enemy, and fell in battle.
Note
" by
his
:

his

— " Tsui ni " means " at last," " teki no tame ni,"
"
for the sake of (2)

no tame ni " is used in various by (through the agency of). "Uchiyaburu" in the active voice, and "uchiyaburareru " in the passive. " Uchiyaburarete " is in the conjunctive form, serving to join one clause to another. " Senshi-shimashita " means " fell in battle."
enemy."
senses

:— (i)

,

I30

SENTENCES

T
Masashige no shinda toki ni rnusuko no

Masatsura

wa juichisai deshita.
when

Masatsura, the son of Masashige, was
eleven years old
:

he died.

Note — " Masashige no (or ga) shinda toki ni " means when be (Masashige) died." The particles no and ga are of the same sense when they " No " in such a case as " Musuko are used before a verb.
"

no Masatsura " does not denote possession while the same " Masatsura no musuko (the son of Masatsura), does. The past position in the former instance is equivalent to the English preposition, of, in " the city of London."
particle in

SENTENCES

131

^''

^"

7ft^*

Kare mo mata

chichi to onajiku

chiishin deshita.

He was a
Note :
ku " " as

loyal subject as his father was.
means "
also,"

—" Mo mata "
is

"

to onaji-

(another)

or was."

132

SENTENCES

^^ ^?

?5f*
W^^f.

y'

Niju-san-sai no toki ni

Masatsura

wa

Kawachi no Shijonawate de
senshi-shimashita.

When
fell

he was twenty-three years
of Kawachi.

old,

he

at Shijonawate in the province

Shijonawate " is a famous place which is near the city Osaka. situated " Niju-san no toki ni " means " at the time (i.e. age) of 23 years ^sai)."

Note:— "

'

134

SENTENCES

\

r

H^
/^^T7
'T7

^
7>

Ima wa Tokyo

ni

tsugu daitokwai

de ari-masu.

At

present this

is

a large town ranking

next to Tokyo.
Note
" next to
:

— " Itna wa " means " at present,'' " daitokwai,"
"
ni tsugu,"
."

" a large [or great( town " {or " city)."

SENTENCES

I3S

/
Nintoku-Tenno

^

mo kono-chi wo

shufu to

nasare-mashita.

The Emperor Nintoku made

this place

the capital of the country.
Note :—" Nintoku
Emperor. "
"
is

the posthumous

name

of

tlic

to nasare-mashita,"
capital."

" made," " kono chi,"

" this place," " shufu," "

" Nintoku

"

means " benevolence."

136

SENTENCES

^
V^*

f

^l

;^
^

*^

Sono nochi Toyotomi Hideyoshi ga
kono-chi ni shiro

wo

kizuki-mashita.

Afterwards Hideyoshi Toyotomi had
a castle built here.
Note
:

"

castle."

— " Sono-nochi " means " afterwards," " shiro," " Kizuki-mashita" has two meanings — " had a
(He himself did not
" Kono-chi ni "

thing built" and " built a thing."
build a castle, as he

was not a carpenter).
and " sono

means "

in this

place,"

nochi,''

" after that."

SENTENCES

137

4
fc

v"

^

9
Kono
shiro

wo

Osaka-jo to ii-mashita.

This castle
Note

was

called

" Osaka-jo."

:

— " Osaka-Jo " means " the castle of Osaka."

1.^8

SENTENCES

l^

^
t
Shichu

i
v70

^

wo

nagareru kawa wo Yodo-gawa
to ii-masu.

The

river which runs through the city is called the " Yodo River."

Note: "Shichu vvo" means "through the city," "nagareru," " run." There is no Japanese word which corresponds to the Relative Pronoun " which" so that when we translate " the river which runs " into Japanese, we say •' nagareru kawa." Japanese has no relative pronouns. When a verb takes a noun after it, the noun does not make its object as in English, but is modified by the preceding verb, which is said to be in the conjunctive mode, so that English relatives, who, which, and so on have no equivalents in Japanese. Kawa ga shichii wo nagareru. (A river runs through the city). Shichu wo itagareru kawa. (A river which runs through the city).



SENTENCES

139

V

Kono-kawa igwai

ni hori-wari

ga

takusan ari-masu.

Besides this river, there are a great

many
Note:— "

canals in the city.
"no hoka-ni" means

Igwal-ni"

or

" besides," " hbriwari ga takusan," " a great many canals."

I40

SENTENCES

Kono chi wa Nihon de no

saidai-kogyo-chi

de ari-masu.
This place
is

the largest manufacturing

district in
Note:

Japan.

— " Kogyo-chi " means " manufacturing district"

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JS



a: 3¥ »±

EP

89



HoNA/ to Speak

JAPANESE
Correctly
{Seisohu Nihon-go gaku)

By
K.

AKADA &

J.

SATO/AI
Price

REVISED BY

¥

2.50
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WYCKOFF

MAKUZEN & CO.,

TOKYO, OSAKA, YOKOHAMA

LTD.

TAKAMASHI SHOTEN TOKYO
Siba

KYOBUNKAN
Ginza

TOKYO

KAWASEStiOTEN
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A HAND-BOOK FOR

COLLOQUIAL JAPANESE
TREATED IN PARALLEL WITH ENGLISH GRAMMAR. BY

W.
THIS

SAITO, M. A.

Price

¥2.80

treated in such a way as to give the fundamental knowledge of the Japanese language to those who are
is

BOOK

acqujinted with the English speech and grammar, through the medium of which they may be able to speak and write Japanese
correctly.

The outstanding features of U) The Roman Alphabet as

this

book are:

— — the

well as the Japanese letters

combination of the Chinese words {Kanji) and the original Japanese syllables [Hira-gand^ axe used: In Japanese, there are many words of the same pronunciation or sounds, but of quite different meanings. To distinguish such differences in meaning, it is necessary to use the original Japanese characters in conjunction with the Roman letters.



(II)

Very convenient for the basic study

of

Japanese:—

study Japanese fundamentally, it is necessary for the students to be acquainted with the Kanji (Chinese words) and the Hiragana (Japanese syllables), and this book is intended to meet
this

To

requirement

'

'

(III) Easy to study: This book makes it quite easy for the biginners to study Japanese through the medium of English grammar.



(IV)

Abundant

in examples:



Giving ample model sentences and examples, this book

facili-

tates the free application of difficult expressions in Japanese.

(V) Comprehensive English- Japanese vocabulary (of 250 pages) comprised of more than 5000 words of every day use.
(VI)

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Very handy to carry with: book is 4 inches in width,



4.5 inches in length,

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POENTJA BAHASA DJEPANG
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Djepang dan

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COMO SE HABLA EL JAPONES
Por

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El Japon^s en Espanol mfitodo sencillo y Facil para

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