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Issues Specific to Different Types of Writing

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Writing Techniques: Issues Specific to Different Types of Writing


1. Identify the structure and basic elements of the following essay and render them in the form of a diagram:
Illegal Immigrants: A etter Approach !omplaints about illegal immigrants ha"e been increasing in the past few years. Thousands regularly stream across the southern border of the #nited States$ some fleeing political repression and others fleeing economic hardship. %ur current immigration and "isa policies offer some relief for these immigrants$ but these inadequate policies now e&ist alongside se"eral other unsatisfactory and sometimes illegal solutions. !urrent policies for granting "isas permit entry to the #nites States for se"eral purposes but do not address the problems of most illegal immigrants. A limited number of "isas for purposes of immigration are a"ailable each year$ with most going to persons who ha"e waited for years to gain permission for entry or to persons who ha"e critically needed professional and technical s'ills. %ther "isas are issued to students who ha"e been accepted into study programs at American uni"ersities. Still other "isas are issued to tourists and diplomats. A small number are issued to persons designated refugees$ who are undeniably in danger of political repression and possible imprisonment or death for their political "iews. (udging from newspaper reports$ howe"er$ most illegal aliens do not qualify as refugees$ nor do they ha"e sufficient money or education to qualify for student or tourist "isas. Their suffering and po"erty need immediate relief ) they do not ha"e time to wait in the long queues for immigrant "isas$ which can ta'e years rather than a few wee's. In response to the problem of large numbers of illegal immigrants$ se"eral unsatisfactory solutions are at hand or are already being applied. %ne solution has been the forming of the *sanctuary mo"ement$+ which in"ol"es groups of Americans illegally gi"ing aid and shelter to the immigrants. ,orced repatriation is also being tried$ but as the #-S- border patrol rounds up the aliens and sends them bac'$ they simply return a few days later$ and the numbers of those entering the country illegally has reached such proportions that the border patrol force is o"erwhelmed. Another possible solution is the addition of physical barriers to the border. That solution$ howe"er$ could result in a national image that would do more damage than good$ and comparisons to the Iron !urtain and the erlin Wall would undoubtedly appear prominently in world media. Though no solution will apparently be ideal$ it should be possible to de"elop a new "isa system that would ease the problem. Would.be immigrants who are poor and uneducated and who are clearly sub/ect to se"ere economic or political problems could be granted temporary "isas and be restricted to certain agricultural or industrial areas where they could find employment at wages below our national standards but higher than the standards in they home countries. 0erhaps some of the technical /obs that our manufacturers ha"e *e&ported+ could return in this way. After a certain period$ the immigrants could be repatriated. The nation would benefit by ha"ing a source of less e&pensi"e labour$ and the aliens1 needs for temporary economic or political shelter would be met.

Writing Techniques: Issues Specific to Different Types of Writing


A. Types of Writin 1. Try to pair off the following instructional "erbs with the definitions pro"ided alongside them:
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Account for Analyse !omment on !ompare !ontrast Describe Discuss 5"aluate 5&plain Identify 7ist %utline 8e"iew Summari9e gi"e reasons3 say 4why1 rather than /ust define write down the information in the right order item.by.item consideration of the topic$ usually presented one under the other point out difference only and present result in orderly fashion estimate the "alue of$ loo'ing at positi"e and negati"e attributes elect features according to the question present arguments for and against the topic in question3 you can also gi"e your opinion e&plain the cause of ma'e critical or e&planatory notes6obser"ations state the main features of an argument$ omitting all that is only partially rele"ant gi"e the main features or general features of a sub/ect$ omitting minor details and stressing structure ma'e a sur"ey of the sub/ect$ e&amining it critically point out the differences and similarities separate down into component parts and show how they interrelate with each other

