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Malaysia

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MALAYSIA INTRODUCTION by Chairman, Malaysian Wetland Working Group Area: 331,800 sq.km. (Peninsular Malaysia 131,235 sq.km; Sabah 76,115 sq.km; Sarawak 124,450 sq.km). Population: 13,745,200 (1980). Peninsular Malaysia 11,426,600; Sabah 1,011,000; Sarawak 1,307,600. The Federation of Malaysia is geographically split into West Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia) and East Malaysia (the States of Sabah and Sarawak in northern Borneo). Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia is located at the southern end of the Malay Peninsula, extending from latitude l°20'N to 6°40'N and from longtitude 99°35'E to 104°20'E. To the east it is bounded by the South China Sea; to the west by the Straits of Melaka. It shares a common boundary with Thailand in the north and is separated from the island of Singapore in the south by the narrow Straits of Johor. The Peninsula's greatest length is 736 km, with a maximum width of 322 km. Its coastline extends some 1,930 km. The topography of Peninsular Malaysia is dominated by a central mountainous spine extending south from Thailand which tapers to its end near Melaka. The mountains consist mainly of raised marine sediments with granitic intrusions, the former largely eroded away. Gunung Tahan (2,190m) is the highest mountain in Peninsular Malaysia. Steep land over 150m accounts for about one third of the total land area. Lower undulating land is more extensive, with coastal plains and alluvial terraces spreading over 60 km inland. The coastal plain on the west coast is almost continuous, consisting of predominantly clayey marine and riverine sediments. The coastal plain on the east coast is narrower. It consists largely of sandy deposits, which near the coast are characterized by a series of raised beaches interspersed by shallow swamps running parallel to the coast. There is a large coastal swamp on the littoral zone of Pahang and northeast Johor. Mudflats and mangroves are restricted to certain tidal parts of sheltered river mouths. The climate is equatorial, with rain from both the northeast (November to March) and southwest (May to August) monsoons. The highest rainfall exceeds 5,000 mm and the lowest is about 1,750 mm. Variations in annual rainfall are less important than monthly variations. Only in the extreme north is there a well marked dry season, between December and March. The northeast monsoon brings heavy rains and extensive flooding to the east coast, while the west coast receives relatively little rain during the southwest monsoon owing to the sheltering effect of the mountains of Sumatra. Larger quantities of rain may fall during the inter-monsoonal periods due to atmospheric instability and convective activity, especially along the west coast. Rainfall is more evenly distributed in the southwest.

Mean daily temperatures range from about 25°C to 28°C throughout the year in the lowlands, although cooler temperatures prevail at higher altitudes. The average maximum relative humidity of the air varies between 94% and 100%, typical of the humid tropics. The flora and fauna of Peninsular Malaysia fall within the Sundaic sub-region of the Indomalayan Realm, the southern limit of the Indo-Chinese sub-region reaching the Isthmus of Kra, which Whitmore (1975) and van Steenis (1950) take as the northern boundary of what they call the Malesian botanic region (MacKinnon & MacKinnon, 1987). Sabah The northernmost State of the Malaysian Federation, Sabah, lies between 4°10'N and 7°40'N, and 1l5°lO'E and 1l9°20'E. Sabah is bounded by the South China Sea to the west and by the Sulu Sea to the east. Some 95% of Sabah's land area consists of sedimentary and sedimentary-volcanic rock formations. There is some volcanic, intrusive igneous and crystalline basement rock. Much of Sabah's interior is mountainous, dominated in the west by the Crocker Range which runs northeast to the granitic Kinabalu massif. With a summit at 4,101m, Mount Kinabalu is the highest mountain between the Himalayas and New Guinea, and dominates northern Borneo. The western coastal plain is narrow, while the eastern coastal plain is wide, with large river flood plains and coastal swamps. Davies and Payne (1982) group Sabah's physiographic regions into seven classes: coastal swamps; extensive dry or seasonally swampy flatlands; alluvial plains; lowlands with mixed relief; uplands; central highlands; and western hill ranges. The average maximum daytime temperature in the lowlands is 30°C, dropping to 25°C at night. There is little seasonal variation. There are two distinct seasons in Sabah: the northeast monsoon (December to March) and the southwest monsoon (June to November). From December to early March, the wet northeast monsoon blows across Sabah carrying heavy rain to the interior. Sabah's western coast has its least amount of rainfall during this period. The southwest monsoon blows from June to November, carrying heavy rain to the west coast. There are transitional periods between the two monsoons with little precipitation (Chua & Matthias, 1978). Sarawak Sarawak lies in northwestern Borneo between O°50'N and 5°OO'N, and 1O9°3O'E and 115°4OE. It has a single coastline 1,050 km in length along the South China Sea. The terrain is deeply intersected by rivers which generally flow in a northerly or to westerly direction from the rugged mountainous interior across the coastal plain. Sarawak borders on Brunei Darussalam and Sabah in the northeast and has a long southern boundary with Kalimantan. Geologically, Sarawak consists largely of relatively young, very deep sedimentary rocks that have been subjected to complex and localized folding, although more ancient formations, even pre-Permian, are found in the extreme west (Fitch, 1960). The State can be divided into six topographic zones (Hatch, 1982): coastal mangrove and nipa mudflats (about 1.4% of the

State); peat swamps (about 12%); recent marine beach deposits and alluvium; recent riverine alluvium; rolling and moderately steep low hills (slope of 15-30 degrees); and steep hilly and mountainous country with slopes of more than 30 degrees (about 70%). The climate of Sarawak is warm and humid throughout the year. The mean annual temperature at sea level is about 27°C with a lapse rate of 0.5-0.7°C per 100m elevation. The seasonal variation in mean temperature (1-2°C) is small compared with diurnal variation (6-10°C). The annual rainfall varies considerably both between sites and at the same site in different years. The average is about 3,000-4,000 mm per year, with extremes of 2,571 mm (at Long Semado) to 6,661 mm (at Lingga). In general, the annual rainfall is above average in the south, west and interior of the State, with drier areas in the northerly subcoastal lowlands and to the east of the Temabu Range in the northeastern uplands. In spite of the variability and unpredictability of the rainfall between years, there is an underlying seasonality in rainfall patterns. In general, high rainfall can be expected from November to February (the rainy or "landas" season), with a drier period from June to August. Seasonality is much more pronounced in the coastal and western parts of the State than in the north and interior. Summary of Wetland Situation The wetlands of Malaysia can be divided into ten major categories (Malaysian Wetland Working Group 1986). 1. Mangroves Mangrove vegetation is believed to have reached its optimal development in the Indomalayan Realm. Over 50 species are known to occur and the region probably represents the geographical centre for several genera. One species of mangrove, Avicennia lanata, is endemic to the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Mangroves occur primarily in the States of Perak, Selangor and Johor in Peninsular Malaysia, along the east coast of Sabah, and in northern and southwestern Sarawak. Some 600,000 ha remain in Malaysia, almost half of which occur in eastern Sabah. Mangroves are of great economic importance, supporting commercial fish and prawn fisheries, sustainable exploitation for timber, protecting the coastline from erosion and providing over 50 different products of use to local inhabitants. Malaysian mangroves support a variety of endangered species of wildlife such as Proboscis Monkey Nasalis larvatus, Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus, Milky Stork Mycteria cinerea and Lesser Adjutant Stork Leptoptilos javanicus, as well as a many other highly specialized species whose survival depends on the existence of the mangrove ecosystem. The principal threats to mangrove forests are reclamation for agricultural purposes, clearance for aquaculture ponds (possibly as much as 25% of Peninsular Malaysia's remaining mangroves may be cleared for aquaculture), exploitation for wood-chips (especially in Sabah and Sarawak) and other non-sustainable exploitation for timber.

2. Mudflats Intertidal mud and sand flats are extremely important wetland habitats in Malaysia. They fringe the majority of Malaysia's coastlines, and in places extend for up to several kilometers out to sea at low tide. Mudflats that are associated with major, and especially accreting, mangrove forests support the richest benthic fauna, e.g. Matang in Perak, the Kelang Islands in Selangor, and Rajang Delta (including Pulau Bruit) in Sarawak. These areas therefore represent the richest feeding grounds for migratory shorebirds and resident water birds such as herons, egrets and storks. These areas are also of major importance to marine fisheries. The principal threat is degradation and destruction of associated mangrove forest. 3. Nipa Swamps Nipa swamps are tidal, monospecific stands of the palm Nypa fruticans. Nipa occurs in association with mangroves, often lining the tidal reaches of rivers and forming huge swamps in delta areas such as Sarawak Mangrove Forest Reserve and the Klias Peninsula in Sabah. They are refuges for the Estuarine Crocodile and provide roosting areas for water birds, e.g. the egret roost at Sungei Padas Damit in Sabah. Nipa provides traditional attap roofing for local inhabitants, and in Sarawak, sugar is extracted from the nipa and then refined and distilled into alcohol. 4.Freshwater Swamp Forest Freshwater swamp forest occurs on permanently or seasonally flooded soils with over 35% mineral content, normally in a zone along the lower reaches of certain rivers. It also occurs around freshwater lake systems such as Tasek Bera. This forest type is species-rich compared to mangrove, with over 120 canopy tree species recorded at Sedili in Johor (Corner, 1978). As a result of biogeographic, microclimatic and soil factors, the species composition and relative dominance of the tree flora varies greatly between areas. The main remaining freshwater swamp forests are at Sedili Kecil in Johor, along the lower reaches of major rivers and at Tasek Bera and Tasek Cini in Pahang, along Sabah's east coast and along the lower reaches of certain rivers in Sarawak. They are of economic importance for their timber value and flood-mitigation function. They are of conservation importance for large mammal species and especially their rich flora, including Malaysian endemic species such as Kostermansia nialayana and Gneturn gnemonoides. The principal threats are conversion to agricultural use and non-sustainable exploitation for timber. Freshwater swamp forest is probably the most severely threatened wetland habitat in Malaysia, and remains a serious gap in the country's protected area system. 5. Peat Swamp Forest This habitat reaches its optimal stage of development in Malaysia, and in Sarawak in particular, where the formation and structure of peat swamp forests has been well studied. Some two million hectares remain in Malaysia, of which about 75% are in Sarawak (mainly in the First, Second, Third and Sixth Divisions). Most of the remainder is in the Peninsula (mainly in southeastern Pahang, Johor, Selangor and Perak), but there are about 60,000 ha on

Klias Peninsula in Sabah. Peat swamp forest is valuable as a sustainable timber resource and for flood-mitigation and water supply. It is of only marginal use for agriculture, yet conversion to agriculture remains a major threat, together with non-sustainable logging. Under current practice, it is predicted that all of Sarawak's peat swamp forest will have been logged before the year 2,000. Peat swamp forests are used by endangered mammals such as the Sumatran or Asian Two-horned Rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis, Proboscis Monkey and two subspecies of the Banded Langur Presbytis melalophos, P.m. chrysomelas and P.m. cruciger, both of which are endemic to the peat swamp forests of northwestern Borneo and are probably endangered. 6. Lakes Few natural lakes occur in Malaysia, the lake systems of Tasek Bera and Tasek Cini in Pahang and Loagan Bunut in Sarawak being the only major examples. A number of large reservoirs have been constructed, such as behind the Kenyir Dam in Terengganu and Batang Ai in Sarawak. Lakes provide an important fishery resource for local inhabitants, and Loagan Bunut provides breeding areas for the Estuarine Crocodile, perhaps the False Gharial Tomistoma schlegelii, and water birds. Tasek Bera and Tasek Cini support endemic flora such as Hydrostemma kunstleri, and also have considerable potential for tourism and other recreation. Water pollution from logging in catchment areas is a severe threat. The introduction of exotic fish such as Helostoma temminckii and plants such as Eichhornia crassipes can disrupt the ecosystem. 7. Oxbow Lakes Oxbow lakes occur mainly in East Malaysia along the meandering lower reaches of major rivers such as the Baram and Limbang in Sarawak and the Kinabatangan, Sugut and Segama in Sabah. They support rich freshwater fish populations, and may be fringed with thick floating mats of vegetation. The more remote oxbows provide some of the last remaining suitable breeding habitat for Estuarine Crocodiles, and as such are of great conservation importance. 8. River Systems There are nearly 100 river systems in Malaysia, the largest being the Rajang in Sarawak with a catchment of 51,000 square kilometers. The Pahang, Kinabatangan and Baram are other major rivers. Ecologists have recognized six types of rivers in Malaysia: montane streams, upland (Saraca) streams, lowland (Neram) rivers, lowland slow-flowing streams, freshwater tidal (Rasau) rivers and brackish-water or mangrove estuaries. These rivers support a diverse invertebrate and fish fauna, the highly colorful fish fauna forming the basis of an export trade in aquarium fishes. "Rasau" rivers are important breeding areas for estuarine fish and carp, but few intact examples remain in Malaysia. River systems are important for transport, fisheries and as a water source. With increasing pollution and siltation of the river systems, e.g. from logging activities, the latter values have been lost in

many rivers. The highly endangered False Gharial has been recently confirmed to breed along the Ensengai Baki in Sarawak. 9. Marshes There are relatively few open marsh areas in Malaysia. Kota Belud Bird Sanctuary, on Tempasuk Plain in northwestern Sabah, consists of freshwater marshes, together with a complex of other wetland habitats. It is of importance to resident and migratory water birds and has good tourism potential. Another marsh in Sabah, Padas Damit, supports waterfowl and Estuarine Crocodiles. 10. Wet Rice Paddies Wet rice paddies are a major, but local, wetland habitat in Malaysia. The major rice-growing areas in Peninsular Malaysia are Krian in Perak, Sekincan and Tanjung Karang in Selangor, and coastal Perlis, Kedah and Melaka; the total area under rice cultivation is about 400,000 ha. In Sabah, part of the freshwater swamps in Benoni, Papar and Kota Belud are under wet rice cultivation. At least 70,000 ha of wet rice are grown in Sarawak, including an upland area in the Upper Baram basin. Rice-fields are of major importance to resident water birds such as bitterns, herons and egrets (Ardeidae), and rails and crakes (Rallidae) as feeding and, in some cases, breeding areas. They also support large numbers of winter visitors and passage migrants such as pond-herons, egrets and shorebirds. The uncontrolled use of pesticides in some areas is a severe threat both to the ecology of the rice-fields and to human health. Wetland Research A considerable amount of research has beencarried out on the wetland ecosystems of Malaysia. The principal organizations involved and their special interests are as follows: - Universiti Sains Malaysia - hydrodynamics of Sungei Merbok mangrove estuary - survey of mangrove flora, fauna, forest structure, productivity and soils - Forest Research Institute Malaysia - phenology of commercial mangrove tree species - mangrove restoration along eroding shores - natural succession following clear-felling of mangroves - planting of mangroves - tree demography in a natural mangrove forest - University of Malaya - ecology of the common mudbank and mudflat crabs - estimating fish and prawn standing stocks in mangrove waterways (part of the ASEAN/Australian Living Resources in Coastal Areas project)

- mangrove plant community structure (part of the ASEAN/Australian Living Resources in Coastal Areas project) - prawn larval ecology in mangrove areas - Institute of Advanced Studies (IPT), University of Malaya - ecology of mangrove fish communities - water quality of Malaysian rivers - development of water quality (criteria and standards for Malaysia) - Asian Wetland Bureau, University of Malaya - surveys of swamp forests and coastal wetlands - development of conservation plans for key wetlands in Peninsular Malaysia - development of guidelines for development in wetland areas - monitoring studies of migratory shorebirds - compilation of waterbird status reports - Universiti Pertanian Malaysia - joint coastal zone resources management project with the French institute IFREMER - Fisheries Research Institute, Penang - resource survey of mangrove associated fisheries - feasibility of using mangrove areas for pond culture - World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Malaysia - conservation and management of wetland habitats in Sarawak (follow-up to a project already completed on the ecology, conservation and management of Proboscis Monkeys in Sarawak) - compilation of conservation recommendations for wetlands as a part of State Conservation Strategies Wetland Area Legislation Areas may be set aside for protection under a number of different laws. Depending on which legislation is used, there will be differences in the level of protection achieved, the agency responsible for management, and whether the protected area is under State or Federal jurisdiction. Relevant Federal Acts are the Environmental Quality Act 1974, the National Forestry Act 1984 and the Fisheries Act 1985. The National Parks Act 1980, amended in 1983, does not apply to Sabah, Sarawak and the State Parks of Kelantan, Pahang and Terengganu which together constitute Taman Negara. Water conservation legislation is covered by the Federal Land Conservation Ordinance 1960. A national wetlands policy, such as that recommended by the Malaysian Wetland Working Group (1986), has yet to be drawn up. Malaysia is not a Contracting Party to the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (the Ramsar Convention), but sent observers to the Third Conference of the Contracting Parties at Regina in 1987. Malaysia became a Party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) in 1978. Peninsular Malaysia

The Malaysian Constitution reserves rights over land matters to the respective State governments. Thus, the jurisdiction of most land matters is controlled by State decision-making bodies and land ownership is retained by the States. There is a variety of legislation at State level pertaining to wetlands and the establishment of protected areas, varying between different States. The National Parks Act 1980, amended in 1983, provides for the establishment and control of National Parks. The Protection of Wildlife Act 1972, amended in 1976, is a consolidation of the Federal laws relating to wildlife protection in Peninsular Malaysia, with provisions for the protection both of the wild fauna itself and of its habitat. The Act provides for the establishment of Wildlife Sanctuaries, managed for strict nature protection, and Wildlife Reserves, which allow licensed hunting and have no special provision for habitat protection. Control over the creation, alteration and extinction of Wildlife Reserves and Wildlife Sanctuaries lies with the State Governments, but all management is in the hands of the Federal Government. The National Forestry Act 1984 provides for the State Director of Forests, with approval of the State Authority, to classify every permanent reserved forest. The following classifications lend themselves particularly to the protection of wildlife habitat: Forest Sanctuary for wildlife, Virgin Jungle Reserve, and possibly Amenity Forest, Education Forest and Research Forest. However, these classes are not defined in the Act, and do not offer permanent protection to wildlife habitat beyond that offered by Forest Reserves per se. Local authorities have broad powers under Parts VII and XII of the Local Government Act 1976 to establish and manage public places, including parks. These powers can provide for the creation of small protected areas of natural habitat and intensively managed parks. Conservation is specifically recognized to be an essential element of land use planning under the Town and Country Planning Act 1976. The Act gives certain powers at both State and local levels to require that specified areas of land be conserved in one way or another. Other Acts may then be used to delineate an area of land to be conserved and to specify the exact use to which that land should be put (SPSSM, in prep). Sabah The principal laws concerning wildlife in Sabah are the Parks Enactments 1984, Forests Enactment 1968, Forests (Amendment) Enactment 1984, Fauna Conservation Ordinance 1963 and its amendments, and Fisheries Act 1985. All are state legislation except for the last-named which is Federal. The Forests (Amendment) Enactment 1984 classifies forests on a scale of 1-7: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Protection Forest, for soil and water conservation. Commercial Forest, for commercial exploitation. Domestic Forest, for local traditional use. Amenity Forest, for recreation, research, etc. Mangrove Forest, subdivided for different uses.

6. Virgin Jungle Reserve, for genetic conservation, but often logged. 7. Wildlife Reserve. Commercial Forest can be selectively logged under licence, but other areas cannot be logged without State authority. The amended Act strengthens legislation regarding existing Forest Reserves by requiring de-gazettement or excision to be effected by Enactment, except for conversion to a Park, Game Sanctuary or Bird Sanctuary. The Parks Enactment 1984 describes the procedure by which the State Assembly may establish Parks. Under separate legislation, all National Parks within Sabah have been amended to State Parks to ensure that they remain under State legislation rather than Federal. Bird Sanctuaries were gazetted under legislation which was repealed in 1963. They are still legally Bird Sanctuaries, but are not managed (IUCN, in prep). Sarawak The Natural Resources Ordinance 1949 (Cap.84) and its subsequent amendments require that a Natural Resources Board shall be established to give overall direction to the conservation of Sarawak's natural resources. This ordinance has not been repealed, but the Board is not presently functioning; its revival is recommended by WWF Malaysia and the State Planning Unit of Sarawak (1985). The National Parks Ordinance 1956 (Cap.127) and amendments provide for the constitution, maintenance and control of National Parks in Sarawak. National Parks are totally protected areas aimed to preserve the "animal and vegetable life ... in a natural state", and are intended to be open to the public for recreational use. Wildlife Sanctuaries are gazetted under the Wild Life Protection Ordinance 1958 (Cap.128) and amendments. They are totally protected areas of particular natural interest, protected against all forms of exploitation, including tourism. The Wild Life Protection Ordinance was formulated to make provision for the protection of wild species and their habitats. Both ordinances are administered by the National Parks and Wildlife Office of the Sarawak Forest Department, on behalf of the Director of Forests, who is also the Chief Game Warden. Forested areas can also be protected under the Forest Ordinance 1954 (Cap.126) and subsequent amendments as permanent forest estate, administered by the Sarawak Forest Department. Both Forest Reserves and Protected Forests can be exploited for commercial timber however. Thus, although they cannot be converted to other forms of land use, they may be disturbed to an appreciable extent. Management of water resources in the State will fall under a proposed National Water Resource Planning and Development Act at Federal level and the proposed Waters Enactment at State level (WWF Malaysia & State Planning Unit of Sarawak, 1985; Bennett, 1986). Wetland Area Administration Peninsular Malaysia The recent review of the protected areas system in the Indo- Malayan Realm (Mackinnon & MacKinnon, 1987) identified Peninsular Malaysia's three main wetland habitats (mangroves,

peat swamps and freshwater swamps) as unprotected by any sizeable protected areas and representing a major gap in the protected areas system. Only two protected areas contain significant wetland habitats. These are as follows: 1. Sungei Dusun Wildlife Reserve in Selangor: a 4,323 ha reserve containing peat swamp forest, under the control of the Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Peninsular Malaysia. 2. Kuala Selangor Nature Park in Selangor: a 256 ha park with artificial lakes and mangroves, under the control of a management committee. There is also a network of Virgin Jungle Reserves in Peninsular Malaysia. However, most are very small and not all are undisturbed. Wetlands are poorly represented by this system (Putz, 1978). A considerable number of wetlands have been proposed for protected area status, including Sedili Kecil, Tasek Bera, Tasek Cini, the Kelang Islands, Banjar North and South Forest Reserves, and Kuala Gula mangroves. Sabah Wetlands are also under-represented in Sabah's protected area system (Davies & Payne, 1982). In particular, the vast mangrove swamps and major river systems of the east coast need to be represented in protected areas. Protected areas containing wetlands are as follows: 1. Kota Belud Bird Sanctuary: a 12,200 ha reserve with a complex of freshwater wetlands and mangroves; the formation of a management committee has been proposed (Payne & Parish, 1985). 2. Kulamba Wildlife Reserve: a 20,682 ha reserve including nipa and swamp forest, under the control of the Wildlife Section of the Ministry of Tourism and Environmental Development, Sabah. 3. Sepilok Virgin Jungle Reserve: a 4,295 ha reserve with a small area of mangroves, under the control of the Sabah Forest Department. 4. Pulau Tiga National Park: a 15,840 ha national park with some mangroves, under the control of Sabah National Parks. Likas Swamp on the northern edge of Kota Kinabalu is being considered as a wetland reserve by the Ministry of Tourism and Environmental Development, Sabah. Sarawak The rich wetland resources of Sarawak are insufficiently represented by protected areas. The mangroves, peat swamp forest and the oxbows and marshes of the meandering lower reaches of major rivers all require further inclusion in the system of protected areas. Kavanagh

(1985a) draws attention to the need to identify good, protectable, large examples of mangrove and peat swamp forest for total protection. Protected areas containing wetlands are as follows: 1. Bako National Park: a 2,728 ha reserve containing small areas of mudflats, mangroves and peat swamp forest, under the control of the National Parks and Wildlife Office of Sarawak Forest Department. 2. Similajau National Park: a 7,067 ha park containing a small area of peat swamp forest, under the control of the National Parks and Wildlife Office. 3. Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary: a 6,092 ha reserve containing small areas of mangroves and swamp forest, under the control of the National Parks and Wildlife Office. A number of areas including wetland habitats have been proposed for protected area status; these include Loagan Bunut, Batang Ai, Santubong, Sibuti and Pulau Bruit. Organizations involved with Wetlands Peninsular Malaysia - Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Peninsular Malaysia Responsible for the administration and management of National Parks, Wildlife Reserves and Wildlife Sanctuaries; also responsible for species protection. - Department of Environment Responsible for maintenance of environmental quality. - Department of Forestry Responsible for administration and management of forestry and Forest Reserves. - Forest Research Institute of Malaysia Involved in research into forest resources and their management. - Fisheries Department Responsible for management of fishery resources, including marine National Parks. - Marine Fisheries Research Station, Penang Involved in research into fisheries resources. - Freshwater Fisheries Research Station, Malacca Involved in research into freshwater fisheries resources. - Department of Agriculture Conducts land capability surveys, soil surveys and land-use surveys. - Drainage and Irrigation Department Responsible for planning and implementation of drainage and irrigation schemes, flood control schemes and coastal protection. - State Government Departments Involved in their respective activities at State level. - Asian Wetland Bureau of the Institute of Advanced Studies, University of Malaya Involved in the conservation, management and research of wetlands and water birds in Asia. The Bureau, which incorporates the Interwader programme, has carried out extensive coastal surveys in Malaysia; it conducts wetland training courses and programmes of wetland education, and is involved in the establishment of Kuala Selangor Nature Park. - Malaysian Wetland Working Group

The coordinating and implementing body for the Malaysian Wetlands Inventory. - Malayan Nature Society An active conservation organization, responsible for the development of Kuala Selangor Nature Park. - Environmental Protection Society of Malaysia A non-governmental organization concerned with environmental protection. - Sahabat Alam Malaysia (Friends of the Earth, Malaysia) A non-governmental conservation organization primarily concerned with environmental quality; it conducts research and acts as an environmental pressure group. - Centre for Environment, Technology and Development, Malaysia An independent, non-profit organization committed to improving environmental quality. - Consumers Association of Penang A non-governmental environmental and consumer protection organization. - World Wide Fund for Nature Malaysia An active conservation organization which provides funding to conservation projects in Malaysia, conducts conservation projects, compiles conservation strategies for Malaysian State Governments (six completed to date), and assists in the establishment of protected areas. Sabah Ministry of Tourism and Environmental Development Responsible for the environmental aspects of development, and environmentally-related projects. The Wildlife Section was moved from the Sabah Forest Department to the Ministry of Tourism and Environmental Development on 1st January 1988. This Section is responsible for the conservation of mammals, birds and other large vertebrate animals throughout Sabah, except in the State and National Parks. It is also responsible for enforcement of the wildlife protection laws, and is involved in public education. Sabah Forest Department Responsible for the management of Forest Reserves. Sabah National Parks Responsible for the establishment, protection and administration of State and National Parks, the preservation of natural features including vegetation types, rare plant species and wild animals, and the provision of recreational and educational facilities. Department of Fisheries Responsible for the management of fisheries resources. Sabah Society Established to enquire into all aspects of culture and natural history within Sabah. The Society publishes material on the natural history of Sabah Sabah Foundation

Granted a timber concession to obtain funds for financing educational projects. The Foundation's policies are intended to exemplify responsible management of resources. Sarawak - State Planning Unit Responsible for land-use planning. The Unit was one of the joint compilers of the proposal for the Sarawak State Conservation Strategy together with World Wildlife Fund Malaysia. - Sarawak Forest Department Responsible for forestry and the management of Forest Reserves. - National Parks and Wildlife Office, Sarawak Forest Department Responsible for the development and protection of Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks, enforcement of wildlife laws and conducting wildlife research. - Marine Fisheries Department, Sarawak Involved in the research and management of marine resources. - Department of Agriculture The Soil Survey Division in the Research Branch is involved in research into soil types and agricultural capability classification; the Inland Fisheries Division is involved in research and management of freshwater fishery resources. - D.U.N. Special Select Committee on Flora and Fauna The Committee was established under a private member's bill in November 1984 to study and investigate the problems associated with the danger of depletion of the State's flora and fauna, and to make recommendations to the Dewan (State Parliament) and the authorities concerned on how best to solve these problems. Sarawak Museum Maintains natural history collections and conducts scientific research and educational work. As scientific advisor to the Turtle Board, the Museum is involved in the management of marine turtles and sale of their eggs. Acknowledgements Funding for the collation of information on Malaysian wetlands for the Directory of Asian Wetlands was provided by the World Wide Fund for Nature through the Asian Wetlands Inventory Project, by the Malaysian Conservation Foundation and by Petronas-Petroleam Nasional Berhad. Note on the Malaysian Wetland Working Group The Malaysian Wetlands Inventory was organized by the Malaysian Wetland Working Group, a body set up by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Peninsular Malaysia, and chaired by Encik Mohd Khan bin Momin Khan. This Group can be regarded as being made up of all the persons who have contributed to the Inventory in one way or another. The structure of the Group at its executive and functional levels is given below, along with a list of all the contributors in Peninsular Malaysia and the states of Sabah and Sarawak. Committees were established in these two latter states to coordinate the inputs received.

Persons involved in the Malaysian Wetland Working Group: Chairman - Mr Mohd Khan bin Momin Khan Deputy-Chairman - Mr Louis Ratnam Coordinator - Mr Duncan Parish The principal compilation and authorship of the text was carried out by Mr Crawford Prentice. Peninsular Malaysia - Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Peninsular Malaysia Mr Mohd. Khan bin Momin Khan, Mr Louis Ratnam, Mr Jasmi Abdul, Mr Vijay Segaran, Ms Siti Hawa and Mr Pan Khang Aun - Fisheries Department Dr Siow Kwan Tho and Ms Ch'ng Kim Looi - Department of Agriculture Mr Mansoor Abdul Rahman, Dr Y.K.Chan and Dr Abdul Bakar - Department of Environment Dr Abu Bakar Jaafar and Mr Peter Ho - Department of Irrigation and Drainage Mr Sieh Kok Chee and Mr Yee San Ngee - Department of Forestry Y. Bhg. Dato' Hi. Othman bin Abdul Manan, Mr Mok Sian Tuan and Mr Mahdan bin Bongkik - Forest Research Institute of Malaysia Dr Salleh Mohd. Nor, Dr Chan Hung Tuck and Mr Shamsudin Ibrahim - Marine Fisheries Research Station, Penang Mr Ong Kah Sin and Mr Sukarno B. Wagiman - Freshwater Fisheries Research Station, Malacca Mr Liong Pit Chong - Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Prof. Mohd. Noordin Hassan - Universiti Malaya Prof. E. Soepadmo, Dr David Wells, Dr A. Sasekumar, Dr Richard Lim, Mr F.W. Fong and Mr Sandra Segaran - Asian Wetland Bureau of the Institute of Advanced Studies, University of Malaya Mr Duncan Parish, Mr R. Crawford Prentice, Mr John Howes, Mr Richard Lansdown, Mr Rajanathan s/o Rajaratnam, Dr Charlotte Taylor, Drs Arnoud Steeman, Drs Eva Berczy and Ms Sarala Aikanathan - Universiti Pertanian Malaysia Mr Ridzwan Abdul Rahman and Mr Lai Food See - University Sains Malaysia, Penang Dr Ong Jin Eong - World Wide Fund for Nature Malaysia/SPSSM

Dr Michael Kavanagh Johor - Department of Fisheries Mr Choy Siew Kiong - Department of Irrigation and Drainage Jr S. Kandiah, Mr Chan and Mr Lee Eng Chow - Department of Forestry Dato' Leong Hing Nin Kelantan - Department of Wildlife and National Parks Mr Azmi bin Johor Melaka - Department of Irrigation and Drainage Mr Chua Heck Pee - Department of Agriculture Tuan Haji Ismail Pahang - Department of Fisheries Mr Mohd. Yusof - Department of Agriculture Mr Abdul Majid bin Bakar - Pahang Tenggara Development Authority Mr George Ai Cheh Tee - Department of Forestry Dato' Abdul Latif bin Nordin, DIMP, KMN, BSK, Mr Haron bin Haji Abu Hassan and Mr Tay Soon Puh - Department of Irrigation and Drainage Mr Ahmad Fuad Embi and Mr Chop Ai Kuang Terengganu - Department of Irrigation and Drainage Mr Neo Tong Lee, Mr Mohd. Khairi bin Selamat, Mr Chiew and Mr Mat Hussin - Department of Forestry Mr Hashim bin Saad, Mr Ahmad Zainal Mat Isa and Mr Azmi Nordin - Department of Fisheries Mr Ibrahim Saleh Sabah - Ministry of Tourism and Environmental Development Mr Charles Edmund, Mr Yeo Boon Hai, Mr Yabi Yangkat and Mr Abidin Madingkir - Sabah Forest Department, Wildlife Section Mr Mahedi Andau and Dr Junaidi Payne

- Sabah Forest Department, Research Section Mr Charles Phillipps - Sabah National Parks Mr Lamri Ali and Miss Anthea Phillipps - Department of Fisheries Mr Joseph Wong Tung Sang - Department of Agriculture Mr Donson Simm - Department of Drainage and Irrigation Mr Ho Jin Wah - Department of Land and Surveys Mr Dahlan Haji A.H. Tengah - Sabah Museum Mr Anuar Sullivan and Mr Joseph Pounis Guntavid - Yayasan Sabah Dr Clive Marsh - University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Sabah Campus Dr Siraj Omar Sarawak - State Planning Unit Mr Jamil Mukmin, Mr Jayl Langub and Mr William Jitab - Lands and Surveys Department Mr Choo Boon Huat, Mr Sim Kuan Yiew and Mr Stephen Liew - Sarawak Forest Department Dr Leo Chai, Mr Cheong E. Chung, Mr Liew Tchin Fah and Mr Lee Hua Seng - National Parks and Wildlife Office, Sarawak Forest Department Mr Philip Ngau Jalong, Mr Ngui Siew Kong, Mr Francis Gombek, Mr Moray Lewis and Mr David Labang - Ministry of Tourism Dr Paul Chai - Marine Fisheries Department Mr Albert Chuan Gambang and Cik Ainon Sabri - Department of Agriculture, Soil Survey Division, Research Branch Mr Lim Chin Pang - Department of Agriculture, Inland Fisheries Division Mr Julaihi bin Ismail, Ms Josephine Pang, Mr Boniface Litis and Mr Kumbang Juggang Department of Drainage and Irrigation Mr Paul Chin - D.U.N. Special Select Committee on Flora and Fauna Mr Lim Kian Hock - Sarawak Museum Dr Lucas Chin, Mr Peter Kedit and Mr Charles Leh - World Wide Fund for Nature Malaysia Dr Julian Caldecott - New York Zoo/WWF Proboscis Monkey Project Dr Elizabeth Bennett

