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Management

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MANAGEMENT Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. Since organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the opportunity to 'manage' oneself, a prerequisite to attempting to manage others. Etymology and Definitions The verb manage comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle, especially tools), which derives from the Latin word manus (hand). The French word mesnagement (later ménagement) influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries. Some definitions of management are: • Organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance

with certain policies and in achievement of clearly defined objectives. Management is often included as a factor of production along with machines, materials and money. According to Peter Drucker (1909–2005), the basic task of a management is twofold: marketing and innovation. Nevertheless, innovation is also linked to marketing (product innovation is a central strategic marketing issue). Peter Drucker identifies Marketing as a key essence for business success, but management and marketing are generally understood as two different branches of business administration knowledge. • Directors and managers have the power and responsibility to make decisions to

manage an enterprise when given the authority by the shareholders. As a discipline, management comprises the interlocking functions of formulating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing the firm's resources to achieve the

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policy's objectives. The size of management can range from one person in a small firm to hundreds or thousands of managers in multinational companies. In large firms, the board of directors formulates the policy that the chief executive officer implements.[2]. Historical development Difficulties arise in tracing the history of management. Some see it (by definition) as a late modern (in the sense of late modernity) conceptualization. On those terms it cannot have a pre-modern history, only harbingers (such as stewards). Others, however, detect management-like-thought back to Sumerian traders and to the builders of the pyramids of ancient Egypt. Slave-owners through the centuries faced the problems of exploiting/motivating a dependent but sometimes unenthusiastic or recalcitrant workforce, but many pre-industrial enterprises, given their small scale, did not feel compelled to face the issues of management systematically. However, innovations such as the spread of Arabic numerals (5th to 15th centuries) and the codification of doubleentry book-keeping (1494) provided tools for management assessment, planning and control. Given the scale of most commercial operations and the lack of mechanized recordkeeping and recording before the industrial revolution, it made sense for most owners of enterprises in those times to carry out management functions by and for themselves. But with growing size and complexity of organizations, the split between owners (individuals, industrial dynasties or groups of shareholders) and day-to-day managers (independent specialists in planning and control) gradually became more common. Early writing While management has been present for millennia, several writers have created a background of works that assisted in modern management theories.[5] Some ancient military texts have been cited for lessons that civilian managers can gather. For example, Chinese general Sun Tzu in the 6th century BC, The Art of War, recommends being aware of and acting on strengths and weaknesses of both a manager's organization and a foe's.[5] Various ancient and medieval civilizations have produced "mirrors for princes" books, which aim to advise new monarchs on how to govern. Examples include the Indian

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Arthashastra by Chanakya (written around 300BC), and The Prince by Italian author Niccolò Machiavelli (c. 1515).[6] 19th century Classical economists such as Adam Smith (1723–1790) and John Stuart Mill (1806– 1873) provided a theoretical background to resource-allocation, production, and pricing issues. About the same time, innovators like Eli Whitney (1765–1825), James Watt (1736–1819), and Matthew Boulton (1728–1809) developed elements of technical production such as standardization, quality-control procedures, cost-accounting, interchangeability of parts, and work-planning. Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre-1861 slave-based sector of the US economy. That environment saw 4 million people, as the contemporary usages had it, "managed" in profitable quasi-mass production. Written in 1776 by Adam Smith, a Scottish moral philosopher, The Wealth of Nations aims for efficient organization of work through division of labour.[6] Smith described how changes in processes could boost productivity in the manufacture of pins. While individuals could produce 200 pins per day, Smith analyzed the steps involved in manufacture and, with 10 specialists, enabled production of 48,000 pins per day.[6] 20th century By about 1900 one finds managers trying to place their theories on what they regarded as a thoroughly scientific basis (see scientism for perceived limitations of this belief). Examples include Henry R. Towne's Science of management in the 1890s, Frederick Winslow Taylor's The Principles of Scientific Management (1911), Frank and Lillian Gilbreth's Applied motion study (1917), and Henry L. Gantt's charts (1910s). J. Duncan wrote the first college management textbook in 1911. In 1912 Yoichi Ueno introduced Taylorism to Japan and became first management consultant of the "Japanesemanagement style". His son Ichiro Ueno pioneered Japanese quality assurance. The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around 1920. The Harvard Business School offered the first Master of Business Administration degree (MBA) in 1921. People like Henri Fayol (1841–1925) and Alexander Church described the various branches of management and their inter-relationships. In the early 20th century, people like Ordway Tead (1891–1973), Walter Scott and J. Mooney applied the 3