:. Which types of writing are employed in the following passages; 8emember that the four main types on nonfiction prose are: narration, description, exposition and argumentation.
a< Documentary photographers at the turn of the century frequently turned their attention to persuading society of the necessity of pro"iding for the poor. Typical of them was (acob 8iis. =is photographs of a&ter Street Alley in 1222 shows tenements on either side of the narrow passage$ crowding so close as to shut out the daylight. %n one side the tenements are bric' and on the other wood$ but they appear ric'ety and squalid. ags of rags and bones and paper are stac'ed in the alley. A small child stands beside the bags$ in front of a pile of scrap wood she apparently has gathered for food.

b< The stronger the personal identification of a top business e&ecuti"e to his football past$ the more "iolent his antipathy to women managers is apt to be. =e will be so con"inced business >management.football< is the apogee of a man1s game >great men against great men< that he will feel that women are positi"ely unqualified to compete against the strongest$ most powerful$ best.trained men in the world. Such affectations are managerial daydreams$ of course$ because the game of business is not a literal physical clash between male brutes. It is a symbol$ a computer model$ a paper game$ a psychological contest. !ompetiti"e large.scale business does resemble football contests$ but the business game is mental competition ) it1s played in the head not the stadium. ?ot a single technique needed for the game is inherited or inborn ) the talents$ mental agility$ abilities$ attitudes are learned. @en teach them to each other but adamantly refuse to teach them to women. Too bad about them3 women are smart enough to teach themsel"es$ and their practice field can be e"eryday situations confronted on e"ery /ob. c< @rs. %1! was somewhat deaf$ but otherwise in good health. She li"ed in an old people1s home. %ne night$ in (anuary 1ABA$ she dreamed "i"idly$ nostalgically$ of her childhood in Ireland$ and especially of the songs they danced to and sang. When she wo'e up$ the music was still going$ "ery loud and clear. 4I must still be dreaming$1 she thought$ but this was not so. She got up$ roused and pu99led. It was the middle of the night. Someone$ she assumed$ must ha"e left a radio playing. ut why was she the only person to be disturbed by it;

d< ?ationalism is an amalgam of two elements3 an ideology embroidered about the idea of nationality$ and the political institutionali9ation of that ideology into the national state. The strength of nationalism rests

Writing Techniques: Issues Specific to Different Types of Writing


on a consensus of national unity which may stem from race$ language$ common history and e&periences$ religion$ territory$ or other interests. The national state$ reflecting the political and social organi9ation of the indi"iduals which comprise it and ha"ing coerci"e power o"er them$ claims$ in their name$ so"ereignty o"er the territory in which they li"e.

C. Identify the n!rr!ti"e patterns and "ocabulary employed in the following essay:
The ,rench ,oreign 7egion was founded by a 8oyal %rdinance$ written on a small piece of official ,rench War %ffice notepaper dated @arch Ath$ a2C1$ and signed by the then reigning monarch of ,rance$ 7ouis. 0hilippe. =e had been on the throne for barely eight months when he authori9ed this measure$ which was as much a product of necessity as of careful planning$ although there may be di"ided "iews about this. The reasons for forming the ,rench ,oreign 7egion were probably twofold. In the first place the men of the disbanded royal bodyguard and the 8egiment of =ohenlohe$ suddenly turned loose on to the street of a capital seething with unrest$ unemployed and perhaps disgruntled at their abrupt dismissal$ were a potentially dangerous element. They were trained to the use of arms$ and should they become tools of the politically ambitious or discontented they would present a distinct menace to the new regime$ not yet too firmly established and sure of itself. ,or some time 0aris had been swarming with countless other discharged foreign soldiers who had ser"ed in the ,rench army at "arious times under the 5mpire and the 8epublic$ many of whom were in needy circumstances and open to suggestion$ whilst others were openly loo'ing for trouble and always ready to ta'e part in any disturbance. It was clearly both e&pedient and desirable to remo"e these dangers as far away from the capital as possible. ?e&t$ the Algerian ad"enture had begun$ and it appeared that this might pro"e e&pensi"e in li"es. The more ,renchmen 'illed in ?orth Africa$ the less popular the go"ernment at home would be$ so if foreign cannon folder was a"ailable sp much the better. The Algerian landing had been "iewed with mi&ed feelings in a politically di"ided ,rance$ but there does not seem to ha"e been any mar'ed indication on the part of the politicians that they were unanimous that the occupation should be abruptly terminated3 most were wary and many apprehensi"e as to how the Algerian business would turn out. The formation of a foreign legion seemed therefore to be an ideal method of 'illing these two birds with one stone. %nce the conditions were made clear there does not seem to ha"e been any serious opposition. So#e s$ estions for $sin n!rr!tion effe%ti"e&y: • Identify the idea or feeling you wish to convey through your narrative • Arrange the narrative events chronologically, selecting the details that will reinforce that idea or feeling • Include only those other details that you need to make the narrative credible • Determine whether you can gain greater impact by rearranging the chronology, perhaps placing the most important or interesting episode at the beginning or at the end • Revise to cut irrelevant detail, select the most appropriate detail, and arrive at the most effective order D. a< Identify the dominant impression >i.e. attitude$ image$ or feeling that the author has about his topic< and the perspecti"e employed in the following e&cerpts using 'es%ription: %&ford has been ruined by the motor industry. The peace which %&ford once 'new$ and which a great uni"ersity city should always ha"e$ has been swept ruthlessly away3 and no benefactions and research endowments can ma'e up for the change in character which the city has suffered. At si& in the morning the old courts sha'e to the roar of buses ta'ing the ne&t shift to !owley and 0ressed Steel3 great lorries with a double dec' cargo of cars for e&port lumber past @agdalen and the #ni"ersity !hurch. 7oads of motor.engines are hurried hither and thither and the streets are thronged with a population which has no interest in learning and 'nows no studies beyond ser"o.systems and distributors$ compression ratios and camshafts.