WETLANDS The site descriptions are taken from the Malaysian Wetland Directory, compiled for the Malaysian Wetland Working Group and this Directory by R.C. Prentice, E.T. Berczy and A. Steeman of the Asian Wetland Bureau, Institute of Advanced Studies, University of Malaya. R. Rajanathan, Pan Khang Aun and M.B. Iles assisted in the compilation of data. The site descriptions incorporate information provided by numerous organizations and individuals as listed in the acknowledgements. Major contributions were received from the Department of Wildlife and National Parks (Peninsular Malaysia), Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, Sabah Forest Research Centre, Sabah National Parks, Sarawak Department of Drainage and Irrigation, National Parks and Wildlife Office in the Sarawak Forest Department, Sarawak Marine Fisheries Department, Asian Wetland Bureau, WWF Malaysia and the following individuals: Lamri Ali, Elizabeth L. Bennett, Chop Ai Kuang, Choy Siew Kiong, Ahmad Fuad Embi, Albert Chuan Gambang, John R. Howes, Kumbang Juggang, Richard V. Lansdown, Richard P. Lim, Boniface Anat Litis, Dato' Leong Hing Ni Dato' Abdul Latif bin Nordin, Duncan Parish, Junaidi Payne, Anthea Phillipps, Charles Phillipps, Tay Soon Puh and George A.C. Tee. The Malaysian Wetland Directory includes not only the 37 wetlands of international importance described below, but also a large number of sites which are, perhaps, of only national importance. The Malaysian Wetland Working Group intends to publish the complete Malaysian Wetland Directory in the near future, and work has already begun on updating the original report. Wetland name: Southeast Pahang Swamp Forests Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 2°32'-3°48'N, 103°05'-103°38'E; Location: stretching south from Kuantan to the Pahang/Johor border, and extending some 40 km inland from the coast, southeastern Pahang State. Area: 325,000 ha, of which at least 90,000 ha is peat swamp forest. Altitude: Generally low-lying, less than 76m, with occasional hills. Biogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 02, 07, 11 & 21. Description of site: A huge expanse of swamp forest lying on organic soils extending south from Kuantan down the coastal plain of Pahang. A limited extent of freshwater alluvial swamp forest dominated by Campnospernia macrophylla and Durio carinatus occurs between Pekan and Nenasi. The area consists of six blocks: Pahang Swamp Forest, Pekan Swamp Forest, Nenasi Swamp Forest, Rosak Swamp Forest, Rompin Swamp Forest and Endau Swamp Forest. The swamp forests can also be divided into three zones according to geomorphological features: 1. a western zone with peat in the valleys and protruding hills;

2. a central zone with deep peats, dissected into several units by rivers traversing the swamp; 3. an eastern zone with beach barriers of varying extent, penetrated by rivers at intervals. The margins of much of the area are under threat from encroachment of logging and clearance, especially near the coast from just north of Nenasi to around Rompin, and along the major rivers and roads. Between Sungei Endau and Sungei Rompin more than half of the forest has been cleared. The lower reaches of rivers are brackish; the swamp forest contains freshwater, presumably acidic. There is extensive seasonal flooding under the influence of the northeast monsoon from October to January. From 3°38'N southwards, most of the area is in class 4 of the soil suitability classification (more than one serious limitation to crop growth and suitable for a very restricted range of agricultural and forest crops). Inland areas are in class 2 (moderate limitations to crop growth and suitable for a not too wide range of agricultural and forest crops) and 5 (at least one very serious limitation to crop growth and best retained for forestry use). (From 3°38'N northwards to Kuantan, no information is available on soil suitability). Climatic conditions: The northeast monsoon in October-January brings heavy rainfall to the east coast, often with extensive local flooding. The annual rainfall is 2,000-3,500 mm. At Mersing, the monthly rainfall reaches a maximum of over 500 mm in December, and a minimum of about 100 mm in April. Principal vegetation: Predominantly lowland peat swamp forest, with freshwater swamp forest along the river levees of the lower reaches of Sungai Endau and Sungai Rompin, and lowland rain forest on raised beach barriers. Little botanical information is available. Corner (1978) has described the flora of nearby swamp forest areas. Land tenure: Mainly state owned (Pahang State Government); about 3,000 ha are private land earmarked for development. Conservation measures taken: Approximately 80,000 ha of swamp forest are included in Forest Reserves. South of Sungei Bebar, an area of about 200 ha is gazetted as a Forest Reserve. South of Sungei Pahang and west of Sungei Miang, an area of about 400 ha is gazetted as a Forest Reserve. On the southern side of Sungei Merchang, around the western border of the area, a Forest Reserve stretches inland. Between Sungei Miang and Sungei Pahang, an area of about 300 ha is gazetted as a Grazing Reserve. The Pekan-Nenasi Road State Land Forest Reserve (11 ha) comprises subseral freshwater alluvial swamp forest, disturbed by Orang Ash (aborigines). Conservation measures proposed: Measures should be taken to establish a substantial area of totally protected forest, surrounded by a buffer zone of logged forest. Survey work is required in order to identify the areas of undisturbed, good quality habitat suitable for protection. It has been suggested that specific areas of the peat forest to the west of the road be included as part of a special protection area pending the outcome of investigations into the harvesting of swamp forests. Large portions of these forests, however, will not be utilized for either forestry or agriculture and protective measures are designed to reduce the possibility of needless damage to wildlife habitats (Government of Malaysia, State of Pahang 1972). Land use: Logging and some tin-mining in places; also agricultural small-holdings. Southwest of Kuala Rompin, 230 ha have been cleared and made into rice fields. South of Kuala Rompin, an area of approximately 1,000 ha is privately owned integrated farming land (tiger-prawns and crops). Major rice-growing schemes with associated settlements have been

developed near Kuala Endau and Kuala Rompin in freshwater swamp forest areas. There has been extensive clearance of peat swamp forest for agricultural purposes south of Pekari. Two dams, respectively in Sungei Anak Endau and Sungei Pontian, were originally meant to supply water for a large irrigation scheme, but will now probably serve to provide drinking water and electricity to Rompin. In surrounding areas, there is coastal development and cultivation of rice, other crops, rubber and coconuts. The Department of Drainage and Irrigation has sixteen water collection projects, five pumping projects and one gravity-pumping project in the area, encompassing areas of 1,412 ha, 1,617 ha and 244 ha respectively. An area extending up to 6 km to the north and south of Sungei Pahang is gazetted as Malay Reserve, unahienated land to be used by Malay people. An area of about 1,500 ha around and north of Nenasi is also gazetted as Malay Reserve. Around Pekan, an area of about 1,200 ha is alienated for agricultural use. An area of about 1,600 ha (centred on 3°Ol'N, 103°ll'E) is also alienated for agricultural use; the greater part of this area is in soil suitability classification 4 (more than one serious limitation to crop growth and suitable for a very restricted range of agricultural and forest crops), and the centre is in classification 5 (at least one very serious limitation to crop growth and best retained under forestry use) (EM 19R0). Possible changes in land use: An area of 21,000 ha, north of Kuala Rompin, was originally meant to be converted into rice fields (a World Bank Development Programme). Two dams have been built for irrigation purposes and all the infrastructure is there, but under the new national rice policy, the original plan has been abandoned. Only 230 ha are now actually rice-fields; the rest of the area will probably be planted with cash crops (coconut, oil palm and maize) by Felda and Feicra. Preliminary studies are being carried out with regard to draining a piece of land between Pekan and Kuantan. Around Pekan, bunding has taken place for flood mitigation. The coastal area between Pekan and Pontian is proposed for the development of tourism, with the main development to take place at Lanjut. It has been suggested that nine small parks be established along the coast, distributed at approximately 16 km intervals. Disturbances and threats: The principal threats are reclamation for agriculture or development and non-sustainable logging. The coastal edge of the swamp forest is generally degraded, with much on-going encroachment from logging and clearance, especially from north of Nenasi to around Rompin. The southern half of Pekan Forest Reserve has been licensed out to a logging company. In the Peat Swamp Forest of Bebar (110,750 ha), a pilot logging project of 4,000 ha is proceeding. An area of about 1,200 ha (at 2°57'N, l02°22'E) is currently used for mining or has mining potential. The northern part of this, an area of about 600 ha, is covered by mining leases or mining certificates. Two small patches totalling about 200 ha (at 3°OO'N, 103°l4'E) are currently used for mining or have mining potential. At a point 16 km south of Pekan, Large Flying Foxes Pteropus vampyrus migrate daily from the forest seawards and vice versa. This attracts many sport hunters, the animals forming easy prey because of their narrow flight paths. Economic and social values: The peat swamp forest covers a large area and is situated in the environs of major townships such as Kuantan and Pekan. As such, it may well be of value in flood mitigation to these towns. It may also act as a water reservoir for irrigation schemes during dry periods. Swamp forest is a commercially valuable timber source, and is a gene pool for potential commercial plant species.

Fauna: Mammals known to occur include the Large Flying Fox, Yellow-throated Marten, White-handed Gibbon and Pangolin (Pteropus vampyrus, Martes flavigula, Hylobates lar and Manis javanica), but it is likely that most lowland rainforest mammals are present. Birds recorded include four species of hornbills (Buceros rhinoceros, Anthracoceros malabaricus, Anorrhinus galeritus and Rhyticeros corrugatus) and five species of kingfishers (Alcedinidae). Nine Lesser Adjutant Storks Leptoptilos javanicus were observed near Pekan in April 1986, and the nest of a White-bellied Sea-Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster was located in the same area. Pythons Python sp occur along the coastal strip, and freshwater turtles breed near Kampong Nenasi. Special floral values: The largest contiguous area of peat swamp forest remaining in Peninsular Malaysia, much of it still in relatively undisturbed condition. Some virgin areas of riverine freshwater swamp forest also exist in the Endau-Rompin coastal area. The area is probably of great botanical interest, but little information is available. Research and facilities: An aerial survey was carried out by the Malaysian Wetland Working Group in October 1986. References: Corner (1978); DID Pahang (undated); EPU (1980); Government of Malaysia, Pahang Tenggara Development Authority (DARA) (undated); Pons et al. (in prep-a); Putz (1978); State of Pahang (1972); Wong (1974). Criteria for inclusion: 1b, 2b. Source: Dato' Abdul Latif bin Nordin, Tay Soon Puh, Ahmad Fuad Embi, Chop Ai Kuang and Asian Wetland Bureau. Wetland name: Tasek Cini Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 3°25'N, l02°56'E; Location: south of Sungei Pahang and north of Bukit Cini, State of Pahang. Area: 202 ha of open water and 700 ha of swamp; total area of proposed Nature Reserve Park 3,800 ha. Altitude: Under 76m. Biogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 11, 14 & 21. Description of site: One of the two large natural freshwater bodies in the Malay Peninsula. It is a lake system consisting of open water, freshwater swamp and swamp forest. The lake is surrounded by primary forest rising to 641m on Bukit Cini, and making an aesthetically pleasing landscape. The area consists of 13 open water bodies draining northwest into Sungei Pahang via Sungei Cini. The area floods during the northeast monsoon (October to January). The largest part of the proposed park is classified in soil suitability class 3 (one serious limitation to crop growth and suitable for a restricted range of agricultural and forest crops). In the northeast and in the centre, a minor part is graded in class 2 (moderate limitation to crop growth and suitable for a not too wide range of agricultural and forest crops). A small area near the centre is graded as class 5 (soil with at least one very serious limitation to crop growth and best retained under forestry use). Climatic conditions: Humid tropical cl1mate, with rain from both the northeast and southwest monsoons. The average annual rainfall at Mersing is 2,500-3,000 mm; the monthly

rainfall varies between a maximum of 500 mm in December and a minimum of about 100 mm in April. There is a marked wet season from October to December or January. Principal vegetation: Submerged, floating and emergent aquatic vegetation including tall riparian stands of Pandanus spp, and floating Nymphaea lotus and Nelumbo nucifera. Other aquatic plants include Aponogeton undulatus, Hydrilla verticillata, Hydrostemma kunstieri and Utricularia spp. There is a substantial area of freshwater swamp forest. Land tenure: State owned (State Government of Pahang). The surrounding areas are owned by the State Government of Pahang, FELDA and private owners. Conservation measures taken: None. Conservation measures proposed: The area has been proposed as a Game Reserve, National Park or Nature Park Reserve. Land use: The northern and north western parts of this proposed park are gazetted as Malay Reserves. Fisheries for local use, and tourism; accommodation facilities and a restaurant were completed in 1986. In the surrounding areas, there are six irrigation projects of the Department of Drainage and Irrigation along the Sungei Pahang, as well as rubber and coconut plantations, mixed horticulture, rice-fields, coarse grassland and urban areas. Logging takes place in the water catchment area. Disturbances and threats: Logging in the water catchment area (approximately 60% logged) and further land reclamation for agriculture both result in siltation and associated water quality problems. This could seriously damage Tasek Cini's tourism potential. The area south of the lake has been licensed for logging. Areas to the north and east are Forest Reserve. In the centre of the proposed park and on the southeastern boundary, an estimated total area of 900 ha is designated as current or potential mining land. Economic and social values: Fisheries and tourism. The area is aesthetically attractive, and has good potential for further tourist development if the ecosystem remains intact. The area is also of great scientific and natural interest, and is important as a gene pool because of its many indigenous plant and animal species. Fauna: No information. Special floral values: An extremely good example of a rare habitat in Malaysia. Tasek Cini is one of only five localities in the world known to support the aquatic plant Hydrostemma kunstieri, and hosts other endemic plants such as species of Pandanus and Gnetum gnemonoides. The rare and vulnerable Aponogeton undulatus occurs at only one other locality in Peninsular Malaysia (Sungai Sedili). Research and facilities: Some botanical studies have been carried out. References: DID Pahang (undated); EPU (1980); Government of Malaysia, State of Pahang (1972); Pahang State Forestry Department (undated); Soepadmo (in press); Wong (1979). Criteria for inclusion: la, 2b, 2d. Source: Ahmad Fuad Embi, Chop Ai Kuang and George A.C. Tee. Wetland name: Tasek Bera Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 2°47'-3°09'N, 102°23'-102°47'E; Location: in the southeastern part of Temerloh, north and south of Kg. Datok, State of Pahang.

Area: Approximately 6,150 ha of wetland in a watershed of 61,383 ha. The area of the proposed Tasek Bera Nature Reserve Park is 26,500 ha. Altitude: Swamp less than 30m; watershed 75m. Biogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 14 & 21. Description of site: Tasek Bera is an alluvial peat swamp ecosystem, measuring 34.6 km at its longest and 25 km at its broadest. The watershed of this swamp lies on the plains between the main and eastern ranges of Peninsular Malaysia, within the 75m contour. The watershed is composed predominantly of argillaceous strata which weather to pale-coloured, firm, heavy textured soils. The swamp lies on a north-south longtitudinal axis, and drains northwards through a single river, the Sungei Bera, a tributary of the Sungei Pahang. The Sungei Bern originates east of the swamp watershed and passes very close to the main channel of the swamp near its outlet near Tanjong Kuin, before draining northwards into Sungei Pahang. Tasek Bera is a dendritic complex occupying extensive sinuous arms of water, and wide areas of reed and swamp forest in between patches of raised ground. A number of streams drain from the high ground into the swamp. More than 75% of the swamp area is occupied by vegetation. The benthic substrate of the swamp is peat, up to 7m deep in the littoral region. The water in the swamp moves at varying speeds, with maximum flow in the limnetic channels. The main channel draining into Sungei Bera is unable to cope with surface flow in the monsoonal seasons, especially the northeast monsoon (September-January), resulting in marked fluctuations in the water level. During these monsoons, especially the northeast monsoon, the Sungei Bern and Sungei Pahang are flooded and cause a reverse flow of water into Tasek Bern through several channels near the main outlet. As a consequence, the water level in the swamp rises between one and five meters during the northeast monsoon. The littoral zone has an average depth of 0.8m, the limnetic region 2.0m, and the channels in the swamp forest 2.5m. The maximum depth in the main channel near the outlet is 7.0m. The pH is low, averaging 5.33 (range 4.57-6.83). The pH is mainly affected by organic solutes derived from allochthonous and autochthonous sources. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate; the annual rainfall at Dunlop Estate, Bahau, was 1,987 mm in 1970 and 2,763 mm in 1971. 1971 was atypical due to abnormally heavy rains. There are two rainy seasons, in April-May and September-January, and two dry seasons, in February-March and June-August. Apparently the rainfall in the Tasek Bern watershed is patchy and sporadic, being considerably influenced by micro-climatic and local conditions. The mean air temperature is 29.5°C (range 25.2-36.8°C); the mean water temperature 26.3°C (range 23.3-31.2°C). Principal vegetation: Tasek Bera is composed of three major habitat types: (1) the limnetic or open water region which is fringed by stands of Utricularia in the surface waters (1% of swamp area); (2) the Lepironia reed and Pandanus clump stands forming part of the littoral region (32% of swamp area); and (3) the Eugenia swamp forest stands which form the major part of the littoral region (67% of swamp area). The algae have been well studied, and 328 species, varieties and forms have been described, of which 293 including 14 unidentified species belong to the Chiorophyta. Of the seven submerged macrophytes, Utricularia flexuosa and Cryptocoryne griffithii are dominant, in association with Blyxa echinosperma, Hydrilla verticillata and Potamogeton malaianus. Twelve emergent macrophytes have been recorded in the littoral region outside the swamp forest. Of these, Lepironia articulata is particularly dominant, and Pandanus helicopus and to a lesser extent Eleocharis

ochrostachys are dominant. Forests occur on islands of deep peat and are usually low, barely exceeding 28m in height. The trees have many epiphytic bryophytes, ferns and orchids. In the understorey are ferns, screw pines, sedges and mosses (Gleichenia spp, Pandanus spp, Thoracostachyum banacanum and Sphagnum spp). In the drier forests that adjoin the wetland, palms Licuala sp, Penanga sp; dipterocarps Dipterocarpus spp, Shorea spp; and buttressed species of Dillenia and Koompassia are characteristic. There are also extensive areas covered by Lalang Imperata cylindrica grasslands. Land tenure: State owned (Pahang State Government). Conservation measures taken: The wetland is situated within the Tasek Bern Forest Reserve (40,038 ha). Conservation measures proposed: The area has been proposed as a Nature Reserve Park (Government of Malaysia, State of Pahang 1972). Other proposals include: (a) further study of the community metabolism, for application to other areas; (b) study of the factors governing speciation, in view of Tasek Bera's unusually rich flora and fauna; and (c) protection of an area of at least 20,000 ha for biological purposes, to include the swamp and adjacent terrestrial systems with a zone of at least 1,000m around the swamp (Furtado & Mon 1982). Land use: Aboriginal use (fisheries and shifting cultivation), tourism and trade in aquarium fishes. The Department of Drainage and Irrigation has one irrigation project of 23 ha. There are oil palm plantations and logging operations in surrounding areas. Possible changes in land use: The Bukit Ibam forest (48,600 ha) will probably become a TFL area (sustained yield forest). Disturbances and threats: These include: (1) shifting cultivation by Selamai natives; (2) possible pollution from the Sungei Bera-Sungei Pahang and Sungei Palong-Sungei Muar river systems through reverse flow during flood conditions during the northeast monsoon; (3) forest destruction in the watershed leading to an increase in erosional load; (4) mining activities (iron extraction) causing siltation; (5) disturbance from a network of logging roads surrounding the Tasek and from several trails reaching to or near the shoreline in the south and west; (6) alteration in the local drainage patterns and increased siltation in tributaries to the west, caused by logging operations, especially road construction. Economic and social values: Water purification, scientific research, conservation education, rice cultivation, tourism and fisheries. The fishes of the Tasek Bera region are of great importance in three ways: (1) as a source of protein for the local population (30 marketable species of fish occur); (2) for sport fishing (at least 15 potential sport fishes occur); and (3) for trade in aquarium fishes (approximately 50 species of aquarium fishes occur including at least 20 of special interest). The annual export value of aquarium fishes in the whole of Pahang Tenggara is reported to be M dollar 2 million to which Tasek Bera contributes a considerable amount. Much of the area consists of productive forest, and considerable areas around the lake have the potential to become productive forest. In the northern part of the area, the drainage is generally very poor which makes it unsuitable for many crops. In the southern part, erosion hazards exist because of slopes of 6-12 degrees (EPU, 1980). Tasek Bera is one of the two major natural bodies of freshwater on the Malay Peninsula and supports a biological community which is unique within Malaysia and possibly represented nowhere else in the world. It has a high ecological diversity and supports a large number of plant and animal species, some of which are endangered and/or endemic. Thus the area is of

great importance as a gene pool besides being of interest from a scientific, recreational, educational and economic point of view. Fauna: Some 95 species of fishes have been recorded from 22 families, notably Cyprinidae, Anabantidae and Luciocephalidae. Almost all species seem to be indigenous to Peninsular Malaysia. Cat-fishes (Siluriformes) accounted for 19 species. Species of note are the endangered Schierophages forniosus and Probarbus jullieni. About 200 species of birds are known to occur, including six species of herons and egrets (Ardeidae), eight species of shorebirds (Charadriiformes) and one duck (Anatidae). The mammals include Bos gaurus, Elephas maximus, Tapirus indicus, Panthera tigris, Sus scrofa and Cervus unicolor. Virtually all of the amphibians and reptiles of Malaysian tropical swamps are present including the endangered False Gharial Tomistorna schlegelii. The zooplankton is poor because of the low pH, and only 64 taxa have been recorded. Macrochaetus collinsii (Rotifera) is a rare species particularly worthy of note. Aquatic insects and benthic animals belong to Diptera, Trichoptera, Ephemoptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata, Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera, Annelida and Decapoda. Two species of shrimps, Macrobrachium trompi and Caridina thambipillai, and one species of freshwater crab, Potamon johorense, have been recorded. Special floral values: The wetland possesses rich algal, aquatic macrophyte and swamp forest communities, and has several endemic plant species such as Pandanus spp, Cryptocoryne cordata and Gnetum gnenionoides. Scirpus con fervoides is of distributional interest. Research and facilities: A four-year research project within the International Biological Programme was undertaken jointly by the University of Malaya and the Japanese Government in order to study the primary productivity of tropical freshwater streams and swamps and the related ecosystem. Furtado and Mon (1982) and Government of Malaysia, State of Pahang (1972) have described the fishes, birds, aquatic insects and benthic animals of the swamp in some detail. References: DID Pahang (undated); EPU (1980); Furtado & Mon (1982); Government of Malaysia, State of Pahang (1972); IUCN (in prep); Wong (1974). Criteria for inclusion: 1b, le, 2a, 2b, 2d. Source: Richard P. Lim, Ahmad Fuad Embi, Chop Ai Kuang and George A.C. Tee. Wetland name: Kuala Sedill Kecil Mangroves Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 1°51'N, 104°09'E; Location: on the east coast on Peninsular Malaysia, at the mouth of Sungei Sedili Kecil, Jason Bay, Johor. Area: 433 ha. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 02, 05, 07 & 11. Description of site: Riverine mangrove extending up the tidal reaches of Sungei Sedili Kecil. This mangrove forest extends in a wide zone on either side of the river and grades into lowland swamp forest on the northern fringe. There are sandy beaches on the adjacent coast. Part of the mangrove has been cleared. The mean tidal range at Sedili Kecil is 1.8m.

Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an annual rainfall of 3,000-3,500 mm. There is a wet season during the northeast monsoon (October-January), with the wettest month December (over 500 mm). The driest month is April (just over 100 mm), during the southwest monsoon dry period. Principal vegetation: The mangroves Rhizophora apiculata and R. mucronata, up to 20m tall, are common on the waterline and in a fringe c.5m wide especially near the rivermouth. Xylocarpus granatum and Kandelia candel are interspersed amongst the Rhizophora along the river banks. Bruguiera parviflora and B. gymnorhiza occur in small quantities away from the channel edges, and Sonneratia alba grows on the waterline and along the edges of creeks. There are some mature stands of Sonneratia ovata, up to 25m tall, behind the Rhizophora zone. Nypa fruticans is the dominant plant along the channel edge about 5 km upriver. Land tenure: State owned (State Government of Johor). Conservation measures taken: Part of the area is gazetted as Forest Reserve. Conservation measures proposed: The area has been recommended as a Mangrove National Park (Ong, 1982). Land use: Collection of shellfish, fishing, local forestry, tourism on the sandy beaches, hunting, aquaculture in the northwestern part, and logging operations by Kejora (South East Johore Development Authority). Part of the area is gazetted as a Malay Reserve. There is mixed horticulture in the surrounding area. Possible changes in land use: Development for tourism and agriculture. The remaining area is mentioned as a potential aquaculture development site under the National Policy to clear 20% of the mangroves of the Peninsula for aquaculture. Disturbances and threats: Small-scale clearance of Rhizophora mangroves for local use, disturbance from hunting, possibly some disturbance from tourism at holiday peaks, and clearance of mangroves for aquaculture. Economic and social values: Fisheries, local mangrove produce and forestry (291 ha of productive mangrove). Fauna: No information. Special floral values: A species-rich mangrove forest (a restricted habitat on the east coast of the peninsula) of great scientific interest, constituting the only intact example of the mangrove/freshwater swamp forest transition zone in Peninsular Malaysia. Research and facilities: A preliminary survey and some shorebird counts were carried out by Howes et al. in 1986, and extensive floristic investigations were made by Corner from 1929-1940 (Corner, 1978). References: Corner (1978); EPU (1980); Howes et al. (1986); Johor State Department of Fisheries (1978); Ong (1982); Wong (1979). Criteria for inclusion: lb, 2b, 2c. Source: Choy Siew Kiong. Wetland name: Sedili Kecil Swamp Forest Country: Malaysia Coordinates: l°39'-l°49'N, 104°07'-104°12'E; Location: along Sungei Sedili Kecil, Jason Bay, eastern Johor. Area: c.5,000 ha. Altitude: Sea level.

Biogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 11 & 21. Description of site: An area of seasonally flooded freshwater swamp forest. Much of the area has been logged, and only an area some two km wide and six km long along Sungei Sedili Kecil is still untouched. The Sedili river descends gradually from the low hills that confine the southern end of the vast swamp of Jason Bay. It flows north, entering the southern end of Jason Bay. It drains part of the swamp with its main tributaries Sungei Bahan and Sungei Leban; other short tributaries drain the west side of the strip of coastal hills which separate the river from the sea. The flat terrain is mostly swamp forest. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an annual rainfall of 3,000-3,500 mm. The wet season during the northeast monsoon lasts from October to January, with December as the wettest month (over 500 mm). The driest month is April (just over 100 mm), during the southwest monsoon dry period. Principal vegetation: Corner (1978) has described the vegetation types in some detail. Up river from the mangrove and nipa zones, Pandanus helicopus encroaches so as almost to obstruct the river until the river narrows to 7-10m wide. Gluta velutina is scarce. Ficus microcarpa forms no continuous banks, but apparently Sungei Jawi (a tributary of Sungei Banun) is blocked by these trees. Some Shorea spp are present. Horsfieldia irya is common, with trees up to 27m in height. Pandanus affinis is very abundant in the upper reaches of mangrove and nipa, whilst Pandanus malayanus forms small thickets in the water among the taller P. helicopus and is abundant in all the darker tributaries without P. helicopus. Mesua ferruginea is exceedingly abundant, growing from the edge of P. helicopus in thickets up to 5m high, standing in the water at high tide, spreading over the river, and smothering both Barringtonia conoidea and G. velutina. In the swamp forest away from the river's edge, Lophopetalum multinervium and Palaquium xanthochymum are exceptionally abundant. Upstream beyond the P. helicopus, which ends at Sungei Lebai Kator, there seems to be no distinct riverside vegetation but continuous swamp forest. The following taxa are common: Anaxagorea sp, Aporosa frutescens, Artocarpus kemando, Barringtonia reticulata, Calophyllum spp, Campnospernia auriculata, Crudia havilandii, stilted Dillenia sp, Elaeocarpus griffithii, Eugenia cerina, E. pseudosubtilis, Ganua motleyana, Garcinia nigrolineata, Goniothalamus rnalayanus, Grewia antidesmaefolia, G. fibrocarpa, flex cymosa, Koompassia malaccensis, Lithocarpus bennettii, Melanorrhoea wallichii, Memecylon paniculatum, Morinda rigida (commonly growing on fliex cymosa), Pternandra coerulescens, Shorea platycarpa, Strombosia sp, Symplocos celastrifolia, and Vitex peralata. Land tenure: State owned. Conservation measures taken: Most of the area falls within the Chandangan Forest Reserve. Conservation measures proposed: The area in the north has been proposed as a National Park. Land use: Extraction of timber, hunting, agriculture and tourism; mixed horticulture, oil palm plantations and mining in surrounding areas. There is an aquaculture scheme near Negara. Possible changes in land use: There are plans to convert almost all of the remaining freshwater swamp forest into oil palm plantations and aquaculture ponds. Disturbances and threats: Virtually all remaining virgin areas of freshwater swamp forest were licensed out for logging in 1986 and 1987. By early May 1988, logging had already

commenced in the northeastern, northwestern and southeastern sectors. Timber extraction will be followed by total clearance for oil palm plantations by FELDA (the Government agricultural development agency), leaving only a strip of forest several hundred meters wide along the river. There is a planned aquaculture development of 320 ha along the Sungei Sedili Kecil and Sungei Bahan rivers, and a major aquaculture project (1,000 ha) has been proposed by Unilever for the northeastern corner. There is some hunting in swamp forest to the south of Sungei Sedili Kecil, and land is being reclaimed for agriculture. The whole area between I°36'N and 1°44'N is currently being mined or could be mined in the future. Economic and social values: The swamp forest has considerable timber value; it is important in flood mitigation and is of great scientific interest. Fauna: No information. Special floral values: Pristine freshwater swamp forest such as this is a threatened habitat in Malaysia. The Sedili Kecil Swamp Forest is therefore important as a plant gene pool. The area is of scientific interest for its great diversity of plant species and wide range of vegetation types. Species of particular interest include Cratoxylon arborescens and Palaquium xanthochymum. Research and facilities: Extensive floristic investigations were made by Corner from 1929-1940 (Corner, 1978). References: Corner (1978); EPU (1980); Howes et al. (1986); Johor State Department of Fisheries (1978); Wong (1979). Criteria for inclusion: lb. 2b. Source: Dato' Leong Hing Nm and Choy Siew Kiong. Wetland name: Klang Islands Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 2°53'-3°04'N, 1O1°13'-1O1°24'E; Location: 50 km southwest of Kuala Lumpur, Selangor State. Area: c.23,000 ha of mangrove islands, tidal mudflats and channels. Altitude: Sea level. Blogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 03, 06 & 07. Description of site: A group of mangrove-covered islands and associated intertidal mudflats in the estuaries of the Sungei Kiang and Sungei Langat, on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The seven major islands are treated separately below. Climatic condition: None Principal vegetation: None Land tenure: None Conservation measures taken: None Conservation measures proposed: None Land use: None Disturbances and threats: None Economic and social values: None Fauna: None Special floral values: None Research and facilities: None

References: None Criteria for inclusion: None Source: None Wetland name: Pulau Ketam Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 3°00'-3°05'N, 101°11'-101°17'E; Location: one of the westernmost of the Klang Islands, 50 km southwest of Kuala Lumpur, Selangor State. Area: c.4,000 ha (2,400 ha of mangrove forest and 1,600 ha of mudflats). Altitude: Sea level. Blogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 03, 06 & 07. Description of site: A mangrove island in the estuaries of Sungei Klang and Sungei Langat, with associated mudflats extending to the north and west. The water is brackish due to the influx of riverine water (from Sungei Klang, Sungei Langat and several other rivers) flowing into marine waters. The mean tidal variation at Pelabuhan Klang is 4.1m. The whole area is in soil suitability class 4 (more than one serious limitation to crop growth and suitable for a very restricted range of agricultural and forest crops). Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate similar to Kuala Lumpur where the average annual rainfall is under 2,000 mm. The driest month is January (120 mm), and the wettest April (280 mm). Principal vegetation: The dominant mangrove species are Acanthus ilicifolius, Acrostichum aureum, Avicennia alba, A. marina, Bruguiera cylindrica, Nypa fruticans, Rhizophora apiculata, R. mucronata and Sonneratia alba. Land tenure: No information. Conservation measures taken: None. Conservation measures proposed: Silvius et al. (1987) have recommended that the undisturbed southwest side of the island be made into a Wildlife Sanctuary. The areas currently being logged should be managed as a Forest Reserve on a sustainable yield basis with a rotation period of 25-30 years. SPSSM (in prep) recommends that the mudflats off Pulau Ketam and Pulau Tengat should be seriously considered for Marine Park status. Land use: Logging, mostly in the northern and eastern parts of the island. There is a major fishery to the north of Pulau Ketam; the crab Scylla serrata is harvested and there are some floating cage-culture fish farms. Possible changes in land use: The Brackishwater Fisheries Research Centre of the Fisheries Research Institute has drawn up plans to develop aquaculture in the area. The development would involve the conversion of 1,016 ha of mangrove forest to marine prawn and fishponds, leaving a 200 meter wide mangrove buffer zone along the northern and northwestern sides and a 1,000 meter wide buffer zone along the southern and southeastern coasts of the island. Disturbances and threats: Uncontrolled logging, oil pollution and heavy hunting pressure. The latter was probably responsible for the disappearance of the former heron colony. Economic and social values: The mangrove ecosystem maintains a rich fishery (prawns and marine fishes), which supports a major fishing village and several cage-culture fish farms.

