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Identification

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IDENTIFICATION OF THE LIVING AND DEAD

Prof. Dr Slobodan Savić

 IDENTIFICATION

- determination of identity of an unknown person important part of the common work of forensic pathologists

 UNIDENTIFIED PERSON - N.N. - the

Latin term "Nomen Nescium" (unknown name)

ID of the living persons

ID of the dead persons

ID of the parts of the body and human remains

IDENTIFICATION OF THE LIVING PERSONS treating physicians forensic pathologists  if it is not possible to obtain reliable

information about identity from the treated person (coma, amnesia, mental defect, infancy, language barriers)

IDENTIFICATION OF THE LIVING PERSONS  check the identity before each medical

examination  especially carefully if it is intended for

medicolegal purposes – medical certificate about body injuries (clinical medicolegal examination)

clinical medicolegal examination for expertise he survived a stab wound to the neck

IDENTIFICATION OF THE LIVING PERSONS  willful concealment or imitation of identity

EXAMPLE – The perpetrator of Arkan’s homicide escaped from the place of assassination, but he was wounded and admitted to hospital in Sabac giving false information about his identity – finally the physician was one of the accused in the court procedure with explanation that he was intentionally involved in hiding the murderer.

statements obtained from relatives can be false S-898/03 A 59-year-old woman was admitted to hospital her husband gave information about her name, but without personal documents

on discharge it was shown that her husband gave false

information – in fact, she was a Polish citizen without Serbian citizenship

IDENTIFICATION OF THE LIVING PERSONS

 in

the medical records the method of identification must be registered

- personal statement - relatives

- documents

IDENTIFICATION OF THE DEAD PERSONS  forensic pathologist in cooperation with

other specialists and experts (any doctor may be called upon to assist in ID)  humanitarian  legal  administrative reasons  ONE INDIVIDUAL

- un-witnessed death - found without personal documents

unidentified exhumed body cca 2 years after burial

a dead infant found in a container

MORE INDIVIDUALS - mass disasters (air crush, earthquake, fire, terroristic attack in New York, Cunami) - wars (former Yugoslavia)

This photo was found in one digital camera a month after Cunami on the island Sumatra. The wave was 32 m high. It was probably the last photo of the author who died a few seconds after taking this picture.

PROCEDURES  external examination

 medicolegal autopsy  other procedures

FACTORS THAT DETERMINE RESULTS OF ID:  ID of the whole body or only the parts of the

body  supposed identity (expected victims) - air

crush (list of the passengers, bombing of RTS building)  the extent of alteration of the body - post-

mortem changes or injuries (putrefaction, carbonization, traumatic destruction)

advanced putrefaction

an unidentified putrefied body found in the river

post-mortem injuries – inflicted by a dog

post-mortem injuries

decapitation - running over by a train

destruction of the body- running over by a train

destruction of the head – firearm injuries

S-523/03 & 524/03 combined homicide and suicide by means of an explosive device – destruction of the bodies

fire a carbonized (charred) body

fire a carbonized (charred) body

fire a carbonized (charred) body

exhumed body – cca 2 years after burial with effects of the flame

BASIC ELEMENTS OF ID 1. determination of sex 2. estimation of age 3. determination of personal identity

METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION 1. ID by means of personal documents

2. description 3. showing (recognizing) 4. photographs

5. X-ray 6. dactiloscopy (fingerprints) 7. biological methods (blood groups, DNA profiling)

METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION  the methods of identification of the living and

dead are mostly the same - use of medicolegal autopsy for deceased  identification

by

means

of

personal

documents  document

with an individual photograph (identity card, passport) - the face must be preserved so that comparison with photograph is possible

document with an individual photograph passport - identity card - driving license -

 for medicolegal purposes – type of

document and its number should be recorded  serious mistakes are possible by using

documents without photographs EXAMPLE The body of a dead male was found lying in the street, and transported to the Institute of Forensic Medicine as identified - the name and the age were registered on the order of the investigating judge (Hanic Bajazit, 42 years old). The autopsy was performed, it was the natural death due to myocardial infarction.

After the autopsy had been finished, one man came to the institute in order to give the information about his deceased brother, and he said that his own name was Hanic Bajazit. It was surprising for us, because it may happen that father and son have the same name, but for the brothers it is quite unusual. When we checked up the method of identification, the whole situation was cleared up. Hanic Bajazit was really alive, though his two years younger brother Emir died.