Writing Techniques: Issues Specific to Different Types of Writing


b< An earthqua'e comes li'e a thief in the night$ without warning. It was necessary$ therefore$ to in"ent instruments that neither slumbered nor slept. Some de"ices were quite simple. %ne$ for instance$ consisted of rods of "arious lengths and thic'nesses$ which stand up on end li'e ninepins. When a shoc' came it shoo' the rigid table upon which these stood. If it were gentle$ only the more unstable rods fell. If it were se"ere$ they all fell. Thus the rods by falling$ and by the direction in which they fell$ recorded for the slumbering scientist the strength of a shoc' that was too wea' to wa'en him and the direction from which it came. c< Then the cannons of the anchored warships thundered a salute to which the Vasa fired in reply. As she emerged from her drifting cloud of gun smo'e with the water churned to foam beneath her bow$ her flags flying$ pennants wa"ing$ sails filling in the bree9e$ and the red and gold of her superstructure abla9e with colour$ she presented a more ma/estic spectacle than Stoc'holmers had e"er seen before. All gun.ports were open and the mu99les peeped wic'edly from them. So#e s$ estions for 'e"e&opin !n effe%ti"e 'es%ription: • • • Determine the purpose of the description Determine the dominant impression you want to create, and select details that will reinforce that impression Draw details from the other senses – hearing, smell, taste, and touch – in addition to sight

F. What forms of e(position are used in the following passages;
a< Golcanoes$ waterfalls$ battle scenes$ rescues on horsebac'$ ama9ing transformations ) all were done often on the stages of the nineteenth century. ut the questions of how ) and of how well ) are more difficult to answer. !ertainly the handling of scenic effects was often crude and blundering. A 0hiladelphia manager famous for his dramatic spectacles almost failed once when a gau9e representing rain fell properly on the stage$ but had to be remo"ed by drawing it up again. The sight of rain rising offended the audience1s sense of reality$ but$ impressed with the other scenery$ they chose to be amused rather than angered. The failure of Gesu"ius to erupt on cue$ howe"er$ totally ruined a la"ish production of he !ast Days of "ompeii . The stage manager ordered the curtain down and managed to get the eruption going$ but by the time the curtain was reopened the disappointed audience$ already lea"ing the theatre$ saw only the last sputters of the cataclysm.

