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LSA Worksheet

Published on January 2017 | Categories: Documents | Downloads: 13 | Comments: 0





On hearing any alarm signal all personnel will muster as instructed on the ships Muster List. In the event of an emergency, whether general, fire man overboard or other, particular duties may prevail. It is therefore necessary that all personnel are familiar with the location and operation of all the vessel's safety equipment and procedures.



Put on plenty of warm clothing; as many layers as possible, with an anorak or oilskin as the outer layer

• •

Put on your lifejacket Everyone should proceed to their muster station in an orderly manner by the most direct route. If possible, use an outside route

Proceed to your muster station as quickly as possible

Put on additional warm clothing and, if available, an immersion suit. If you do not have an immersion suit, put on oilskins or a waterproof anorak. Collect, if you can, additional fresh water in plastic containers, food, torches, blankets etc. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES should you leave your muster station without the authorisation of a responsible person.



If you have to enter the water, jump close to the survival craft so that you can board rapidly. Remember that the maximum recommended jumping height when wearing an approved lifejacket is 6 metres. If jumping from a greater height, hold lifejacket and don when in the water. Where it is possible for you to enter the water by climbing down a ladder or rope then do so, as this will lessen the 'shock' effect. Always enter the water feet first. If you have to jump into the water, use the following procedure if possible (see illustration below). - Come right to the side of the vessel - Cover your nose and mouth with one hand - Hold your lifejacket firmly with the other hand - Make sure the water below is clear - Step off clear of the vessel and bring your legs together Remember that when you enter the water in the manner described, you will go under, come up, go down again and then stabilise. You can then uncover your nose and mouth. Once you reach the survival craft, cling to it or it could drift away. Putting your arm through the grablines is better than holding on with your hands, which can quickly become numb in cold conditions. Board the survival craft as soon as you are able.

Do not damage your lifejacket, it is there to save your life. Lifejackets should be kept clean and if an inflatable lifejacket is to be used, regular checks should be made (in addition to the annual service) to ensure the buoyancy chambers remain puncture free. The tie tapes should be in good condition - if they are damaged then replace the lifejacket. Retro-reflective tape has been put on the lifejackets to aid rescuers in locating survivors in the water. A whistle and light will be found attached to the lifejacket. These may be used to attract the attention of rescuers, other survivors in the water, or survival craft. If an immersion suit is to be worn, note that some immersion suits should be donned before putting on the lifejacket (see Section 3). Where a Thermal Protective Aid is being used, the lifejacket should be put on before donning.


Insert here a copy of the relevant donning notice or notices for the immersion suits carried in this vessel.

The important factors in the use of an immersion suit are 1 2 3 that it is quickly and easily donned that it protects its wearer from rapidly losing body heat that the wearer remains buoyant (face-up) in the water. Some types of suit may require that a lifejacket is also worn. It is important that all personnel practice donning their immersion suits and also that they practice working in the suit. This is in order that they become familiar with the suit and any restriction or limitation that may be imposed on activity whilst wearing it. Ensure the suit is correctly fastened and is undamaged before entering the water. This is particularly significant if the suit is loose fitting. If incorrectly fastened or damaged, a loose fitting suit, when immersed, will fill with water and render the wearer at best immobile and at worst submerged.

Immersion suits should be carefully checked periodically. 1 Take the suit out of its storage bag and try it on. After wearing in the water, clean the suit thoroughly using luke warm fresh water. A mild soap may also be used. The suit should be allowed to drip dry. 2 Check all zippers for smooth operation. Any malfunctioning zipper should be replaced. Only the manufacturer or his authorise agent should make this repair. 3 4 5 Lubricate the zipper with paraffin wax or other approved grease. Glue tears with the manufacturers approved repair cement. Store with zipper in open position, with any straps fastened but loose and rescue harness (if fitted) undone. 6 7 Lay suit flat and roll from feet to head - cross arms- return to bag Store in a cool, dry area

It is recommended that immersion suits are inspected by an authorised service station every twelve months.


