What are human rights? y µHuman rights¶ are rights held simply because one is a human being y Human rights describe a life in human dignity framed in a language of rights y Rights are ³trumps´, superseding other considerations (utility interests, political concerns, etc.) Universal, Inalienable, Indivisible y Inalienable,/ incontrovertible o Rights can not be forfeit, suspended, or given up y Indivisible o All rights are equal and depend upon each other y Universal o Every human being enjoys the same rights y Rights create duties and obligations for others o Human rights create obligations and go beyond the moral claim of something being right; they create entitlement (having a right) Common Myths about Human Rights y Human rights = civil rights y Human rights violations occur only in poor, foreign countries o Human rights are only concerned with violations Universal Declaration of Human Rights y Everyone has a right to the standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age, or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control y Problems with this statement o Standard of living can be argued o Who is going to enforce this ? UN does not have the policing or reinforcement of that If Bush was conflicted, there would not be anyone to actually take him in. Human Rights Convention y Selected human rights conventions
y y y y y y y Root of y
Convention on the Prevention and punishment of the Crime of Genocide Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees International convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Convention on the Rights of the Child Convention on the Rights of Migrant Workers and the Members of their Families The ones that are bolded are the ones that have NOT been signed the conflict Western Sudan o Began in February 2003 o Arabs (have power) vs African Conflict o Who is irresponsible ? Janjaweed Complicity of Sudanese government o China is backing them up because they get oil from it o Men and boys are killed en masse o Women and girls raped or abducted o All means of agricultural production destroyed o Burnt villages Water poisoned Irrigation systems torn up Food and environment destroyed Cattle have been looted on a massive scale SO, you have NOTHING and leaves them dependant on the government The government is forcing them to do this. The government is forcing them to conform What is happening? Refugees y 2million y 200,000 in Chad
450,000 + (?) dead- This is not accurate because we cannot get in there Starvation y Over 2,000,000 dependent on food aid The red cross wants to help but it cannot get permission from the government. How do you know if they will really get the resources for the people? y
Genocide? y Declaration triggers intervention? o Varying Definitions 1948 Geneva Convention Lay and Customary international usage o Political will (e.g. 1/06 US house defunding AU mission) Current Interventions of Darfur y Humanitarian Aid y Dependence on aid y Difficult to deliver humanitarian assistance to Darfur o Banditry o NIF o Drought o One of the most remote places in Africa Diplomatic and Economic y Diplmatic o Peace Agreements No accountability, no implementation o International Pressure Proven futile No ultimatums o Economic Chinese Influence to maintain status quo Sanctions Could pressure Khartoum to accept other options y Iraq precedent o How do we expect others to follow if we do not decide to follow ?
o Can the United States send a ultimatum to the China Government? NOOOOOOO o We need to set an example as a nation for other nations. If we abide documents that the UN comes up with, we will be setting an example to follow