b< In a wooded country you will not ta'e the time to fool with tent.poles. A stout line run through the eyelets and along the ape& will string it successfully between your two trees. Draw the line as tight as possible$ but do not be too unhappy if$ after your best efforts$ it still sags a little. That is what your long crotched stic' is for. Sta'e out your four corners. If you get them in a good rectangle and in such relation to the ape& as to form two isosceles triangles of the ends$ your tent will stand smoothly. Therefore$ be an artist and do it right. %nce the four corners are well placed$ the rest follows naturally. %ccasionally in the ?orth !ountry it will be found that the soil is too thin$ o"er the roc's$ to grip the tent.pegs. In that case dri"e them at a sharp angle as deep as they will go$ and then lay a large flat stone across the slant of them. Thus anchored$ you will ride out a gale. ,inally$ wedge your long sapling crotch under the line ) outside the tent$ of course ) to tighten it. Hour shelter is up. If you are a woodsman$ ten or fifteen minutes has sufficed to accomplish all this. c< Two main techniques ha"e been used for training elephants$ which we may call respecti"ely the tough and the gentle. The former method simply consists of setting an elephant to wor' and beating him until he does what is e&pected of him. Apart from any moral considerations this is a stupid method of training$ for it produces a resentful animal who at a later stage may well turn man.'iller. The gentle method requires more patience in the early stages$ but produces a cheerful$ good.tempered elephant who will gi"e many years of loyal ser"ice.

d< We thin' of males as large and powerful$ females as smaller and wea'er$ but the opposite pattern pre"ails throughout nature ) males are generally smaller than females$ and for good reason$ humans

Writing Techniques: Issues Specific to Different Types of Writing


and most other mammals notwithstanding. Sperm is small and cheap$ easily manufactured in large quantities by little creatures. A sperm cell is little more than a nucleus of na'ed D?A with a deli"ery system. 5ggs$ on the other hand$ must be larger$ for they pro"ide the cytoplast >all the rest of the cell< with mitochondria >or energy factories<$ chloroplasts >for photosynthesi9ers<$ and all other parts that a 9ygote needs to begin the process of embryonic growth. In addition$ eggs generally supply the initial nutriment$ or food for the de"eloping embryo. ,inally$ females usually perform the tas's of primary care$ either retaining the eggs within their bodies for a time or guarding them after they are laid. ,or all these reasons$ females are larger than males in most species of animals. e< If a nation is essentially disunited$ it is left to the go"ernment to hold it together. This increases the e&pense of go"ernment$ and reduces correspondingly the amount of economic resources that could be used for de"eloping the country. Where the cost of go"ernment is high$ resources for de"elopment are correspondingly low. This may be illustrated by comparing the position of a nation with that of a pri"ate business enterprise. An enterprise has to incur certain costs and e&penses in order to stay in business. ,or our purposes$ we are concerned only with one 'ind of cost ) the cost of managing and administering the business. Such administrati"e o"erhead in a business is analogous to the cost of go"ernment in a nation. The administrati"e o"erhead of a business is low to the e&tent that e"eryone wor'ing in the business can be trusted to beha"e in a way that best promotes the interests of the firm. If they can each be trusted to ta'e such responsibilities$ and to e&ercise such initiati"e as falls within their sphere$ then administrati"e o"erhead will be low. It will be low because it will be necessary to ha"e only one man loo'ing after each /ob$ without ha"ing another man to chec' upon what he is doing$ 'eep him in a line$ and report on him to someone else. ut if no one can be trusted to act in a loyal and responsible manner towards his /ob$ then the business will require armies of administrators$ chec'ers$ and foremen$ and administration o"erhead will rise correspondingly3 and the business will ha"e less money to distribute as di"idends or in"est directly in its future progress and de"elopment. There are three main stages to Heats1s de"elopment as a poet. The first phase$ when he was associated both with the Aesthetic mo"ement of the 12AEs and the !eltic Twilight$ is characterised by a self. conscious 8omanticism. The poetry is sometimes based on Irish myth and fol'lore and has a mystical$ dream.li'e quality to it. The second main phase of Heats1s poetic career was dominated by his commitment to Irish nationalism$ and it was Irish nationalism which first sent Heats in search of a consistently simpler$ popular and more accessible style. As Heats became more and more in"ol"ed in public nationalist issues$ so his poetry became more public and concerned with issues of the modern Irish state. In the final phase of his career$ Heats reconciles elements from both his earlier periods$ fusing them into a mature lyricism. The poetry is less public and more personal. =e de"elops his theories of contraries and of the progression that can result from reconciling them. The later poems e&plore contrasts between physical and spiritual dimensions to life$ between sensuality and rationality$ between turbulence and calm.


