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Log Management Best Practices

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Alert Logic, Inc.
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Documents are the property of their respective owners.
© 2011 Alert Logic, Inc. All rights reserved.

Log Management Best Practices:
The Benefits of Automated Log Management
To comply with today’s government and industry mandates, such as PCI,
SOX, HIPAA and GLBA, log data must be collected, regularly reviewed
and archived. In addition, regular analysis and forensics can also be
performed on the same log data to enhance overall security and
This paper discusses the challenges associated with effective log
management and enables you to better define best practices and
requirements for log management projects, as well as log management
and review solutions.
Why Log Management? ............... 2
Which Logs Should Be Collected? 3
Log Management Challenges ....... 6
Automated Log Management ...... 9
Summary .................................... 10
About Alert Logic ........................ 11

1 Log Management Best Practices

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2 Log Management Best Practices

Why Log Management?
Today most organizations have tighter budgets and fewer resources than ever, yet they are experiencing
ever-increasing pressures to improve security, comply with regulations, and continuously improve
Governmental and industry regulations have become better defined in recent years with significant fines or
even incarceration facing senior executives who fail to comply. With decreasing staff, IT organizations are
now being forced to commit resources toward compliance initiatives while also continuing to ensure
security and meet service level agreements.
In the past, a network administrator or security analyst would collect log data from a few select systems in
the event that the data might be needed for a specific search later. Today, log management is an
organizational requirement, demanding comprehensive functionality that extends beyond data collection
to encompass normalization, analysis, reporting, and disaster-proof archival.
The number, variety, and volume of log data and network infrastructures have created a massive challenge.
In addition, the expansion of IT infrastructure into hosted and cloud deployments means that there is not
only more data to manage, but that it resides in a variety of environments. Trying to collect and manage a
continuous supply of distributed log data can quickly overwhelm at IT organization; adding storage sounds
simple in concept, yet the costs of purchasing and managing terabytes of storage can be staggering.
With all of these challenges in mind, this paper will discuss best practices for log management in the
current environment. Best practices for log management center on several key areas:
 Collecting the appropriate data. Consider all the sources of log data in your environment and which
are required to meet compliance mandates, alert you to suspicious activity, and provide valuable
forensic data.
 Making log data usable in a normalized, searchable format.
 Reviewing and analyzing log data regularly. Log data will not help you achieve your goals if it is not
examined regularly; for compliance purposes, this is a requirement.
 Ensuring secure transmission and storage of log data. Log data is as sensitive and as any of your
other enterprise data and the same care you exercise with other types of data should be exercised
with your log data.
 Archiving data according to relevant data retention policies, including provisions for the
appropriate level of data protection – for example, off-site storage.

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Which Logs Should Be Collected?
While industry standards and regulations trace their roots to improved security, to meet standards and
regulatory goals all logs must be collected, not only the security logs. Still, some organizations mistakenly
collect just their security logs – only to fail their first audit. In forensic research and incident response, the
various non-security logs are required. Additionally, to fully utilize logs for other operational goals, such as
optimization health checks, all log data should be gathered.
For example, operating system logs and application logs often contain security-related information as well
as information about events that may not initially appear security-related. Organizations must consider the
potential value of each and every potential log source.
In addition, log collection must be enabled in a growing variety of types of environments. In the past, log
data typically resided in an in-house environment, or in traditional managed hosting deployments. As more
infrastructure moves into the cloud, log collection projects must contend with data from virtual servers,
elastic cloud environments with instances that are launched for days or hours, and hybrid environments.
Along with the tremendous flexibility and efficiency that these deployment options bring come new
challenges for IT managers.
The following log types should be considered for collection:
Anti-Malware Software
Examples of anti-malware include anti-virus, anti-spyware, and rootkit detectors, to name just a few. These
logs may include information indicating that malware was detected, disinfection attempt results, file
quarantines, when file-system scans were last performed, when anti-virus signature files were last updated,
and when software upgrades have taken place.
Organizations typically utilize a wide variety of applications to support business processes, including supply
chain management, financial management, procurement, resource planning, customer relationship
management, email and voice communications, web and ecommerce applications, and file and document
management systems. Some of these applications are purchased from vendors and others are developed
and maintained internally.
The information logged by various applications can vary wildly and may include account changes, user
authentication attempts, use of privileges, usage details, client and server activity, configuration changes,
major system failures, etc. Application logs can be more valuable when network communications are
encrypted. However, application logs are often proprietary formats.