Fauna: The island supports large numbers of migratory shorebirds. The total shorebird population in early October 1985 was estimated to be 7,000 birds of at least 14 species. The most abundant were Numenius phaeopus (685) and Tringa totanus (618). One Limnodromus semipalmatus was present at this time. The maximum count of Leptoptilos javanicus has been 18, making Pulau Ketam the most important site for this stork in Selangor. The island once held a breeding colony of herons and egrets, but this has disappeared, presumably as a result of heavy hunting pressure. However, the potential for breeding waterfowl still exists. Some 900 Sterna hirundo were recorded in mid November 1985. The mammalian fauna has not been investigated, but it is likely that Macaca fascicularis and Presbytis cristata are present. Several species of crabs are present, including Scylla serrata. Special floral values: None known. Research and facilities: Aerial and ground surveys of the shorebird populations and vegetation have been carried out by Silvius et al. (1987). References: EPU (1980); Silvius et al. (1987); SPSSM (in prep); Wong (1974). Criteria for inclusion: lb. 2b, 2c, 3b. Source: Asian Wetland Bureau. Wetland name: Pulau Tengah Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 2°54'-3°0l'N, lO1°11'-1O1°16'E; Location: one of the westernmost of the Klang Islands, 50 km southwest of Kuala Lumpur, Selangor State. Area: Forest Reserve recorded as 597 ha, but in reality much larger because of rapid accretion; also approximately 2,000 ha of intertidal mudflats and sand flats. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 03, 06 & 07. Description of site: A mangrove island in the estuaries of Sungei Klang and Sungei Langat, with extensive adjoining mudflats and sand flats to the west and south. The island is the only known site in Peninsular Malaysia with a large sandy mudflat supporting a relatively high benthic biomass. This is the reason for its importance as a feeding area for migratory shorebirds. The mangrove is accreting in a generally southwesterly direction, and is in good condition. There is some evidence of erosion along the eastern side. A salinity of 30 p.p.t. has been recorded in tidal water to the southwest of Pulau Tengah, and a salinity of 10-20 p.p.t. in puddles on the flats (Sasekumar & Chong, 1986). The mean tidal variation at Pelabuhan Klang is 4.1m. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate similar to Kuala Lumpur, where the average annual rainfall is under 2,000 mm. The driest month is January (120 mm), and the wettest April (280 mm). Principal vegetation: A major part of the southern half of the island consists mainly of Sonneratia alba and Avicennia marina forest. A. marina is a pioneering species, rapidly accreting over the adjoining southwestern mudflats. Rhizophora mucronata and R. apiculata dominate elsewhere. Other species of mangrove present include Bruguiera parviflora and Avicennia alba. Pulau Tengah is unusual in that Rhizophora takes over from Avicennia, whereas at other sites in Peninsular Malaysia (e.g. Matang), Bruguiera cylindrica grows up

in degenerating Avicennia areas to form a stable climax maritime forest (Watson, 1928; Silvius et al, 1987). Land tenure: State owned. Conservation measures taken: The northern part of the island is a State Forest Reserve (Pulau Tengah Forest Reserve; recorded as 597 ha). The newly accreted section of the southern part, formed since 1972, is unprotected. Conservation measures proposed: The present undisturbed vegetated area (non-productive forest) on the south side of Pulau Tengah should be protected as Virgin Jungle Reserve. This reserve should include the creeks dissecting the area, and the mudflats and sand flats surrounding the forest should be fully protected. The best protection might be afforded by Bird Sanctuary or Game Reserve status. Logged areas and other parts of the designated Production Forest should be managed on a sustainable yield basis (Silvius et al, 1987). SPSSM (1987a) recommends that under no circumstances should conversion to brackish water aquaculture ponds or agriculture be allowed on Pulau Tengah. Forest Reserve status should be maintained, with a Virgin Jungle Reserve in the southern third of the island. Tourism potential should be assessed in conjunction with wildlife considerations. SPSSM (in prep) recommends that the mudflats off Pulau Ketam and Pulau Tengah should be serious considered for Marine Park status. Land use: The island is uninhabited. All mangrove areas are under Forest Reserve status as production forest. There is recent evidence of pole-cutting (SPSSM, 1987a). The area is used for fishing, harvesting of the edible crab Scylla serrata, and collection of mangrove products. There is a considerable amount of cage-culture off the eastern side of the island, involving Lutianus johni, Lates calcarifer and Epinephelus sexfasciatus, as well as mussels Mytilidus viridus (SPSSM, 1987a). Possible changes in land use: None known. SPSSM (1987a) makes recommendations regarding the conservation issues associated with various potential changes in land use, including aquaculture, agriculture and tourism. Disturbances and threats: Uncontrolled logging and oil pollution from discharges or traffic accidents in Singapore or the Straits of Malacca. Economic and social values: No information. Fauna: Pulau Tengah is one of the most important staging and wintering areas for shorebirds, particularly Limosa lapponica and Charadrius leschenaultii, in Peninsular Malaysia. Some 26 species of shorebirds have been recorded, and as many as 14,000 birds may be present at one time. Almost 13,000 shorebirds were counted in early October 1985 during the autumn migration, and some 10,000-12,000 were present in January and February 1986. The principal species are Calidris ferruginea (maximum 3,584), Charadrius leschenaultii (maximum 3,094) and Venus cinereus (maximum 2,303). Up to 550 Limosa lapponica have been recorded; this species is rare elsewhere in Malaysia (except for nearby Pulau Ketam). The sandy substrate attracts C. leschenaultii in greater densities than elsewhere on the Peninsula, where C. mongolus is usually more abundant. Other common waders include Tringa totanus, Numenius phaeopus and Pluvialis squatarola. The sandy mudflat is an important roosting area for terns, seven species of which have been recorded. The principal species are: Sterna albifrons (maximum 750) S. hirundo (maximum 225) S. bergii (maximum 125)

S. bengalensis (maximum 100) Hydroprogne caspia and Sterna saundersi have been observed in very small numbers. The roosting flocks of S. bergii and S. bengalensis represent more than 50% of the known Malaysian wintering populations of these species. The island is a potential breeding area for Leptoptilos javanicus which is regularly observed on mudflats to the west. Up to 18 Egretta sacra and 26 E. garzetta have been recorded during the migration seasons and in winter. Mammals include the Long-tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis, and reptiles include the Mangrove Snake Cerberus rynchops. There is a high benthic biomass in the mudflats. Bivalves include Glauconome virens and species of Solen, Tellina, Anadara and Meretrix. Hermit crabs and other crab species include Scylla serrata, Dotillopsis brevisarsis, Macrophthalmus sp and Ilyoplax sp; gastropods include Cerithidea cingulata, Natica maculosa and Nassarius spp. Special floral values: One of the few undisturbed areas which has the complete spectrum of natural succession stages of estuarine mangrove vegetation from Avicennia marina through Sonneratia alba to Rhizophora forest. It is a particularly good example of the Indo-Malayan estuarine mangrove forest. Research and facilities: Faunal and floral surveys have been carried out by Silvius et al. (1987). Sasekumar and Chong (1986) have studied the invertebrates. References: Sasekumar & Chong (1986); Silvius et al. (1987); SPSSM (1987a & in prep); Watson (1928); Wong (1974). Criteria for inclusion: lb. 2b, 2c, 3a. Source: Asian Wetland Bureau and Forest Research Institute of Malaysia. Wetland name: Pulau Lumut Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 2°53'-3°00'N, 101°17'-10l°22'E; Location: the innermost of the Kiang Islands, approximately 50 km southwest of Kuala Lumpur, Selangor State. Area: Original area of Pulau Lumut Forest Reserve 6,258 ha; 4,559 ha remainded in September 1987, with several blocks planned for excision. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 03, 06 & 07. Description of site:A mangrove island in the estuaries of Sungei Klang and Sungei Langat, with a narrow fringe of associated mudflats at the southwestern tip. The waters surrounding the island are brackish because of the inflow of riverine water from Sungei Kiang, Sungei Langat and several other rivers. The mean tidal variation at Pelabuhan Kiang is 4.1m. Almost the whole of the island is classified in soil suitability class 4 (more than one serious limitation to crop growth and suitable for a very restricted range of agricultural and forest crops). About 1,600 ha in the centre of the island are classified in soil suitability class 2 (moderate limitation to crop growth and suitable for a not too wide range of agricultural and forest crops). Climatic conditions:Humid tropical climate similar to Kuala Lumpur. The average annual rainfall over the northern half of the island is 2,000-2,500 mm, that over the southern half, under 2,000 mm. The driest month is January (120 mm) and the wettest April (280 mm).

Principal vegetation:Mangrove forest dominated by Rhizophora apiculata, Bruguiera parviflora, with smaller areas of Ceriops tagal, Bruguiera gymnorhiza and B. caryophylloides. Land tenure: No information. Conservation measures taken: The island is a Forest Reserve. Conservation measures proposed: None Land use:Harvesting of mangrove products and fishing. Some small areas in the eastern and southeastern parts of the island are alienated for agricultural purposes. These areas include approved applications and land allocated for agricultural schemes in course of development, but exclude land held on temporary occupation licenses. The central part of the island is mapped as a coconut-producing area. Possible changes in land use:Part of the island is to be converted for agricultural uses and housing. Disturbances and threats: General over-exploitation of the mangrove resources, and logging exploitation followed by conversion to agricultural land. Economic and social values:The mangroves sustain a major local fishery and are exploited for a variety of products, e.g. timber poles and charcoal. Fauna: A staging and wintering area for a wide variety of shorebirds typical of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, and also a site for several egrets (Egretta spp) and kingfishers (Alcedinidae). No information is available on the mammals, but it is likely that Macaca fascicularis and Presbytis cristata are present. Boliopthalmus sp and Periopthalmus sp are common, and Varanus salvator and Cerberus rynchops may occur. The rich invertebrate fauna includes a wide variety of cockles, oysters, crabs and prawns. Special floral values: None known. Research and facilities: None References:Chan (1986); Engku Abu Bakar bin Engku Habit (1978); EPU (1980); Wong (1974). Criteria for inclusion: 0. Source: Pan Khang Aun. Wetland name: Pulau Klang Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 2°57'-3°05'N, lOl°15'-l0l°20'E; Location: the most northerly of the Klang Islands, approximately 50 km southwest of Kuala Lumpur, Selangor State. Area: Pulau Klang Forest Reserve 8,785 ha; increasing due to accretion. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 03, 06 & 07. Description of site: A mangrove island in the estuaries of Sungei Kiang and Sungei Langat, with associated mudflats extending north and southwest. The surrounding waters are brackish because of the inflow of riverine water from Sungei Klang, Sungei Langat and other rivers. The mean tidal variation at Pelabuhan Klang is 4.1m. The whole area has been classified in soil suitability class 4 (more than one serious limitation to crop growth and suitable for a very restricted range of agricultural and forest crops).

Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate similar to Kuala Lumpur. The average annual rainfall is 2,000-2,500 mm in the northern part of the island and under 2,000 mm in the southern part. The driest month is January (120 mm), and the wettest April (280 mm). Principal vegetation: Mangrove forest. Land tenure: State owned. Conservation measures taken: The island is a Forest Reserve (8,785 ha). Conservation measures proposed: Compartment 1 3 has been proposed for Virgin Jungle Reserve status as a good example of island mangrove forest (older than on Pulau Tengah). Land use: Fishing and harvesting of mangrove products. Disturbances and threats: Over-exploitation of mangroves by illegal loggers is a major problem. There is also some oil and other water pollution. Economic and social values: The mangrove forest sustains a very important local fishery and is a source of timber poles and charcoal. Fauna: The area probably supports a considerable number of shorebirds typical of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, but no information is available. It is likely that Macaca fascicularis, Presbytis cristata, Varanus salvator and Cerberus rhynchops are present on the island. Special floral values: An excellent example of island mangrove forest. Compartment 13 contains forest, which is older than that on Pulau Tengah and shows a different succession (Soo, 1979). Research and facilities: Compartment 13 has been a particularly important site for research and student training for well over a decade (Soo, 1979). The Forest Research Institute of Malaysia maintains study plots on the natural succession of Rhizophora forest following clear-felling. References: Coordinating Committee on Mangrove Research (1982); EPU (1980); Soo (1979); SPSSM (in prep); Wong (1974). Criteria for inclusion: 0. Source: See references. Wetland name: Pulau Selat Kering Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 2°55'-2°59'N, 1O1°13'-1O1°16'E; Location: one of the Klang Islands, between Pulau Tengah, Pulau Che Mat Zin and Pulau Pintu Gedong, about 50 km southwest of Kuala Lumpur, Selangor State. Area: 1,220 ha. Approximately one third intertidal mudflats and two thirds mangrove forest. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 03, 06 & 07. Description of site: A mangrove island in the estuaries of Sungei Klang and Sungei Langat with extensive intertidal mudflats to the north and west. The water is brackish because of inflow of river water from Sungei Kiang, Sungei Langat and several other rivers. The tidal variation at Pelabuhan Klang is 4.1m. The whole area has been classified in soil suitability class 4 (more than one serious limitation to crop growth and suitable for a very restricted range of agricultural and forest crops).

Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate similar to Kuala Lumpur, with an average annual rainfall of under 2,000 mm. The driest month is January (120 mm), and the wettest April (280 mm). Principal vegetation: Mangrove forest. Land tenure: No information. Conservation measures taken: The island is a Forest Reserve. Conservation measures proposed: None Land use: Fishing and extraction of timber for poles and charcoal. Disturbances and threats: Clearance of the area for development, over-exploitation of the mangrove resources, oil pollution and other water pollution. Economic and social values: The mangrove forest sustains a very important local fishery and provides timber for poles and charcoal. Fauna: The island probably supports a considerable number of shorebirds during the migration seasons and northern winter, but no data are available. Special floral values: No information. Research and facilities: None References: EPU (1980); Wong (1974). Criteria for inclusion: 0. Source: See references. Wetland name: Pulau Pintu Gedong Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 2°54'-2°57'N, 101°13'-101°16'E; Location: one of the Kiang Islands, south of Pulau Selat Kering, Selangor State. Area: c.1,115 ha, including 600 ha of mangrove forest and 515 ha of intertidal mudflats. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 03, 06 & 07. Description of site: A mangrove island in the estuaries of Sungei Klang and Sungei Langat, with extensive adjacent mudflats to the west and south. The water is brackish because of inflow of river water from Sungei Klang, Sungei Langat and several other rivers. The mean tidal variation at Pelabuhan Klang is 4.1m. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate similar to Kuala Lumpur, where the average annual rainfall is under 2,000 mm. The driest month is January (120 mm) and the wettest, April (280 mm). Principal vegetation: Mangrove forest. Land tenure: No information. Conservation measures taken: The island is a Forest Reserve. Conservation measures proposed: None Land use: Fishing and exploitation of mangroves for poles and charcoal. Disturbances and threats: Over-exploitation of the natural resources, forest clearance, oil pollution and other water pollution. Economic and social values: The mangrove forest sustains a very important local fishery, and provides timber for poles and charcoal.

Fauna: A staging and wintering area for a variety of shorebirds typical of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Special floral values: No information. Research and facilities: None References: Wong (1974). Criteria for inclusion: 0. Source: See references. Wetland name: Pulau Che Mat Zin Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 2°55'-2°59'N, 101°16'-lOl°19'E; Location: one of the Klang Islands, between Pulau Selat Kering, Pulau Klang and Pulau Lumut, Selangor State. Area: c.1,338 ha; mostly mangroves with c.50 ha of intertidal mudflats. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 03, 06 & 07. Description of site: A mangrove island in the estuaries of Sungei Kiang and Sungei Langat, with some intertidal mudflats to the west and east. The water is brackish because of the inflow of fresh water from Sungei Klang, Sungei Langat and several other rivers. The mean tidal variation at Pelabuhan Klang is 4.1m. The whole area has been classified in soil suitability class 4 (more than one serious limitation to crop growth and suitable for a very restricted range of agricultural and forest crops). Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate similar to Kuala Lumpur, where the average annual rainfall is under 2,000 mm. The driest month is January (120 mm) and the wettest, April (280 mm). Principal vegetation: Mangrove forest. Land tenure: No information. Conservation measures taken: The island is a Forest Reserve. Conservation measures proposed: None Land use: Fishing and exploitation of mangroves for timber poles, charcoal and other mangrove products. Disturbances and threats: Over-exploitation and clear-felling of mangroves, oil pollution and other water pollution. Economic and social values: The mangrove forest sustains a very important local fishery and provides timber for poles and charcoal. Fauna: A staging and wintering area for species of shorebirds typical of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Special floral values: No information. Research and facilities: None References: EPU (1980); Wong (1974). Criteria for inclusion: 0. Source: See references.

Wetland name: Kapar Forest Reserve Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 3°00'-3°09'N, 101°18'-101°24'E; Location: north of Port Kiang and about 40 km west of Kuala Lumpur, Selangor State. Area: Originally 5,717 ha; reduced to 3,836 ha by September 1987, with further excisions planned. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 02 & 07. Description of site: A coastal stretch of predominantly mangrove forest, inundated at high tide. The area is dissected by an extensive network of creeks and rivulets, which join the main channels of the Sungei Che Awang and Sungei Puloh. These rivers drain fresh water entering the area from the eastern side. The eastern and southern sections of the Forest Reserve have been reclaimed by bund construction and drainage for oil palm plantations, port development, housing and industrial estates. The water is brackish due to the inflow of fresh water from Sungei Kapar Kecil, Sungei Che Awang, Sungei Kiang, Sungei Puloh and several other rivers. The water quality is good (low sediment load), with Secchi disc measurements of 1.1-1.4m at high tide and 0.5-0.9m at low tide. The mean tidal variation at Pelabuhan Klang is 4.1m. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate similar to Kuala Lumpur, with an average annual rainfall of under 2,000 mm. The driest month is January (120 mm) and the wettest, April (280 mm). Principal vegetation: Mangrove forest dominated by Avicennia alba, Sonneratia alba and Rhizophora apiculata. Other species include R. mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, Bruguiera gyranorhiza, B. cylindrica, B. parviflora, Ceriops tagal, Excoecaria agallocha, Lumnitzera spp, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Acanthus ebracteatus, A. ilicifolius, Thespesia populacea, Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea, Ipomoea pescaprae, Zoysia matrella, Acrostichum aureum and Nypa fruticans. There are coconut plantations and mixed horticulture in adjacent agricultural areas. Land tenure: No information. Conservation measures taken: Some 95% of the area is Forest Reserve. Conservation measures proposed: The Asian Wetland Bureau has made a number of recommendations, as follows: 1. An area of approximately 2,800 ha inside the Kapar Forest Reserve and outside that claimed for the present Selangor State Development Authority PKNS development plan should be re-gazetted as some form of amenity reserve. This area should be sufficient to safeguard the mangroves for fisheries and wildlife, whilst allowing development of tourism and education projects. 2. Projects for the development of the area for tourism and education should be carefully planned and should take into account the following: (a) impact of the development and use of the area; (b) nature conservation interests; (c) zoning of activities within the area; (d) development of interpretative and educational activities; (e) environmental monitoring such as water acidity testing. 3. No further reclamation should be undertaken in the area and the recommendations of the Kiang Draft Structure Plan (Selangor State Government, 1986) should be strictly followed.

4. Discharge of effluents containing substances such as toxic chemicals, detergents, oil palm effluents, pesticides and herbicides into the Sungei Puloh and Sungei Che Awang should be strictly forbidden. 5. One or more sites in Kapar Forest Reserve within the area of scientific importance (e.g. north of Sungei Sementa Besar) should be gazetted as Virgin Jungle Reserve. It is especially important that as much as possible of the area between Sungei Perepat and Sungei Sementa Kecil be set aside for education and research, in view of the history of research by the University of Malaya in this area (SPSSM, in prep; Soo, 1979). Land use: Fishing, forestry and scientific research. Possible changes in land use: There are plans to excise several blocks of the Forest Reserve (SPSSM, in prep). Disturbances and threats: Reclamation for agriculture and housing, and illegal timber extraction. Some 1,200 ha of forest are to be cleared for industrial and housing developments. The construction of bunds is affecting the hydrology of the area, and there has been some pollution from industrial activities nearby. The area will become less attractive for recreational and educational projects as a result of these developments (Interwader, 1986). Studies by Universiti Pertanian Malaysia have revealed high levels of lead, manganese, iron and mercury in the Klang estuary (Law & Singh, 1986 & 1987). Some of the extremely important research areas are already being disturbed by major cutting and clearance for power lines (SPSSM, in prep). Economic and social values: The Forest Reserve is of great importance to commercial fisheries and has a high potential value for sustainable yield forestry. It also has considerable potential for conservation education, recreation and tourism. Fauna: Over 100 species of marine fishes have been recorded. The area supports a diverse avifauna; 62 species of water birds are known to occur including 41 species listed under Schedule 3 of the Protection of Wildlife Act 1972 as totally protected wild birds. Noteworthy species include Ixobrychus cinnamomeus, Egretta alba, Leptoptilos javanicus, Haliaeetus leucogaster and four species of kingfishers (Alcedinidae). Mammals include Macaca fascicularis and Presbytis cristala; Lutra perspicillata, Felis bengalensis and Sousa plumbea probably occur. The Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus and monitor lizard Varanus salvator may occur in the area, but their presence has yet to be confirmed. Invertebrates include at least eight genera of crabs. Special floral values: Kapar Forest Reserve is the largest mainland mangrove forest in Selangor. It remains in good condition, and contains most of the vegetation types typical of Peninsular Malaysia. It is thus of special value for maintaining the genetic and ecological diversity of the region. Research and facilities: Certain parts of Kapar Forest Reserve have a long history of scientific research on the mangrove ecosystem, carried out by the University of Malaya and other bodies. The area between Sungei Perepat and Sungei Sementa Kecil, and the area north of Sungei Sementa Besar, are particularly important research sites. References: Aikanathan (1986); Aparow Sannasi (1977); Bahrim Ibrahim (1982); Ibrahim bin Suhib (1983); Interwader (1986); Kuthubutheen (1984); Law & Singh (1986 & 1987); Lee et a!. (1984); Leh & Sasekumar (1984); Lim (1969); MacIntosh (1976 & 1984); Ong & Sasekuinar (1980); Selangor State Government (1986); Seow & Broom (1984); Silvius et al. (1987); Soo (1979); SPSSM (in prep); Wong (1974). Criteria for inclusion: 1b, 2b, 2c.

Source: Asian Wetland Bureau, University of Malaya and SPSSM. Wetland name: Kuala Selangor Mangrove Forest Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 3°15'-3°27'N, lOl°08'-lOl°18'E; Location: between Sungei Tengkorak in the north and Sungei Buloh in the south, north and south of Kuala Selangor, Selangor State. Area: c.5,760 ha. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 01, 02, 06, 07, 08 & 11. Description of site: A coastal belt of mangrove forest with extensive intertidal mudflats, on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia north and south of Kuala Selangor. The two main areas of mangrove forest and a recently established Nature Park at Kuala Selangor are described separately below as sites 8a, 8b and 8c. Climatic condition: None Principal vegetation: None Land tenure: None Conservation measures taken: None Conservation measures proposed: None Land use: None Disturbances and threats: None Economic and social values: None Fauna: None Special floral values: None Research and facilities: None References: None Criteria for inclusion: None Source: None

Wetland name: Mangrove Forest North of Kuala Selangor Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 3°21 '-3°27'N, 101'08'-101'14'E; Locations: between Kuala Selangor and Sungei Tengkorak, Selangor State. Area: Over 3,000 ha, mainly mudflats; Banjor North Forest Reserve, 268 ha in September 1987 (reduced from an original 2,662 ha). Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 01, 02, 06, 07 & 11. Description of site: A coastal fringe of mangrove forest with extensive intertidal mudflats, rapidly accreting near Kuala Selangor and stable or eroding in the north. The median tidal range at Kuala Selangor is 3.8m. The whole area has been classified in soil suitability class 4

(more than one serious limitation to crop growth, and suitable for a very restricted range of agricultural and forest crops). Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an average annual rainfall of less than 2,000 mm. The wettest months are April and October-December, the driest, January-February and July. Rain comes with both the northeast and southwest monsoons, although the latter is mitigated by the mountains of Sumatra. Principal vegetation: Good quality mangrove forest typical of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Land tenure: State owned (State Government of Selangor). Conservation measures taken: A coastal fringe of mangroves 500-l,000m wide has been gazetted as a State Forest Reserve (the Banjar North Forest Reserve). By September 1987, the area of the reserve had been reduced from an original 2,662 ha to only 268 ha (SPSSM, in prep). Newly accreting mangrove and mangroves in the north near Sungei Tengkorak are not included in the Forest Reserve. Conservation measures proposed: The area has been proposed as a non-exploitable forest reserve for wildlife conservation purposes, to link up with the Kuala Selangor Nature Park to the south. The forest class "Forest Sanctuary for Wild Life" would be suitable for the purpose. Possible impacts on mudflats should always be considered in environmental impact assessments of proposed developments that may impinge on riverine or coastal areas (SPSSM, in prep). Land use: Fishing, harvesting of cockles and forestry; coconut plantations with some mixed horticulture adjacent to the bund. Disturbances and threats: The wetland is threatened by proposed aquaculture schemes. Further loss of mangroves may affect the fisheries and cockle production, and therefore have a negative impact on the livelihood of coastal inhabitants. The proposed development of Sungei Selangor for water supplies (SMHB, 1986), involving the construction of several impoundments in the Selangor catchment, would reduce the water flow at Rantau Panjang from 5,482 million litres per day to only 300 million litres per day. If implemented, this development could be expected to jeopardize the mangrove ecosystem for several kilometers on either side of Kuala Selangor, and would probably eliminate the cockle beds. Other potential upstream threats to the cockle beds include a proposed large-scale cattle feedlot scheme in the Rasa area (JPNHS, undated), use of pesticides in plantations, discharge of untreated sewage, and industrial discharges (SPSSM, 1987b). Economic and social values: The mangrove ecosystem is important in maintaining the west coast fishery and cockle beds; it constitutes a locally important forestry resource and provides protection against coastal erosion. Fauna: The Banjar North Forest Reserve supports one of only two known breeding colonies of Ardea cinerea remaining on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia (about 50 individuals in recent years). The mudflats are an extremely important feeding area for migratory shorebirds (over 10,000 birds during the migration seasons) and resident water birds such as Lesser Adjutant Stork Leptoptilos javanicus, Butorides striatus and egrets Egretta spp. One of the most productive prawn fishing grounds in West Malaysia and the second largest cockle beds (Anadara granosa) in Peninsular Malaysia are located off Kuala Selangor. Special floral values: No information. Research and facilities: Surveys and shorebird counts were carried out by Interwader in 1983, 1985 and 1986 (Paris & Wells, 1984; Silvius et al, 1987).

References: EPU (1980); JPHNS (undated); Ministry of Agriculture (1974); Parish & Wells (1984); Silvius et al. (1987); SMHB (1986); SPSSM (1987b & in prep); Wong (1974 & 1979). Criteria for inclusion: 1b, le, 2c, 3c. Source: Asian Wetland Bureau, Forest Research Institute of Malaysia and SPSSM. Wetland name: Mangrove Forest South of Kuala Selangor Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 3°15'-3°21'N, 1O1°13'-1O1°18'E; Location: between Kuala Selangor and Sungei Buloh, Selangor State. Area: Over 2,500 ha, mainly mudflats. The area includes Banjor South Forest Reserve (111 ha in September 1987, reduced from an original area of 1,261 ha). Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 02, 06, 07 & 11. Description of site: Extensive intertidal mudflats backed by a small fringe of mangrove forest on the seaward side of the coastal bund extending south from Kuala Selangor. The forest has been severely reduced in size by reclamation for housing estates, industry and agriculture, and by uncontrolled logging. The contiguous area of Kuala Selangor Nature Park (site 8c) is located in a previously excised part of the Banjar South Forest Reserve. The median tidal range at Kuala Selangor is 3.8m. At a research site north of Sungei Buloh, salinities range from 26-36 p.p.t. and the pH from 6.48-7.25. A soluble hydrogen sulphide content of up to six ppm. has been recorded at this site. The area has been classified in soil suitability class 4 (more than one serious limitation to crop growth, and suitable for a very restricted range of agricultural and forest crops). Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an average annual rainfall of less than 2,000 mm and a mean annual temperature of 26.6°C (monthly range 1.3°C). The wettest months are April and October-December, the driest, January-February and July. Rain comes with both the northeast and southwest monsoons, although the latter is mitigated by the mountains of Sumatra. The relative humidity falls during the day from an average of 95% at 0730 hrs to 65-75% in the afternoon. Principal vegetation: Mangrove forest. Tee (l982a) describes four distinct zones in the area north of Sungei Buloh. Progressing inland from the lower intertidal zone, these are: 1. Avicennia zone, with pure stands of A. alba; 2. Sonneratia zone, dominated by S. alba with patches of the rare Avicennia intermedia; 3. Bruguiera mixed forest zone, consisting of S. alba, A. alba, A. intermedia, Rhizophora mucronata and the dominant Bruguiera parviflora; 4. Rhizophora zone, consisting of monospecific stands of R. mucronata. Land tenure: State owned (State Government of Selangor). Conservation measures taken: Part of the mangrove forest is included in the Banjar South Forest Reserve. The reserve was 1,261 ha in extent when originally gazetted, but this had been reduced to 111 ha by September 1987 (SPSSM, in prep). Conservation measures proposed: It has been proposed that protection of the Banjar South Forest Reserve be strengthened as a non-exploitable forest reserve for wildlife conservation purposes, to link up with the contiguous Kuala Selangor Nature Park in the north. The forest

class "Forest Sanctuary for Wild Life" would be suitable for this purpose. The research site north of Sungei Buloh is of particular importance as an example of a pristine ecosystem, and should be afforded the status of Virgin Jungle Reserve (SPSSM, in prep; Soo, 1979). Possible impacts on mudflats should always be considered in environmental impact assessments of proposed developments that may impinge on riverine or coastal areas (SPSSM, in prep). Land use: Forestry, fishing and harvesting of mangrove produce; housing estates, industry and agriculture including mixed cropping and coconut and palm plantations in adjacent areas. Possible changes in land use: Further reclamation for housing estates, industry, agriculture and aquaculture is possible. Disturbances and threats: The site is threatened by further reclamation and uncontrolled logging, and the development of a new town in the area is likely to cause a considerable amount of disturbance. The proposed development of Sungei Selangor for water supplies (SMHB, 1986), involving the construction of several impoundments in the Selangor catchment, would reduce the water flow at Rantau Panjang from 5,482 million litres per day to only 300 million litres per day. If implemented, this development could be expected to jeopardize the mangrove ecosystem for several kilometers on either side of Kuala Selangor. Other potential threats upstream include a proposed large-scale cattle feedlot scheme in the Rasa area (JPNHS, undated), use of pesticides in plantations, discharge of untreated sewage, and industrial discharges (SPSSM, 1987b). Economic and social values: The mangroves play an important role in coastal protection and sustaining local fisheries. Fauna: The mudflats are an important feeding area for migratory shorebirds. Maximum counts at the shorebird roost on adjacent reclaimed land have ranged from 5,000 to 10,000 birds, and have included 30 species. Nordmann's Greenshank Tringa guttifer and Spoon-billed Sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmeus have been recorded in very small numbers. The area supports up to 30 feeding Grey Herons Ardea cinerea and up to 14 Lesser Adjutant Storks Leptoptilos javanicus. The Mangrove Pitta Pitta megarhynchus was recorded breeding in 1986, and other mangrove specialists such as Mangrove Blue Flycatcher Cyornis rufigastra, Mangrove Whistler Pachycephala cinerea and Brown-capped Woodpecker Picoides moluccensis occur. The Silvered Leaf Monkey Presbytis cristata, Long-tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis and Smooth-coated Otter Lutra perspicillata are common, and the Short-tailed Mongoose Herpestes brachyurus has been recorded. The mangrove forest supports an extremely rich tree-dwelling epifauna. The bivalve Brachyodontes variabilis forms dense colonies on the pneumatophores of the Avicennia forest zone. The carnivorous gastropod Thais tissoti predates on the bivalves. Special floral values: A research site located to the north of Sungei Buloh is of exceptional importance as an example of a relatively undisturbed ecosystem, with rich encrusting fauna on the tree trunks and good stands of Avicennia alba and Sonneratia. The development of stilt roots from the bases of mature Avicennia trees is highly unusual. The patches of Avicennia intermedia are of particular interest, as this species is extremely rare in Peninsular Malaysia (Tee, 1982a). There are also some particularly good stands of Ceriops tagal. Research and facilities: An area of mangroves north of Sungei Buloh in the southern part of the site has been intensively studied by the University of Malaya, Forest Research Institute of Malaysia and other bodies. The forest structure and composition have been especially well

studied. Regular shorebird surveys have been carried out by Interwader since 1983, and some shorebirds have been banded by Perhilitan and the University of Malaya. References: EPU (1980); JPHNS (undated); Ministry of Forestry (1986); Sasekumar & Loi (1983); Sasekumar et al. (1984); Silvius et al. (1987); SMHB (1986); Soo (1979); SPSSM (1987b & in prep); Tee (1982a & 1982b). Criteria for inclusion: lb. 2a, 2b, 2c, 3c. Source: Duncan Parish, R.C. Prentice, M.J. Silvius, A. Sasekumar, University of Malaya and SPSSM. Wetland name: Kuala Selangor Nature Park Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 3°20'N, lOl°15'E; Location: on the south side of Sungei Selangor near Kuala Selangor, Selangor State. Area: 260 ha. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 07 & 08. Description of site: The Nature Park is located in a previously excised section of the Banjar South Forest Reserve. It lies behind the coastal bund to the southwest of Kuala Selangor town, and is overlooked by the historic and very scenic Bukit Melawati (itself a wildlife reserve). It consists of degraded mangrove forest; overgrown in places with creepers and Acrostichum ferns. A shallow lake system has been created within the degraded mangrove area, consisting of four interconnecting lakes occupying a total area of about six ha. Several islands have been created in the lakes, and topped with shell grit. The salinity of the lake system can be controlled by operating a sluice gate on an adjacent drainage canal and by pumping water into the lake system from the canal. Stagnant water in the park area is alkaline; water in the lake system is neutral and that in the drainage canal slightly acidic. The median tidal range at Kuala Selangor is 3.8m. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an average annual rainfall of less than 2,000 mm. The wettest month is April (280 mm), and the driest is January (120 mm). Principal vegetation: The inland edge of a coastal mangrove fringe, consisting mainly of Bruguiera mixed forest dominated by B. cylindrica, B. parviflora with some Rhizophora spp. The vegetation is largely degraded, with extensive areas, which have been invaded by climbers and the fern Acrostichum aureum. Patches of B. cylindrica are affected by deprivation of tidal inundation. The area has been invaded by freshwater species such as Ficus spp and Acacia sp. Land tenure: State owned (State Government of Selangor). Conservation measures taken: The idea of a Nature Park was first conceived in January 1987 by members of the Malayan Nature Society and Asian Wetland Bureau. An area of 260 ha was allocated for the park in May 1987, and the Malayan Nature Society was granted US dollar 40,000 for its development. The Nature Park was officially opened on 27th September 1987. It has been gazetted as a Town Park under the Local Government Acts. Responsibility for management rests with the Malayan Nature Society. The nearby Bukit Melawati is a Wildlife Reserve.