g< Iothic was originally a term of abuse hurled at the architecture of the @iddle Ages by a pupil of @ichelangelo whose ob/ect was to ad"ance the interests of the *new+ style >now 'nown as 8enaissance< at the e&pense of the old. The style he wrongly termed Iothic actually began in twelfth. century ,rance and flourished o"er much of 5urope$ especially the north$ for the following four centuries. It is now used to describe a splendid$ soaring style typified by the pointed arches and rose windows of cathedrals$ and found repeated in miniature on much of the furniture that has sur"i"ed. h< 8ising air$ li'e air flowing toward a low$ mo"es spirally in a countercloc'wise manner$ thereby causing e&tremely low pressure in the centre of the rising column. The lower the pressure$ the stronger the winds$ the greater the gyratory action in the updraft and the more intense the low pressure becomes. The lowering pressure cools the air rapidly to below the dew point3 as a result$ a cloud de"elops in conformity with this chimney of low pressure3 hence$ the characteristic funnel.shaped cloud . . . . The "ery low pressure causes buildings to e&plode when the funnel cloud reaches the ground$ and the terrific "elocities of the wind ) perhaps as great as FEE miles per hour ) usually prostrate e"ery standing ob/ect in the tornadoe1s path.

Writing Techniques: Issues Specific to Different Types of Writing


Writing Techniques: Issues Specific to Different Types of Writing


T!s)s re*$ire' +y 'ifferent types of e(position: E(e#p&ifi%!tion# give your readers enough evidence to convince them of the reasonableness of your general observation or main idea • use specific details • Pro%ess !n!&ysis# • present steps in a clear order, indicating when a particular order is essential • to make the process simple to follow, organi$e the many small steps involved in the process into a few main steps • define any technical terminology that may be unfamiliar to your audience Co#p!rison,Contr!st: • identify points of comparison %the similarities& • identify points of contrast %the differences& • determine the points you wish to emphasi$e • choose an order of discussion %treat all of topic A, then all of topic ', or use alternating treatments of A and '& • arrange the material to highlight the most significant similarities or differences at the beginning or at the end of your discussion An!&o y# • decide on the impression you wish to give your audience about your sub(ect • think of another sub(ect that lends itself to a comparison with your sub(ect • find areas of likeness between the two sub(ects • draw the comparison between the sub(ects C&!ssifi%!tion# • determine the group of items to be classified • choose the classification basis most useful to your audience • verify if the categories of the classification system are mutually exclusive • verify if all items in the group can fit into the classification Definition# • whether you use narration, analogy, or any other means of development in con(unction with definition, you must at some point state term, class, and differentia • see that your definition is sufficiently elaborate, that the term you are defining is clearly distinguished from other terms in the same class C!$se !n' effe%t: • verify if the cause and effect relationship indeed exists • identify the cause as contributing or sufficient • provide supporting evidence by using narration, description, or another appropriate means of development • if using an analogy for clarification, do not mistake it for supporting evidence