4 Log Management Best Practices

Authentication Servers
Directory servers and single sign-on servers will typically log each and every authentication attempt
showing the originating user ID, destination system or application, date and time info, and success/failure
Some firewalls are perimeter-focused and general in nature and others are very application-specific or
single-host (personal) focused. Firewalls cannot only block activity based on policy, they can inspect
content and ensure the state and integrity of permitted connections. Firewalls can do much more than this
and their logs can be very detailed and informative.
Intrusion Protection Systems
These systems record detailed information about suspicious behavior and detected attacks as well as
actions taken to halt malicious activity in progress. Some intrusion protection systems, such as file integrity
systems, run periodically instead of continuously and thus they generate logs in batches rather than on an
ongoing basis.
Network Access Control Servers
Network access control can operate for both for internal and external hosts connecting to the internal
network. At the time of connect, the hosts’ security posture is determined and hosts failing to adhere to
the defined policy are quarantined onto a separate VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) segment. NAC
servers log a great deal of useful information about both successful/permitted and unsuccessful
quarantined network connections.
Network Devices (Routers, Switches, etc.)
Routers can be configured to block certain types of traffic. Network devices can be configured to log very
detailed connection activity but typically are configured to log very lightly. These logs can contain very
informative network communication activity.
Operating Systems
There are many varied operating systems on servers, workstations, and assorted network devices. Logging
is typically controlled by the host administrator. The types of events, as well as whether to log only
successful or only failed events, or both, can be controlled.
These log entries typically contain information about service starts and stops, authentication attempts, file
accesses, security policy changes, account changes, permission and privilege changes, and use of privileges.
Operating System logs can also contain information from security software and system applications and are
often beneficial for identifying suspicious activity involving a particular host.

5 Log Management Best Practices

Remote-Access Software
Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) are the most popular type of secured remote access solutions and they log
both successful and failed connection attempts. They record details such as the date and time each user
connects and disconnects, as well as the types and amount of data sent and received during the connected
Vulnerability Management Software
Included here are both vulnerability scanning and patch management software. These typically run on an
occasional basis and log batches of log entries that include information about scanned hosts/devices
including: configuration, missing software updates, vulnerabilities identified, and patch/scan currency
downloads, among other things.
Web Proxies
Web proxies are the intermediate hosts through which Web sites are accessed and can be used to restrict
Web access as well as add a layer of protection between the user and external Web sites. Web proxy logs
record user activity and URLs accessed by specified users.
Each and every type of log will contain varied information and this information is in different formats.
Depending on the circumstances, different log sources can be of more or less value. It should also be noted
that if administrative privileges are not properly maintained and the logs secured, then the logs can be
manipulated or altered. It is important to understand and limit such privileges and access to logged data as

6 Log Management Best Practices

Log Management Challenges
Recent compliance mandates require not only that you collect all logs, but also that they be reviewed
regularly, are searchable, and are stored in their original, unaltered, raw form for mandate-specific
Logs can also be extremely useful in identifying security incidents, policy violations, fraudulent activity, and
operational problems shortly after they occur. They are also valuable when performing audits, forensic
analysis, internal investigations, establishing baselines, and identifying operational trends and long-term
problems. However, the infinite variety of log data formats makes it impossible to utilize the data without
data normalization.
It is reasonable to assume that the variety of log data sources and the volume of data will always increase.
Compounding this challenge is the variability of data formats and distributed nature of these sources; in
addition, every network infrastructure is in a constant state of change, with new systems, applications,
users, and devices every day of the year.
This creates a variety of specific challenges for log management efforts. These challenges can be broken
down into three areas: collection, analysis and review, and archival.
When we discuss log data, we are discussing a wide range and ever-changing range of data sets that must
be accounted for.
 Log data is varied. Not only do systems, applications, and network devices have their own logs with
varying types of specific data which are captured, but a single log source can have multiple logs to
be captured. For example, applications often have multiple log files, each containing a specific type
of data.
 Log data sources are distributed. Data sources may be located within internal on-premise
infrastructure, collocated in a data center, hosted with a managed hosting provider, or in the cloud.
This infrastructure may be managed separately or in a hybrid environment. Log collection must
span all of these environments.
 Log data sources change constantly. At any time a new system, application, or network device may
be brought online and begin generating new log data. Cloud instances may be launching for days or
hours and then terminating. A log management solution must account for these changes, or else
100% log collection will not be possible. Otherwise, an organization risks discovering that a log
source has not been collected after weeks or months, possibly in response to an auditor’s
 Log data may contain sensitive information, such as excerpts from emails, user names and
passwords. This raises security and privacy concerns that necessitate proper log data security. Logs