Conservation measures proposed: A programme of replanting with suitable tree species, including species of particular value as food sources for monkeys and birds, is being drawn up. A management plan for the Nature Park is necessary to guide management decisions, especially with regard to maintenance of the lake system in such a way that it is attractive to roosting and feeding water birds. A permanent warden is required to coordinate the management of the Nature Park and liaise with the appropriate local authorities. Enforcement of Federal and State laws relating to wildlife and environmental protection should be stepped up in the area, in order to prevent illegal logging of the mangrove forest and disturbance to wildlife. The adjacent Banjar North and Banjar South Forest Reserves are being considered for the status of "Forest Sanctuary for Wild Life". The protection of these two Forest Reserves is essential for the maintenance of the Nature Park's value for tourism, recreation and education, as they maintain the fauna of the area. Land use: Nature Park designed for nature conservation, tourism, recreation and education. Disturbances and threats: There is some illegal logging in the adjacent Banjar South Forest Reserve, and small-scale hunting of herons and migratory shorebirds has been noted in the general area. Economic and social values: The Nature Park has good potential to attract both local and foreign tourists to Kuala Selangor. It also provides a recreational and educational resource for the local area. In the first two months after opening, the Nature Park attracted over 2,000 visitors, and several school parties were given guided tours. Fauna: The Nature Park has been designed to provide an alternative high-tide roosting site for some 5,000-10,000 shorebirds, which have previously roosted on an adjacent area of reclaimed land currently under development. Thirty species of shorebirds have been recorded at this roost, including Nordmann's Greenshank Tringa guttifer and Spoon-billed Sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmeus. The most abundant species during both northward and southward migration are Charadrius mongolus, Tringa totanus and Calidris ferruginea. The area supports up to 30 feeding Grey Herons Ardea cinerea and up to 14 Lesser Adjutant Storks Leptoptilos javanicus. The typical mangrove avifauna occurs in the area, including the White-bellied Sea-Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster, which has nested on Bukit Melawati for several years. The Silvered Leaf Monkey Presbytis cristata is one of the most conspicuous inhabitants of the Nature Park. Bernstein (1968) notes that this species occurs at high population density at Kuala Selangor, with five troops of 20-50 individuals occupying territories of about 20 ha each. The Long-tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis and Smooth-coated Otter Lutra perspicillata are also common, and the Short-tailed Mongoose Herpestes brachyurus has been recorded. Reptiles include the Water Monitor Varanus salvator and Dog-faced Water Snake Cerberus rhynchops. The adjacent mangrove forest and mudflats are rich in invertebrates, including crabs, prawns, cockles and bivalves. Little information is available for the Nature Park, but the Mud Lobster Thalassina anomala is evident from its mounds. Special floral values: None known. Research and facilities: The Kuala Selangor population of the Silvered Leaf Monkey has been the subject of several studies (e.g. Bernstein, 1968; Wolf & Fleagle, 1977). Regular shorebird counts have been carried out by Interwader since 1983 (e.g. Silvius et al., 1987), and Perhilitan has banded some shorebirds and conducted heron research in the area. Preliminary surveys of the Nature Park have been carried out by the Asian Wetland Bureau

(Silvius, 1987) and Malayan Nature Society. Facilities currently being developed in the Nature Park include a visitor centre in the main car park, observation hides, trails through the mangroves, and boardwalks through the contiguous Banjar South Forest Reserve to observation hides on the edge of the mudflats. Educational facilities will include a classroom, laboratory, various displays, audio-visual materials and guided tours. References: Bernstein (1968); EPU (1980); Silvius (1987); Silvius et al. (1987); SMHB (1986); SPSSM (l987b); Wolf & Fleagle (1977). Criteria for inclusion: 2a, 3b. Source: Duncan Parish, R.C. Prentice and M.J. Silvius. Wetland name: North Selangor Swamp Forest Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 3°25'-3°42'N, 1O1°05'-1O1°27'E; Location: north of Sungei Selangor and northeast of Kuala Selangor, Selangor State. Area: 74,823 ha. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 11 & 21. Description of site: A low-lying, flat, peat-swamp forest bordered on the eastern side by somewhat hillier land with oil palm and rubber plantations. In the northern part, the forest is crossed by Sungei Tengi. Much of the forest has already been extensively logged, but some virgin tracts remain. Freshwater swamp forest formerly occurred in the Sungei Tinggi area (Wyatt-Smith, 1963), but this has now disappeared. The swamp forests lie in the Kuala Selangor hydrological region, which is defined in general terms as having loose clayey and sandy deposits with the lowest category of potential water run-off (Goh, 1974). The soils are defined by Wong (1970) as being of the Inland Swamp Association. Peat depths of over 5.5m have been recorded in the Kuala Selangor area. In the deep peat areas, there is usually a meter or so of peaty water between the true fibrous peat and the alluvial clay below. Virtually the whole area has been classified in soil suitability class 4 (more than one serious limitation to crop growth and suitable for a very restricted range of agricultural and forest crops). At the edges of the area, the soil is classified in class 2 (moderate limitation to crop growth and suitable for a not too wide range of agricultural and forest crops), class 3 (one serious limitation to crop growth and suitable for a restricted range of agricultural and forest crops), and class 5 (at least one serious limitation to crop growth and best retained under forestry use). Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an average annual rainfall of less than 2,000 mm. The wettest months are April and October-December, the driest, January-February and July. The climate is generally equatorial, with rain from both the northeast and southwest monsoons, although the latter is mitigated by the mountains of Sumatra. Principal vegetation: Mixed swamp forest, according to the classification of Anderson (1961). Wyatt-Smith (1959) describes the west coast peat swamp forests as exceedingly rich and especially so where the peat is deep. The generalized forest structure consists of a fairly level upper tree storey which reaches a height of about 30 meters. The density of forest varies, but is less than that of lowland evergreen rain forest, and frequently has an open

non-continuous canopy. Emergents are normally absent. The understorey consists of a fairly continuous canopy extending from about six to 18 meters above peat level. Beneath this is a shrub layer and relatively poor ground flora. The dominant larger trees are usually Calophyllum scriblitifolium, Gonystylus bancanus, Koompassia malaccensis, Myristica lowiana, Shorea rugosa and Tetramerista glabra. There are extensive oil palm and rubber plantations in adjacent areas, extensive rice-growing areas to the west, and lowland dipterocarp forest and marine alluvial swamp forest to the northeast. Land tenure: The southern part is State Land (Government of Selangor); Sungei Dusun Game Reserve is state owned. Conservation measures taken: The North Selangor Swamp Forest is in the process of being gazetted into two large Forest Reserves comprising a total of 74,823 ha (the Sungei Karang and Raja Musa Forest Reserves). About 400 ha of forest along the northeastern edge of the site overlap with the Sungei Dusun Game Reserve (Strict Nature Reserve). The Game Reserve was established in 1964 and covers 4,280 ha. Conservation measures proposed: The Sungei Karang and Raja Musa Forest Reserves would be suitable for classification as "Flood Control Forest" under the National Forestry Act 1984, in view of the vital role that peat swamps play in flood mitigation in northern coastal areas. This same function makes it essential that peat swamp forests never be cleared without a thorough environmental impact assessment of likely hydrological effects (SPSSM, in prep). The presence of remnant virgin tracts provides an excellent opportunity for Jabatan Perhutanan, perhaps with assistance from the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, to plan a system of Virgin Jungle Reserves and Research Forest plots. These could include selected examples of forest where the peat extends to different depths and where different harvesting regimes (or no harvesting) have prevailed in the past (SPSSM, in prep). At present there are no Virgin Jungle Reserves or Research Forests in northern Selangor. The site has particular value in being large enough to hold areas that might be conserved as representative natural communities. Virgin Jungle Reserves set within buffering production forest may play a role here, but wildlife protection would not be adequate without an extension of Sungei Dusun Game Reserve (SPSSM, in prep). Future decisions on land use in the area should take a holistic planning approach, taking into account agricultural, forestry, conservation and hydrological considerations, amongst others. Land use: Commercial timber production; cultivation of oil palms, rubber and rice in surrounding areas. The western and eastern edges of the area are gazetted as Malay Reserves. An area of about 400 ha around 3°34'N, 101°9'E has been alienated for agricultural purposes (EPU, 1980). Possible changes in land use: Conversion for agricultural uses and mining. Disturbances and threats: The area is seriously threatened by over-exploitation and reclamation for agriculture. Much of the forest has already been extensively logged. In the southeastern corner, an area of about 3,600 ha is covered by extant mining leases or mining certificates; this whole area is currently used for mining or has mining potential. The northern half of the area is mapped as potentially productive forest (EPU, 1980). Disruption of the water table will affect water supply to the nearby Sekincan rice paddies. There is some hunting with shotguns, probably for fruit bats at night. Economic and social values: The site plays a critical role in the hydrology of the area, reducing local flooding and probably acting as an important water supply to the Sekincan rice

paddies. The swamp forest also has significant forestry value, mainly in terms of timber production and forestry research. The area is of outstanding value for scientific research on peat swamp ecology, hydrology and forestry. Fauna: The forest supports a considerable variety of bird species, including raptors such as Haliaeetus leucogaster, Falco peregrinus, Microhierax fringillarius, and the hornbills Buceros rhinoceros and Anthracoceros malayanus convexus. Fruit bats (Pteropodidae) are common, and the highly endangered Sumatran Rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis is still present on the eastern side. The adjacent Sungei Dusun Game Reserve supports healthy populations of Cervus unicolor, Muntiacus muntjak, Sus scrofa, Tragulus javanicus, primates, civets and rodents. Other mammals present in the reserve in smaller numbers include Panthera tigris, P. pardus, Tapirus indicus, Helarctos malayanus and D. sumatrensis. Special floral values: The swamp forest contains many commercially valuable tree species. With virgin tracts still remaining, the site is a good example of a west coast peat swamp forest and is of great value as a gene pool. Research and facilities: The Department of Wildlife and National Parks has conducted a study of the ecology of Dicerorhinus surnatrensis in Sungei Dusun Game Reserve. Few studies have been carried out on the vegetation, although detailed investigations have been made in the nearby Hutan Melintang Forest Reserve and in the south Selangor peat swamp forests. References: Anderson (1961); EPU (1980); Goh (1974); IUCN (in prep); Marsh & Wilson (1981); Ministry of Forestry (1986); SPSSM (in prep); Whitmore (1984); Wong (1970 & 1974); Wyatt-Smith (1959). Criteria for inclusion: l b, 2a, 2b. Source: Department of Wildlife and National Parks (Peninsular Malaysia), SPSSM and Asian Wetland Bureau. Wetland name: Matang Forest Reserve Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 4°40'-4°55'N, 100°34'-100°40'E; Location: on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia south from Kuala Gula for 51 km, in the administrative district of Matang, Perak State. Area: 40,711 ha; along 5 1 km of coastline and up to 13 km wide. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 01, 02, 07 & 11. Description of site: A large expanse of mangrove forest situated in a huge bay stretching from Kuala Gula in the north to Pengkalan Baharu in the south. The reserve includes 34,769 ha of productive forest and 5,942 ha of unproductive forest. Some 95% of the mangroves are tidal swamp dominated by Rhizophoraceae, with considerable local variation in quality. Some seven major estuaries divide the mangrove areas, which are further dissected by numerous other rivers and waterways. The water is brackish and at low tide is less than 6m deep. There are some small patches of forested dry ground inside the mangroves. There are five fishing villages within the forest reserve, the rest of the mangroves being more or less

uninhabited. Two mangrove islands, Pulau Kelumpang and Pulau Terong, have permanently inundated lakes of great importance for feeding herons, storks and shorebirds. Principal vegetation: Mangrove forest dominated by Rhizophora apiculata, R. mucronata, Bruguiera parviflora, B. gymnorhiza, B. cylindrica, B. eriopetala, Avicennia sp, Sonneratia alba and Ceriops candolleana. The main vegetation types are as follows: 1. "Bakau" type (Rhizophora sp): more than 80% of the 34,769 ha of productive forest has 60% bakau content following extensive reafforestation with R. apiculata. 2. "Api-api-Perepat" type (Avicennia-Sonneratia): this occurs mainly in the accreting zone, although in some areas, Avicennia covers large areas of forest. 3. "Berus" type (Bruguiera cylindrica): this occurs close to the coast, mostly behind the Api-api-Perepat type. 4. "Lenggadai" type (B. parviflora): often on riverbanks. In the wetter parts, it can form pure stands. 5. "Tumu" type (B. gymnorhiza): the climax mangrove forest type, occurring at the landward margin where it preceeds terrestrial forest types. Tumu is becoming very rare due to reclamation activities. As a result of forest harvesting, the canopy is mostly under 20m high, the mean height being around 10m. Coastal accretion has increased the amount of dry land forest in the Sungei Kerang forest range, while in the Port Weld and Kuala Trong ranges, the area of dry land has decreased. Acrostichum spp and small areas of dry land forest occur in surrounding areas. Land tenure: State owned (Perak State Government). Conservation measures taken: Nineteen Forest Reserves of varying size divide up the area. These are protected areas, but may be used for commercial timber production on a sustainable yield basis. Some 180 ha are used for research in the form of seed collection and trial plots. This area is protected and undisturbed. The Department of Wildlife and National Parks maintains a ranger post at Kuala Gula. Conservation measures proposed: The following measures have been proposed by Silvius et al. (1987): 1. Certain forested areas should be protected in order to re-establish the natural climax vegetation. Such areas should be in unproductive Api-api-Perepat and in productive Bakau and Tumu forest types. These areas would provide gene-pools and seed-banks of commercial tree species, nesting areas for large water birds and areas for scientific research. 2. Stork Lake I and Stork Lake II, situated respectively on Pulau Kelumpang and Pulau Terong, should be fully protected, together with generous surrounding zones. Stork Lake I should be protected as part of the proposed Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary. Stork Lake II should be protected as a separate Bird Sanctuary, with a fringe of at least 500m of forest surrounding the lake as a buffer zone. 3. The proposed Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary should be gazetted as soon as possible. 4. Scientific research in the proposed protected areas should not interfere with the aim of protecting the local populations of Mycteria cinerea and Leptoptilos javanicus. Disturbance of large water birds should be prohibited. 5. Any further reclamation of mangrove forests at Sungei Rubiah or elsewhere in Matang should be prohibited, since it is questionable whether reclamation for agriculture is more economically viable than utilizing mangroves for sustainable forestry and fisheries. 6. Important feeding and roosting areas for migratory shorebirds should be protected. Protection should include the maintenance of mangrove forests adjacent to the important

mudflat areas and prohibition of disturbance of roosting flocks, unless necessary for fishing or cockle-culture activities. It is of great importance that established field study sites and forestry plots used by a variety of research institutions are protected from disturbance by forestry operations and other activities. Protection could be achieved through designating these areas as Virgin Jungle Reserves, Research Forests or Education Forests. Land use: The current management objective of the Forest Reserve is to produce maximum sustained yield of raw materials (principally R. conjugata and R. mucronata) for fuel, mainly charcoal, and poles. Management consists of a 30-year crop rotation, harvested by clear-felling with retention of standards for natural regeneration. A total annual yield of around 990 ha (890-900 ha for charcoal, around 100 ha for firewood) is planned for 1980-1989. The management objectives for 1980-1989 are as follows: 1. To produce a sustained yield of quality greenwood for charcoal processing to meet local demand as well as for export. 2. To produce quality poles for local consumption and export. 3. To conserve and protect the coastal zones from erosion by the strong waves and wind. 4. To provide and preserve the breeding and nursery grounds for high-protein sea-foods. 5.To produce cheap firewood, fishing stakes and structural materials for the local communities. 6. To preserve sufficient forest for research and training in mangrove forestry. Local fishing villages exploit the fisheries and take charcoal and firewood for their own use. Disturbances and threats: The following threats have been identified: 1. Over-exploitation of the mangrove resources. The major threat to the area is the likelihood that the management aimed at sustainable utilization will fail. Production records indicate a slow drop in yield, resulting in applications for new areas to exploit. Natural regeneration is declining and more replanting is necessary after several clear-felling cycles. 2. Decrease in the availability of nesting sites for large water birds. As a result of forestry practices, very few pristine mangrove areas remain which are suitable as nesting sites for storks and large herons. This may be the main reason for decreasing populations of large water birds in Matang, especially M. cinerea that normally breeds in large colonies and therefore needs a substantial area of suitable nesting habitat. 3. Disturbance of the Stork Lakes by crab-catchers. 4. Reclamation of mangrove forest. A large area at Sungei Rubiah is currently being reclaimed for agriculture. 5. Depletion of pristine mangrove habitats. Virtually no areas are left where the development of undisturbed vegetation can be studied. 6. Oil pollution is a potential threat. 7. Disturbance of breeding M. cinerea, including the taking of eggs and young, has occurred in the past. 8. The use of motorboats in place of sampans. 9. Disturbance from the infrastructure associated with timber extraction. Economic and social values: The area is of great economic importance, providing an annual revenue of US dollar 6-9 million from forestry products and at least US dollar 30 million from fisheries (Silvius et al. 1987). The area is a major supplier of sea-foods to the local and international markets. It provides employment in forestry, fishery and linked industries for a

workforce of about 12,500 people. It is of great scientific value as one of the best examples in the world of large-scale mangrove forest utilization on a sustainable yield basis. Fauna: Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve and its adjacent coastline are of major importance as a staging area for migratory shorebirds, and are the major remaining area of suitable habitat in Malaysia for the Milky Stork Mycteria cinerea and Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus. In 1985/86, the highest count of shorebirds approached 14,300 individuals. With a possible turnover rate of between three and six times this figure, it is likely that between 43,000 and 85,000 shorebirds utilize this area during migration. The most important feeding and roosting areas for shorebirds are Pantai Panchor (16.3% of peak count), the southern mudflats of Pulau Pasir Hitam (4.1%), Sungei Larut estuarine mudflats (12.9%), Pulau Terong and Stork Lake II (18.9%), Pulau Kelumpang mudflats (14.1%), Pulau Kelumpang and Stork Lake I (12.1%), and Sungei Rubiah lagoon and mudflats (12.7%). The most abundant species are Tringa tetanus (22.3%), Limosa limosa (19.7%) and Calidris ferruginea (16.9%). Other common species include Charadrius mongolus, Numenius phaeopus, Tringa stagnatilis and Xerus cinereus. Limnodromus semipalmatus has been recorded at Pantai Panchor (24 in March 1986) and at Stork Lake I on Pulau Kelumpang (14 in March 1986). Matang is the last remaining area in Peninsular Malaysia capable of supporting a viable breeding population of the Milky Stork M. cinerea. The Malaysian population is seriously endangered, having decreased to about 100 birds. There have been no signs of breeding or immature birds in recent years, and the population is now almost totally confined to this area. The lakes on Pulau Kelumpang and Pulau Terong are particularly important as feeding and roosting areas for the storks. The Lesser Adjutant L. javanicus is also endangered, but has a wider distribution in Peninsular Malaysia. Matang is believed to support about 50% of the total population of 150-200 birds and is therefore the most important area for the conservation of this species in the Peninsula. Breeding was recorded in Matang in 1986. Almost 1,400 herons and egrets (Ardeidae) of 12 species were recorded in 1985/86, the principal species being Egretta garzetta, E. intermedia and E. alba. Butorides striatus is also very common, and the total population has been estimated at 600-1,000 birds. Sungei Rubiah and Pulau Kelumpang are important as wintering and staging areas for the endangered Chinese Egret Egretta eulophotes, and the rare Masked Finfoot Heliopais personata has been observed on a number of occasions in recent years. Matang formerly supported the large breeding colony of Nycticorax nycticorax presently situated at Sungei Burung. It is possible that the colony could move back to Matang in the future. Special floral values: The largest intact tract of mangrove forest in Peninsular Malaysia, and one of the last mangrove areas with all major habitats and forest types. Research and facilities: The Coordination Committee on Mangrove Forest Research and the University Pertanian Malaysia (Faculty of Forestry) have been involved in mangrove research. Suggestions for future research are mainly concerned with silviculture, but also include studies on the effects of monoculture on the mangrove ecosystem, the interrelationship between forestry and fishery requirements regarding mangrove conservation, and rehabilitation techniques in degraded or poor forest (Haron Haji Abu Hassan, 1981; Nor & Chan, 1987). Universiti Sains Malaysia has conducted extensive ecological research on the mangrove ecosystem in Matang Forest Reserve for many years. Interwader carried out shorebird studies and habitat surveys in 1983, 1984, 1985 and 1986.

Perhilitan has conducted bird and mammal surveys and a study of otters in the Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary. References: Chapman (1976); Dixon (1959); Haron Haji Abu Hassan (1981); Jeyerajasingram (1983); Karpowicz (1985); Mohd. Darus (1969); Noakes (1952); Nor & Chan (1987); Ong & Gong (undated); Parish & Wells (1984 & 1985); Sabrina M. Shariff (1984); Silvius et al. (1987 & in prep); Siti Hawa Yatim (1984); Watson (1928). Criteria for inclusion: 123. Source: Department of Wildlife and National Parks (Peninsular Malaysia), Forest Research Institute of Malaysia and Asian Wetland Bureau. Wetland name: Sungei Burung Mangroves Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 4°59'-5°02'N, lOO°22'-lOO°25'E; Location: adjacent to Sungei Burung, northwest of Kuala Kurau, Perak State. Area: 250 ha. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 02, 06, 07 & 11. Description of site: An area of mangrove forest and mudflats with a small river (Sungei Burung) and a few creeks. The site includes a small mangrove peninsula of 20-30 ha which hosts a large breeding colony of Black-crowned Night-Herons Nycticorax nycticorax. A new mudbank almost one km long was described in 1983, to the south of the site. This had grown to 2.5 km in length and 0.5 km in width by July 1986, the northern half having been colonized by Avicennia marina. This island may form an attractive breeding site for Night-Herons in the future. The rice-fields adjacent to the mangroves are important feeding grounds for the herons and other water birds. The water is brackish, and the median tidal range at Bagan Datoh is 4.3m. The entire area is inundated at spring tides. Principal vegetation: Mangroves, principally accreting Avicennia marina. Land tenure: No information. Conservation measures taken: None. Conservation measures proposed: The site has been proposed as a Bird Sanctuary and Virgin Jungle Reserve. The peninsula, surrounding mangrove forest and inland rice-fields between Kuala Kurau and Bagan Serai have been proposed as a Biosphere Reserve. Land use: The harvesting of crabs and shellfish, and collection of birds' eggs; cultivation of rice and oil palms in surrounding areas. The whole area has been classified in soil suitability class 4 (more than one serious limitation to crop growth and suitable for a very restricted range of agricultural and forest crops). Disturbances and threats: Herons' eggs are collected by the local people and there is daily disturbance from crab-catchers. The use of pesticides in adjacent rice-fields may be affecting the breeding success of the Black-crowned Night-Herons. Virtually the whole area has been mapped as land alienated for agricultural purposes. Economic and social values: No information. Fauna: The mangroves support one of the largest breeding colonies of Black-crowned Night-Herons Nycticorax nycticorax in the world, with an estimated 5,000-6,000 nests. Small numbers of Milky Storks Mycteria cinerea feed in the area. Migratory shorebirds including

Numenius arquata and N. phaeopus use the area for roosting and feeding, e.g. c.1,500 in 1983. Crabs and prawns are abundant, and there is a rich benthic fauna. Special floral values: None known. Research and facilities: Silvius et al. conducted a survey of the vegetation, fauna and current threats to the mangrove environment in 1985 and 1986. The Department of Wildlife and National Parks and Interwader carried out a survey of the night-heron colony in September 1986, to assess the effects of the colony on the vegetation. References: EPU (1980); Silvius et al. (1987). Criteria for inclusion: lb, 2c, 3a, 3c. Source: Asian Wetland Bureau. Wetland name: Krian Rice-fields Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 4°57'-5°08'N, 100°25'-100°37'E; Location: north of Sungei Kurau, stretching from coastal mangroves in the west to Krian in the east, northern Perak State. Area: c.23,100 ha. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.7.1. Wetland type: 19. Description of site: A large area of rice-fields in northern Perak which receives its water supply directly from rainfall and indirectly from the Bukit Merah Reservoir. The rice-fields are interspersed with small lakes, marshes and patches of scrub. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with the annual rainfall ranging from 2,500 mm to over 3,500 mm. At Taiping, the wettest month is April with over 500 mm, and the driest is June with less than 200 mm. There are two wet periods; February-May and September-December. Principal vegetation: Rice. Land tenure: No information. Conservation measures taken: None. Conservation measures proposed: None Land use: Rice-growing and fish production; cultivation of rubber and oil palms in surrounding areas. Disturbances and threats: Uncontrolled use of pesticides. Economic and social values: Rice and fish production. Fauna: A major feeding area for large numbers of migratory waterfowl and a breeding and feeding area for many resident water birds. Birds known to occur in the area include eight species of herons and egrets (Ardeidae), Leptoptilos javanicus, five species of rails and crakes (Rallidae), five species of shorebirds, three species of terns (Laridae) and three species of kingfishers (Alcedinidae). The rice-fields provide feeding grounds for a large proportion of the Black-crowned Night-Herons Nycticorax nycticorax from the breeding colony near Kuala Kurau (5,000-6,000 nests). Special floral values: None known. Research and facilities: Some research has been carried out on paddy and paddy-field fish production for the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (Tan et al., 1973).

References: Tan et al. (1973); Wong (1974). Criteria for inclusion: 3b. Source: Asian Wetland Bureau. Wetland name: Long Pasia Swamp Forests Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 4°3O'-4°32'N, 115°33'-115°42'E; Location: 65 km south of Sipitang, in the highlands on the Sarawak border, Sabah. Area: c.800 ha of swamps; catchment area c.50,000 ha. Altitude: c.1,450m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 14 & 21. Description of site: High altitude peat swamp forest associated with seasonal freshwater swamps. There is a small freshwater pond to the east. Water is permanent, but there is seasonal flooding with rainfall. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate; the average annual rainfall in the nearest lowlands is about 2,500 mm. The rainfall is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, with slight peaks in April-May and October-November. Temperatures range from 12°C to 22°C. Land tenure: Partly state owned and partly owned by Sabah Forest Industries. Principal vegetation: None Conservation measures taken: Partly included within a Virgin Jungle Reserve of over 9,000 ha, gazetted in 1984. Conservation measures proposed: None Land use: No exploitation. Part of the hinterland is being logged by Sabah Forest Industries, with the intention of planting fast-growing exotic trees in some areas. Possible changes in land use: Logging surveys have been carried out in recent years, and there is a possibility that the forest resources will be exploited in the future. Disturbances and threats: No information. Economic and social values: A unique area of highland swamp forest; the only large area of highland swamp forest of this type in Sabah and therefore of considerable scientific interest. The swamp forest performs a valuable function in regulating the water supply to areas downstream. Fauna: Known to be an important refuge for wildlife, but no details are available. Special floral values: Agathis borneensis grows on the ridges. The flora includes a variety of rare orchids and rhododendrons with Sarawak affinities. Research and facilities: None References: None Criteria for inclusion: 1a, 2b. Source: A. Phillipps. Wetland name: Marintaman Mengalong Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 4°57'-5°04'N, 115°26'-115°34'E;

Location: 15-20 km southwest along the coast from Sipitang, near the Sarawak border, Sabah. Area: 7,400 ha. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 07, 08 & 21. Description of site: A strip of coastal peat swamp forest of varying stature, and a patch of mangrove forest at Kuala Mengalong (165 ha in 1978). The peat swamp forest in the southern part of the area north of Sungei Mengalong is in better condition than the forest in the northern part, south of Tanjong Marintaman. The main source of fresh water is local rainfall, but the swamps are occasionally inundated by fresh water from Sungei Mengalong in the south. The water in the peat swamp is presumably mostly acidic. The swamp forest is swampy all year round and may be developing into more mature peat swamp. The tidal range can be as high as 1.5 m. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an average annual rainfall of 3,250 mm (at Sipitang); the rainfall is lowest in February and reaches a peak in November. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures are 31°C and 25°C, respectively. Principal vegetation: Coastal peat swamp forest with Dacrydium pectinatum, Dactyloclados stenostachys, Gonystylus bancanus and Dryobalanops rappa; some mangrove forest with Rhizophora spp and swamps with Nypa fruticans in the south. Most of the peat swamp forest has been logged out and is now regenerating with Dactyloclados, Gonystvlus and Dryobalanops, along with much Tristania, Fragraea and Casuarina in the more devastated area to the north. Casuarina equisetifolia beach forest lies to the north, secondary vegetation arising from shifting cultivation to the east, and more Rhizophora and Nypa forest to the south. Land tenure: Partly state owned (Virgin Jungle Reserve) and partly owned by Sabah Forest Industries. Surrounding areas are mostly alienated for cultivation of minor cash crops, especially rubber and cocoa. Conservation measures taken: Part of the peat swamp forest is included in a Virgin Jungle Reserve, re-gazetted in 1984. The Reserve has been demarcated with red paint and sign boards. Informal discussions with the project manager of Sabah Forest Industries have indicated that the area would not be greatly disturbed by forestry activities. Conservation measures proposed: None Land use: The Virgin Jungle Reserve is managed for conservation; the areas under the control of Sabah Forest Industries have been partially developed for housing, and wood and paper mills. There are some developments associated with the pulp mill and small-holdings of rubber, cocoa, fruit trees and pineapples in adjacent areas. Disturbances and threats: The development of the pulp mill within the wetland area will have great repercussions on the ecosystem. The plantations of trees grown to supply the pulp mill and associated logging practices will probably increase the suspended sediment in the Mengalong River, which may possibly also flood more frequently in the future. The possibilities of pollution should be investigated and remedies sought. Economic and social values: With its groves of Casuarina on white sand terraces and dense thickets of red stemmed sealing wax palms, the area has considerable potential for outdoor recreation and tourism.

Fauna: Little information is available. The Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus was reported as recently as 1979, and the Green Sea Turtle Chelonia mydas is known to occur offshore. Special floral values: Several rare plants have been recorded, including Nepenthes albo-marginata and N. bicalcarata. The good stands of Casuarina nobilis which once occurred in the area have now been partially destroyed. The swamp is also noted for its stands of the ornamental sealing wax palm Cyrtostachys lakka. Research and facilities: Fomerly there were facilities for staff administering the Virgin Jungle Reserve, but these facilities have now been taken over by Sabah Forest Industries. References: Chua & Matthias (1978). Criteria for inclusion: 1b, 2a, 2b. Source: C. Phillipps. Wetland name: Klias Peninsula Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 5°12'-5°30'N, 1l5°22'-ll5°42'E; Location: on the coast of southwestern Sabah, forming the northeastern shore of Brunei Bay and southwestern shore of Kimanis Bay, and bounded on the inland side by the Crocker Range and on the western side by a ridge on higher ground, Sabah. Area: 90,000 ha. Altitude: 0-lOm. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 02, 06, 07, 11, 13, 18 & 21. Description of site: A continuous flat area of peat swamp (60,700 ha), freshwater alluvium (14,500 ha) and coastal transitional swamp (28,500 ha) including 8,700 ha of largely undisturbed mangrove. The vegetation includes both undisturbed and exploited forest, scrub, herbaceous plants and mixed cultivation. The site includes Padas Damit, a freshwater swamp of great importance to water birds and crocodiles. Situated on the southern half of the Klias Peninsula, the Padas Damit River runs from areas of mixed cultivation through peat swamp forest and extensive nipa swamp before reaching coastal mangroves at its mouth. Padang Teratak is about 100 ha of open grassy marsh with scattered clumps of low bushes, bordered on one side by agricultural land and a small settlement and on the other by peat swamp forest. There is a large egret roost in nipa fringing the Padas Damit River. Peat and freshwater swamp areas are affected by variations in rainfall and run-off. Water levels are highest during the wet season (November-February); the mangrove areas are tidal. Salinities vary from saline at the coast to brackish in nipa swamps and fresh in peat swamps. The water in the peat swamps is acidic. Water is more or less permanent in the peat swamps, but as the swamps develop, the surface water level may fall. The tidal range is l-2m. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate; one of the wettest localities in Sabah, with an average annual rainfall of about 3,680 mm. The rainfall is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, with a low in February and a high in November. Mean temperatures at Labuan vary from 31°C to 25°C. Principal vegetation: There are four major natural vegetation types: coastal mangrove forest, nipa swamp, freshwater swamp forest and peat swamp forest. There are large areas of grassland, scrub and other secondary growth throughout the Peninsula. Klias Peninsula

consists of 2 major sectors: the Klias sector and the Marintaman-Mengalong sector. The Klias sector includes 36,000 ha of mangrove swamps, nipa swamps, scrub and padang vegetation. The Marintaman-Mengalong sector is an area of peat swamp forest (with species of Gonystylus, Dillenia, Dryobalanops and Dyera), kerangas or heath forest (with species of Baekia and Eugenia plus myrmecophytes such as Dischidia, Myrmecodia and Hydnophytum), and swamp forest (with Casuarina spp, conifers and screw palms). There is tall gallery forest of dipterocarps along the Sebuboh River, forest with species of Tristania, Eugenia and Vaccinium on rocky ridges, and mangroves near the mouth of the Sebuboh river. The vegetation includes a variety of types, which are peculiar to the infertile soils of the area. The principal vegetation in adjacent areas is secondary scrub. Land tenure: Some 31,053 ha are state owned in five Forest Reserves; the remainder of the region is State Land or privately owned. Conservation measures taken: Five Forest Reserves have been established: Sungai Binsuluk Forest Reserve (12,106 ha, mainly peat swamp forest); Klias Forest Reserve (3,630 ha, mainly peat swamp forest); Padas Damit Forest Reserve (9,027 ha, mixed swamp forest and nipa); Kampung Hindian Forest Reserve (580 ha, mostly mangrove); and Menumbak Forest Reserve (5,710 ha, mangrove). In 1978, 30,900 ha of the coastal parts of Klias Peninsula were gazetted as a National Park, but the Park was de-gazetted in 1980. Although this de-gazettement resulted in some international criticism, it is doubtful that National Park status was truly appropriate for Klias as twelve settlements existed within the Park boundary before it was gazetted. Conservation measures proposed: It has been recommended that Padas Damit, a large freshwater swamp at 5°2l'N, 115°30'E, be protected both as a crocodile breeding area and for waterfowl. Padang Teratak has been proposed as a Wildlife Sanctuary under the proposed new amendments to the Fauna Conservation Ordinance. Sungei Padas Damit and at least some of the surrounding area should be surveyed from the air in order to assess breeding colonies of egrets (Lansdown, 1987a). Land use: Small-scale logging, agriculture in some of the cleared areas, and grazing by domestic livestock in some open marshes. The Padas River is heavily fished by day and by night, and there is extensive fishing in the Klias delta mangroves. The principal activities in surrounding areas are subsistence farming and production of cash crops. There is some camping and tourism at Pasir Panjang beach in the Marintaman sector. Possible changes in land use: Various development projects involving wetland drainage for agriculture have been proposed by the State Government. A pipe supplying fresh water to the island of Labuan is to be constructed from the middle reaches of the Padas River across the southern portion of the site. Disturbances and threats: Logging is only a minor threat. Fishing activities on the Padas River cause some disturbance to crocodiles, but it is unlikely that hunting or fishing are as yet excessive in this region. Economic and social values: The marine fisheries of western Sabah and Brunei are dependent to a significant extent on the important breeding areas for fishes and prawns in the Klias mangrove swamps. Prawn landings in Brunei Bay in 1973 were valued at over M dollar 3 million. The peat swamp forest contains commercially valuable timber, notably Gonystylus bancanus, Dactylocladus stenostachya and Dryobalanops rappu. Fauna: Padang Teratak in the Padas Damit area supports the highest known concentrations of migratory ducks in Borneo. Between 2,000 and 5,000 ducks (mainly Anas querquedula)