Writing Techniques: Issues Specific to Different Types of Writing


J. 8ead the following essay and identify the principles and techniques of its !r $#ent:
I am always ama9ed when I hear people saying that sport creates goodwill between the nations$ and that if only the common peoples of the world could meet one another at football or cric'et$ they would ha"e no inclination to meet on the battle field. 5"en if one didn1t 'now from concrete e&amples >the 1ACJ %lympic Iames$ for instance< that international sporting contests lead to orgies of hatred$ one could deduce it from general principles. ?early all the sports practised nowadays are competiti"e. Hou play to win$ and the game has little meaning unless you do your utmost to win. %n the "illage green$ where you pic' up sides and no feeling of local patriotism is in"ol"ed$ it is possible to play simply for the fun and e&ercise: but as soon as the question of prestige arises$ as soon as you feel that you and some larger unit will be disgraced it you lose$ the most sa"age combati"e instincts are aroused. Anyone who has played e"en in a school football match 'nows this. At the international le"el sport is fran'ly mimic warfare. ut the significant thing is not the beha"iour of the players but the attitude of the spectators: and$ behind the spectators$ of the nations who wor' themsel"es into furies o"er these absurd contests$ and seriously belie"e ) at any rate for short periods ) that running$ /umping and 'ic'ing a ball are tests of national "irtue. Prin%ip&es !n' te%-ni*$es of !r $#ent!tion: • • • • • • • )sing generalisations formed through inductive reasoning# )sing authority for support )sing positive, not negative, support )sing specific evidence )sing cause and effect *onsidering the alternatives Arguing ob(ectively

B. What &o i%!& f!&&!%ies are present in the following e&amples;
a< b< c< d< e< f< g< 0enal reform is necessary because of prison corruption$ which shows the need for prison reform. If teachers cannot fi& the problems in schools they should stay out of the debate altogether. Why are men more aggressi"e than women; This action is wrong because it is immoral. Art courses should be required in secondary schools because there is no reason that they should not be. ?e"er trust anyone o"er thirty. Thirty Kero& photocopiers ga"e clear reproductions when tested. This thirty.first one$ therefore$ will ma'e clear reproductions. h< As more women ha"e /oined the wor' force$ /u"enile crime has increased. If mothers would stay home where they belong$ the crime rate would drop.

Writing Techniques: Issues Specific to Different Types of Writing


.. Intro'$%tions !n' %on%&$sions 1. =ow do the following essay introductions compare; Which of each pair do you consider to be more effecti"e;
a< =itler1s murder of eight million (ews has gi"en West Iermany a legacy of guilt e"ident in some of its ma/or foreign policies. =itler1s murder of eight million (ews ) one more chapter in the long history of man1s inhumanity to man ) has gi"en modern West Iermany$ li'e some other nations$ a legacy of guilt that is e"ident in some of its ma/or foreign policies.

b< 0ractically since the beginning of time the *generation gap+ has constantly opposed the young and the older people. ut the two groups are ali'e$ because the only difference between an old man and a young man is that the young man has a glorious future before him and the old one has a splendid future behind him.

0eople are always tal'ing about 4the problem of youth1. If there is one ) which I ta'e lea"e to doubt ) then it is older people who create it$ not the young themsel"es. 7et us get down to fundamentals and agree that the young are after all human beings ) people /ust li'e their elders. There is only one difference between an old man and a young one: the young man has a glorious future before him and the old one has a splendid future behind him: and maybe that is where the rub is. A young man sees a sunset and$ unable to understand or to e&press the emotion that it rouses in him$ concludes that is must be the gateway to a world that lies beyond. It is difficult for any of us in moments of intense aesthetic e&perience to resist the suggestion that we are catching a glimpse from a different realm of e&istence$ different and$ because the e&perience is intensely mo"ing$ in some way greater than we can describe3 for language$ which was in"ented to con"ey the meanings of this world$ cannot readily be fitted to the uses of another. That all great art has this power of suggesting a world beyond is undeniable$ but in some moods ?ature shares it. *7et my s'in wither$ my hands grow numb$ my bones dissol"e3 until I ha"e attained understanding I will not rise from here.+ Dus' had come $ and the resolute prince ) the day was his CF th birthday ) sat down cross.legged and began to meditate through the watches of the night. And when he finally rose$ there arose with him a new religion. ,or he was Siddharth Iautama and the understanding he attained in a night of transcending re"elations made him uddha$ *awa'ened+ ) the 5nlightened %ne. %ut of the mission he then set for himself ) to impart the secret of enlightenment to all who desire sal"ation ) came the faith we call uddhism.