The explanation for confusion was that only Bajazit had social and healthy insurance, so that both brothers used it on the basis of one medical-care booklet named on Hanic Bajazit. As it is document without photograph, the same document may be used by more than one person.

In the moment of dying, Hanic Emir had this medical-care booklet of his brother Bajazit in his pocket, and when the police found this document, they wrongly determined the identity by means of it. Therefore the complete proper procedure of identification was performed from the beginning in our institute.

DETERMINATION OF SEX 

primary and secondary sexual characteristics (eventual problem of hermaphroditism)



possible even in advanced putrefaction (uterus and prostate highly resistant to decomposition)

exhumed body – cca 2 years after burial male external genitals were recognizable

DETERMINATION OF AGE THE ASSESSMENT OF AGE IS ALWAYS APPROXIMATE  EXTERNAL SIGNS - body stature (child or adult),

sexual characteristics (age before or after the puberty), grey or white hair, arcus senilis, wrinkling and senile skin pigmentation, arthritic changes, tooth eruption  INTERNAL

SIGNS - ossification centres and epiphyseal union, examined directly or by roentgenography; senile changes (atherosclerosis, osteoporosis)

EPIPHYSEAL UNION - the proximal part of the humerus - cartilaginous boundary between epiphysis and diaphysis - up to around 15; ossificated, but distinct boundary - around 21-22; the boundary is disappeared over 22

Q

DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION OF GENERAL BODY FEATURES 

height, weight, general physique and colour of the skin



general body characteristics - hair, beard, moustache, other body hair, eyes, ear lobes, nose, lips, fingers, nails, length of feet, teeth, etc.

DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC INDIVIDUAL FEATURES  EXTERNAL FEATURES - scars, old injuries,

congenital deformities, striae, moles, warts, vitiligo, circumcision, tattoos (tattoos - from Polynesian "ta tau", meaning "to mark")  TEETH - special importance in identification  OCCUPATIONAL

manual work

STIGMATA

-

rough

rhinophyma

circular scars from cigarette burns

scars after a firearm injury

recent scars from shot-gun pellets

scars after a firearm injury and surgery

exhumed corpse adipocere

preserved characteristic tattoo

DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC INDIVIDUAL FEATURES  FUNCTIONAL

DISTURBANCES stuttering, deafness, blindness

 INTERNAL FEATURES -

(living)

bony defects (scars - callus, spine deformities - scoliosis, operations, metallic prostheses), aneurysm of aorta, cardiac malformations, liver cirrhosis

liver cirrhosis

artificial aortic valve

graft of the ascending aorta

grafts of both common iliac arteries

DESCRIPTION OF CLOTHES AND OTHER OBJECTS  clothes, jewellery, pencils, keys, etc. -

should be - described - photographed - retained (book of belongings)

PRESENTATION (SHOWING)  the showing of the

- living person – recognising of perpetrators - dead body  firstly

it is essential to get detailed description from the family members

 comparison

of the post-mortem data obtained by the ID procedure and antemortem data obtained from the family members of the deceased

PRESENTATION (SHOWING)  recognising procedure performed by the

family members of the deceased

 showing of the dead body - must be

adequatly prepared for the presentation

if the body is highly altered the presentation should be avoided

PRESENTATION (SHOWING) - SHORTCOMINGS  recognition of dead persons - embarrassing

and stressful  subjectivity  even in fresh bodies, the facial appearance is

altered due to post-mortem changes (muscular flaccidity)  possible mistakes - a common occurrence in

mortuary viewing rooms for a close relative, even a parent or a spouse, to have doubts about - or even to deny or mistakenly agree to the identity of the deceased person

 showing

clothes objects

of the and other

 uncertain method (possibility of changing of personal belongings, e.g. clothes)

IDENTITY FROM TEETH FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY (DENTISTRY) the teeth are the hardest and most resistant tissues in the body – can survive decomposition, even severe fire

the putrefied corpse found in the river

exhumed corpse – adipocere ante-mortem loss of upper teeth preserved lower teeth for ID

teeth can survive even severe fire

ESTIMATION OF AGE  if less than 20-25 years

- the eruption of both the deciduous and permanent teeth  senile,

wear and degenerative changes, loss of teeth in advanced age

DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS

Q

individuality of the dental status  number, appearance and arrangement of teeth  comparing

of post-mortem and antemortem status

 naked

eye appearance

examination

-

external

accurate ante-mortem dental essential for ID (in Serbia available)