winter at the site. Egrets are common; over 500 were recorded in 1985, and a roost of 927 birds was located at Padas Damit in September 1986. This included 75 Egretta alba, 658 E. intermedia/garzetta and 194 Bubulcus ibis. Large numbers of shorebirds utilize the coastal mudflats during the migration seasons. Other waterfowl known to occur in the area include Anhinga melanogaster and Ardea sumatrana. Mammals include Nasalis larvatus, Presbytis cristata, Macaca fascicularis, Muntiacus muntjak and Cervus unicolor. The monitor lizard Varanus salvator is quite common. Three Estuarine Crocodiles Crocodylus porosus were recorded along 105 km of the Klias, Padas and Bukau Rivers in 1983. There is suitable habitat for the crocodiles throughout the swamp area, and the freshwater swamp associated with the Padas Damit is probably the only place on the entire west coast of Sabah where the species could survive if afforded adequate protection. The mangroves are important breeding and nursery grounds for a wide variety of fishes, shrimps, prawns and crabs. Special floral values: None known. Research and facilities: Wells et al. conducted a preliminary faunal and floral survey of the area in 1975, Whitaker carried out a crocodile survey in 1983, and Interwader surveyed waterfowl populations in 1985 and 1986. References: Beadle & Whittaker (1985); Chua & Matthias (1978); IUCN (in prep); Karpowicz (1985); Lansdown (1987a); Parish & Wells (1985); Payne (1986); Wells et al. (1975); Whitaker (1984). Criteria for inclusion: lb. le, 2a, 2b, 2c, 3b. Source: Sabah National Parks, Duncan Parish, J. Payne, A. Phillipps, WWF Malaysia and Asian Wetland Bureau. Wetland name: Tempasuk Plain Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 6°23'-6°32'N, l16°21'-116°31'E; Location: on the northwest coast of Sabah, stretching from Kota Belud town in the south to Kampong Rampayang Laut in the north, Sabah. Area: Over 13,000 ha, including 12,200 ha in Kota Belud Bird Sanctuary. Altitude: 0-3m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 01, 02, 05, 07, 08, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 20 & 21. Description of site: Primarily a freshwater wetland bisected by a major road, comprising four main areas: 1. On the eastern side of the road, an area of low wet swamp land with open pools, bordered by a narrow strip of swamp forest along the northern boundary of the Bird Sanctuary, and backed by low hills. 2. On the western side, an open sandy foreshore backed by dunes, which lead into, grazed grassland with wet areas and seasonal pools. A small area of mangrove occurs near Kuala Tempasuk. 3. The southern third is taken up with cultivation, mainly wet rice and small settlements. Two large rivers run through the area forming the northern and southern boundaries of

the existing Bird Sanctuary. The northern river is lined with fairly extensive riverine forest. 4. A poorly known area to the north of the Kawang-kawang River. From Kampong Rampayan Laut for about 5 km upriver, mangrove forest predominates, grading into nipa swamp backed by a small area of lowland dipterocarp forest. The total area of mangrove swamp in 1978 was 1,518 ha. Run-off from low hills and the foothills of Mount Kinabalu supplies many small streams and the two large rivers. Local rainfall is the principal factor determining wetland conditions (except for the wet rice fields). The water depth varies throughout the wetland and depends on rainfall. Pools in the grassland are generally less than one meter deep; the depth of water in the reed swamp varies from 30 cm to 1.5m, and that in the rice paddies, up to 30 cm. The water is fresh, except in the rivers near their mouths where it is brackish. Changes in water level can be quite rapid, and after heavy rainfall, the water level in the main lake can rise by as much as one meter in 12 hours. Only the lower reaches of the rivers are affected by the tides, which have an average range of about 3m. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an average annual rainfall of 2,260 mm at Kota Belud. The wettest month is June (200-400 mm) and the driest, December (100-200 mm). The dry season is in November-March, and the wet season, May-September. Mean temperatures range from 23°C to 30°C. Principal vegetation: There are six distinct habitat types: 1. A long sandy beach backed by dunes. 2. Grazing land with short rough grass, pandans, various shrubs and bushes, some open woodland in the Kerah River area, and ditches and buffalo wallows with Eichhornia crassipes and Juncus sp. 3. Swamp Forest, with strangling figs Ficus sp where the water is fresh, and dominated by Avicennia alba and A. marina with some Nypa swamp where the water is brackish. 4. Swamp, mainly mixed grasses. 5. Densely populated cultivated land, with rice as the main crop, in the south. 6. Open water areas. Surrounding areas consist of agricultural land and some evergreen moist forest. There are some remnants of coastal forest with fine Ficus and Sterculia behind the sand dunes, grading into Antidesma woodland. There is also a small area of lowland dipterocarp forest. Land tenure: 2,670 ha Grazing Reserve; 110 ha Foreshore Reserve; 7,510 ha titled land (either under private ownership or occupied by schools and government agencies); 1,740 ha unallocated land; 170 ha tenure unknown. Low hills to the east of the sanctuary have been allocated to the Malaysian Army. Most other land is either state owned or titled land. Conservation measures taken: Most of the wetland is included in the Kota Belud Bird Sanctuary (12,200 ha), established in 1960. The Sanctuary includes the area of low hills to the east of the wetland, but excludes areas of swamp forest and swamp to the north of the Kawang-kawang River. The Bird Sanctuary legislation forbids hunting but does not control habitat changes, e.g. drainage or burning. There has been virtually no enforcement of the Bird Sanctuary status, especially in recent years, and there are no on-site indications of the Sanctuary e.g. signposts. Conservation measures proposed: Payne & Parish (1985), the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology (1983) and Lansdown (1986) have made a number of recommendations for management including the following: a) strengthening the legal status of the Bird

Sanctuary; b) instigating effective wardening, and controlling casual disturbance; c) formation of a management committee; d) management of agricultural practices; e) development of the site for tourism, and improvement of facilities for tourism; and f) promotion of public awareness and cooperation. There is an urgent need for detailed studies on the ecology of the site. Land use: Cultivation of rice, grazing by domestic livestock (water buffalo, cattle, goats and horses), and to a lesser extent, cultivation of cassava, sago, coconuts, bananas and mangos; some shifting agriculture and plantations of hardwoods in adjacent areas. Possible changes in land use: There are plans to drain an extensive portion of the Bird Sanctuary in the Kerah Swamp area. Under the Fifth Malaysia Plan (starting in 1986/87), a pumping station is to be installed to reduce surface water, and under the Sixth Plan (1990/95), more drainage canals are to be constructed. The Aquabio Prawn Farm is to be expanded from its existing 40 ha to 4,000 ha, at the expense of open grazing land. Disturbances and threats: The principal threats are large-scale drainage of the swamp for agricultural purposes and conversion of grazing land to aquaculture ponds. Mangroves and nipa are being cleared for kampungs, and the swamp vegetation is burned to create suitable grazing habitat. There is a considerable amount of disturbance from local people and domestic livestock, and some illegal hunting, including the shooting and netting of birds. Some 20-50 pigeons (Treron spp, Chalcophaps indica and others) are netted every day in the northern part of the Bird Sanctuary. Shifting cultivation on adjacent hillsides is also a problem. Economic and social values: An important area for rice-growing and livestock production. The Bird Sanctuary is outstanding in Malaysia for its variety of habitats and numbers and diversity of water birds, and thus has considerable potential for tourism and scientific research. It is also unique in Malaysia in that it contains a substantial agricultural community whose management practices have a direct influence on the distribution and abundance of the water birds. Fauna: Fishes include Trichogaster trichopterus, Helostoma temminckii and Puntius binotatus. The Sanctuary is an important wintering area for large numbers of waterfowl; some 14 species of herons and egrets, seven species of ducks, eight species of rails and crakes, 30 species of shorebirds and eight species of terns have been recorded. Leptoptilos javanicus, Ciconia stormi, Threskiornis melanocephalus, Platalea leucorodia and Hydrophasianus chirurgus have also been observed. The site is very important for wintering Anas querquedula and there are substantial numbers of Porphyrio porphyrio and Glareola maldivarum. There are large roosts of non-breeding egrets Egretta spp (up to 5,000), Circus aeruginosus and several species of passerines, notably Hirundo rustica (up to 200,000), Motacilla flava (over 25,000 in November 1985) and Pycnonotus goiavier, Lonchura malacca. The great variety of migratory birds, many of which occur in very large numbers, is a major feature of the site, and it seems likely that Tempasuk Plain is a critical staging and wintering area for a number of species. Mammals include a species of otter, probably Aonyx cinerea, occurring in quite large numbers, and small numbers of Macaca fascicularis, Nasalis larvatus and Felis bengalensis. Marine turtles use the beach for nesting, but no details are available concerning the species or numbers involved, except that Caretta caretta was observed in February 1986. Monitor lizards (Varanus spp) are abundant. Frogs include Rana limnocharis, R. nicobariensis, R.

rugulosa, Polypedates leucomystax and Kaloula baleata. The invertebrate fauna includes four species of dragonfly (Libellulidae), one species of Zygoptera, one species of Nepidae (Hemiptera) and one species of leech (Hirudinaria sp). Special floral values: An outstanding area for its wide variety of wetland habitats. Research and facilities: Several faunal and floral surveys have been conducted, e.g. by the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology in 1983, by Interwader in 1984, by Payne and Parish in 1985, and by Lansdown in 1986 and 1987, but no permanent facilities are available at the site. References: Axell (1985); Beadle & Whittaker (1985); Lansdown (1986, 1987b & in prep); Payne & Parish (1985); Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology (1983). Criteria for inclusion: lb. 2a, 2b, 2c, 3b. Source: J. Payne, C. Phillipps, D. Parish and R.V. Lansdown. Wetland name: Marudu Bay Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 6°30'-7°00'N, 116°46'- 117°07'E; Location: at the northernmost point of Sabah. Area: c.150,000 ha. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 01, 04, 05, 06 & 07. Description of site: A large sea bay facing northeast, fringed by sandy beaches, mangrove swamps and extensive intertidal mudflats. The most extensive mangroves are situated at the head of the bay (Kudat and Marudu Bay Forest Reserve) and on either side near the mouth (e.g. at Sungei Tenga). Rocky shores characterize the exposed mouth of the bay north of Kudat. The main source of fresh water is run-off from the northern end of the Crocker Range. The mean tidal range at Kudat is 1.3m. The saline and brackish swamps are permanent; the freshwater areas partially dry out in February-September. One of the most important areas in the bay, the Sungei Tenga mangroves and freshwater swamps, is described separately below (site 17a). Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an average annual rainfall of about 2,870 mm. There is a distinct peak in the rainfall between mid November and mid February, and a low from March to September, the lowest rainfall occurring in April. The temperatures are probably similar to those at Kota Kinabalu, which has an average maximum temperature of 30.5°C and an average minimum of 23.2°C in open swamps near the coast. Evaporation may exceed precipitation during the greater part of the year. Principal vegetation: Extensive mangrove forests with a large component of Rhizophora species. At Sungei Tenga, mangroves commonly associated with the Rhizophora include species of Ceriops, Lumnitzera, Bruguiera and Xylocarpus. The fresh water swamps probably hold large amounts of Baeckia frutescens, Tristania clementis and Rhodamnia sp, with many rushes such as Fimbristylis spp. Around Sungei Tenga, large areas of associated transitional forest may contain many Oncosperma palms mixed with relic tall forest trees such as Intsia spp and some coastal dipterocarps such as Sliorea glaucescens, Land tenure: Much of the wetland is state owned; surrounding areas are largely alienated for permanent and shifting agriculture.

Conservation measures taken: Some 13,636 ha of forest are included in the Kudat and Marudu Bay Forest Reserve (Class V). Conservation measures proposed: At a meeting in 1975 of officials from the Forestry and Fisheries Department, the Land Capability Classification Project and the Lands and Surveys Department, it was suggested that six areas of mangroves in Sabah including Marudu Bay (51,170 ha) be designated as conservation areas in which no large-scale exploitation would be allowed except for traditional uses. It has also been suggested that more areas of fresh water swamp be included within the existing forest reserve at Sungei Tenga. Further survey work is required in order to evaluate the flora and fauna of the area with a view to protection of suitable sites. This applies to water birds in particular. Land use: Fishing for fin fish and prawns; agriculture and coconut plantations on the Kudat Peninsula. There is an important fish market at Kudat. Disturbances and threats: Reclamation of swamps and clear-felling of mangroves for agricultural land, and probably some hunting. Economic and social values: The mangrove swamps and intertidal mudflats support a major commercial fishery for both fin fish and prawns. The catch of prawns in Marudu Bay in 1973 was 77.6 tons, valued at M dollar 283,600. Fauna: An important breeding area and nursery ground for demersal and pelagic fish and prawns. The bay is particularly important for carangid and clupeid fishes and mullets, notably Valamugil cunnesius, Liza subviridis, L. vaigiensis and L. tade. The mullets occur mainly in the estuaries of the Kudat Peninsula and the southern part of the bay. Marine prawns caught in Marudu Bay and the Kudat area include Penaeus merguiensis, P. indicus, P. monodon, P. semisulcatus and Metapenaeus ensis. Marudu Bay is probably also an important area for resident and migratory waterfowl; an aerial survey in February 1985 revealed over 100 ducks (Anas sp) and several hundred shorebirds on the intertidal mudflats. Special floral values: None known. Research and facilities: Chua and Matthias (1978) have worked on the fishes and prawns of the bay, and have studied the littoral fauna and flora at a study site on rocky shore north of Kudat. References: Chua & Matthias (1978); Davies & Payne (1982). Criteria for inclusion: lb. le, 2c. Source: C. Phillipps. Wetland name: Sungei Tenga Swamps Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 6°42'-6°50'N, 116°58'-117°07'E; Location: on the east coast of Marudu Bay, 25 km southeast of Kudat, Sabah. Area: Over 6,500 ha. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 02, 07, 08 & 15. Description of site: A large area of tidal mangrove swamps and permanent brackish to freshwater swamps of reeds and grasses intermixed with tall mangrove forest and some transitional forest on hillocks. Two large rivers, the Sungei Tenga and Sungei Bengkoka,

pass through the swamps. The western side abuts on the sea at Marudu Bay; the eastern parts are fringed with shifting cultivation and scrub forest. The water is somewhat acidic in the freshwater back-swamps. Much of the freshwater swamp is permanent, but some areas dry out during the dry season from February to September, and are flooded again by the rains in October-February. The mean tidal range at Kudat is 1.3m. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an average annual rainfall of approximately 2,870 mm; there is a distinct peak in the rainfall between mid November and mid February, and a low from February to September, the lowest rainfall occurring in April. Temperatures are probably similar to those at Kota Kinabalu, where the average maximum temperature is 30.5°C and the average minimum 23.2°C in open swamps near to the sea. Evaporation may exceed precipitation during the greater part of the year. Principal vegetation: Mangrove swamps dominated by species of Rhizophora; other common mangroves include species of Ceriops, Lumnitzera, Bruguiera and Xylocarpus. The fresh water swamps probably hold large amounts of Baeckia frutescens, Tristania clementis, Rhodamnia sp, with many rushes such as Fimbristylis spp. Large areas of associated transitional forest may contain many Oncosperma palms mixed with relict tall forest trees such as Intsia spp and some coastal dipterocarps such as Shorea glaucescens. Land tenure: Unknown in detail but part of the site is a state owned Mangrove Forest Reserve. The surrounding areas are largely alienated for permanent and shifting cultivation. Conservation measures taken: Part of the area is a Class V Mangrove Forest Reserve. Conservation measures proposed: It has been suggested that more areas of freshwater swamp be included in the existing Forest Reserve. Land use: Some fishing. Disturbances and threats: There is probably some hunting of migratory water birds and indigenous mammals. Economic and social values: The area is presumably of importance as a breeding and nursery ground for fishes and prawns of commercial value. Fauna: Little information is available; the area is thought to be very important as a breeding and foraging area for large numbers of resident and migratory water birds such as herons and egrets (Ardeidae) and rails (Rallidae). Special floral values: None known. Criteria for inclusion: 0. Source: C. Phillipps. Wetland name: The Middle Reaches of the Sugut River Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 6°14'-6°20'N, 117'20'-117'38'E; Location: in the Sugut River system inland from the tidal delta area, in northeastern Sabah. Area: c.40,000 ha. Altitude: 0-30m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 11, 13, 14, 15 & 21. Description of site: The middle river area of the Sugut flood plain is characterized by about fifteen oxbow lakes averaging a few hectares in size. The river is sluggish, meandering through flat country vegetated with riverine forest, logged lowland dipterocarp forest and

freshwater swamp forest. The river water is fresh, but tidal influence extends a considerable distance upstream from the delta. There are short-term and seasonal variations in water level according to local run-off and rainfall in the upper reaches of the Sugut east of Mount Kinabalu. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an average annual rainfall of about 3,000 mm. Principal vegetation: Freshwater swamp forest, riverine forest and logged lowland dipterocarp forest. Mangrove and nipa swamp downstream in the delta, and some shifting cultivation in adjacent areas. Land tenure: Mostly state owned (Commercial Forest Reserve). Conservation measures taken: Most of the area is included in the Sugut Forest Reserve (Class II). Conservation measures proposed: Whitaker (1984) has recommended that six deep perennial lakes be protected as crocodile breeding areas. These are as follows: Sabahpola Lake (6°19'N, l17°33 E), Usu Lake (6°19'N, 117°35'E), Kambawan Lake (6°17'N, 117°35'E), and three unnamed lakes at 6°22'N, 11 7°37'E, 6°20'N, 11 7°35'E, and 6°17'30"N, 11 7°34'30"E, respectively. Land use: Fishing and shifting cultivation. The least disturbed large riverine flood plain in Sabah; although heavily logged in the past, the forest has been left to regenerate. There are few human settlements, no plantations and no permanent roads. Disturbances and threats: Shifting cultivation. There appears to have been little or no hunting pressure on the crocodiles in recent years, although according to villagers, hunting for skins in the 1960s and 1970s caused a decline in the local population. Economic and social values: The area is important for its commercial timber and local fishery resources. Fauna: Anhinga melanogaster is known to occur, but no other information on the waterfowl is available. Mammals recorded in the area since 1978 include Dicerorhinus sumatrensis, Bos javanicus (common), Helarctos malayanus, Neofelis nebulosa, Pongo pygmaeus, Hylobates muelleri and Nasalis larvatus. The region is particularly important for its population of the Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus. During a survey of 151 km of river and seven oxbow lakes in 1983, 24 C. porosus were observed, including several young. Many of the oxbow lakes are prime habitat for crocodiles, and from the evidence gathered in the 1983 survey, it seems that these small lakes are the most important areas for breeding crocodiles and their young. Special floral values: None known. Research and facilities: Davies and Payne (1982) conducted an extensive faunal survey of the lower Sugut in October 1981, and Whitaker (1984) carried out a crocodile survey in 1983. References: Davies & Payne (1982); Whitaker (1984). Criteria for inclusion: 1b, 2a, 2b. Source: See references. Wetland name: Labuk-Sugut Deltas Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 5°50'-6°31'N, l17°27'-117°45'E;

Location: on the northeast coast of Sabah, northwest of Sandakan. Area: c.150,000 ha. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 02, 03, 06, 07, 08, 11, 13, 14, 15 & 21. Description of site: A large stretch of coastal mangrove and nipa swamp distributed over two delta systems, backed by freshwater marshes, some of the best swamp forest in Sabah and two large river systems with associated oxbow lakes. The main source of water is freshwater run-off from the northern part of the Crocker Range on the Labuk and Sugut river systems. The water regime is partly tidal, partly free-flowing and partly stagnant. The mangroves are subject to tidal inundation, the swamps are permanent, and the freshwater areas may be semi-permanent to permanent. The tidal range is about 1-2.5m. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate; one of the wetter areas of Sabah with the average annual rainfall exceeding 3,500 mm. The greater part of the rain falls during the northeast monsoon from December to February. The driest period of the year is probably in April and May, but evaporation is unlikely to exceed rainfall except in exceptional droughts, which may be expected once every 10-15 years. Principal vegetation: In the Sugut Delta, the mangrove forest is dominated by Rhizophora mucronata, R. apiculata and species of Ceriops, Excoecaria, Sonneratia, Bruguiera and Avicennia. The swamp forests are often characterized by the family Myristicaceae, with local dominance of Alsionia spathulata, Nauclea spp, Terminalia spp, Campnosperma spp, Lophopetalum multinervum and Octomeles sumatrana. Surrounding areas are under logged lowland dipterocarp forest with patches of shifting cultivation and riverine forest. Land tenure: The wetland and surrounding areas are state owned (Sabah State Government). Conservation measures taken: Large portions of the area are included in forest reserves. Some 56,912 ha of mangrove forest are included in the Kuala Bonggaya and Kuala Labuk Forest Reserves (Class V), and much of the mangrove forest in the Sugut Delta is included in the Sungei Sugut Forest Reserve (Class V). Much of the remaining swamp forest is in the Sugut Forest Reserve (Class II), a commercial forest reserve of 32,000 ha. Paitan Forest Reserve lies to the northwest of the Sugut Delta. Conservation measures proposed: Several areas of importance for Estuarine Crocodiles Crocodylus porosus have been proposed for special protection. Land use: Forestry in the mangrove forest reserves and commercial forest reserves, particularly logging for commercial timber. Large areas of the Sugut Delta have been selectively logged for timber and this may continue periodically. There is extensive fishing and some subsistence agriculture in the area. Disturbances and threats: Crocodile habitat in the mangroves of the Sugut Delta is apparently subject to heavy disturbance, and the crocodiles have now almost disappeared from the estuarine zone. Hunting undoubtedly occurs, and may be threatening populations of the larger mammals. A hydro-electric power dam has been proposed for the upper reaches of the Labuk River, and the Sabah Electricity Board has commissioned a study including environmental impact assessment. If the project goes ahead, it may affect the lower Labuk. Economic and social values: The swamp forest and mangroves provide a valuable source of timber and other forest products, and the mangrove swamps and oxbow lakes support a major

commercial fishery. Some 1,143 tons of prawns were taken from the adjacent sea in 1974, comprising 29% of the total catch in Sabah in that year. Fauna: A very poorly known area, but probably of great importance for wildlife in view of its size, remoteness and lack of land alienation. Wildlife appears to be abundant and is probably representative of the coastal lowlands of eastern Sabah. The very rare pheasant Polyplectron malacense has been reported in the Sugut Delta area. The Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus still occurs quite commonly upriver, but has now become very rare in the coastal zone. Special floral values: No information. Research and facilities: A crocodile survey was carried out in 1983 (Whitaker, 1984). References: Davies & Payne (1982); Simpson & Chin (1978); Whitaker (1984). Criteria for inclusion: lb. le, 2a, 2b, 2c. Source: C. Phillipps. Wetland name: Sandakan-Tambisan Coastal Wetlands Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 5°17'-6°04'N, 117°48'-l19°16'E; Location: on the north coast of the Dent Peninsula, from Dent Haven (south of Tambisan) to Tanjung Pisau (NNW of Sandakan), eastern Sabah. Area: c.320,000 ha. Altitude: 0-70m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 01, 02, 03, 05, 06, 07, 11, 15 & 21. Description of site: A vast coastal area of gazetted mangrove forest reserve with nipa and freshwater swamp forest. Freshwater swamp forest lies mostly in the Kulamba Wildlife Reserve (20,682 ha) and in the southeastern corner of the site. The Kinabatangan delta comprises a complex mixture of mangrove forest, transitional forest, lowland swamp forest and open reed marsh with patches of forest periodically flooded with fresh water. Two large rivers, Sungei Kinabatangan and Sungei Segama, flow into the area and provide the main surface water supply. The delta areas are brackish and tidal; some other areas are possibly slightly acidic. There are short-term and seasonal variations in river levels and flooded areas. The Kabili-Sepilok Forest Reserve (4,295 ha) in the western part of the area is described separately as site 20a. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an average annual rainfall of 2,500 mm (at Mumiang); the wettest months are December and January, and the driest is April. The mean daily maximum temperature is about 32°C, and the mean daily minimum, 22°C. Principal vegetation: Seven major plant communities have been described in the Kulamba Wildlife Reserve as follows: 1. Mangrove forest. 2. Nipa forest, consisting almost entirely of Nypa fruticans. There are two substantial stands of nipa within the Wildlife Reserve and extensive fringes of nipa along rivers outside the Reserve. 3. Riverine forest of variable composition, but usually with Cerbera manghas, Heritiera littoralis, Teijsmanniodendron cf. hollrungii, Dillenia excelsa and Ficus spp.

4. Butabuta, consisting of almost pure stands of the mangrove Excoecaria agallocha with some Heritiera littoralis, Lumnitzera sp, and the fern Acrostichum sp. The spiny-leaved shrub Acanthus ilicifolius is also present. This habitat is on saline mud, partially or entirely inundated at high tide. 5. Beach, with open stands of Casuarina equisetifolia and coarse grasses. 6. Open swamp forest with thick scrub and grasses, frequently flooded. The only large trees in the area sampled were a species of Terminalia. 7. Closed-canopy swamp forest; a more heterogeneous and diverse plant community than 6, with a more complete tree cover. Prominent tree species include Campnosperma auriculata, Alstonia spathulata, Homolanthus populneus, Baccaurea stipulata, Planchonia valida, Memecylon laevigatum, Pternandra coerulescens and a palm, Licuala sp. In parts, notably to the east of the Kapis River, Campnosperma auriculata is the most abundant tree and the ground cover is dominated by Hypolytrum nemorum. Such forest appears to be frequently inundated, depending on the tide and on rainfall. In the Kinabatangan Mangrove Forest Reserve, the mangrove forest is dominated by species of Rhizophora. This Reserve has many small stands of various palms such as Pholidocarpus sp and Areca sp, extensive nipa swamps, and rather open lowland swamp forests where Terminalia copelandii is particularly common. The main vegetation types in adjacent areas are grassland with few trees, tropical forest on steep hills and flat dry ground, and riverine forest. Land tenure: Over 85,000 ha are state owned in two Mangrove Forest Reserves and a Wildlife Reserve, and a further 9,000 ha is State Land. Adjacent areas are State Land or privately owned agricultural land. Conservation measures taken: Two Mangrove Forest Reserves (totalling 64,464 ha), one Virgin Jungle Reserve and one Wildlife Reserve have been gazetted: Terusan Kinabatangan Mangrove Forest Reserve (40,471 ha), Kuala Segama and Kuala Maruap Mangrove Forest Reserve (23,993 ha), Kabili-Sepilok Forest Reserve (4,295 ha) and Kulamba Wildlife Reserve (20,682 ha, mostly freshwater swamp and nipa). The Kinabatangan Mangroves are a Class V Forest Reserve. Conservation measures proposed: None Land use: Much mangrove has been clear-felled, but such exploitation ceased in mid 1986. Mangrove forest has undergone and will continue to undergo selective exploitation, but swamp forest has suffered minimal disturbance. In the Kinabatangan delta, the principal activities are fishing and logging for wood-chips, but there is also a little charcoal production. All the dipterocarp forest around the wetland was logged during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. All non-swampy land less than 50 km from Kulamba Wildlife Reserve has been allocated for permanent agriculture. Possible changes in land use: The damming of the Kinabatangan or Segama rivers would affect the area. Disturbances and threats: The main threat has been the clear-felling of mangrove forest for wood-chips, although this activity has been indefinitely frozen in Sabah by the State Forest Department. Hunting and fishing cause some disturbance, but this does not appear to be excessive. Economic and social values: An important area for the maintenance of Sabah's east coast fisheries. The wetland provides an excellent example of the transition from mangrove to

freshwater swamp forest, much of which is undisturbed, and thus presents an excellent opportunity for scientific research. Fauna: Thirty-four species of saltwater fish were recorded during a survey of Dewhurst Bay and the Sulu Sea bordering the Kulamba Wildlife Reserve and Segama Estuary. The wetland is an important site for Storm's Stork Ciconia stormi and Lesser Adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus, both of which probably breed in the area. The wetland also supports significant numbers of migrant shorebirds during the northern winter (November-March); Tanjung Bididari near Kg. Mumiang held almost 3,500 shorebirds in September-October 1984, including 2,030 Actitis hypoleucos. One pair of the megapode Megapodius freycinet has recently been observed, this constituting the first record of the species for this part of Sabah. Bos javanicus is present in Kulamba Wildlife Reserve, and primates known to occur in the area include Presbytis rubicunda, P. hosei, P. cristata, Nasalis larvatus, Pongo pygmaeus and Hylobates mullen. Other mammals include Helanctos malayanus and Felis marmorata. The Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus has almost been exterminated in the Kulamba area, although it still occurs in small numbers in the Kulamba Wildlife Reserve. In the 1960s, as many as 1,000 crocodile hatchlings were caught each year in November and December at Danau Tidal, a freshwater marsh at Tanjung Linsang in the Kulamba Wildlife Reserve. The population could revive if given adequate protection, and perhaps aided by re-introduction from elsewhere. Special floral values: There are seemingly wild stands of Areca catechu in the Kinabatangan delta. This species is not known to occur anywhere else in Malaysia. Research and facilities: Surveys have been carried out at the Kulamba Wildlife Reserve by staff of the Wildlife Section of Sabah Forest Department in 1984 and by WWF Malaysia in 1985. The Wildlife Section of Sabah Forest Department and Interwader conducted a survey of the Mumiang/Bididari area in 1984. References: Beadle & Whittaker (1985); Payne (1986); Whitaker (1984); WWF Malaysia (1985). Criteria for inclusion: 1b, le, 2a, 2b, 2c, 3b. Source: C. Phillipps, J. Payne and R. Rajanathan. Wetland name: Kabili-Sepilok Forest Reserve Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 5°47'-5°52'N, 117°55'-118°03'E; Location: about 24 km west of Sandakan on the east coast of Sabah, with the southern boundary on the coast. Area: 4,295 ha, including Sepilok Orang-utan Rehabilitation Centre and Sepilok Mangrove Forest (1,235 ha). Altitude: Sea level to 180m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 06, 07 & 11. Description of site: An area of flat, alluvial and slightly undulating country, with mangrove swamps, lowland dipterocarp forest, sandstone hill dipterocarp forest and kerangas forest. Red-yellow podzolic soils are widespread and occur in association with lithosols on the steepest slopes. Sandstone ridges are a dominant feature. Seven small rivers flow within the

reserve, and are fed by local rainfall. Low-lying areas of forest flood during periods of heavy rainfall. Tidal areas are brackish. The median tidal range at Sandakan is 1.5m. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an average annual rainfall of about 3,000 mm. The heaviest rains occur in December and January, the rainfall being largely influenced by northeast winds which generally blow between November and mid February. The mean temperature is about 30°C. Principal vegetation: Rhizophoraceae are well represented, including Bruguiera spp, two species of Rhizophora and Kandelia candel. The mangrove forests to the south are part of the Elopura Forest Reserve, which is dominated by Rhizophora mucronata, R. apiculata, Ceriops tagal and Lumnitzera littorea. Bruguiera gymnorhiza occurs in dense stands. This merges with a transitional zone to lowland dipterocarp forest characterized by the presence of a large number of Dipterocarpaceae. The vegetation of surrounding areas is mainly lowland dipterocarp forest with genera such as Shorea, Parashorea and Dryobalanops, sandstone hill dipterocarp forest and kerangas forest with species of Tristania, Shorea and Ixonanthes. Almost 40% of the known flora of Dipterocarpaceae in Sabah have been recorded in Sepilok Forest Reserve. Land tenure: The reserve is state owned; surrounding areas are privately owned. Conservation measures taken: Protected in the Kabili-Sepilok Forest Reserve (4,295 ha), a Class VI Virgin Jungle Reserve gazetted in 1930. Mangrove forest to the south is included in the Elopura Forest Reserve (24,674 ha). The Kabili-Sepilok Reserve is currently safe from timber exploitation, but can be given out for logging by the Conservator of Forests. It is managed by the Research Branch of the Sabah Forest Department. There has been no legal logging since 1967. An Orang-utan Rehabilitation Centre has been in operation in the Reserve since 1964 and a Forestry Research Centre, Forestry Training School and Nature Education Centre are located near the Reserve. Conservation measures proposed: Proposals for new visitor accommodation are currently under consideration. Land use: Tourism, conservation education, biological research and training in forestry; cultivation in adjacent areas. Disturbances and threats: Parts of the Reserve were selectively logged between 1910 and 1967, and there has been some illegal logging since then. Illegal poaching is minimal. Economic and social values: A very valuable area for conservation education, tourism, biological research and training in forestry. The area is well known in Sabah for its rich wildlife, and the flora is well documented. Fauna: The fauna is typical of Bornean lowland dipterocarp forest and coastal mangroves. Waterfowl include the Oriental Darter Anhinga melanogaster and Storm's Stork Ciconia stormi, both uncommon residents. Seven species of kingfisher (Alcedinidae) have been recorded. The rich passerine fauna includes several mangrove specialists such as Cyornis rufigaster and Pachycephala cinerea. Dolphins Sousa spp frequent the rivers, and Dugongs Dugong dugon are occasionally reported. Other mammals include the Orang-utan Pongo pygmaeus, Proboscis Monkey Nasalis larvatus, Macaca nemestrina, Presbytis cristatus, P. rubicunda, Hylobates muelleri and Sus barbatus. The forest supports a rich and diverse butterfly fauna. Special floral values: The Reserve provides a good example of mangrove grading through to lowland primary dipterocarp forest.