?ature$ li'e great art$ is li'ely to induce an intense aesthetic e&perience$ to suggest a world beyond which can seldom be described in words: for language$ which was in"ented to con"ey the meanings of this world$ cannot readily be fitted to the uses of another.

d< According to the Wordsworth 5ncyclopedia$ * uddhism is one of the great world religions$ which originated in India about FEE !+. The founder of uddhism was Siddharth Iautama. %n his CFth birthday$ after a night of transcending re"elations$ he awa'ened * uddha+$ the 5nlightened %ne$ and he set out for himself the mission to impart the secret of enlightenment to all who desire sal"ation.

Writing Techniques: Issues Specific to Different Types of Writing



Alcohol consumption is the cause of many car accidents. The purpose of this paper is to pro"ide an answer to the question *Who in"ented Ireland;+.

,ully half the fatal automobile accidents in 5ngland in"ol"e a drun' dri"er$ according to the State Di"ision of @otor Gehicles. If Iod in"ented whis'ey to pre"ent the Irish from ruling the world$ then who in"ented Ireland;


S$ estions for 'e"e&opin !n intro'$%tion: • • • • • • +pen with the thesis statement +pen with a broad statement +pen with a scene,setter +pen with a -uotation +pen with an anecdote +pen with a statistic or fact


The most commonly employed means of %on%&$'in essays are: the summary$ the prediction$ the -uestion$ the recommendation >s<$ the -uotation. Which of these methods are made use of in the following e&cerpts; The children of Dolphu and Wangri are learning that the sabu ) snow leopard ) is worth more to them ali"e than as a pelt for barter. As they come of age and ta'e their places in "illage concerns$ they could become the most effecti"e guardians of their national treasure$ 'eeping the scow leopards of the 7angu a safe distance from the edge of e&tinction.


b< Trust$ then$ open trust has nothing to do with e&pecting or doing specific$ predetermined things in marriage$ but rather with sharing the 'nowledge of your immediate desires and needs with your mate$ li"ing for now and not for yesterday or tomorrow$ li"ing not the life that somebody else has laid out for you in terms of role e&pectations$ li"ing instead for your own self through share communication and growth with your mate1s self. Trust then is freedom to assume responsibility for your own self first and then to share that human self in lo"e with your partner in a marriage that places no restrictions upon growth or limits on fulfilment. c< It is clear from the e&amples abo"e that the state is spending far more on highways than it is on education. @ost residents will be glad to ha"e efficient road systems for getting to and from wor' as well as for easy access to recreation areas. =owe"er$ if current spending trends continue$ the question that "oters will ha"e to answer is$ *Do I want to be on the same highway with functionally illiterate dri"ers;+

d< We cannot produce responsible persons until we help them unco"er the [email protected] ?%T %L . H%#185 %L position which underlies the complicated and destructi"e games they play. %nce we understand position and games$ freedom of response begins to emerge as a real possibility. As long as people are bound by the past$ they are not free to respond to the needs and aspirations of others in the present3 and *to say that we are free$+ says Will Durant$ *is merely to mean that we 'now what we are doing. e< Afterwards one can choose ) not simply accept ) the phrases that will best co"er the meaning$ and then switch round and decide what impressions one1s words are li'ely to ma'e on another person. This last effort of the mind cuts out all stale or mi&ed images$ all prefabricated phrases$ needless repetitions$ and humbug and "agueness generally. ut one can often be in doubt about the effect of a word or a phrase$ and one needs rules that one can rely on when instinct fails. I thin' the following rules will co"er most cases: a. ?e"er use a metaphor$ simile or other figure of speech$ which you are used to seeing in print. b. ?e"er use a long word where a short one will do.