record is is rarely

specific external appearances

specific external appearances

ROENTGENOGRAPHY - internal appearance (shape of dental roots, extractions, caries, fillings, crowns, dental plates) - ante-mortem X-rays must be available for ID 1990

post-mortem X-ray

1985

ante-mortem X-ray

ROENTGENOGRAPHY - internal appearance (shape of dental roots, extractions, caries, fillings, crowns, dental plates) - ante-mortem X-rays must be available for ID 1990

post-mortem X-ray

1985

ante-mortem X-ray

exhumed human body

specific dental prosthetic work

exhumed human body

specific dental prosthetic work

autopsy appearance

X-ray

X-ray - orthopantomogram positive ID if ante-mortem X-ray is available

dentures marked with metallic plates with embedded personal number

PHOTOGRAPH  facial

appearance - frontal and profile photographs important in situations when recognizing of the body can not be performed immediately (the family members are not available)

 specific individual features - tattoos, scars,

moles, warts, vitiligo, circumcision, etc.  clothes and personal belongings - photographs

can be retained and sent to the distant places for recognizing (book of belongings)

living person

dead person

PHOTOSUPERIMPOSITION skull picture

PHOTOSUPERIMPOSITION

A photograph of the possible identitee is overlaid with a transparency of the skull, photographically enlarged and orientated to match the portrait (computerized matching is available).

PHOTOSUPERIMPOSITION - matching

PHOTOSUPERIMPOSITION

If the two fit, by correspondence of anatomical landmarks such as chin, teeth, supraorbital ridges, etc., then the two could be identical, though this cannot be totally proved. If they do not fit, at least an exclusion is obtained.

PHOTOSUPERIMPOSITION - matching

X-RAY  the estimation of ossification centers

(individual age)  roentgenographic dental status  specific individual features - form and

size of some body parts (thorax, appearance of the frontal sinuses specific as fingerprints) callus (bony scars after previous fractures), metallic prostheses, osteomyelitis

the frontal sinus pattern individually specific as fingerprints – ante-mortem X-ray is necessary

a comparison between premortem and postmortem films – ID by identity of configuration and orientation of the prosthesis and adjacent bony structures

the healed fracture - callus

healed injuries from shot-gun pellets specific external and X-ray appearance

ID - comparing of post-mortem and ante-mortem X-rays EXAMPLE - A 48-year-old male submitted to appropriate commission an application for disability pension, with the certificate about a 7month-hospital treatment due to pulmonary TBC. On the basis of this document, the commission proclaimed him to be unable for work, and ordered him to come again one month later, for the control examination, but with the complete medical documentation. On this control examination, he enclosed only one X-ray with severe diffuse bilateral changes typical for TBC,

The place for the name on this X-ray was erased.

The commission suspected this film to be false, and on that occasion a new X-ray was made.

completely healthy lungs and totally different, cylindrical shape of thorax comparing with the appearance on the previous film

He was accused for submitting the false certificate,

and during the expertise procedure two more X-rays, as well as tomography were done, all of them showing the same appearance.

After all it was undoubtedly proved that the firstly submitted certificate was false, as well as X-ray with tuberculous changes.

FINGERPRINTS

Q

 the fingerprints are unique

- even identical twins do not have identical fingerprints  eventually palm and sole prints may be

used  not

aplicable only if the skin of the fingertips is destroyed by injuries (burns) or post-mortem changes

the pattern of prints comprises arches, loops, whorls or composites - no less than 16 points of similarity before declaring prints to be identical

nowadays the computed comparison is available FINGERPRINTS EXAMINER

archive of fingerprints is necessary for ID for the whole population in Serbia in some countries only for criminally registered persons

advanced adipocere (saponification)

On August 22nd 2007 two friends left one restaurant near the Belgrade driving the car, and after that they disappeared, so that their families reported their missing to the police. About one and half month later, on October 6th 2007 their car was found in a 4 meters deep channel beside the way, almost completely in the water, but rolled over on the roof. Two persons were found in the car in the advanced state of adipocere. In spite of that, positive identification was done without DNA analysis on the basis of the typical body features (height, stature, hair, teeth, previous appendectomy), clothing and personal documents).

fingerprinting could not be used due to the state of the hands

poor dental status described by his family

up to 30cm long black hair found beside the head - described by his family

preserved clothing described by his family

personal documents found in the pocket

Nikola Milutinović, 29 years

IDENTIFICATION OF THE PARTS OF THE BODY AND HUMAN REMAINS  partially or completely divided bodies  ante-mortem due to injuries