Research and facilities: A considerable amount of silvicultural research has been carried out, and many research plots have been established by the Forest Department, some dating back to 1936. There have been several studies of Orang-utan behaviour, and a rehabilitation experiment for the release of illegally captured animals has been in progress since 1964. There is an on-going study of the Red Leaf Monkey Presbytis rubicunda. An animal clinic has been set up at the Orang-utan Rehabilitation Centre, with laboratory and staff quarters. A trail system, including a self-guiding nature trail, is open to the public. There is a Nature Education Centre with reference library and programmes of lectures, audio-visual presentations and tours. There is also a Forestry Research Centre and Forestry Training School. References: De Silva (1976); Fox (1973); Francis (undated); IUCN (in prep); Khoo (1979); MacKinnon (1981). Criteria for inclusion: 1b, 2a, 2b, 2c. Source: J. Payne. Wetland name: Kinabatangan Flood Plain Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 5°20'-5°45'N, 117°40'-118°30'E; Location: an area of flat land adjacent to the Kinabatangan River in eastern Sabah. Area: c.280,000 ha. Altitude: Mostly around sea-level. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 02, 06, 07, Il, 13, 15, 21 & 22. Description of site: A large area of flat land adjacent to the lower Kinabatangan River, much of which is subject to seasonal flooding, resulting in low-stature forest with little timber of commercial value and problems for permanent agriculture. In some areas (totaling about 72,000 ha), flooding is not considered a major problem for certain crops, but in others, where the land is either swampy throughout much of the year (about 20,000 ha) or peaty (about 13,500 ha), agriculture is not sustainable. Many oxbow lakes occur in the area from the Lokan region in the middle reaches of the river down to the coastal swamps. These lakes are still being formed and lost through siltation. There are also areas of low-lying land, notably at Butong, Labaung and Menanggul, with areas of open water surrounded by swamp forest. The large mangrove and nipa swamps of the delta area into which the Kinabatangan empties form an almost unbroken swamp stretching from Sandakan harbour southeast to Tambisan. The Tenengang area (9,500 ha) is of particular interest and is described separately as site 2la. A second area of particular interest is in the middle reaches between Kuala Butong in the east and Kuala Lokan in the west. The surrounding area consists of virtually untouched swamp forest around Danau Butong to logged lowland dipterocarp forest. The forest around Danau Labaung has been logged twice and was burned in the fire of 1983. Danau Labang, the most important of several small lakes, is described separately as site 2lb. The main source of water is run-off from mountains in the southeastern interior via tributaries of the Kinabatangan. Some areas of stagnant water are acidic. The lakes and oxbows are permanent or subject to partial drying out. The median tidal range at Kuala Kinabatangan is 1.1m. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an average annual rainfall of about 2,600 mm. The rainfall is well distributed throughout the year, although there is slightly more rain

in December and January than in other months, and slightly less in March and April. The mean diurnal temperatures range from 22°C to 32°C. Principal vegetation: Riverine forest, freshwater swamp forest with Terminalia spp, peat swamp forest, and open reed swamps with Mapania thickets. Oxbow lakes in the Temengang area are fringed with Nauclea forest. Dominant tree genera include Aistonia, Kleinhovia, Terminalia and Octomeles. There are remnants of pristine lowland dipterocarp forest, logged-over swamp forest, burnt lowland dipterocarp forest, and cocoa and oil palm plantations in surrounding areas. Land tenure: Several small forest reserves, such as Gomantong Supu and various others retained for the protection of swift let nesting caves, are state owned. All other land is either State Land or has been alienated for agriculture. Conservation measures taken: None. Conservation measures proposed: Seven areas have been recommended for protection as breeding areas for the Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus (Whitaker, 1984): 1. Abai; a deep perennial lake subject to partial drying out, at 5°40'N, 118°24'E. 2. Kinanap; a deep perennial lake ideal for crocodiles, at 5°29'N, l18°15'E. 3.Kolatanegang; a deep perennial lake subject to partial drying out, at 5°28'N, 1l8°l5'E. 4. A deep perennial lake subject to partial drying out, at 5°25'N, 118°02'E, between the Takala and Koyah Rivers. 5. A deep perennial lake subject to partial drying out, at 5°25'N, 117°58'E. 6. A deep perennial lake ideal for crocodiles, at 5°25'N, 1l7°57'E. 7. Butong; several small lakes and an extensive swamp, at 5°32'N, 1l7°55'E. The rich fauna and flora of these areas warrant further investigation with a view to protection. In particular, the Danau Butong, Danau Labaung, Tungei Bulat and Sungei Loyang Pisot areas should be surveyed from the air to locate breeding colonies of Ardeidae and other waterfowl. Land use: Fishing and agriculture. A large rattan plantation has been established by the Sabah Forest Development Authority (SAFODA) under thinned secondary forest in the Batu Putih region. The main activities in surrounding areas are agriculture and logging. Disturbances and threats: Forest clearance for agriculture and excessive logging. There is some hunting, and the eggs of Anhinga melanogaster and possibly Egretta spp are collected for human consumption, possibly on a large scale. Economic and social values: The wetland is vital to flood control throughout the lower Kinabatangan region. Proper planning and management of land use on a regional basis are essential if plantations and human settlements within and adjacent to the wetland are to be protected from excessive flooding. A potential exists for prawn farming in the oxbow lakes, and because of its rich wildlife, the region has potential for tourism. Fauna: The Kinabatangan Flood Plain is the largest and possibly the most important wetland in Sabah. It supports a rich fish fauna, including catfish and other commercially valuable species, and contains breeding populations of many rare species of birds, mammals and reptiles which will become increasingly endangered in the future. The wetland is particularly rich in waterfowl. The Oriental Darter Anhinga melanogaster is a common breeding bird; a breeding colony of about 100 pairs was located at Danau Labaung in September 1986, and there is thought to be a breeding colony on the Sungei Loyang Pisot. Other waterfowl known to occur include Ixobrychus cinnamomeus, I. flavicollis, Nycticorax nycticorax, Bubulcus ibis, Egretta garzetta, E. alba, Ardea sumatrana, Ciconia stormi and Amaurornis

phoenicurus. The herons and egrets are thought to breed at Danau Butong, Tanjung Bulat and Danau Labaung. The Lesser Fishing-Eagle Ichthyophaga nana breeds in the area, and several species of kingfishers (Alcedinidae) have been recorded. Other birds include four species of hornbills, Anthracoceros malayanus, A. convexus (both common), Buceros rhinoceros and Berenicornis comatus. All the larger mammal species of lowland Borneo have been recorded, and this wetland may in the future form a valuable reserve for the Tembadau (Banteng) Bos javanicus and Orang-utan Pongo pygrnaeus. Unfortunately, it is probably too small an area to sustain elephants and rhinoceros in the long-term. A total of 17 Estuarine Crocodiles Crocodylus porosus were observed during a survey of 403 km of river in 1983 (Whitaker, 1984). Most of the crocodiles were seen in the flat middle reaches of the river and in the associated oxbows, tributaries and swamps. The oxbow lakes and some of the inland swamp areas provide the last remaining undisturbed habitat suitable for breeding crocodiles in Sabah. Special floral values: No information. Research and facilities: Davies and Payne carried out faunal surveys in 1979-1981, Whitaker conducted a preliminary survey of crocodile habitat in 1983, and Lansdown made a preliminary investigation of the herons and egrets in 1986. References: Davies & Payne (1982); Lansdown (1987a); Whitaker (1984). Criteria for inclusion: lb. le, 2a, 2b, 2c, 3b. Source: J. Payne, C. Phillipps and R.V. Lansdown. Wetland name: Tenengang Lakes Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 5°25'-5°30'N, 118°05'-118°18'E; Location: 50 km south of Sandakan on the lower reaches of the Kinabatangan River, Sabah. Area: 9,500 ha. Altitude: 10m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 11, 13, 15 & 21. Description of site: A series of oxbow lakes in various stages of infilling along the Kinabatangan River, separated by logged-over swamp forest subject to varying degrees of periodic flooding, and with some open reed marsh. The water is fresh and, in some of the back-swamps, highly acidic. The depth of water is variable and may reach 5 meters in the oxbow lakes. The swamps are more or less permanent. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an average annual rainfall of approximately 2,600 mm, well distributed throughout the year, but with a slight peak in December and January; the lowest rainfall occurs in March and April. The mean diurnal maximum and minimum temperatures are 32°C and 22°C, respectively. Principal vegetation: The oxbow lakes are fringed with Nauclea forest. There are many Alstonia, Kleinhovia, Terminalia and Octomeles trees, and open reed swamps with Mapania thickets. The surrounding logged-over swamp forest includes relict dipterocarps and other large trees especially Susideroxylon zwageri. Land tenure: The wetland is State Land; there is some privately owned and kampung reserve land in adjacent areas. Conservation measures taken: None.

Conservation measures proposed: It has been suggested that the area surrounding the oxbow lakes be gazetted as a wildlife forest reserve. Areas of open freshwater are rare in Sabah, and since those that do often have wildlife associated with them, they should be conserved. Land use: Large and small scale cultivation in surrounding areas. Possible changes in land use: Agricultural development. Disturbances and threats: Hunting causes some disturbance. Economic and social values: A potential exists for prawn farming in the oxbow lakes. Fauna: Fishes are abundant. Various herons and egrets (Ardeidae) have been recorded, and ducks may occur. Estuarine Crocodiles Crocodylus porosus probably frequent the oxbow lakes for breeding. Special floral values: None known. Research and facilities: None References: None Criteria for inclusion: 0. Source: C. Phillipps. Wetland name: Danau Labaung Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 5°29'N, 1 17°43'E; Location: at the head of the Danau River, in the Kinabatangan Flood Plain, Sabah. Area: c.8 ha (the lake itself is c.3 ha). Altitude: c.10m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 11 & 15. Description of site: A small, permanent, inland lake containing bushes and surrounded by logged lowland dipterocarp forest, at the head of the Labaung River, a tributary of the Kinabatangan River on the Kinabatangan Flood Plain. The lake is subject to seasonal and temporary flooding. The surrounding area has been logged twice and was burnt during the fire of 1983. Much of the immediate surroundings has been heavily burnt and many trees are dead. The lake itself contains a large area of low bushes. The water regime is presumably similar to that of the Kinabatangan Flood Plain as a whole. The water depth is highly variable, and the water level in the Labaung River can rise by as much as one meter after heavy rains. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an average annual rainfall of approximately 2,600 mm, well distributed throughout the year, but with a slight peak in December and January; the lowest rainfall occurs in March and April. The mean diurnal maximum and minimum temperatures are 32°C and 22°C, respectively. Principal vegetation: Relatively little aquatic vegetation; there are some low bushes in the lake, and the surface is covered with a scum of green algae. The principal vegetation in surrounding areas is logged and burnt remnants of lowland dipterocarp forest. Land tenure: State Land. Conservation measures taken: The Lands and Surveys Department has been requested by the Forest Department not to issue land titles in or near the site.

Conservation measures proposed: The gazettement of the lake and swamp forest in the Labaung area are to be proposed along with amendments to the Fauna Conservation Ordinance. The area would be given the status of Wildlife Sanctuary (a new status in Sabah). The wetland should be protected during the breeding season, and its potential for tourism should be developed. Land use: There is little use at present, other than some fishing by local people. Possible changes in land use: The Labaung area has been proposed for settlement by native small-holders; this is likely to go ahead on surrounding dry land. Disturbances and threats: The eggs of Anhinga melanogaster and possibly also species of Egretta are collected for human consumption, and this may be occurring on a large scale. Fishing by local people at weekends causes considerable disturbance. Economic and social values: The presence of an easily observed breeding colony of water birds and the abundance of mammals give the area considerable potential for nature-oriented tourism and conservation education. The wetland provides an excellent recreational area for future small-holders on surrounding land, and provides a source of protein through fishing. Fauna: Catfish and at least one other type of fish are present on a commercially viable scale. The wetland supports a breeding colony of the Oriental Darter Anhinga melanogaster (over 100 pairs), and several species of egrets Egretta spp and Ixobrychus flavicollis may breed. The fish-eagle Ichthyophaga nana breeds in the area, and the kingfishers Pelargopsis capensis and Alcedo meninting occur in good numbers. Mammals include Elephas maximus, Bos javanicus, Pongo pygmaeus and Presbytis hosei. The Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus occurred at least until the early 1980s, and may still be present. Special floral values: None known. Research and facilities: None References: None Criteria for inclusion: 1b, 2a, 2c, 3b. Source: J. Payne, WWF Malaysia and R.V. Lansdown. Wetland name: Segama River Valley Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 5°00'-5°32'N, 1l8°00'-1l8°50'E; Location: a major river system to the south of the Kinabatangan River in eastern Sabah. Key areas: 5°06'-5°08'N, 118°22'-118°25'E, and 5°20'-5°23'N, 118°35'-118'41'E. Area: c.140,000 ha; key areas about 8,500 ha. Altitude: 0-30m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 11, 13, 15 & 21. Description of site: The lower and middle reaches of the Segama River upstream from the mangrove and nipa swamps of the delta. The Segama rises in the hills to the northwest of Darvel Bay; the middle reaches flow through fairly flat or gently undulating land covered by lowland dipterocarp forest and freshwater swamp forest. In the lower reaches, the river meanders through riverine forest with freshwater oxbow lakes and swamps. The river and swamps are fresh in their middle reaches and brackish in their lower reaches. There are short-term and seasonal variations in the level of the river and extent of flooded areas. About 80% of the wetlands are permanently inundated.

Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate. Principal vegetation: Lowland riverine forest dominated by Octomeles sumatrana in the lower reaches, with transition to mangrove and Nypa fruticans swamp in the delta area. The main vegetation in adjacent areas is logged lowland primary dipterocarp forest, secondary forest of Macaranga sp and climbers, agricultural areas and riverside grassland. Land tenure: Mostly titled land allocated for agriculture and large-scale plantations. The remainder is State Land, potentially available for plantations. Conservation measures taken: None. Conservation measures proposed: Three deep perennial lakes subject to partial drying out have been proposed for protection as crocodile breeding areas (Whitaker, 1984). These are Lidong (5°26'N, 118°40'E), Munda (5°26'N, 118°38'E) and a third area at 5°23'N, 118°36'E. Land use: Fishing, agriculture and logging. Disturbances and threats: The forests continue to be logged and clear-felled for conversion to agricultural land. Economic and social values: Fisheries, public recreation and flood control. Fauna: The river supports a variety of freshwater fishes and prawns, and the adjacent forests support populations of most of the large mammals typical of lowland Borneo, including Tembadau (Banteng), Sambar Deer, Asian Elephant and Bearded Pig (Bos javanicus, Cervus unicolor, Elephas maximus and Sus barbatus). The Sumatran Rhinoceros Didermoceros sumatrensis has declined in the Ulu Segama area to only one or two individuals. Over 106 species of birds have been recorded from the Ulu Segama Forest Reserve. A total of 1 1 Estuarine Crocodiles Crocodylus porosus were recorded during a survey of 285 km of the river in 1983. The crocodiles were concentrated in the lower and middle reaches, and were rare in the upper reaches and in the delta. Breeding presumably occurs at oxbow lakes such as Danau Lidong and Munda. Special floral values: No information. Research and facilities: Whitaker carried out a crocodile survey in 1983. References: Davies & Payne (1982); IUCN (in prep); Payne (1986); Whitaker (1984). Criteria for inclusion: lb. 2a, 2b. Source: Lamri Au. Wetland name: Cowie Bay Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 4°l0'-4°28'N, 117°30'-1l7°53'E; Location: extending from the Kalimantan border in the south to Tawau in the north, southeastern Sabah. Area: c.120,000 ha. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 01, 02, 03, 06, 07 & 10. Description of site: An oblong-shaped bay, approximately 50 km long and 10 km wide, aligned with its mouth facing southeast. The head of the bay is lined with extensive mangrove swamps and includes a complex of creeks and mangrove islands. Near the mouth of the bay, the mangrove fringe and intertidal mudflats are less extensive. About twelve rivers flow into the bay from upland areas, mainly to the north and west, the main rivers

being Sungei Merutai Besar, Sungei Kalabakan and Sungei Serudong. The island of Pulau Sebatik bounds the southern edge of the bay, the mangrove forest and mudflats continuing across the border into Kalimantan. The major town of Tawau lies on the north shore of the bay, about 10 km from its mouth. The salinity at the head of bay fluctuates with seasonal variations in rainfall. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate. Principal vegetation: Mangrove forest; lowland rainforest in adjacent areas. Land tenure: State owned (Sabah State Government). Conservation measures taken: Some 39,318 ha of mangrove forest have been gazetted as the Tawau Mangrove Forest Reserve (Class V), 164 ha as the Batumapun Virgin Jungle Reserve, and 830 ha as the Umas Umas Virgin Jungle Reserve. Conservation measures proposed: A survey of the flora and fauna should be undertaken in the near future to identify key areas for nature conservation and the establishment of protected areas. Land use: Large-scale commercial exploitation of mangroves, and fishing to supply the markets at Tawau, one of Sabah's most important agricultural areas. Sabah's oldest and largest commercial prawn farm is situated in the bay. Possible changes in land use: There is a possibility that further areas of mangrove forest will be cleared for aquaculture ponds and agricultural land. Disturbances and threats: Excessive logging and clearing of mangroves for agricultural land. Over-exploitation of the forest in Tawau Mangrove Forest Reserve has left extensive tracts of bare land, and this over-exploitation continues. Economic and social values: The mangroves are of major importance in sustaining local fisheries and could, if properly managed, support commercial forestry exploitation on a sustainable basis. Fauna: No information. Special floral values: No information. Research and facilities: Little if any work seems to have been carried out on the fauna and flora of the area. References: Payne (1986); Phillipps (1984). Criteria for inclusion: 1b, le, 2c. Source: J. Payne. Wetland name: Lawas Mangroves Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 4°5l'-4°59'N, 115°23'-115°30'E; Location: the lower reaches of Batang Lawns immediately downstream of Lawns town, at the northeastern tip of Sarawak, Fifth Division. Area: 9,200 ha. Altitude: Sea level to 120m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 02, 06, 07, 11 & 13. Description of site: The lower reaches and estuary of the Batang Lawas River with associated oxbow lakes, riverine nipa swamps, mangrove swamps and intertidal mudflats, and adjacent lowland mixed dipterocarp forest. The site is bounded by a high ridge on the

southeastern side and low hills to the southwest. The northern edge of the site runs along the Sabah border up to the coast. Adjacent coastal mangroves and inshore islets are included in the site. The riverine areas are mostly under tidal influence, the major rivers being the Batang Lawas, Sungei Merapok, Sungei Kaingaran, Sungei Malusok, Sungei Sangkurum and Sungei Kuku Karu. The substrate is sandy clay loam. Salinities range from 28 p.p.t. at Kuala Lawns to 7 ppm. at Lawas; there is a major drop in salinity upriver from Tanjung Besar. The soils are very acidic (pH of dry substrate 2.9) and acid sulphate soil conditions prevail when the mudflats and mangroves are reclaimed. The median tidal range at Kuala Lawns is 1.5m. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an annual rainfall of 3,500-4,500 mm. The rainfall is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year, although there is a slight peak during the monsoon season (September-January). Principal vegetation: Mangrove forest with Sonneratia alba, Avicennia sp, Rhizophora apiculata, Bruguiera gymnorhiza and B. sexangula, and riverine nipa swamps (Nypa fruticans). The vegetation in surrounding areas includes lowland mixed dipterocarp forest (presumably heavily exploited), peat swamp forest (logged), kerangas "islands" dominated by Dacrydium elatum in peat swamps, rubber plantations, rice paddies and other cultivation. Land tenure: State owned (Sarawak State Government). Conservation measures taken: The mangroves are included in the Belansat Forest Reserve and Kayangeran Forest Reserve. Conservation measures proposed: It has been suggested that the Sabah and Sarawak State Governments (and possibly the Government of Brunei Darussalam) should collaborate to avoid the possible destruction of Sarawakian marine resources by the timber project at Sipitang, Sabah. Land use: Timber extraction under a long-term license (1978-1988) for the production of poles for domestic consumption and cord-wood for export to Taiwan. The forest is harvested in blocks of six hectares (200m x 300m). Other activities include coastal and riverine fishing, and the occasional hunting of Cervus unicolor and Sus scrofa. Crops in nearby areas include rubber and rice. The town of Lawns is a provincial centre. Disturbances and threats: A large proportion of the mangrove forest has already been cleared and the remainder will be cleared by 1990 unless protected or brought under effective management for sustainable yield. The Sabah Timber Pulp and Paper Project at Sipitang threatens water quality in Brunei Bay and the survival of the Lawas mangroves and associated fisheries. Economic and social values: The mangroves support important fin fish and prawn fisheries in Brunei Bay, and protect the coastline from erosion and flooding, especially during the northeast monsoon. Under proper management, the forest could provide timber on a sustainable basis. According to the Department of Agriculture (1982c), the area has no agricultural potential. Fauna: The area is rich in fishes and crustaceans of economic importance. Little information is available on the other fauna. The area is known to be important for the endangered Proboscis Monkey Nasalis larvatus and the locally threatened Silvered Langur Presbytis cristata. Other mammals include Macaca fascicularis and Pteropus vampyrus. A monitor lizard Varanus sp has been reported. Special floral values: Nepenthes reinwardtiana occurs, and has been recommended for protection.

Research and facilities: Studies have included a forest inventory (Marsden, 1972), a study of the mangrove vegetation (Chai, 1975), a soil survey (Department of Agriculture, 1982c), and surveys of the Proboscis Monkey population (Salter & MacKenzie, 1981; Bennett, 19S6). References: Bennett (1986); Chai (1975); Chai & Lai (1980); Department of Agriculture (1982c); DID Sarawak (1979/80); DUN Special Select Committee on Flora and Fauna (1986); Marsden (1982); Salter & MacKenzie (1981 & 1985); WWF Malaysia & State Planning Unit of Sarawak (1985). Criteria for inclusion: lb. le, 2a, 2c. Source: National Parks and Wildlife Office (Sarawak Forest Department) and E.L. Bennett. Wetland name: Trusan-Sundar Mangroves Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 4°53'-4°58'N, ll5°O9'-ll5°19'E; Location: stretching from Sungei Bangau in the west to Sungei Siang Siang in the east, near Sundar, Lawns District, Fifth Division, Sarawak. On the border with Brunei Darussalam. Area: c.20,300 ha. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: None Wetland type: 02, 06, 07 & 21. Description of site: An accreting deltaic mangrove system with extensive intertidal mudflats and sand flats, and some freshwater swamp forest on the landward edge. The area is dominated by one main river, the Sungei Trusan, which supplies a heavy silt load for mud and sand flat deposition. The majority of the area is contained within Kenalian, Bumbun and Terentang Forest Reserves, where logging has been extremely intensive. Areas of up to one hectare or more have been virtually clear-felled. Only the area between Sungei Sepatai and Sungei Awat Awat is relatively untouched with a more or less intact canopy. Salinities range from 18.4 p.p.t. at Kampong Sinempuan to 0.92 p.p.t. at Sundar Besar, and less than 0.38 p.p.t. upstream from Kampong Aru. The median tidal range at Punang is 1.4m. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an average rainfall of 3,500-4,500 mm. The rainfall is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year, although there is a slight peak during the monsoon from September to January (400 mm per month). Principal vegetation: Mainly mangrove forest dominated by Rhizophora apiculata; also, areas inland where Nypa fruticans, Bruguiera gymnorhiza and Lumnitzera coccinea occur. Areas cleared of Rhizophora become infested with the fern Acrostichum aureum, and the eroding seaward edge is colonized by Casuarina equisetifolia. Fig trees Ficus spp are abundant along the Sungei Awat Awat. Heavily logged freshwater swamp forest occurs inland from the site. Land tenure: State owned (Sarawak State Government). Conservation measures taken: The mangroves are included within the Kenalian, Bumbun and Terentang Forest Reserves. Conservation measures proposed: Howes and NPWO (1986) proposed the creation of a Wildlife Sanctuary and the management of mangrove production forest. These proposals are in line with the concept of an International Coastal Resource Conservation Area within Brunei Bay, which would include this site, site 28, and adjacent areas in Brunei Darussalam.

Salter and MacKenzie (1981) proposed that undisturbed mangrove forest between Kuala Bangau and Kuala Trusan be made into a Wildlife Sanctuary for Proboscis Monkeys Nasalis larvatus. Bennett (1986) stressed the need for protection of the relatively undisturbed areas. Land use: Large-scale production forest (mangrove) for producing cord-wood for export to Taiwan. The area also supports a local fish-smoking industry and small-scale fishing for domestic consumption, and there is some hunting of Cervus unicolor and Sus scrofa. There are several settlements and patches of cultivation in the surrounding areas. Disturbances and threats: The clear-felling of mangrove forest continues on a large scale, and no efforts are being made to manage the resource on a sustainable yield basis. Illegal logging also takes place. Economic and social values: The mangrove swamps and intertidal mudflats are of great importance in maintaining the neighbouring inshore fishery. In 1973, the harvest of penaid prawns from the adjacent sea was valued at M dollar 3 million. The mangroves are also an important source of fuel for a local fish-smoking industry. The soils are highly susceptible to the acid sulphate condition after clear-felling, and although some of the area is moderately suitable for agriculture, most of it has too severe limitations to be of any agricultural value (Department of Agriculture, 1982c). Fauna: Over 100 species of fishes have been recorded in the associated waters. The mudflats are of considerable importance for migratory shorebirds; seventeen species are known to occur, and up to 1,000 birds have been recorded at one time (e.g. in May 1986). The commonest species are Charadrius leschenaultii, Tringa totanus and Xenus cinereus. Other waterfowl include the rare Chinese Egret Egretta eulophotes and six species of terns, the commonest being Chlidonias hybrida and C. leucoptera. Mammals include the endangered Proboscis Monkey, Silvered Langur, Long-tailed Macaque and Irrawaddy Dolphin (Nasalis larvatus, Presbytis cristata, Macaca fascicularis and Orcaella brevirostris). Reptiles include the Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus and River Monitor Varanus salvator. Special floral values: The site constitutes a good example of Rhizophora forest, with Avicennia and Sonneratia forests to the seaward side and mixed Rhizophora and Bruguiera forest to the landward side. Research and facilities: Forest inventories were carried out in 1961, 1964 and 1978 (Ngui, 1978), and a soil survey has been undertaken (Department of Agriculture, 1982c). The Proboscis Monkeys have been investigated by Salter and Mackenzie (1981) and Bennett (1986), and Howes and NPWO conducted some shorebird research in May 1986. References: Bennett (1986); Department of Agriculture (l982c); Howes & NPWO (1986a); Ngui (1978); Salter & Mackenzie (1981). Criteria for inclusion: 1b, le, 2a, 2c, 3b. Source: John R. Howes, National Parks and Wildlife Office (Sarawak Forest Department) and E.L. Bennett. Wetland name: Limbang Mangroves Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 4°47'-4°55'N, 114°55'-115°05'E; Location: in Limbang District, Fifth Division, at the northeastern tip of Sarawak, on the border with Brunei Darussalam. Area: 7,000 ha (including 800 ha of mudflats).

Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 02, 06 & 07. Description of site: An estuarine complex dominated by the Limbang River, with associated mangrove and nipa swamps, and extensive intertidal mudflats and sand flats. The tidal range is 3.49m. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an average annual rainfall of 3,500 mm. The rainfall is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year, with a slight peak during the monsoon season from September to January (c.400 mm per month). Principal vegetation: Mangrove forest dominated by Rhizophora apiculata and swamps of Nypa fruticans, with degraded swamp forest and lowland mixed dipterocarp forest in adjacent areas. Land tenure: Two areas of Pulau Limpaku Pinang and one area to the north of Sungei Jai Jai have been legally cleared for agriculture. All other areas are untitled state lands and all further clearance is illegal. Conservation measures taken: None. Adjacent areas in Brunei Darussalam (Pulau Berambang, Pulau Siarau and Sungei Brunei) are conservation areas. Conservation measures proposed: Salter and MacKenzie (1981) proposed that the Sungei Limbang mangroves be designated as a wildlife sanctuary for the protection of the Proboscis Monkey Nasalis larvatus. Howes and NPWO (1986) proposed that the mangroves and intertidal mudflats be made into a conservation area to link up with similar areas in adjacent Brunei Darussalam. The areas in Brunei are either fully protected or proposed for protection. The proposals could lead to the formation of an International Coastal Resource Conservation Area within Brunei Bay. In addition, Howes and NPWO recommended that the forests be managed on a sustainable yield basis and that illegal logging be terminated. Bennett and Gombek (1986) also proposed that the Limbang mangroves be protected for the following reasons: (a) the Limbang area is Sarawak's only major contribution to the Brunei Bay fishery; (b) Limbang links two protected sections of the mangroves in Brunei; thus destruction of the Limbang mangroves would isolate the Brunei reserves and result in faunal degradation; (c) the population of Nasalis larvatus in Brunei Bay is the only significant population of this species between Sandakan and the Rajang Delta; (d) Brunei Bay supports a population of the Silvered Langur Presbytis cristata, an endangered species in Sarawak. Land use: Fishing for fin fish and prawns, and forestry for "Bakau" (Rhizophora) poles and possibly for cord-wood for export to Taiwan. Most of the area is under license for extensive logging; clear-felling began in 1977 and the first rotation was planned for completion in 1987. Two other logging licenses have been issued for the production of charcoal and firewood. There are several settlements in the area, with domestic livestock and plantations of rubber, bananas and coconuts. The soils are, however, very saline and sulphidic, precluding the possibility of large-scale agriculture. The principal activities in surrounding areas are fishing, forestry (on a large scale), agriculture, hunting and river transport. Disturbances and threats: The principal threat is over-exploitation of the forestry resources. No measures have been taken to manage the forest on a sustainable yield basis, and as soon as the timber resources in the Lawas mangroves have been depleted, pressure on the Limbang mangroves will certainly increase. There is a considerable amount of illegal logging; patches of up to 50 ha in extent have been cleared for coconut plantations and aquaculture schemes along the Limbang River. Possible illegal immigration of families from

Ulu Limbang into Kampong Rangau Jaya could result in further clearance. There were plans to clear the mangroves on the east bank of the Limbang River by the end of 1986, for the establishment of prawn ponds, and over 100 ha had already been cleared by April 1986. Other threats include the erosion of riverbanks by speed-boats and large barges, and a considerable amount of hunting of Nasalis larvatus and Presbytis cristata. Economic and social values: The mangrove swamps and mudflats are important for sustaining yields of penaid prawns within Brunei Bay. In 1973, 825.6 tons of prawns with a market value of M dollar3 million were caught in Brunei Bay. The mangroves also serve as an erosion barrier and protect towns such as Limbang against storms during the northeast monsoon (November-January). The area forms an important link between protected areas in the adjacent parts of Brunei, and would be an integral part of the proposed International Coastal Resource Conservation Area in Brunei Bay. Fauna: Over 100 species of fishes have been caught in the surrounding waters. Small concentrations of shorebirds have been recorded during the migration seasons, including Pluvialis dominica, P. squatarola, Charadrius mongolus, C. leschenaultii, Numenius phaeopus, N. madagascariensis, Tringa totanus, Xenus cinereus, Actitis hypoleucos, Heteroscelus brevipes, Arenaria interpres, Limnodromus semipalmatus, Calidris tenuirostris and C. ruficollis. Other 'waterfowl known to occur include Anhinga melanogaster, Egretta sacra, E. eulophotes, E. garzetta, E. alba, Ardea sumatrana, Leptoptilos javanicus and six species of terns (Laridae). Mammals include Nasalis larvatus, Presbytis cristata, Macaca fascicularis, Orcaella brevirostris and otters, and reptiles include the Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus and a monitor lizard Varanus sp. Special floral values: The area contains a good example of extensive Nypa fruticans forest with mature Heritiera littoralis. Research and facilities: Surveys have included a forest inventory in 1972 (Marsden, 1972), shorebird research in April and May 1986 (Howes & NPWO, 1986), a crocodile survey by the National Parks and Wildlife Office, and a study of the Proboscis Monkey (Bennett, 1986). References: Bennett (1986); Bennett & Gombek (1986); Cox & Gombek (1985); Department of Agriculture (l982c); Howes (in prep); Howes & NPWO (l986a); Marsden (1982); Salter & MacKenzie (1981). Criteria for inclusion: lb, le, 2a, 2c, 3b. Source: John R. Howes, E.L. Bennett and National Parks and Wildlife Office (Sarawak Forest Department). Wetland name: The Lower Reaches of the Baram River System Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 3°42'-4°36'N, 113°59-114°36'E; Location: 100 km southwest of Bandar Seri Begawan on the Brunei-Sarawak border, Fourth Division, northeastern Sarawak. Area: c.300,000 ha. Altitude: 0- 15m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 07, 11, 13, 14, 15 & 21.