Writing Techniques: Issues Specific to Different Types of Writing


If it is possible to cut a word out$ always cut it out. ?e"er use the passi"e where you can use the acti"e. ?e"er use a foreign phrase$ a scientific word or a /argon word if you can thin' of an e"eryday 5nglish equi"alent. f. rea' any of these rules sooner than say anything barbarous. These rules sound elementary$ and so they are$ but they demand a deep change of attitude in anyone who has grown used to writing in the style now fashionable.

c. d. e.

C. Writin t-e rese!r%- ess!y 1. !ompare the following paradigms most li'ely to go"ern the structure of different types of research essays and consider what writing techniques are most suited to each of them:
!. Gener!& A&&/P$rpose 0o'e& Identify the sub/ect 5&plain the problem 0ro"ide bac'ground information ,rame a thesis statement Analyse the sub/ect 5&amine the first ma/or issue 5&amine the second ma/or issue 5&amine the third ma/or issue Discuss your findings 8estate your thesis and point beyond it Interpret the findings 0ro"ide answers$ solutions$ a final opinion Mremember that to the introduction you can add quotation$ an anecdote$ a definition$ comments from your source materials3 within the body you can compare$ analyse$ gi"e e"idence$ trace historical e"ents$ etc.3 in the conclusion you can ma'e a prediction$ summari9e your findings$ etc. 0o'e& for A'"!n%in yo$r I'e!s !n' T-eories Introduction 5&amine the problem or question Discuss its significance 0ro"ide any necessary bac'ground information Introduce e&perts who ha"e addressed the problem 0ro"ide a thesis sentence addresses the problem from a perspecti"e not yet ad"anced by others ody Trace issues in"ol"ed in the problem De"elop a past to present e&amination !ompare and analyse the details and minor issues !ite e&perts who ha"e addressed the same problem !onclusion Ad"ance and defend your theory as it grows out of e"idence in the body %ffer directi"es or a plan of action Suggest additional wor' and research that is needed 0o'e& for t-e An!&ysis of Cre!ti"e Wor)s Introduction Identify the wor' Ii"e a brief summary in one sentence



Writing Techniques: Issues Specific to Different Types of Writing


0ro"ide bac'ground information that related to the thesis %ffer biographical facts about the author that relate to the specific issues #se quotations and paraphrases of authorities that establish the scholarly traditions Write a thesis sentence that establishes your particular "iews of the literary wor' or any other art form ody 0ro"ide an analysis di"ided according to such elements as imagery$ theme$ character de"elopment$ structure$ symbolism$ narration$ language$ etc. !onclusion Leep a fundamental focus on the author of the wor'$ not /ust the elements of analysis as e&plained in the body %ffer a conclusion that e&plores the contributions of the writer in concord with your thesis sentence '. 0o'e& for Ar $#ent !n' Pers$!sion P!pers Introduction In one sentence establish the problem or contro"ersial issue that your paper will e&amine Summari9e the issues Define 'ey terminology @a'e concessions on some points of the argument #se quotations and paraphrases of sources to build the contro"ersial nature of the sub/ect 0ro"ide bac'ground to establish a past6present relationship Write a thesis to establish your position ody Argue in defence on one side Analyse the issues$ both pro and con Ii"e e"idence from the sources$ including quotations as appropriate !onclusion 5&pand your thesis into a conclusion that ma'es clear your poison which should be one that grows logically from your analysis and discussion of the issues 0o'e& for ! Co#p!r!ti"e St$'y Introduction 5stablish A 5stablish riefly compare the two Introduce the central issue !ite source materials on the sub/ects 0resent your thesis ody >choose one< 5&amine A 6 !ompare A and 6 Issue 1: Discuss A and 5&amine 6 !ontrast A and 6 Issue :: Discuss A and !ompare and contrast A and 6 Discuss the central issues 6 Issue C: Discuss A and !onclusion Discuss the significant issues Write a conclusion that ran's one o"er the other$ or Write a conclusion that rates the respecti"e wisdom of each side


D. Ro$n'/Up 1. Select a :$EEE.word essay you ha"e already written and re"ise it in accordance to the guide.lines of essay writing. 0resent both "ersions and a short list of personal comments on any changes you ha"e made to the original.

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