7 Log Management Best Practices

improperly secured when being transported to any centralized collection system are susceptible to
intentional or unintentional alteration or destruction.
Analysis and Review
Analysis and review of log data presents two significant challenges: regular review of log data, and the
varying formats of log data.
Regular log review is a valuable practice for any organization, and is a requirement of many compliance
mandates. Typically system administrators have been responsible for reviewing and analyzing log data, but
this has usually been a lower priority that other activities, such as more strategic business projects. Rapid-
response situations, such as performance issues, vulnerability remediation, and security incident response
and investigation, also tend to take priority over log review. The result? Log management projects are
never started or linger unfinished.
Log contents vary enormously. Some logs are designed for humans to read and others simply are not;
some logs use standard formats, while others use proprietary formats. Some log formats are comma
separated, some are space delimited, and still others use symbols or other character delimiters between
the fields within a single log message.
Each log entry, or message, contains certain defined pieces of information, such as a host IP address or
username. Each log source records the pieces of information that it considers important; consequently, it
can be extremely difficult to link different log sources because they may or may not contain common
Even when two sources record the same values, they may be recorded in different and varied log
messages. And even when they record the same values, they may represent them differently; for example,
a date may be formateed MMDDYYYY, MM-DD-YYYY, or DD/MM/YYYY.
Deciphering dates in various formats may be simple for a human reviewer, but consider the example of the
use of FTP (File Transfer Protocol) being recorded by one log source as “FTP” and another as “21,” its well-
known port number. Very few analysts can easily distinguish the full 1,024 well-known ports by port
One approach to dealing with this complexity is to create PERL scripts to search and produce only those log
messages matching the query. In concept this is a reasonable approach, but with the growing complexity
and variety of sources, its ability to alleviate the problems of manual log review is limited.
Log data must be treated like any other organizational data, subject to security and retention policies, as
well as compliance mandates. Because it often contains sensitive data (such as customer data), breach of
log data is a serious problem. As a result, protection of log data both in transit to the log collection solution
and when stored is an important concern.

8 Log Management Best Practices

This means that access to log data much be strictly controlled, and under no circumstances should log data
be alterable.
In addition, storing log data centrally from distributed sources across an organization creates a massive
storage management challenge. Purchasing and deploying the required storage consumes valuable real
estate and power (both for operations and cooling) and must be managed, backed up, and included in
disaster-recovery planning.

9 Log Management Best Practices

Automated Log Management
As the challenges of log management have grown, so have the benefits of automated log management
solutions. An appropriate log management solution provides many benefits to an organization:
 Log collection across all IT infrastructure – on premise, hosted, and in the cloud
 Sophisticated parsing of logs to enable analysis of data from a widely-varying set of log sources
 Reporting tools that provide insight into your organization’s security posture
 Tools to enable post-incident analysis of log data
 Reliable, regular review of log data that meets compliance mandates as well as security best
The cost of log management tools and services must be weighed against the internal staff time required to
attempt log management, as well as the cost of non-compliance, data loss, and security incidents.
 Log management solutions should be evaluated against the practices described in this paper:
 Does the solution provide complete log collection across all sources, in all environments?
 Is log data parsed and normalized to support the required search and analysis functions?
 Is regular log review provided that meets internal requirements and compliance mandates?
 Is data transmitted and stored securely?
 Can data be archived according to organizational retention policies, with appropriate levels of data

10 Log Management Best Practices

While compliance initiatives often drive the need for log management, there are a myriad of security and
availability related benefits as well. As for compliance, there are many governing regulations and standards,
most-notably PCI, Sarbanes-Oxley, HIPAA, GLBA, and FISMA, which require log collection, retention and
access for forensic analysis. Each of these has varying levels of “key controls” that dictate the collection,
analysis and secure archival of log data in sufficient detail for appropriate time periods.
Some of the other benefits achieved through routine log analysis are improved detection of security
incidents, policy violations, fraudulent activities, and operational problems. Logs are also useful for
establishing performance baselines, performing auditing and forensic analysis, supporting internal
investigations and identifying operational trends and long-term problems.
Whether home-grown or purchased, in-house log management solutions consistently fall short due to a
continuous supply of log data with definite resource limitations. In today’s environment, every organization
is faced with the log management challenge, though no one has idle FTEs and hardware resources to apply
to the challenge, not to mention unlimited capital budgets.
Even if you were able to collect, consolidate, and archive log data in an automated fashion, the data needs
to be protected form malicious and accidental breaches of confidentiality and integrity – not to mention
disasters whether they be natural, malicious, or accidental. Compounding this is that interpreting raw log
data via views and reports as well as supporting forensic queries is no small undertaking. Hiring and
retaining log knowledge experts is not only an impossible task, but having these experts available to
efficiently and effectively review log data on a regular basis is simply not feasible.
Considering the breadth of servers, operating systems, databases, applications, and network infrastructure
components that produce log data, coupled with the lack of standardized log formats, a vendor managed
solution is the best choice for most companies.

11 Log Management Best Practices

About Alert Logic
Alert Logic's patented solutions are the smartest choice for over-regulated businesses with underfunded IT
departments to secure networks and ensure compliance. Its cloud-powered managed solutions combine
intrusion protection, vulnerability assessment, log management and 24x7 threat surveillance, and are
designed to maximize revenue and profit opportunities for service providers and hosting partners.
Enterprises experience a solution that addresses network security and compliance requirements at a low
price point, with little dependency on IT resources. Alert Logic is based in Houston, Texas and was founded
in 2002.
Alert Logic’s on-demand log management solution deploys in minutes and includes zero maintenance, and
no hardware or software costs. With Alert Logic Log Manager, you have complete control of your log
management without the cost and effort associated with deploying and managing a log management
More information about Alert Logic can be found at http://www.alertlogic.com.

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