Description of site: A major river with a large catchment area; the river is sluggish in its lower reaches and forms a series of large oxbows and five small lakes. There are large areas of peat swamp forest on the adjacent flood plain. The river course is congested with floating vegetation, and there is a small area of estuarine mangrove forest and nipa swamp near the river mouth. The Baram flood plain has extended as the sea-level has fallen, the peat swamps overlying a clay subsoil. The most highly developed peat swamps in Sarawak occur in the Baram river system, upstream from Kuala Bakong. Lubok Pasir peat swamp has been aged at about 4,270 years. It has a steeply domed surface and a maximum recorded depth of 11.9m. The peat swamp at the confluence of the Baram and Tinjar rivers also has a highly developed domed surface. The water table is very close to the surface of the swamp, and run-off is rapid. The domed peat swamp areas have radial surface drainage. Water levels fluctuate by up to 4.5m at Marudi and 2.5m at Kuala Baram. Two key areas within the site, namely Sungei Karap and Loagan Ungar, are described separately below (sites 27a and 27b). Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an annual rainfall of 3,000-4,000 mm. The region is markedly drier than coastal areas, and has a marked dry season from June to October, which appears to restrict extensive formation of freshwater swamps. Principal vegetation: There are some small patches of mangrove forest and nipa swamp along the lower Baram River. The oxbows and small lakes are thickly fringed with floating plants, Hanguana sp, Scieria sp and ferns. The middle Baram River flows through an extensive area of swamp forest, and is bordered by cane grass Saccharum robusturn. Some of the tributaries, especially the Sungei Karap, are overgrown with floating vegetation. There are two main types of swamp forest: forest with dense, pole-like stands of trees 15-2lm tall, dominated by Litsea sp, Cratoxylon glaucum, Calophyllum obliquinervum and Compretocarpus rotundatus, and an open savannah type of forest in which the trees are scattered and stunted. Land tenure: State owned. Conservation measures taken: The entire area is included within State Forest Reserves. Conservation measures proposed: It has been recommended that complete protection be given to at least one representative example of a Baram oxbow lake. The Loagan Bunut area (10,740 ha) has been proposed as a National Park, and the proposal is being given high priority. The Sarawak State Conservation Strategy has recommended that ecological surveys be undertaken to assess the resource potential and to determine the environmental requirements of Loagan Bunut and the Baram oxbows. The State Conservation Strategy has also recommended that the exploitation of the Tapah Wallago maculatus be monitored and controlled. The potential of the site for designation as an International Biosphere Reserve should be investigated. An environmental impact assessment of the proposed Batang Baram Flood Mitigation project should be carried out, and ecological considerations fully taken into account before the project is approved. Land use: Intensive fishing in some areas, such as Loagan Payau and Loagan Teraja, and agriculture (gardens and plantations) upstream from the brackish zone. The Bakong tributary is heavily utilized for fishing and logging, and Sungei Bunut is heavily fished during the dry season by local villagers. There is some shifting cultivation in surrounding areas. Disturbances and threats: The Batang Baram Flood Mitigation project proposed by the Department of Drainage and Irrigation would involve the clearance of riverine swamp forest, and would significantly alter water flow in the middle and lower Baram. The project still requires funding before it can proceed. The middle Baram is the only area in the system

where crocodile hunting (i.e. gathering of young) is acknowledged to continue. The lower Baram is heavily used by boat traffic, which causes a considerable amount of disturbance to crocodiles. Sungei Tinjar and Sungei Teru are reported to be much disturbed by shifting cultivation and fishing. The Tapah Wallago maculatus is very vulnerable to wanton slaughter when it enters small tributaries along the Baram for spawning. Loagan Bunut is at risk from logging in its catchment area, and from proposed agricultural developments upstream. The Baram oxbows are vulnerable to pollution from proposed development projects nearby. Economic and social values: The oxbow lakes are important breeding grounds and nursery areas for commercially valuable fish species. The domed surfaces of the peat swamps reduce the extent of local flooding; the steep doming of the swamp surface near the confluence of the Baram and Tinjar rivers probably reduces flooding to less than 400m except along streams. The site is of considerable interest for scientific research as it incorporates a vast expanse of peat swamp forest, including the most highly developed peat formations in Sarawak, along with good examples of mangrove forest, oxbow lakes and temporarily flooded forest. Fauna: A total of 43 species of fishes have been recorded (DUN Special Select Committee on Flora and Fauna, 1985). The Biawan Helostoma temmincki has invaded many of the lakes of the lower Baram. This species forms a major part of the fish catch, but is not favoured by fishermen. The area is particularly important for the Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus, which is widely distributed in very low numbers throughout the middle and lower Baram system. Twenty-four C. porosus were located during a survey of 335 km of river in 1985. Most of the crocodiles were concentrated in the middle reaches of the main river, and were thought to breed at Loagan Tebaboi and Loagan Baru. There are also unconfirmed reports of the endangered False Gharial Tomistoma schlegelii at Loagan Bunut on the Tinjar River. A tree monitor Varanus heteropholis is known only from the middle Baram, and presumably still occurs there. Other rare reptiles, which may occur in the area, include the Burmese Brown Tortoise Geochelone emys and Painted Terrapin Callagur borneoensis. Special floral values: The most highly developed peat swamp formations in Sarawak occur upstream from Kuala Bakong. Nepenthes bicalcarata occurs in the peat swamp forest and is considered to be a vulnerable species in need of special protection. The rare N. rafflesiana occurs in peat swamp forest and mossy forest, and also merits special protection. Research and facilities: Several forest inventories and a soil survey have been carried out (Department of Agriculture, 1982c), and the Forest Department has established a research plot at the site. A preliminary survey of the crocodile population was conducted in July-September 1985 (Cox & Gombek, 1985). References: Anderson (1964); Brunig (1962); Chai (1962); Cox & Gombek (1985); Department of Agriculture (1982c); DID Sarawak (1979/80 & 1986); DUN Special Select Committee on Flora and Fauna (1985 & 1986); Sarawak Marine Fisheries Department (undated-a & undated-b); Watson (1985); Wood (1967 & 1971); WWF Malaysia & State Planning Unit of Sarawak (1985); Yong (1967a & 1967b); Yusof & Cheong (1976). Criteria for inclusion: lb. 2a, 2b, 2d. Source: Sarawak Department of Drainage and Irrigation, and Sarawak Forest Department. Wetland name: Sungei Karap Country: Malaysia

Coordinates: 3°52'-4°13'N, 114°10'E; Location: in the Baram River System at the confluence of the Sungei Karap and Sungei Bakong, 15 km west of Marudi, Fourth Division, Sarawak. Area: 60 km of river. Altitude: Less than 50m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 11 & 13. Description of site: A sluggish isolated tributary of the Bakong River in the Baram River System, uniquely overgrown with floating mats of Eichhornia crassipes. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an average annual rainfall of 3,000 mm. The region is markedly drier than the nearby coastal zone, and has a pronounced dry season from June to October. Principal vegetation: The river is overgrown with Eichhornia crassipes, and fringed with tall grasses and sedges. There are peat swamp forests and freshwater swamp forests in surrounding areas. Land tenure: State owned. Conservation measures taken: The river is included within the Beluru Forest Reserve. Conservation measures proposed: The area should be gazetted as a Wildlife Sanctuary, as it is probably the best refuge for Crocodylus porosus in Sarawak (Cox & Gombek, 1985). A helicopter survey would be required to assess the area adequately; the best time for such a survey would be in October and November when a complementary nest search could be included. Land use: Fishing, crocodile hunting and logging. The river is not intensively used by the local human population because it is clogged with floating vegetation. With the exception of the riparian strips along the riverbanks, the area has no agricultural value (Yong, 1971; Department of Agriculture, l982c). Disturbances and threats: Crocodile hunting. Economic and social values: The river supports a small local fishery. Fauna: The river is said to support a healthy breeding population of the Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus, and could be the best long-term refuge for the species in Sarawak. Special floral values: The river is unique in Sarawak in being completely overgrown with floating vegetation. Research and facilities: Forest inventories were carried out in 1955, 1956 and 1965 (Yong, 1971), and a soil survey has been made (Department of Agriculture, l982c). A preliminary crocodile survey was conducted in 1985. References: Cox & Gombek (1985); Department of Agriculture (1982c); Yong (1971). Criteria for inclusion: lb. 2a. Source: See references. Wetland name: Loagan Ungar Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 4°14'N, 114°l7'E; Location: in the Baram River System, adjacent to the middle Baram 15 km downstream from Marudi, Fourth Division, Sarawak. Area: Less than 100 ha.

Altitude: Less than 50m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 13. Description of site: A small, relatively isolated lagoon adjacent to the middle Baram, with a dense fringe of aquatic vegetation. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an average annual rainfall of 3,000 mm. The region is markedly drier than the nearby coastal zone, and has a pronounced dry season from June to October. Principal vegetation: The lagoon is fringed by a dense growth of Hanguana sp, and is surrounded by peat swamp forest. Land tenure: State owned. Conservation measures taken: None. Conservation measures proposed: Cox and Gombek (1985) have proposed that the site be gazetted as a Wildlife Sanctuary, and that Crocodylus porosus be re-introduced from captive stock. An environmental impact assessment of the proposed Batang Baram Flood mitigation project should be carried out, and ecological considerations fully taken into account before approval is given to the project. Land use: Intensive fishing in the lake; fishing and logging in surrounding areas. Possible changes in land use: The Batang Baram Flood Mitigation Project proposed by the Department of Drainage and Irrigation (DID) includes a flood-path to the west of the site and a short-cut to the southeast. The project has not yet been funded. Disturbances and threats: The DID Batang Baram Flood Mitigation Project could have a drastic effect on the hydrology and ecology of the site. The proposed flood-path I would bypass the lagoon on the western side, and the proposed river short-cut A would bypass a loop in the J3aram River immediately to the southeast of the site. Economic and social values: The lagoon supports a small fishery. Fauna: The lagoon once supported a population of the Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus. Re-introduction of this species has been proposed, as suitable nesting habitat still exists at the site. Special floral values: None known. Research and facilities: A crocodile survey was carried out in 1985. References: Cox & Gombek (1985); DID Sarawak (1986). Criteria for inclusion: 0. Source: Sarawak Department of Drainage and Irrigation. Wetland name: Loagan Bunut Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 3°42'-3°52'N, 114°1O'-114°18'E; Location: 45 km SSW of Marudi, Fourth Division, northern Sarawak. Area: 19,000 ha; area of proposed National Park 10,740 ha. Altitude: Mostly below 75m; maximum elevation 128m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 11 & 14. Description of site: A seasonal freshwater lake, Loagan Bunut, and surrounding areas of seasonally flooded forest. Loagan Bunut is Sarawak's largest freshwater lake, covering some

800 ha when fully flooded during the rainy season. The lake dries up during the dry season (in August and perhaps other months), leaving only a small permanent river course across the lakebed. It floods to a depth of 2-3 meters at other times. The lake is fed by local run-off and several tributaries of the Baram River System. Large areas of forest around the lake are flooded during the rainy season. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an annual rainfall of 3,000-4,000 mm. The region is markedly drier than the coastal zone, and has a pronounced dry season from June to October which appears to restrict the formation of extensive freshwater swamps. Principal vegetation: No information is available on the aquatic vegetation. Seasonally flooded forest and secondary vegetation in surrounding areas. Land tenure: The local inhabitants (Berawan) claim ownership. The Government has indicated that they will be appropriately compensated for the acquisition of their land and lake when the area is gazetted as a National Park. Conservation measures taken: The forests are protected in the Lower Baram Forest Reserve and Marudi Forest Reserve. Conservation measures proposed: The lake and surrounding forests totaling 10,740 ha have been proposed as a National Park. The Sarawak State Conservation Strategy has recommended that ecological surveys be carried out to assess the resource potential and to determine the environmental requirements of Loagan Bunut. A proposed survey of the status and distribution of Tomistoma schlegelii and Crocodylus porosus in Sarawak by WWF Malaysia has been approved by the State Government and is expected to produce recommendations for management. The lake's potential for designation, as an International Biosphere Reserve should be investigated. Land use: Fishing, shifting cultivation (including hill rice) and logging. Most of the area is unsuitable for permanent agriculture. Possible changes in land use: Once the National Park has been established, fishing activities will be scaled down. Disturbances and threats: Logging in the water catchment area will have an adverse effect on water quality and is likely to cause problems with flooding. Intensive fishing causes a considerable amount of disturbance, and shifting cultivation continues to destroy the natural vegetation. A road is currently under construction to link Miri, the Divisional Headquarters, with Long Te, a riverine trading community near to Loagan Bunut. Once the lake becomes accessible by road, disturbance will increase as more hunters, fishermen and tourists are attracted to the area. Economic and social values: The lake supports a locally important fishery. Forestry would be feasible on a sustainable yield basis if the rotation period were not less than 70 years (Brunig 1962). Fauna: At least ten species of fishes are found in the lake, including Helostoma temminckii, Oxyleotris marmorata, Notopterus sp, Osteochilus sp, Mystus sp, Puntius bulu and Cyclocheilichthys sp. Little information is available on the waterfowl, although it is known that there are breeding colonies of Phalacrocorax carbo and Anhinga melanogaster. There are unconfirmed reports of young False Gharials Tomistoma schlegelii in the lake, and hatchlings of the Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus have been observed in Sungei Teru. Special floral values: No information.

Research and facilities: Forest inventories and a soil survey have been carried out, and Cox and Gombek (1985) conducted a crocodile survey in 1985. References: Brunig (1962); Cox & Gombek (1985); DID Sarawak (1979/80); Department of Agriculture (l982c); WWF Malaysia and State Planning Unit of Sarawak (1985); Watson (1985). Criteria for inclusion: lb, 2a, 2b, 2c. Source: Boniface Anat Litis. Wetland name: The upper basin of the Baram, Tinjar and Rajang Rivers Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 1°52'-4°O1'N, 113°33'-115°38'E; Location: the northern interior of Sarawak, Fourth and Seventh Divisions. Area: Approximately 1,700,000 ha. Altitude: Mainly 150-300m, with peaks up to 1,800m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 12, 15, 19 & 22. Description of site: A vast area of upland terrain in the upper catchment areas of the Batang Baram, Batang Tinjar and Batang Rajang rivers. The terrain is predominantly a valley-ridge complex with some small dissected alluvial valley floors, very steeply sloping, and some flat valley floors. Most of the area is about 300m above sea-level, but some peaks rise to about 1,800m. The area encompasses the Usun Apau plateau, a large volcanic mass at 1,100-1,400m with a topography varying from moderately dissected to gently undulating. Its soils are generally deep, well drained clays, with local poorly drained, saturated, organic (peat) soils of the Unor and possibly Bareo families in channels and basinal depressions. The original vegetation was mixed dipterocarp, hill dipterocarp and montane forest, but there is much shifting cultivation and logging in parts of the area. The site includes two main regions: the upper Baram and Tinjar catchments (Fourth Division), and the upper Rajang catchment (Seventh Division). The area has imperfect to good drainage, with rapid run-off from ridge systems. There is a good subterranean water supply during the dry season. Water samples from a bubbling spring near Long Aton in Ulu Tinjar had a pH of 8.1-8.2, and were strongly saline. A pH of 5.1 was recorded in a stream on the Usun Apau plateau. Flash-flooding occurs in some of the alluvial valleys, with resultant large fluctuations in river level, e.g. 11.40m in the Batang Baram at Lio Matu and 10.64m at Long Pilah; 6.60m in the Batang Rajang/Baloi at Giam Pasang; 16.87m in the Batang Tinjar at Long Jegan and 13.00m at Long Terawan. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate. The average annual rainfall at Long Anap is 5,027 mm, and at Long Sobing on the Tinjar, 7,087 mm. The upper Dapoi, a tributary of the Tinjar, has a mean monthly rainfall approaching 800 mm during the wet (landas) season. This area is distinctly cooler and wetter than comparable areas elsewhere in Sarawak. The Long Akah and Long Pilah area is the wettest region in Sarawak, with the rainfall more or less evenly distributed throughout the year. The average daily maximum temperature (at 1400 hrs) is 37°C, and the average daily minimum (at 0600 hrs), 23°C. Principal vegetation: Mixed dipterocarp forest, hill dipterocarp forest, montane forest, shifting cultivation, plantations of rubber and pepper, and rice paddies. Land tenure: No information.

Conservation measures taken: None. Conservation measures proposed: A proposal has been made for the establishment of a National Park (the Usun Apau National Park) and World Heritage Site within the system. The southern and eastern boundaries of the proposed Pulong Tau National Park overlap the site. It is essential that proper environmental impact assessments be carried out for the planning and management of the Bakun, Pelagus, Baleh and Murum hydro-electric schemes. An environmental impact assessment should also be carried out for the proposed intensive logging operation in the Bakun impoundment area, to guard against possible adverse downstream effects and to consider the loss of the biological material involved. This should be assessed in the context of the need to protect the proposed machinery at Bakun. The Bakun catchment should probably not be logged at all, and certainly not without a prior environmental assessment. Further research is urgently needed in view of the rapid decline of some of the important species of fish such as Semah Tor tambroides, Empurau T. doureusis, Kulung Labeobarbus sp, Tengadak Puntius schwanenfeldii and Tapah Wallago sp, with the rapid changes in water quality. Co-operation between State Governmental departments such as the Department of Agriculture and non-governmental conservation bodies would facilitate implementation of such research. Land use: Fishing and hunting; an extensive trade in wild meat has been established throughout the Rajang Basin. In 1984, the value of the trade in wild pig and deer meat exceeded M dollar 4 million. The trade is organized in a number of private businesses based in Belaga, Kapit and Sibu. Shifting cultivation and logging occur in adjacent areas. Although the land has only marginal to poor agricultural potential because of shallow soils and steep slopes, large areas have been cleared for rubber and pepper plantations, and terraced rice paddies. Extensive areas of primary forest are uninhabited. Possible changes in land use: The proposed Bakun Dam Hydro Project involves the construction of a dam on the Balui River, 37 km upstream from Belaga. The reservoir created by this dam will flood 71,000 ha (4.7%) of the catchment area of the Balui River above the dam. The hydro-electric station will generate 2,400 megawatts for supply to Sabah, Sarawak and Peninsular Malaysia. Three other major hydro-electric projects have been identified for possible commissioning between 1995 and 2010: the Murum (900 megawatts), Pelagus (770 megawatts) and Baleh (950 megawatts), all in the upper Rajang River Basin. Logging is very likely in the future. The proposed development of the Baran River Club may involve clearance of forest on the Usun Apau plateau and replacement with grassland stocked with exotic animals. Disturbances and threats: The principal threats at present include excessive logging, erosion from forest clearance on very steep terrain, over-fishing, siltation of the river system and heavy hunting pressure. In 1984, about 10,200 Bearded Pig Sus barbatus, 1,400 Sambar Deer Cervus unicolor and a few Muntjak Muntiacus muntjak were sent to Sibu, while another 6,400 pigs and 200-300 deer were bought and consumed locally along the way. At this rate, it is uncertain how long this trade in wild meat can be maintained. Mining may pose a threat to the area in the future. Economic and social values: The river basin supports a locally important fishery. The forested water catchment area minimizes flooding in the middle Baram, Tinjar and Rajang Rivers and maintains water quality. The region has considerable potential for scientific research and conservation education. According to the Department of Agriculture (1980), the area has no agricultural potential.

Fauna: Most if not all wildlife species typical of lowland, submontane and montane forests in Sarawak probably occur in the basin, but little information is available. Hose's Langur Presbytis hosei is known to occur. Special floral values: The localized upland peat bogs almost certainly support a highly specialized flora of considerable botanical interest, but these areas have yet to be investigated. Research and facilities: The Department of Agriculture has surveyed the soils of the region, and carried out a fisheries and aquatic ecology survey in Ulu Rejang from 1979-1982. The Inland Fisheries Branch of the Department is currently conducting a survey on fishery resources in the Baleh River system, with a view to formulating proposals for the conservation of riverine fish of economic, social, ecological and recreational value. References: Caldecott (1986); Department of Agriculture (1980); DID Sarawak (1979/80); Eilers & Loi (1982); National Parks and Wildlife Office (1984); Sarawak Electricity Supply Corporation (1984); WWF Malaysia & State Planning Unit of Sarawak (1985). Criteria for inclusion: la, 1b, le, 2a, 2b. Source: Kumbang Juggang. Wetland name: Third Division Swamp Forest Country: Malaysia Coordinates: 2°27'-3°10'N, 111°40'-113°02'E; Location: a 150 km strip of coastline from Kuala Igan to Bintulu, extending for up to 45 km inland, Third Division, Sarawak. Area: 340,000 ha. Altitude: Generally below 50m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 11 & 21. Description of site: A vast tract of peat swamp forest, much of which is production forest, now largely exploited, with patches of cultivation fringing the coastline and numerous rivers draining the peat swamp. The coastal plain is backed by a ridge of high ground running southwest from Bintulu. The Mukah-Balingian coastal peat is of recent origin, deposited between raised beach lines. During a forest inventory in 1973, the forest in the coastal area of Balingian Forest Reserve appeared to be degenerating (Marsden, 1973a). Local rainfall provides the major source of water. The peat swamps drain radially into major rivers running perpendicular to the coastline. The water table lies close to the surface of the swamp, and may be above the surface during the wet season. The water level varies by about 2.65m at Tatau. A salinity of 0.047 p.p.t. has been recorded upstream from Sungei Bawan, 2.20 p.p.t. downstream from Rh. Gelugu, and 7.44 p.p.t. downstream from Balingian. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an average annual rainfall of 2,500-3,000 mm in the Bintulu, Sebuah and Tatau area. The region is exposed to the northeast monsoon, and about 50% of the rainfall occurs during the monsoon season from November to January. The rainfall is, however, relatively high (200-300 mm per month) even during the dry period from April to August. Principal vegetation: Peat swamp forest of various types. Mangrove forest and cultivation in adjacent areas. Land tenure: State owned (Sarawak State Government).

Conservation measures taken: The entire area is included within the Igan, Kut-Mudan, Oya Mukah, Sungei Kenyana, Sungei Penipah Retus and Tatau Protected Forests, and the Sungei Sekai, Sungei Bawan and Setuan Forest Reserves. Conservation measures proposed: The remaining virgin forest areas should be identified and given complete protection; the remainder should be managed under sustainable forestry practices. Land use: Timber extraction and fishing; agriculture in adjacent areas. The site itself has an agricultural potential varying from nil to poor. Disturbances and threats: Over-exploitation of the peat swamp forest and conversion of forest to other land uses. Economic and social values: The domed surfaces of the peat swamps mitigate the extent of local flooding, and the swamp forests provide a valuable timber resource which could be managed on a sustainable yield basis. Fauna: No information. Special floral values: One of the largest areas of peat swamp forest in Sarawak. Research and facilities: Forest inventories and soil surveys have been carried out, and the Forest Department has established research plots at Sungei Buloh and Sungei Bawan. References: Anderson (1964); DID Sarawak (1979/80); FAO (1974); Kavanagh (l985b); Marsden (l973a & l973b); Wood (1966a); Yusof & Cheong (1977). Criteria for inclusion: lb. Source: Sarawak Forest Department. Wetland name: Rajang Delta Country: Malaysiya Coordinates: l°58'-2°5l'N, 111°10'-111°5l'E; Location: the delta area of the Batang Rajang downstream from Sibu and west of the Batang Igan, Third and Sixth Divisions, Sarawak. Area: 445,000 ha. Altitude: Mostly near sea level, with hillocks rising to 90m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 01, 02, 06, 07, 11 & 21. Description of site: An extensive delta system at the mouth of the Batang Rajang. The Rajang is the largest river in Malaysia and is probably amongst the thirty largest rivers in the world. It has a total catchment area of 5,105,300 ha and a mean discharge of 4,033 cubic meters per second. The central delta area is a complex mangrove and nipa system, with further accreting mangroves and extensive mudflats at the northern end of Pulau Bruit. The northeastern section of the site is bounded by Batang Igan, the area consisting of peat swamp forest with an inland riverine mangrove system on the Batang Lassa. A substantial part of the Rajang mangroves are clear-felled in rotation for wood-chips. Maximum peat depths are 4.0m in Daro Protected Forest and 4.7m in Loba Kabang Protected Forest. The peat overlies a clay subsoil. The most highly developed peat swamps run in an arc through Daro Protected Forest, Lassa Protected Forest, the area south of Sungei Kut and Oya-Muka Protected Forest. The domed peat swamps have radial surface drainage, the water table lying close to the surface. The tidal range at Daro is 4.85m. The three most important parts of the delta, namely

the Matu-Daro and Sibu Swamp Forests, Pulau Bruit and the Rajang Mangrove Forest, are described separately below (sites 31a, 31b and 31c). Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an annual rainfall of 3,000-3,500 mm. The region is not directly exposed to the northeast monsoon. The peak monthly rainfall occurs in December and January; the difference between the maximum and minimum monthly rainfall increases towards the southwest. Principal vegetation: A rich variety of mangrove forest types. Land tenure: Partly state owned and partly privately owned. Conservation measures taken: Much of the area has been designated as Protected Forest or Forest Reserve. Conservation measures proposed: A Wildlife Sanctuary encompassing the northern and northwestern parts of Pulau Bruit is in the process of being gazetted. Land use: Traditional fishing activities (as described by Pang, 1985), large-scale clear-felling of mangroves for wood-chips, production of charcoal under licence, boat transportation, shifting cultivation and permanent agriculture, mainly the cultivation of rice, bananas and coconuts. Possible changes in land use: The Department of Drainage and Irrigation has proposed a reclamation scheme near Tanjung Sink on Pulau Bruit which would involve the conversion of 1,840 ha of mangrove forest into rice paddies (Skim Pengaliran Tanjung Sink, Blocks A and C). Disturbances and threats: Extensive logging in the mangroves and peat swamp is resulting in over-exploitation of the forest resources. Hatchlings of the Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus continue to be harvested for sale to commercial rearing pens in Sarikei and Sibu. There are unconfirmed reports of an illegal trade in crocodiles to Singapore. The considerable river traffic and intensive fishing activities cause disturbance to the crocodiles. Economic and social values: The delta supports a rich fishery; the economic values of the traditional fishing activities have been described by Pang (1985). Under proper management, the mangrove and peat swamp forests could have considerable value for timber extraction on a sustainable basis. Locally, the peat swamps act as sponges during periods of heavy rainfall and thereby restrict flooding. In the southern part of the delta, some agriculture is feasible, but most of the area has no agricultural potential (Department of Agriculture, l982b). Fauna: The Rajang Delta is particularly important for herons and egrets, migratory shorebirds and terns; over 500 herons and egrets of twelve species, 20,000 shorebirds of at least 25 species and 14,000 terns of seven species utilize the area at certain times. Most of the waterfowl are concentrated around the northern end of Pulau Bruit, but the sand bars off Kuala Rajang are important for roosting terns and to a lesser extent shorebirds. The most abundant shorebirds are Tringa totanus, Xenus cinereus and Charadrius leschenaultii. Several uncommon species such as Egretta eulophotes, Limnodromus semipalmatus and Numenius madagascariensis have been reported at Pulau Bruit. At least 43 species of fishes have been recorded (Pang, 1985). Reptiles include the River Monitor Varanus salvator and Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus. The latter breeds in the delta, but despite the abundance of suitable habitat, is now rare, presumably because of the harvesting of live hatchlings. Mammals include the endangered Proboscis Monkey Nasalis larvatus as well as Presbytis cristata, Lutra sumatrana, Felis bengalensis and Sus barbatus. At least five species of prawns and the crabs Scylla serrata and Portunus pelagicus are harvested in the area.

Special floral values: The delta contains the most extensive mangrove forests in Sarawak, with a great diversity of forest types. Research and facilities: Forest inventories were carried out in 1951-54 and 1967 (Yong, 1967c) and a soil survey has been conducted by the Department of Agriculture. The Forest Department has established research plots in the Rajang Delta, in the Matu-Daro Protected Forest and on Pulau Bruit. Coastal areas were surveyed in 1985 and 1986 (Edwards et al, 1986 & in prep; Howes & NPWO, 1986), and studies have been made on the mangrove forest ecosystem (Chai, 1974 & 1975), Estuarine Crocodiles (Cox & Gombek, 1985) and Proboscis Monkeys (Salter & MacKenzie, 1981). References: Abu Bakar Jaafar (1986); Bennett (1986); Chai (1974 & 1975); Chai & Lai (1980); Cox & Gombek (1985); Department of Agriculture (1982b); DID Sarawak (1979/80); Edwards et al. (1986 & in prep); Howes & NPWO (1986b); Salter & MacKenzie (1981); Sarawak Marine Fisheries Department (undated-c); Yong (l967c). Criteria for inclusion: 123. Source: John R. Howes, Albert Chuan Gambang and National Parks and Wildlife Office (Sarawak Forest Department). Wetland name: Matu-Daro and Sibu Swamp Forest Country: Malaysiya Coordinates: 2°14'-2°5l'N, 111°24'-111°52'E; Location: east of Pulau Bruit and north of the Batang Leban, in the northeastern section of the Rajang Delta, Third and Sixth Divisions, Sarawak. Area: 267,000 ha. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 01, 02, 05, 06, 07, 11 & 21. Description of site: A large block of peat swamp forest with coastal mangroves and nipa in the south, and an inland mangrove area on the Batang Lassa. The northern coastline consists of narrow sandy beaches backed by a mixture of Casuarina, secondary growth, mangrove and agriculture. The coast has been eroded along much of its length. Salinities range from brackish to saline, fresh water entering the system from local rainfall and the Batang Rajang. The mean tidal range at Daro is 4.85m. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an annual rainfall of 3,000-3,500 mm. The region is not directly exposed to the northeast monsoon. The peak monthly rainfall occurs in December and January. Principal vegetation: Extensive mangrove forests including stands of Sonneratia caseolaris along the Batang Lassa and at the mouth of Sungei Daro. Mangrove forest, nipa swamp, peat swamp forest and agricultural land occur in surrounding areas. Land tenure: Mainly state owned. Conservation measures taken: Most of the area is included within the Matu-Daro, Batang Lassa, Batang Jemoreng and Loba Kabang Protected Forests. Conservation measures proposed: None Land use: Commercial and subsistence fishing using traditional fishing methods (Pang, 1985), large-scale clear-felling of mangroves for wood-chips (since 1968), and some production of charcoal under licence; also some agriculture (bananas, coconuts and shifting

cultivation) and river transport. Forestry, fishing and agriculture are the main activities in neighbouring areas. Disturbances and threats: Clear-felling of mangroves for the production of wood-chips and other non-sustainable exploitation of the forest resources; also reclamation of mangrove forest for agricultural land. Economic and social values: The mangroves support an important commercial inshore and offshore fishery (Pang, 1985), and provide timber for wood-chips and charcoal. The area is highly unsuitable for agriculture apart from some very small strips, which are suitable to a limited extent (Department of Agriculture, l982b). Fauna: The area is of some importance for migratory shorebirds; 320 shorebirds, mostly Xenus cinereus and Tringa nebularia, were recorded between Tungei Jol and Kuala Igan in September-November 1985. The Proboscis Monkey Nasalis larvatus and Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus may occur in the area. Special floral values: None known. Research and facilities: The Department of Agriculture (l982b) has carried out a soil survey, and a coastal habitat and shorebird survey was conducted in September-November 1985 (Edwards et al., in prep). The traditional fishing activities have been investigated by Pang (1985). References: Department of Agriculture (1982b); DID Sarawak (1979/80); Edwards et al. (in prep); Sarawak Marine Fisheries Department (undated-a & undated-b); Pang (1985); Salter & MacKenzie (1981). Criteria for inclusion: 0. Source: National Parks and Wildlife Office (Sarawak Forest Department), Sarawak Marine Fisheries Department and Asian Wetland Bureau. Wetland name: Pulau Bruit Country: Malaysiya Coordinates: 2°2l'-2°47'N, 111°17'-1l1°25'E; Location: in the Rajang Delta, 150 km northeast of Kuching, Daro District, Sixth Division, Sarawak. Area: c.53,000 ha. Altitude: 0-1.5m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 02, 06, 07, 19 & 21. Description of site: A low-lying island in the delta of the Rajang River, with extensive intertidal mudflats and actively accreting mangroves at the northern end, and agricultural areas in the south. There is a small estuary at Tanjung Sink. The interior of the island consists of degraded peat swamp forest and rice fields with some areas of mature peat swamp forest. The peat swamps are of recent origin and have a maximum depth of 6.7m. They are dome-shaped and drain radially on the surface. Salinities in the coastal zone range from 18-34 p.p.t. The swamps in the interior of the island are flooded during the monsoon period (November-January), and are fresh to brackish. The site includes the highly productive coastal inshore waters up to a depth of 6m.

Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an average annual rainfall of 3,000 mm. The area is not directly exposed to the northeast monsoon. The peak monthly rainfall occurs in December and January. Principal vegetation: Predominantly accreting mangrove forest dominated by Avicennia marina with an admixture of other species further inland. These include Bruguiera gymnorhiza, B. parviflora, Ceriops tagal, Rhizophora mucronata, Sonneratia alba, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Kandelia candel, Xylocarpus granatum, S. ovata, Excoecaria agallocha, Acrostichum aureum and Acanthus ebracteatus. There is some peat swamp forest in the interior of the island. Other areas are mainly rice fields. Land tenure: The southern half of the island is state owned (Protected Forest) and the remainder is mainly state land, although there may be some private ownership in the interior of the island. Conservation measures taken: Partly included in the Pulau Bruit Protected Forest. Conservation measures proposed: It has been proposed that the intertidal area along the west coast of the island from Tanjung Sink to Kampong Bruit be declared a Wildlife Sanctuary (Edwards et al, 1986; Howes et al, 1986; Bennett, 1986). The National Parks and Wildlife Office of the Sarawak Forest Department is implementing gazettement of this sanctuary (the Tanjung Sink Wildlife Sanctuary). Howes et al. (1986) have recommended that further research should include (a) studies on all aspects of the links between the mudflat/mangrove ecosystem, offshore fishing yields and the utilization of the mudflats and mangroves by migratory and resident waterfowl populations, and (b) agricultural feasibility studies prior to further development of rice fields in the northern sector of the island. Land use: Fishing and harvesting of mangrove products. The inshore waters are a major fishing ground for prawns and fin fish. Some hunting also occurs, mainly of Cervus unicolor. Much of the interior of the island is cultivated for rice and water melons. Possible changes in land use: The Department of Drainage and Irrigation has proposed that the northern part of Pulau Bruit, near Tanjung Sink, be drained and reclaimed for the cultivation of rice and coconuts. This scheme would affect some 9,000 ha, and would include 1,840 ha of Skim Pengaliran Tanjung Sink, Blocks A & C. The effect of the scheme on the mangroves at the north end of the island is uncertain. Restricting the flow of water would at best impede the accretion of the mangroves and at worst might kill them off (Bennett, 1986). Also, it is very unlikely that the cultivation would be successful as most of the area comprises organic soils with severe limitations to agriculture (Department of Agriculture, 1982b). Disturbances and threats: Reclamation of a part of the island for cultivation is likely to affect the natural drainage and energy flow through the mangrove forest, and this could lead to decreased accretion or coastal erosion, with consequent devaluation of the area for wildlife and fisheries production. Economic and social values: The mangrove forest and mudflats are important in maintaining the offshore penaeid prawn fisheries. In 1983, 1,700 metric tonnes of prawns were landed from the adjacent waters (Bejie, 1983). The wetlands also support a locally important fishery, providing protein for the villages on the island. The island provides excellent opportunities for scientific research on accreting mangrove systems, zoo-.benthic biomass in intertidal areas and shorebird utilization. Most of the area is highly unsuitable for agriculture.