A Thermal Protective Aid (TPA) is a type of body warming bag, which may be supplied with or without sleeves. The material will, provided it remains dry, reflect about 87% of radiated body heat. Persons suffering from the effects of cold (hypothermia) may be placed inside a TPA to assist recovery. Alternatively, persons may be provided with a TPA in order to prevent them becoming hypothermic. If the TPA is large enough, a person suffering from the effects of cold can be placed inside together with another, warmer person whose body heat will be able to assist the colder person. When wearing a TPA in a survival craft where there is a possibility of capsizing, a lifejacket should also be worn.


Oars Steering Oars Crutches or thole pins c/w lanyard Grommet for steering oar Boat hooks Plugs c/w lanyard Bailers Buckets Rudder Tiller Becketed lifeline Bilge keels Hand holds (on hull) Grablines (belly bands) Hatchets Oil lamp Oil for oil lamp Matches (windproof in W/T container Mast, stays etc. Sails Compass Binnacle Compass illumination Sea anchor Painter (fixed) Painter (toggle) Painter release device Wave oil bag Wave oil Para red rockets Red hand flares Orange smoke float First Aid Kit Anti-seasickness tablets Torch & batteries Spare batteries & bulb Daylight signalling mirror Jack-knife with tin opener c/w lanyard Jack-knife c/w lanyard Tin openers Rescue quoits & lines Buoyant heaving lines Bilge pumps Whistle Fishing line & hooks Exposure cover Rescue signal card Boarding ladder

Fire extinguisher Sand bin & scoop Food rations Water rations Rain water storage De-salting apparatus Water dippers Water beakers Thermal protective aids Engine fuel Tools for engine Skates / fenders External lamp Internal lamp Searchlight Radar reflector Survival manual Immersion suits


The following list of equipment is the minimum SOLAS requirement: Buoyant oars or paddles Buoyant bailer Binnacle containing an efficient compass Sea anchor Painter attached to a release device Buoyant line at least 50 metres long for towing Signalling torch c/w spare batteries and spare bulb Whistle First Aid Kit 2 x Buoyant rescue quoits each attached to at least 30 metres of buoyant line Searchlight Radar reflector 2 x Thermal protective aids Buoyant safety knife 2 x Sponges Bellows or pump (inflatable boats only) Repair kit Safety boat hook Portable fire extinguisher 1 x Immersion suit for each person assigned to crew the rescue boat


In preparation for the launching of liferafts, care must be taken that the liferaft clears outboard hazards such as overboard discharges, rubbing bands, stabilisers etc. (see Section 5/2). 1 Ensure the painter is secured to a strong point (this may be the Hydrostatic Release Unit) and pull about 2 metres of painter out of the container 2 3 4 5 6 Remove rail if necessary Release the lashings by letting go the Senhouse Slip Ensure all clear overside Throw the liferaft clear of the vessel's side Pull out the remainder of the painter and give a sharp tug to operate the inflation mechanism 7 When the liferaft inflates (about 10-30 seconds) bring it as close to the ship's side as possible 8 Board the liferaft by ladder or rope, or from the water. Do not enter the water unless it is unavoidable 9 When survivors are aboard the liferaft, cut the painter and paddle clear of the vessel

If there is not an opportunity to manually launch the liferaft, the submerged HRU will ensure the liferaft is released.


Two people are required to prepare and inflate the liferaft and ensure the correct embarkation of survivors and lowering of the liferaft to the water. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Transfer the liferaft to a position under the davit head, or position the davit head over the liferaft Lower the release hook to the liferaft Pull the ring or shackle out of the container Open the release hook Attach the release hook to the ring / shackle Close the hook Release and tie off: Painter lines Bowsing lines Container restraining line (s) 8 9 Lift the liferaft clear of the deck to the inflation height Slew the davit outboard to the stop position

10 Inflate the liferaft by pulling the painter. Note: some liferafts are fitted with a short painter for this purpose 11 Tighten bowsing lines to hold the liferaft alongside the embarkation point 12 Board the liferaft 13 When all survivors are aboard, release the bowsing lines 14 Lower the liferaft 15 When the liferaft is about 2 metres above the water, cock the release hook 16 When the liferaft is water-borne, the hook will release automatically. If it does not, give a sharp tug on the cocking line 17 Cut or release the painter and paddle clear of the vessel If there is not an opportunity to manually launch the liferaft, the submerged HRU will ensure the liferaft is released

