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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I Akshay Barnwal of class 12 S4 am extremely happy to present this project. It has been a fruitful & great learning experience for me to work on this project. I feel great to thank my subject cum class teacher Mrs. Neelam Singh from the bottom of my heart for her kind guidance & judgment. I would also like to thank the lab assistant Mr.Samarjeet for his kind support in handling the lab processes. At last but not the least I would like to thank my friends, my brother, my sister & my parents for the physical & financial support which they had provided me time to time.

Akshay Barnwal 12 S4

SPECIAL THANKS I would like to thank my extremely kind & helpful chemistry teacher Mrs. Neelam Singh who had been supported us in completing this project from time to time whenever the need be. I would also like to thank my parents for their financial & kind support.

BIBLIOGRAPHY I had completed this project with the help of following sources: I. Laboratory manual chemistry<APC> II. Lab Manual chemistry<Comprehensive> III.

www.whymilk.com

IV.

www.milkmagic.com

V.

www.indianmilkproducts.com

STRUCTURE OF CASEIN MICELLE

AIM: TO Study the quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.

REQUIREMENT (A) Apparatus 250ml beakers Funnel, glass rod Porcelain dish Chemical balances Test tubes Filtration flask burner (B) Chemicals Different samples of milk 1% of acetic acid solution Saturated ammonium sulphate solution

IDENTIFICATION Name:

AKSHAY BARNWAL

Class:

12 S4

School: ST.ATULANAND CONVENT SCHOOL Session: 2010-11 Project: “Quantity of Casein in Different Sample of Milk”. Submitted To: Mrs. NEELAM SINGH Date of Submission:

CERTIFICATION This is to certify that Akshay Barnwal of class 12 S4 has completed his chemistry project on “Quantity of Casein in different samples of milk,” successfully under the supervision & guidance of deliberate & kind chemistry teacher Mrs. Neelam Singh & her lab assistant Mr. Samarjeet. Signature

(Mrs. Neelam Singh) P.G.T Chemistry St. Atulanand Convent School

BENEFITS OF OPTIMUM CASEIN PROTEIN At present time females are more conscious of their figure. They go to gyms and take exercises and weight trainings there. These are not the only way outs to achieve success. They are not serious about taking diets. They should eat food at proper time. It helps to build their muscles and remain healthy. It is seen that women eat much of carbohydrates. They should take foods having high protein. They have to avoid eating much of red meat. Athletics require high protein

intake to compensate the loss of energy after high strained work outs. Protein acts as supplements to their body building programs. Optimum casein protein is very useful for growth of muscles. Female should eat plenty of vegetables which meet the requirement of animal proteins. These animal proteins provide sufficient quantity of amino acids. Now women eat less fat to avoid becoming fat. They should not take saturated fats like junk foods and heavy oil. It is not harmful if they take moderate amount of healthy fat. Women go for low calorie intake for fear of gaining fats.

PROCEDURE 1) 200ml of milk sample was measured with help of measuring cylinder & it was transferred to clean 500ml beaker. 2)The volume of milk made to about 300ml water & mixture was heated to about 313K. 3)10% acetic acid is added to warm the mixture with constant stirring until the precipitation is completed. 4)The mixture was heated to another 2mins. Till precipitated casein for a large amorphous mass. 5)The casein was filtered under section in Buchner funnel. 6)It was washed thoroughly with water. 7) It was dried first between fold of filter paper &then in air for 1-2 days. 8)Similarly, the amount of casein was determined for other samples of milk. 9)Record the observation.

PRECAUTIONS  Press the casein with spatula during filtration.  Do not add excess of acid i.e. add such amount of acid only required to do complete precipitation. ➢Milk should not be allowed to stand too long before using experiment. ➢ Use same volume of every sample for experiment.

OBSERVATION TABLE SAMPLE NO. Wt. of casein Percentage of obtained in casein gms. 1. 2. 3.

RESULT: Different samples of milk contain different percent of casein by mass. .

INTRODUCTION This Project includes experiments done for detection of presence of casein in different sample of milk of cow, buffalo & goat. It also accounts the chemical reaction taking place in between the protein & acid as to detect the presence of casein. The protein casein exists in milk as the calcium salts, calcium casseinate. This has a complex structure & form micelles. These micelles have a negative charge on the outer surface. Therefore if an acid is added to milk, all negative charge gets neutralized & the precipitate comes out. Ca (casinate) + 2CH3COOH(aq) →Casein + (CH3COO2) Ca (aq) Casein is not coagulated by heart. It is precipitated by acids & by rennet enzymes, a proteolytic enzyme =2

typically obtained from the stomach of calves.

CASEIN Casein (from Latin caseus, "cheese") is the predominant phosphoprotein (αS1, αS2, β, κ) that accounts for nearly 80 percent of proteins in cow milk and cheese. Milk-clotting proteases act on the soluble portion of the caseins, KCasein, thus originating an unstable micellar state that results in clot formation. When coagulated with chymosin, casein is sometimes called paracasein. Chymosin (EC 3.4.23.4) is an aspartic protease that specifically hydrolyzes the peptide bond in Phe105-Met106 of κ-casein and is considered to be the most efficient protease for the cheese-making industry (Rao et al., 1998). British terminology, on the other hand, uses the term caseinogens for the uncoagulated protein and casein for the coagulated protein. As it exists in milk, it is a salt of calcium. Casein is not coagulated by heat. It is precipitated by acids and by rennet enzymes, a proteolytic enzyme typically obtained from the stomachs of calves. The enzyme trypsin can hydrolyze off a

phosphate-containing peptone. It is used to form a type of organic adhesive.[1]

CASEIN FREE DIET Casein has a molecular structure that is quite similar to that of gluten. Thus, some glutenfree diets are combined with casein-free diets and referred to as a gluten-free, casein-free diet. Casein is often listed as sodium caseinate, calcium caseinate or milk protein. These are often found in energy bars, drinks, and packaged goods. A small fraction of the population is allergic to casein.

How you should use Casein protein. As previously mentioned, micellar casein is best used in conjunction with whey. Because casein is slow digesting, it’s not suitable for post workout. For post workout shakes, stick to whey. The best time to use casein protein is before bed and during the day. Casein is known as “night time” protein, as many strength athletes and bodybuilders use it before bed. Casein is also great for meal replacements,

where it can be mixed with complex carbs and essential oils for a nutritious shake Importance of slow release protein at night. Bodybuilders know the importance of nutrition frequency, and they also know that the majority of muscle repairing and rebuilding takes place during sleep. For optimal muscle recovery, the body needs a constant supply of nutrients, and most importantly, protein. When taken before bed, whey protein will be absorbed within about 45

HEALTH ISSUES Possible Cancer Link Casein has been implicated very strongly as a carcinogenic compound according to The China Study by T.Colin Campbell. Also mentioned is the incidence of higher cancer rates in countries that consume more dairy products, specifically cheese, which has more than 10 times the casein density of milk. The book overviews many previous studies of the effects of animal fats,& builds a strong case for the possibility of a correlation between a diet containing excess amounts of fat & the development of cancer. The authors admit freely that the book is controversial, but maintain that they are only presenting the conclusions of the studies. Others have noted that the studies discussed in the China Study do not conclude what Campbell claims &

caution, Campbell consistently presents only half the storyat-best through the duration of the book.

INDEX           

INTRODUCTION OBJECT APPARATUS REQUIRED CHEMICALS REQUIRED THEORY PROCEDURE OBSERVATION PRECAUTION CONCLUSION SPECIAL THANKS BIBLIOGRAPHY

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