- individual cases - mass disasters (earthquake, air crush)  post-mortem – by animals or by the

murderer in order to conceal the victim (dismemberment)

TRAUMATIC AMPUTATION OF AN ARM IN A TRAFFIC ACCIDENT

ID of victims of bombing of RTS building human remains and parts of the bodies

A PART OF THE LEG FOUND IN THE RIVER adipocere and postmortem injuries

POST-MORTEM DISMEMBERED BODY OF A MURDERED DRUG ADDICT

 parts of the living person - kidnapping - the

perpetrators cut some part of the body (an ear lobe or a finger) and send it as a proof that they posses the certain person  cooperation of

- forensic pathologist - forensic anthropologist - forensic odontologist - radiologist - serologist

exhumed remains before medicolegal examination

the same skeleton after medicolegal examination

SKELETAL REMAINS FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY

SKELETAL REMAINS FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY  Are the remains bones? - stones, wood -

anatomical shape and texture  Are the bones human?

- anatomical features - histological features - serology tests - species-specific proteins - DNA tests  What sex are bones? - anatomical

differences – pelvis, skull, femur

Q

DETERMINATION OF SEX

What is the age of person?

- ossification centres - epiphyses - cranial sutures, senile changes

CLOSURE OF THE CRANIAL SUTURES

 What is the height (stature) of the person? -

calculation on the basis of the length of long bones stature of the male whites = 65.53 + 2.32 femur  3.95 cm  What is the race? - racial variations are

difficult to assess

 Can a personal identity be discovered? 

specific characteristics and changes of skeleton Paget’s disease, osteomas, osteophytes, callus



foreign bodies such as metal prostheses, bullets



frontal sinus pattern



facial reconstruction



DNA analysis

identification of a homicide victim, buried for almost two years in a garden, was achieved by matching his callus from a previous femoral fracture, with the medical notes and radiographs obtained from a hospital. The shape and size of the callus, was identical to follow-up films taken during life

the healed fracture – callus (femur)

the healed fracture

callus

the healed fracture – callus (X-ray)

a comparison between premortem and postmortem films – ID by identity of configuration and orientation of the prosthesis and adjacent bony structures

the frontal sinus pattern individually specific as fingerprints – ante-mortem X-ray is necessary

facial reconstruction from the skull

samples for DNA analysis long bone (femur) and teeth



Can a possible presumed?

cause

of

death

- blunt injuries – appearance of fractures - gunshot injuries - stab wounds

be

GUN SHOT INJURY TO THE HEAD

GUN SHOT INJURY TO THE HEAD

entrance hole

exit hole

GUN SHOT INJURY TO THE HEAD

bullets in the cranial cavity X-ray appearance

stab wound to the head

 From what period are these bones? 

threshold of investigative interest lies at around 70 years



the diagnostic criteria - presence of soft tissue remnants, the density and feel of the bone (the bone with preserved organic stroma feels greasy and heavy), dryness and brittleness



the major problem in dating bones - the environment is far more potent than time in changing the state of the bone

EXAMPLE S-497/98 the bones found during the digging of ground

The opinion of the forensic anthropologist: 

Skeletal remnants consist of frontal bone, both parietal bones, occipital bone, both jaws, both clavicles, three cervical and two thoracic vertebras, right scapula, and three right ribs.



These remnants belong to one person aged about 11.



On the basis of the established changed, the child suffered from some metabolic stress, such as infectious disease or malnutrition.



On the basis of their appearance and the external conditions, it may be concluded that these bones were more than 40 years in the ground.

Thank you for your attention

video presentation S-485/2001 (tape I) 

a human trunk found in the Danube



adipocere



final identification – DNA profiling

SLAJDOVI specific features labium leporinum L-1121/68 pes equinovarus L-565/64 a foot with four fingers scars on the tigh - celloid D-379/95 celloid D-379/95 - hands scars - back of the trunk and butocks tetovacije S-1132/72 "smrt kurvama" tetovacije “bugar“ na dojkama scull with knife scull with the bone defect scull - entrance hole scull - exit hole scull - direction of bullit trajectory

PHOTOS – RTS, noga iz vode bones - S-497/98 SCULLS – gun shot, knife, blunt, screw driver BOOKS – odontology, anthropology VIDEO TAPE - S-485/2001 (tape I)

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