Open shackle flap 1 Pull out lifting shackle 2

Pull out bowsing lines 4 and secure Secure container retention line 5

Hoist container on davit and swing out board

Attach davit hook 3

Make painter 6 fast to a strong point Use bowsing lines to secure raft hard alongside The liferaft is now ready for boarding When liferaft is boarded, release bowsing lines and commence lowering Activate hook when liferaft is 2 metres above the water The hook will release automatically when raft is waterborne. Cut painter and move raft clear of ship

Inflate liferaft by pulling on painter line


Hydrostatic Release Units are designed to automatically free inflatable liferafts from their stowage's after they have become submerged. The normal method of stowing liferafts is by means of a lashing and a Senhouse Slip. There may be occasions when manual release is impossible (e. g. if the vessel were to sink very rapidly). The use of HRU is, therefore, a very desirable safety measure. How the Hydrostatic Release Unit works 1 2 Liferaft goes down with vessel At a depth of between 1. 5 and 3. 7 metres the lashing strap is released. The painter is held to the vessel by the weak link 3 As the liferaft floats free of the vessel, the painter will be pulled out and will inflate the liferaft 4 The weak link breaks due to the buoyancy of the liferaft

When stowing the liferaft there are four initial factors to be taken into account. a) Is it the best position for easy and unrestricted launching over the side of the vessel? b) Is there any danger from contamination of smoke, funnel sparks, oil, heat, trapped water or flooding? c) Does it obstruct the passageway and is there any likelihood of damage by stores being handles in the vicinity? d) If required to be float-free, will it do so without being obstructed?

Having satisfied yourself that you have chosen the best location, then the liferafts can be arranged in groups on an inclined ramp ready to roll over the side one at a time, or singly on a cradle. 1 A liferaft packed in a rigid container can be stowed without any protection beyond that by its own container. 2 Deck illumination should be provided to ensure sufficient lighting of the stowage position. 3 Any additional lashings used for transportation must be removed before the liferaft is stowed. 4 The liferaft should be positioned so the "top" is uppermost and the drain holes at the bottom of the vertical centreline. (This applies particularly to those rafts stowed on inclined ramps). Thus the seal between the two container halves will lie in the horizontal position. If possible the painter exit should face the stern of the vessel. 5 The liferaft should be securely lashed down using an approved type of lashing band and the tension adjusted by means of cordage or a bottle screw.


The free end of the painter line should be securely attached to a strong point, so that when launched the liferaft remains secured to the vessel.


Under no circumstances should the painter/operating line be pulled out from its fixed position at the exit of the container, otherwise the anti-wicking will be destroyed leading to ingress of water.


Posters illustrating the launching and boarding of liferafts should be displayed adjacent to the stowage position.


If an Hydrostatic Release Unit is incorporated the lashing system, it must be fitted exactly in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. In all cases each liferaft must have its own HRU system, even if it is stowed in multiples on a ramp.


Under no circumstances should a hydrostatic release unit be used in conjunction with the remote forward or aft liferaft.


The forward liferaft painter should not be made fast to a strong point, until required for use.

Liferafts meet certain criteria in design, quality control in manufacture and in periodic survey and service practice. SOLAS LIFERAFTS The liferaft is constructed from a rubber compound and/or a synthetic material. There are two separate buoyancy chambers or tubes, either of which alone is designed to be capable of supporting the complete liferaft with all its emergency equipment and a full complement of survivors. In SOLAS liferafts, to assist in providing protection against adverse temperatures, the floor is doubled and is capable of being inflated; the canopy is also doubled with an air gap between the inner and outer wall. The canopy is erected automatically by an arch or centre column which is inflated, with the buoyancy tubes, by a CO2/ Nitrogen charge stored in a steel pressure cylinder under the floor. The canopy, coloured orange, is fitted with rain water collection points and lights are fitted both inside and outside. Grablines are becketed around the inside and outside of the liferaft and the entrances are provided with means of assisting survivors to board. The entrances, when closed, are capable of maintaining the interior of the liferaft in a dry condition. Look-out points are provided in the canopy. On the underside of the liferaft is a righting line or ladder for use in righting the liferaft should it inflate in the inverted position, or be capsized for any reason. Some types of vessel may be fitted with self-righting liferafts. A davit-launched liferaft incorporates all the features of a SOLAS throwover liferaft with the addition of a webbing or rope arrangement which allows it to be suspended from a davit hook. This arrangement is strong enough to allow the liferaft to be loaded to its full complement of survivors and then lowered to the water.