Fauna: The island is extremely important for herons and egrets, migratory shorebirds and terns. At least 500 herons and egrets of twelve species, 16,000 shorebirds of 25 species and 14,000 terns of seven species utilize the area at certain times. The island may be a regular wintering area for the rare Chinese Egret Egretta eulophotes; 16 were observed in November 1985 and five in April 1986. The mudflats are particularly important for the Asian Dowitcher Limnodromus semipalmatus and Far Eastern Curlew Numenius madagascariensis; over 5% of the known world population of the former and over 4% of the known world population of the latter have been recorded. Some 380 Garganey Anas querquedula were present in November 1985, an unusual concentration of this species in Borneo. The island may be a breeding area for the Lesser Adjutant Stork Leptoptilos javanicus. Mammals known to occur include Macaca fascicularis, Sus barbatus, Lutra sumatrana, Cervus unicolor, Felis bengalensis and Rattus exulans. The Silvered Langur Presbytis cristata, a species endangered in Sarawak as a whole, is common. All the residents of Kampung Tekajong interviewed by Bennett (1986) said that the Proboscis Monkey Nasalis larvatus occurs, and a few individuals were observed by P. Ngau (NPWO) in 1972 and Howes in 1986. Reptiles include the River Monitor Varanus salvator. The waters around the island support a rich fish fauna, notably species of Clupeidae, Rajiformes, Scaenidae, Trachysuridae, Trichiuridae, Carangidae, Chirocentridae and Stomateidae. Prawn species of commercial importance include Penaeus indicus, P. penicillatus, P. merguiensis, Metapenaeus brevicornis, M. lysianassa, M. affinis, M. joyneri, Parapeneopsis gracillima and P. hardwickii. Special floral values: The area contains an excellent example of accreting Avicennia marina forest, with typical Bruguiera mangrove forest on its landward side. Research and facilities: A forest inventory has been carried out and research plots have been established by the Forest Department. Annual fish and prawn surveys are conducted off the island as part of a general survey of Sarawak waters, and some studies have been made on the wildlife, particularly the waterfowl. References: Anderson (1964); Bejie (undated); Bennett (1986); Cheong (1975); Department of Agriculture (1982b); DID Sarawak (1979/80); Edwards et al. (1986 & in prep); FAO (1974); Gambang (1986); Howes & NPWO (1986b); Scott (1969). Criteria for inclusion: 123. Source: Albert Chuan Gambang, John R. Howes and National Parks and Wildlife Office (Sarawak Forest Department). Wetland name: Rajang Mangrove Forest Country: Malaysiya Coordinates: 1°58'-2°27'N, 111°09'-111°32'E; Location: the western part of the Rajang Delta, 40 km west of Sibu, Sixth Division, Sarawak. Area: 125,000 ha; Rajang Mangrove Forest Reserve 87,544 ha. Altitude: Sea level. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 06, 07 & 11. Description of site: A large area of mangrove forest in a complex deltaic system of channels and islands at the mouth of the Batang Rajang. Some fourteen subtypes of mangrove forest

have been described for the area, including nipa swamp. Most parts of the forest are situated on raised ground created by the mound-building mud lobster. Rotational clear-felling for wood-chips has been practised since 1968 and has severely degraded a substantial area of the mangrove forest. The coast south of Kuala Rajang consists mainly of accreting mangrove and Casuarina on a sandy substrate. Between Kuala Rajang and Kuala Belawai, the predominant vegetation is Casuarina, with accreting mangrove at Jerijeh Sands. North of Kuala Belawai, there are areas of eroding mangrove forest. Casuarina, agricultural land and some accreting mangrove on sandy or muddy substrate. The median tidal range at Rajang is 3.5m. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an average annual rainfall of 3,000 mm. The region is not directly exposed to the northeast monsoon. The peak monthly rainfall occurs in December and January. Principal vegetation: Extensive mangrove forests; Chai (1975) has recognized fourteen subtypes as follows: 1. Sonneratia alba 2. Avicennia alba and A. marina 3. Bruguiera parviflora with Xylocarpus granatum and Heritiera littoralis; Excoecaria agallocha, Oncosperma tigillarium and Myrsine umbellulata further inland. 4. Rhizophora apiculata 5. Rhizophora apiculata and Xylocarpus granatum 6. Bruguiera gymnorhiza 7. Bruguiera sexangula 8. Excoecaria agallocha 9. Nypa fruticans 10.Rhizophora apiculata and Bruguiera spp 11.Bruguiera spp, Rhizophora apiculata and Xylocarpus granatum. 12.Xylocarpus granatum, Bruguiera spp, Rhizophora apiculata and Excoecaria agallocha 13. Heritiera littoralis, Bruguiera sexangula and Excoecaria agallocha 14. Acrostichum aureum Land tenure: Mainly state owned. Conservation measures taken: Some 87,544 ha are included within the Rajang Mangrove Forest Reserve. Conservation measures proposed: None Land use: Commercial and subsistence fishing, and commercial forestry (clear-felling of mangroves for the production of wood-chips). Traditional fishing activities include the use of gill nets, barrier nets, fishing stakes, beach seine nets, cast nets, crab traps and fish traps, and the collecting of molluscs and jelly-fish (Pang, 1985). The Sarawak Woodchip Company was first issued a license in 1968, since when it has been operating using a 25-year rotation and annual coupe of about 600 ha (1,500 acres). However, regeneration is poor, with less than 10% successful regeneration in exploited areas. The Rajang is a major waterway for boat traffic, with the towns of Sibu and Sarikei both situated on the riverbank. Disturbances and threats: The principal threat is over-exploitation of the forestry resources. Hatchlings of the Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus are caught for sale to commercial rearing pens in Sarikei and Sibu. There are unconfirmed reports of an illegal live trade in crocodiles to Singapore. River traffic and intensive fishing activities cause a considerable amount of disturbance to the crocodiles.

Economic and social values: The mangroves maintain a fishery of great commercial importance both within the delta area and offshore. Pang (1985) has discussed the economics of the traditional fishing activities. It has been estimated that the value of the mangrove forest to the prawn fishery is far greater than the income derived from the wood-chip industry (Sarawak State Conservation Strategy). Some of the area is moderately suitable for agriculture but most of it has no agricultural potential whatsoever (Department of Agriculture, l982b). Fauna: An important staging and wintering area for large numbers of migratory shorebirds and terns. During a waterfowl survey in September-November 1985, 330 shorebirds and 2,300 terns were recorded between Kuala Selalong and Kuala Rajang, and a further 750 shorebirds and 900 terns between Kuala Rajang and Kuala Belawai. Twenty-one species of shorebirds and six species of terns were present, the most abundant shorebirds being Tringa totanus, Xenus cinereus, Charadrius leschenaultii and Numenius phaeopus, and the most abundant terns, Sterna albifrons and S. hirundo. The shorebirds included six Numenius madagascariensis (between Kuala Rajang and Kuala Belawai). Mammals include the endangered Proboscis Monkey Nasalis larvatus, and reptiles include the Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus. The latter breeds near Sungei Mu, but is now rare, presumably because of the harvesting of hatchlings. At least 43 species of fishes have been recorded, and four species of prawns are harvested on a commercial scale. Thalassina anomala occurs in great abundance. Special floral values: An extremely rich mangrove forest with many different forest subtypes; one of the most diversified mangrove forests in Sarawak. Research and facilities: Forest inventories were carried out in 1951-54 and 1967 (Yong, 1967c), and the Department of Agriculture (1982b) has conducted a soil survey in the area. Other research has included a crocodile survey in 1985 (Cox & Gombek, 1985), several studies on the mangrove vegetation (e.g. Chai, 1975), a study of the Proboscis Monkeys (Salter & MacKenzie, 1981), a study of traditional fishing methods (Pang, 1985), and a coastal habitat and shorebird survey (Edwards et al, 1986). References: Cox & Gombek (1985); Chai (1974 & 1975); Chai & Lai (1980); Department of Agriculture (1982b); Edwards et al. (in prep); Pang (1985); Salter & Mackenzie (1981); WWF Malaysia & State Planning Unit of Sarawak (1985); Yong (l967c). Criteria for inclusion: lb. le, 2a, 2c, 3 b. Source: National Parks and Wildlife Office (Sarawak Forest Department), Sarawak Marine Fisheries Department and Asian Wetland Bureau. Wetland name: Maludam Swamp Forest Country: Malaysiya Coordinates: l°15'-l°42'N, l10°58-111°3lE; Location: between the Batang Saribas, Batang Layar and Batang Lupar rivers, with Betong at the northeast corner and Sri Aman at the southeast corner, Second Division, Sarawak. Area: c.l25,000 ha. Altitude: O-50m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 02, 05. 07, 11 & 21.

Description of site: A peninsula of flat peat swamp forest lying between the Saribas, Layar and Lupar Rivers. The coastline is roughly oriented in a north/south direction; silt deposition is occurring on the south bank of the Saribas estuary, but much of the rest of the coast is eroding. Stable mangrove swamps occur around Sungei Maludam. Mangroves fringe the coastal margins of the peninsula, and there are cultivated areas (e.g. coconut plantations) around the main population centres and along riversides. The whole interior area is peat swamp forest of several types. Maludam Forest Reserve incorporates 16,847 ha of forest to the northeast of the Maludam River; Triso Protected Forest (26,539 ha) lies to the southwest, and the proposed Saribas-Lupar Protected Forest to the southeast. Some 11,576 ha of Maludam Forest Reserve have already been exploited for timber. By 1984, approximately 16,260 ha of the Triso Protected Forest had been logged and most of it had been subjected to silvicultural treatment. Much of the proposed Saribas-Lupar Protected Forest has also been heavily logged, and damage is worsened by fire following logging which has destroyed areas up to one km wide on each of the Tisak River. The area is mainly peat at least 1.8m in depth overlying clay subsoil, and is not suitable for agriculture. The Maludam Peninsula peat swamps cover over 67,000 ha, succeeding the past rapid seaward progression of mangroves on coastal silts and clays. The entire peat swamp forest is permanently inundated with deep, tannin-colored water. The Maludam River is a siltfree blackwater river. Drainage of the peat swamps is radial, at or close to the surface because of the heavily compacted peat. Some ponds and rivulets may form during periods of heavy rainfall. The water level can rise up to 3.25m above mean sea level. Flooding may extend up to 1.6 km into the forest during high spring tides. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an annual rainfall of 3,500-4,000 mm. The region is not directly exposed to the northeast monsoon because of the north- northeast alignment of the coast. The monthly rainfall reaches a peak in December and January. Principal vegetation: Disturbed mangrove forest with some Nypa fruticans fringing the river mouths; mainly eroding mangrove and agricultural land along the southwest coast; eroding and accreting mangrove forest or agricultural land in the central and northeast coastal sections; dense Pandanus lining the rivers. Maludam Forest Reserve includes the following: (a) 10,524 ha of mixed peat swamp forest, only 1,814 ha of which had not been exploited by March 1986; (b) 225 ha of a local subtype of mixed swamp forest, all of which has been exploited; (c) 3,016 ha of Alan Batu forest, 1,517 ha of which remain unexploited; (d) 3,082 ha of Alan Bunga forest, 1,940 ha of which remain unexploited. Adjacent areas cleared of forest have become overgrown with grasses and scrub, or are used for coconut and rubber plantations and other cultivation. Land tenure: The Triso Protected Forest (west bank) and Maludam Forest Reserve (east bank) are state owned. Conservation measures taken: Some 26,539 ha of forest are included in the Triso Protected Forest and 16,847 ha in the Maludam Forest Reserve. Conservation measures proposed: Proposals have been made to establish another Protected Forest (Saribas-Lupar Protected Forest), and to establish a Wildlife Sanctuary comprising all of Maludam Forest Reserve and Triso Protected Forest, a total of 43,386 ha (Bennett, 1986). Land use: Maludam Forest Reserve is covered by Management Unit 628.24 in the Regional Management Plan for peat swamp forests in the First and Second Divisions of Sarawak. The area was licensed to the Borneo Timber Company for systematic logging on a sustained yield basis. In 1981, the area was relicensed to Mesjid Negeri (Sarawak) Charitable Board. A large

area of the peat swamp forest is exploited by local residents for sawn timber and other jungle produce. Mangrove forest is also exploited locally. There is some fishing in the Batang Lupar and Sungei Maludam. Agricultural activities in adjacent areas include the cultivation of coconuts, rubber and rice. The Maludam water treatment plant is located three km from the mouth of the Maludam River. Disturbances and threats: The principal threat is continued non-sustainable logging, particularly in Maludam Forest Reserve. Peat swamp forest on the west bank of the Maludam River has been heavily logged on a commercial basis. In recent years, a considerable amount of disturbance has been caused by continuous exploitation for firewood by local people. The logging operations are a constant source of disturbance to the Proboscis Monkeys Nasalis larvatus. Economic and social values: Under proper management, the forests could be of major value as a source of timber on a sustainable yield basis. The peat swamp forest is of some importance in flood mitigation and as a source of jungle produce for local use. The wetland also supports a significant freshwater fishery; the harvest of Terubok Clupea toli in the Maludam River is especially important for local residents. The peat swamp areas have little or no agricultural potential. Fauna: The Terubok Clupea toli probably spawns up the Batang Lupar; it enters the Batang Lupar and sometimes Kuala Saribas between late March and mid-September. This commercially valuable fish has shown a major decline in recent years. The area is thought to be of some importance for migratory shorebirds and terns. Counts of 1,260 shorebirds and 200 terns were obtained in September-November 1985. Shorebirds were most numerous on the extensive mudflats north of Sungei Maludam, with Tringa totanus and Xenus cinereus as the most abundant species. Three Nurnenius madagascariensis and 36 egrets Egretta spp were also recorded during this survey. The forests support a good resident population of Proboscis Monkeys Nasalis larvatus. Over 50 individuals have been recorded in small groups throughout the mangrove and swamp forest, and some have been observed up to 20 km upstream from the mouth of Sungei Maludam. This could be the largest single population of the species in Sarawak, with perhaps as many as 200 individuals present. The site is also very important for the red, black and white form of the Banded Langur Presbytis melalophos cruciger. This form is endemic to northwest Borneo; it is highly endangered, and as far as is known, does not occur in any totally protected area in its entire range. The area may also support a viable population of the Silvered Langur Presbytis cristata. There is a breeding population of the Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus on the Batang Lupar, and the False Gharial Tomistoma schlegelii may occur in the area. The Batang Lupar, Batang Ai and their tributaries are the only rivers in Sarawak known to hold the Beluku Orlitia borneensis. Special floral values: The site may still contain some virgin peat swamp forest. This would be of considerable scientific interest, as the Sarawak peat swamp forests represent the peak of the development of this type of forest in Borneo. The forests support a great variety and abundance of pitcher plants Nepenthes spp. Research and facilities: Forest inventories were carried out in the 1950s, 1965 and April-May 1986. The Department of Agriculture has conducted a soil survey, and the Forest Department has established a research plot. Shorebird surveys were made in

September-November 1985 (Edwards et al., in prep), and two studies have been made on the Proboscis Monkeys (Salter & MacKenzie, 1981; Bennett, 1986). References: Anderson (1964); Bennett (1986); Cox & Gombek (1985); DID Sarawak (1979/80); Department of Agriculture (1985); Edwards et al. (in prep); FAO (1974); Liew (1986); Salter & MacKenzie (1981); Watson (1985). Criteria for inclusion: 1b, 2a, 3b. Source: National Parks and Wildlife Office (Sarawak Forest Department) and E.L. Bennett. Wetland name: Sadong Swamp Forest Country: Malaysiya Coordinates: 1°13'-1°23'N, l10°41'-110°50'E; Location: along the eastern side of Batang Sadong, south of Simunjan, north and east of Pasar Gedong, about 50 km southeast of Kuching, First Division, Sarawak. Area: 17,200 ha. Altitude: c.10m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 11 & 21. Description of site: A large expanse of flat low-lying peat swamp forest, drained by the Batang Sadong on the western side and the Sungei Simunjan and its tributaries on the eastern side. Most, if not all, of the area has been logged-over. The water supply comes from local rainfall and the Sadong and Simunjan Rivers and their tributaries. The domed surfaces of the peat swamps generally drain radially at the surface. The water table lies close to the surface of the swamp, and may be above the surface in the wet season. The salinity in the Sadong ranges from 0.8 p.p.t. at Gedong to 4.6 p.p.t. at Lubok Menaga. The river level fluctuates by 5.3m at Kuala Sadong and Pendam. There is a monthly tidal bore or 'Bena". Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an annual rainfall of 3,500-4,000 mm. The region is directly exposed to the northeast monsoon. 50-60% of the rainfall occurs in November-February, and June and July are the driest months. Principal vegetation: Peat swamp forest and possibly still some remnants of mixed dipterocarp forest; rubber plantations and rice paddies in surrounding areas. Land tenure: State owned (Sarawak State Government). Conservation measures taken: The whole site lies within the Sadong Forest Reserve. Conservation measures proposed: None Land use: Timber extraction; cultivation of rubber and rice, fishing and timber extraction in surrounding areas. Disturbances and threats: Over-exploitation of the forest resources. Economic and social values: The swamp forest is a valuable source of timber. The domed surfaces of the peat swamps reduce the extent of local flooding. Except for a narrow fringe along Batang Sadong, the area has no agricultural potential. Fauna: The swamp forest lies within the range of a population of Orang-utans Pongo pygmaeus. The endangered Flat-headed Cat Felis planiceps and the Earless Monitor Lizard Lanthanotus borneensis may also occur in the area. Special floral values: A large tract of lowland peat swamp forest. Research and facilities: A soil survey has been carried out by the Department of Agriculture.

References: Anderson (1964); Department of Agriculture (1982a); DID Sarawak (1979/80); Kavanagh (undated); National Parks and Wildlife Office & WWF Malaysia (1983); Watson (1985). Criteria for inclusion: 0. Source: See references. Wetland name: Sungai Ensengai Baki Country: Malaysiya Coordinates: 1°14'N, l10°32'E to 1°21'N, 110°36'E; Location: about 40 km southeast of Kuching, First Division, Sarawak. Area: 30 km of river and c. 1,400 ha of swamp forest. Altitude: c.10m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 11, 13 & 21. Description of site: A freshwater tributary of the Batang Sadong, flowing through flat forested land to the southwest of the middle and lower Sadong. The upper 15 km of Ensengai Baki in particular consist of luxuriant freshwater swamp with extensive mats of floating vegetation, and much of the middle stretch of the river channel is choked with floating vegetation. Swamp forest extends for several kilometers adjacent to the river in its upper reaches. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an annual rainfall of 3,500-4,000 mm. The region is directly exposed to the northeast monsoon, and the wet and dry seasons are relatively well pronounced. Some 50-60% of the annual rainfall occurs during the northeast monsoon, in November-February. The dry season extends from April to September, with June and July as the driest months. Principal vegetation: Floating mats of vegetation comprised of Hanguana malayana in association with pandans, Leersia grass, sedges and ferns. In places, the mats extend more than 50m out from the river bank. Submerged Hydrilla sp is common in the upper reaches. Swamp forest fringes the river. Land tenure: State owned (Sarawak State Government). Conservation measures taken: The whole site lies within the Ensengai Forest Reserve. Conservation measures proposed: The area has been proposed as a Wildlife Sanctuary for the False Gharial Tomistoma schlegelii (Cox and Gombek, 1985). Intensive fishing with set nets and firearms would need to be curtailed if the Wildlife Sanctuary is established. Land use: Fishing and logging. Disturbances and threats: The Sarawak Department of Drainage and Irrigation has spent more than M dollar 200,000 over a five-year period to clear the entire length of the Ensengai, and this cutting of aquatic vegetation is now nearing completion. The effects of this programme need to be assessed from the air. Intensive fishing with set nets and firearms causes a considerable amount of disturbance to wildlife. Economic and social values: The river supports a locally important fishery. According to the Department of Agriculture (1982a) and Wood (1966b), the area has no agricultural potential. Fauna: The Proboscis Monkey Nasalis larvatus is said to occur in the area, and there is a roost of flying foxes Pleropus sp. The river is particularly important for its small breeding

population of the rare False Gharial Tomistoma schlegelii. This is the only location in Sarawak where a breeding population of T. schlegelii has been confirmed. The Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus has been reported from the Igom headwaters in the past. Special floral values: The site includes a particularly good example of lowland freshwater swamp habitat, a localized habitat in Sarawak. Research and facilities: Forest inventories were carried out in 1955 and 1966 (Wood, 1966b), the Department of Agriculture has conducted a soil survey, and Cox and Gombek (1985) investigated the crocodilians in 1985. References: Cox & Gombek (1985); Department of Agriculture (1982a); DID Sarawak (1979/80); Wood (l966b). Criteria for inclusion: 1b, 2a. Source: Sarawak Forest Department and references. Wetland name: Sarawak Mangrove Forest Reserve Country: Malaysiya Coordinates: 1°36'-l°41'N, 11O°11'-11O°25'E; Location: 15 km NNW of Kuching, First Division, Sarawak. Area: 11,651 ha. Altitude: Mostly near sea-level; hill on Pulau Salak to 140m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 02, 03, 05, 06, 07 & 11. Description of site: A deltaic mangrove system, with an extensive network of marine waterways and tidal creeks interconnecting the major rivers of Sungei Sibu Laut, Batang Salak and Sungei Santubong. Most of the reserve lies west of Sungei Santubong, with a small area to the east. The mangrove forest is of good quality and little disturbed. The main river catchment areas lie to the south in Bau and Kuching districts, up to the Bungo highlands. Salinities at Salak range from 25-30 p.p.t. The mean tidal range in Sungei Santubong is 5.5m. Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an annual rainfall of 3,600-4,000 mm. The region is not directly exposed to the northeast monsoon. The rainfall is lowest during June and July, and reaches a peak in December and January. Principal vegetation: Primary mangrove forest dominated by species of Rhizophora, Sonneratia (notably S. alba) and Avicennia. This is interspersed with small areas of Nypa fruticans and occasional patches of kerangas forest. The mangrove canopy is at a height of about 8m, with emergents, especially in areas of Avicennia. There is some cultivation on Pulau Salak and also a small area of forest on the hill in the centre of the island. Terraces with kerangas cover are common in the interior of the islands in the reserve, and also in the bordering uplands to the south. Land tenure: State owned (Sarawak State Government). Conservation measures taken: The mangrove forest area was gazetted as a Forest Reserve in 1924; the original area of 17,153 ha has been reduced by various excisions to the present area of 11,651 ha. Conservation measures proposed: Bennett (1985) and the Sarawak Ad-hoc Subcommittee on Fisheries, Reptiles and Amphibians have made the following recommendations: I. All possible steps should be taken to prevent illegal hunting of primates inside and outside the reserve.

2.The Kuching public should be educated about the wildlife laws and relevant penalties. 3.The whole reserve area should be fully protected by gazetting it as a National Biosphere Reserve, including an additional buffer zone round the reserve extending as far as the coast in the north. Land use: Rhizophora mangroves are cut by local people throughout the reserve for firewood and poles for the production of charcoal. At least four full-time charcoal camps are located within the reserve. The wood-gathering is highly selective, and is probably sustainable in the long term at present rates of exploitation. There is also a considerable amount of fishing in the area. There is a research project on cage culture and a demonstration project involving the culture of cockles (Anadara sp) on the mudflats near Pulau Salak. The nearby Damai Beach Resort is a centre for tourism. Possible changes in land use: An area of 1,449 ha (11% of the original total area of the Forest Reserve) is in the process of being clear-felled by Limbang Aquaculture Industries, a subsidiary of Limbang Trading, to make way for the development of prawn ponds. By reducing the area of mangrove forest, this will result in an increase in traditional use in the remaining areas to a point at which over-exploitation might occur. Unless strict controls are imposed on the cutting of mangroves and fishing in the remaining areas, this will eventually lead to a slow depletion of the mangrove and fishery resources. Furthermore, there is no guarantee that the project will succeed, as the area of the aquaculture scheme has a suiphidic layer which after oxidation could reduce the pH to 3.5 or less. One site of 2,000 ha has recently been identified as suitable for conversion to agricultural land, and another site of 5,000 ha has been identified as marginally suitable for agriculture. However, the Agriculture Capability Map (No. 1) shows that the whole area consists of "land with such severe limitations that agriculture is not feasible". Disturbances and threats: Environmental degradation is occurring as a result of physical developments upstream at Samarang Batu and in the surrounding areas. Some 1,449 ha of mangrove forest in the Forest Reserve are being clear-felled for an aquaculture project, with consequent loss of 11% of the Forest Reserve and adverse effects on natural fisheries and wildlife. There is a considerable amount of illegal "sport" hunting of primates, including Nasalis larvatus (a protected species), by visitors from Kuching in speedboats, and this now seriously threatens the survival of primates in the area. Cultivation and quarrying activities on Pulau Salak also cause some disturbance. Economic and social values: Several villages inside the Forest Reserve depend on the ecosystem for fishing, charcoal and firewood. The mangrove swamps provide breeding and nursery grounds for many commercially important species of fishes and prawns, and are thus of great importance in maintaining the region's marine fisheries. The reserve has considerable potential for tourism, being an area of outstanding natural beauty in close proximity to Kuching and Damai Beach Resort. Fauna: Forty-three families of fishes have been recorded in the Sungei Salak; some of the species commonly caught include Clupeoides verulosus, Pellona spp, Opisthopterus tardoore, Setipinna taty, Stolephorus commersonii, Coila spp, Setipinna melanochur, Anchoviella commersonii, Gerres abreviatus, Gobius giurus, Hernirhampus xanthopterus, Leognathus repsoni, Mugil ceramensis, Liza dussumierii, Upeneus sulphureus, Pomadasys hasta, Polynemus indicus, Polynemus intermedius, Otolithoides ruber, Sciaena dussumierii,

Johnius dussumierii, Pseudosciaena birtwistlei, Scatophagus argus, Microphis boaja and Tachysurus venosus. Little information is available on the water birds of the area, but Butorides striatus, Numenius phaeopus, Tringa totanus, Actitis hypoleucos and a variety of kingfishers (Alcedinidae) are known to occur. The Forest Reserve supports the greatest abundance of primates in the Kampong Salak area. The Proboscis Monkey Nasalis larvatus, Silvered Langur Presbytis cristata and Long-tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis have been recorded, along with Plantain Squirrel Callosciurus notatus and Bearded Pig Sus barbatus. Two Estuarine Crocodiles Crocodylus porosus were observed in July 1985 during a survey of 48 km of river (Cox & Gombek 1985). One was about one year old, indicating the presence of a small breeding population. Villagers occasionally report crocodiles from Sungei Trombol, Selang Sibu, Temanggong and Selalang. Although the crocodile population appears to be seriously depleted, the ecosystem remains intact and recovery should be possible. Monitor lizards Varanus spp have also been recorded. Species of prawns caught in Sungei Salak include Penaeus indicus, P. penicillatus, P. merguiensis, Metapenaeus lysianassa, M. affinis, M. ensis, M. brevicornis, Parapenaeopsis hungerfordi, P. gracillima and species of Macrobrachium and Acetes. Special floral values: The Forest Reserve contains an extensive tract of deltaic mangrove forest still in very good condition. Research and facilities: Forest inventories were carried out between 1934 and 1953, and again in 1973. Bennett conducted a primate survey in April 1985, and Cox and Gombek searched the area for crocodiles in July 1985. An inventory of fishery resources is being carried out within the mangrove area by the Sarawak Marine Fisheries Department, and there are cage culture and cockle culture projects in operation in the Pulau Salak area. References: Anon (1979); Bennett (1985 & 1986); Brunig (1974); Cox & Gombek (1985); Department of Agriculture (1982a); DID Sarawak (1979/80); Mohammad Mohidin (undated); Pang (1985). Criteria for inclusion: 1b, 2a, 2c. Source: Albert Chuan Gambang, National Parks and Wildlife Office (Sarawak Forest Department) and E.L. Bennett. Wetland name: Sampadi Mangrove Forest Country: Malaysiya Coordinates: 1°37'-1°44'N, 109°52'-110°02'E; Location: east of Lundu and about 50 km WNW of Kuching, First Division, southwestern Sarawak. Area: 8,000 ha. Altitude: 0-60m. Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 02, 05, 06, 07 & 11. Description of site: A large area of mangrove forest associated with the Sungei Sekambal, Batang Kayan, Sungei Chantong, Sungei Sampadi and Sungei Sampadi Sega. The drier ground inland of the site has mostly been cultivated, as has land around the coastal villages of Chupin, Bandang and Sirek. The mangrove forest is deltaic and intersected by many creeks. The median tidal range at Kuala Lundu is 2.7m.

Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an annual rainfall of 3,500-4,000 mm. The region is directly exposed to the northeast monsoon; 50-60% of the rainfall occurs during the monsoon, from November to February. The dry season is from April to September, with June and July as the driest months. Principal vegetation: Mangrove forest; plantations of pepper, rubber and coconuts, rice paddies and mixed dipterocarp forest in adjacent areas. Land tenure: No information. Conservation measures taken: None. Conservation measures proposed: None Land use: Fishing; cultivation in adjacent areas. Possible changes in land use: The Sarawak Department of Drainage and Irrigation has proposed a project involving the conversion of 601 ha of mangrove forest into rice paddies (the Skim Pengawalan Pengaliran Sebandi Project). Disturbances and threats: Over-exploitation, clear-felling and reclamation of the mangrove forest. Economic and social values: The mangroves sustain fishery stocks, provide a source of timber, and protect the coast against erosion. Most of the soil types in the area are not very suitable for agriculture (Department of Agriculture 1982a). Fauna: No information. Special floral values: No information. Research and facilities: A soil survey has been carried out by the Department of Agriculture. References: Department of Agriculture (1982a); DID Sarawak (1979/80); Sarawak Marine Fisheries Department (undated-a & undated-b). Criteria for inclusion: 0. Source: See references. Wetland name: Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary and proposed extensions Country: Malaysiya Coordinates: l°47'-2°00'N, l09°33'-l09°4l'E; Location: 85 km WNW of Kuching, bordered on the north and west by Indonesian Kalimantan, and to the east by the South China Sea, First Division, Sarawak. Area: 20,902 ha; present Wildlife Sanctuary 6,092 ha, proposed extensions 210 ha and 14,600 ha. Altitude: Sea level to 1,292m (Gunong Pueh). Biogeographical Province: 4.25.12. Wetland type: 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, 11, 12 & 21. Description of site: The entire water catchment area of the Samunsam River from the mangrove and nipa swamps of the lower reaches, through kerangas and mixed dipterocarp forest in the low-lying flat inland areas to the peaks of Gunong Malaka in the north, Gunong Puting in the east and Gunong Pueh in the south. The proposed Extension I (210 ha) includes a number of offshore rocks and islands with breeding sea-birds. The mangrove areas are tidal, as are the lower reaches of the river for at least 13 km upstream from the rivermouth. Brackish water extends for about eight km upstream at spring tides. The mean tidal range is 3.0m.

Climatic conditions: Humid tropical climate with an annual rainfall of 3,500-4,000 mm. The coastal zone is exposed to the northeast monsoon, and about 50-60% of the rainfall occurs during the monsoon, from November to February. The dry period extends from April to September, with June and July as the driest months. In the interior, the rainfall is more evenly distributed throughout the year. The average humidity at midday is 80%. Temperatures range from a minimum of about 21°C to a maximum of 34°C. Principal vegetation: Mangrove forest occurs along 6.5 km of Sungei Samunsam upstream from the rivermouth. Six types of mangrove forest have been recognized: 1. Rhizophora mucronata forest on sheltered, soft mud, with some R. apiculata, Ceriops tagal, Bruguiera parviflora and Aegiceras corniculatum. 2. Rhizophora apiculata forest on higher ground, associated with Bruguiera parviflora and B. gymnorhiza. 3. Bruguiera parviflora forest along river margins, associated with Ceriops tagal, Rhizophora apiculata and Xylocarpus granatum. 4. Sonneratia alba forest. 5. Nypa fruticans forest. 6. Oncosperma tigillaria forest, a transitional forest between true mangrove forest and freshwater swamp forest or Kerangas, dominated by the palm 0. tigillaria. The associated species are mainly characteristic of freshwater swamp forest and include Bruguiera sexangula, Planohonella obovata and species of Eugenia, Adinandra, Dillenia, Vatica, Diosuvios, Artocarpus, Mesua, Pongamia and Amnora. Further inland, empran forest occurs in low-lying areas subject to seasonal flooding. This forest is characterized by its dense undergrowth; the common large trees are species of Shorea, Hopea, Knema, Sterculia, Aglaia, Kibessia, Eugenia and Garcinia. Mixed dipterocarp lowland rainforest and kerangas forest occur in the drier areas. Land tenure: State owned (Sarawak State Government); some areas are under Native Customary Rights. Conservation measures taken: The lower half of the Samunsam River is protected within the Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary (6,092 ha), gazetted in 1979. Gunong Pueh Forest Reserve covers the southern part of site. The Wildlife Sanctuary was established primarily to protect its large population of the Proboscis Monkey Nasalis larvatus. Conservation measures proposed: Two additional areas, totaling 14,810 ha, have been proposed as extensions to the Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary. Extension I (210 ha) includes a number of offshore rocks and islands; Extension II (14,600 ha) includes the Gunong Pueh Forest Reserve. Extension of the existing sanctuary would bring the whole river system under the control of the sanctuary and should bring about an improvement in water quality in the Sungei Samunsam, as the area gradually recovers from logging operations upstream. The proposed extensions would protect the rich forest to the north of the Samunsam River, control the main access to the sanctuary and increase the number of Sarawak's protected animal species occurring in the sanctuary from 12 to 19. Land use: Gunong Pueh Forest Reserve is currently being logged. The exploitation of nipa palms is permitted in a small prescribed zone within the existing Wildlife Sanctuary. Surrounding mangrove forests are under license for extraction of poles and firewood, and nipa is also cut. Agriculture and fishing are the main activities in adjacent areas. Disturbances and threats: A major threat is clearance of kerangas forest for agricultural land. The use of mangrove wood for poles, charcoal and building materials is a further

disturbance. The water quality of the Sungei Samunsam has been adversely affected by logging operations further upstream. Logging continues in Gunong Pueh Forest Reserve outside the present boundaries of the Wildlife Sanctuary. Two related projects pose a direct threat to the Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary: a transmission line from the proposed Bakun Hydro to Peninsular Malaysia, and a road providing access to the transmission line and associated settlements. Routing of the transmission line and road as currently proposed would split the Proboscis Monkey population into two units, thereby threatening its long-term survival, and would provide access for illegal hunters. Many other wildlife species would be similarly threatened. The problems would be minimized if the transmission line and road were positioned within 500m of, and parallel to, the coast. Economic and social values: The mangrove swamps support an important fishing industry, and provide a source of timber and charcoal. Fauna: MacKenzie (1981) has listed twenty-four species of freshwater fishes for the area. At least 240 species of birds have been recorded in the Wildlife Sanctuary, including approximately 50 species of water birds. The latter include Anhinga melanogaster, Ixobrychus eurhythmus, Egretta eulophotes, Ardea sumatrana, Ciconia stormi, Charadrius peronii (breeding), many other shorebirds and several species of terns. In 1986, a breeding colony of terns on the rocks off Kuala Samunsam included at least 37 pairs of Sterna sumatrana and four pairs of S. anaethetus. About 90 adult S. sumatrana and 12 adult S. anaethetus were associated with the colony. Seventy species of mammals have been recorded in the Wildlife Sanctuary, including four rare primates: the Proboscis Monkey Nasalis larvatus, the langurs Presbytis cristata and P. melalophos chrysomelas (both endangered in Sarawak), and the Bornean Gibbon Hylobates muelleri (vulnerable in Sarawak and protected under the Wild Life Protection Ordinance). The population of N. larvatus was estimated at about 160 individuals in 1986, making this the largest known population of the species in Sarawak. Other mammals include the dolphins Sotalia plumbea, S. borneensis; the otters Lutra sumatrana, Amblonyx cinerea; and the Dugong Dugong dugon. Thirty-five species of reptiles and 20 species of amphibians have been recorded. The Sanctuary supports breeding populations of Orbitia borneensis (Testudinae) and the marine turtles Chelonia mydas and Caretta caretta. The Estuarine Crocodile Crocodylus porosus and the Painted Terrapin Callagur borneensis have been reported in the Samunsam River. Complete lists of the fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals known to occur in the Wildlife Sanctuary are given by MacKenzie (1981) and Basiuk (1985). Special floral values: The area contains an unusually wide variety of mangrove forest types. Several rare and vulnerable plant species have been recorded, including Licuala bintuluensis, Rhododendron variolosum, Areca borneensis and Salacca sarawakensis. Research and facilities: The fauna and flora of the Wildlife Sanctuary have been well documented. Research was carried out on the Proboscis Monkeys in 1979-1981 (Salter et al., 1985) and 1984-1986 (Bennett, 1986), and a crocodile survey was conducted in July 1985. References: Basiuk (1985); Bennett (1986 & undated); Cox & Gombek (1985); Department of Agriculture (l982a); DID Sarawak (1979/80); DUN Special Select Committee on Flora and Fauna (1986); MacKenzie (1981); National Parks and Wildlife Office (1985); Salter & MacKenzie (1981); Salter et al. (1985). Criteria for inclusion: lb, 2a, 2b, 2c, 3b.

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