Typical SOLAS Liferaft

An open-reversible liferaft is also manufactured from a rubber compound or synthetic material in the same way as the SOLAS liferaft. These liferafts are fitted with two buoyancy tubes, wither of which alone is designed to be capable of supporting the full complement of the liferaft and all its equipment. Unlike a SOLAS liferaft there is no canopy on an open reversible liferaft and the floor is located between the two buoyancy tubes. This means the liferaft will function correctly whichever way up it may inflate. Open reversible liferafts are fitted on passenger craft operating in limited waters and because of this the equipment pack is much reduced.


Rescue quoit and line Buoyant safety knife Extra knife (12 persons +) Bailer Extra bailer (12 persons +) Sponges Sea anchor Paddles Tin openers First Aid Kit Whistle Parachute red rockets Red hand flares Buoyant orange smoke Signalling torch Spare batteries and bulb Radar reflector Daylight signalling mirror

Rescue signal table
Fishing tackle Ration (per person) Water (per person) Drinking vessel Anti seasickness tablets (per person) Seasick bag (per person) Immediate action instructions Survival instructions Repair outfit Bellows Thermal protective aids


Many pyrotechnics contain materials which can generate considerable heat. They are safe and easy to use if handled correctly and the following points will provide some guidance as to the correct methods of use.
1 Learn by heart the purpose of the pyrotechnics you carry, how and when they should be used 2 Follow the manufacturers’ instructions exactly. Try to memorise them for future use - time saved in an emergency can save lives 3 Store the pyrotechnics in a secure, cool and dry place - but remember they must be accessible in an emergency. Ensure their location is known to all personnel who need to use them 4 It can be illegal and is foolish to use pyrotechnics for fun. They are emergency distress signals and should only be used as such 5 6 Never fire date expired pyrotechnics since performance may not be as required Date expired pyrotechnics should never be disposed of at sea. They should be landed ashore to a responsible person for disposal or as directed by ABC Marine Department 7 In the event a pyrotechnic signal should fail to operate, maintain it in the firing position for at least 30 seconds. If it has still not operated after this time remove the end caps and place it in a bucket of water or throw it into the sea. The end caps must be removed to allow water to penetrate and render the signal harmless


The following pyrotechnics are carried aboard this vessel: Parachute Red Rockets Red Hand Flares White Hand Flares Buoyant Orange Smokes

Various types of signals may be carried in the vessel and her survival craft which are described below. Only "in date" signals should be carried and the expiry dates of those pyrotechnics should be carefully noted. Some typical pyrotechnics are illustrated below and overleaf, but full instructions for the pyrotechnics carried in this vessel should be included in this section.

PARACHUTE RED DISTRESS SIGNAL provides a simple bright flare which is fired to a height of at least 300 metres and which burns while falling, the descent being controlled by a parachute at a rate of not more than 5 metres per second. The flare burns with an intensity of more than 30, 000 candela for at least 40 seconds. This rocket is used to attract attention of ships when they are at a distance, however they should not be used when Search and Rescue aircraft are in the vicinity

HAND HELD DISTRESS FLARES are designed to be capable of use in a survival craft without harm to the occupants. The signal will emit a red light of at least 15, 000 candela for a minimum period of one minute. This type of pyrotechnic is used to attract the attention of ships and aircraft and is particularly effective at night. The flare is held up into the air in the direction of the ship or aircraft and as clear as possible from the survival craft.

BUOYANT SMOKE SIGNALS are designed to float on the water while emitting a dense cloud of orange coloured smoke for up to 3 - 4 minutes. The signal is safe to use on oil covered waters and is employed to attract the attention of passing ships or aircraft during daylight hours, or during SAR operations to indicate to the aircraft pilot the wind direction at the surface. The signal should be thrown overboard to leeward after activation. It should never be operated within the confines of the survival craft.

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