principles of psychology to management, while other writers, such as Elton Mayo (1880–1949), Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933), Chester Barnard (1886–1961), Max Weber (1864–1920), Rensis Likert (1903–1981), and Chris Argyris (* 1923) approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological perspective. Peter Drucker (1909–2005) wrote one of the earliest books on applied management: Concept of the Corporation (published in 1946). It resulted from Alfred Sloan (chairman of General Motors until 1956) commissioning a study of the organisation. Drucker went on to write 39 books, many in the same vein. H. Dodge, Ronald Fisher (1890–1962), and Thornton C. Fry introduced statistical techniques into management-studies. In the 1940s, Patrick Blackett worked in the development of the applied mathematics science of operations research, initially for military operations. Operations research, sometimes known as "management science" (but distinct from Taylor's scientific management), attempts to take a scientific approach to solving decision problems, and can be directly applied to multiple management problems, particularly in the areas of logistics and operations. Some of the more recent developments include the Theory of Constraints, management by objectives, reengineering, Six Sigma and various information-technology-driven theories such as agile software development, as well as group management theories such as Cog's Ladder. As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified during the 20th century and gave perceived practitioners of the art/science of management a certain amount of prestige, so the way opened for popularised systems of management ideas to peddle their wares. In this context many management fads may have had more to do with pop psychology than with scientific theories of management. Towards the end of the 20th century, business management came to consist of six separate branches, namely: • • • Human resource management Operations management or production management Strategic management

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• • •

Marketing management Financial management Information technology management responsible for management information systems

21st century In the 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to subdivide management into functional categories in this way. More and more processes simultaneously involve several categories. Instead, one tends to think in terms of the various processes, tasks, and objects subject to management. Branches of management theory also exist relating to nonprofits and to government: such as public administration, public management, and educational management. Further, management programs related to civil-society organizations have also spawned programs in nonprofit management and social entrepreneurship. Note that many of the assumptions made by management have come under attack from business ethics viewpoints, critical management studies, and anti-corporate activism. As one consequence, workplace democracy has become both more common, and more advocated, in some places distributing all management functions among the workers, each of whom takes on a portion of the work. However, these models predate any current political issue, and may occur more naturally than does a command hierarchy. All management embraces some degree democratic principle—in that in the long term, the majority of workers must support management. Otherwise, they leave to find other work or go on strike. Despite the move toward workplace democracy, command-andcontrol organization structures remain commonplace as de facto organization structure. Indeed, the entrenched nature of command-and-control is evident in the way that recent layoffs have been conducted with management ranks affected far less than employees at the lower levels. In some cases, management has even rewarded itself with bonuses after laying off lower level workers.[7]

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A MANAGER GOALS Introduction Every organization requires good leadership in order to carry out all their projects successfully. This requires the organization to appoint efficient managers to carry out various tasks, and of course to guide and lead the management team and get them to a point where they have effectively completed any given project at hand, taking into account a whole load of factors. In order to understand how management can run smoothly, it is important to first identify the role ant the tasks carried out by the manager. So who is a manager and why is he/she so important? The Role of a Manager The role of a manager basically involves handling all aspects of the project. This includes not just the logistics but also the planning, brainstorming and seeing to the overall completion of the project while also preventing glitches and ensuring that the management team works well together. The Goals of a Manager Following should be the main goals for a project manager but they are not limited to the listed one because it very much depends on the situation. (1) Deadlines:

A manager must always be able to carry out his role in a very effective manner. This means that in most cases he/she would have to run against time with the clock ticking away. All projects would have deadlines, so it is the duty of a manager to complete the project by this given date. It should be noted that although the manager and his team may draw up a schedule at the outset that may seem perfect, as time goes on you will find that the requirements may change, and the projects may require new strategies to be implemented and more planning to be carried out.

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Time therefore could be a big obstacle for a manager achieving his/her goal. As the manager you should never lose sight of the deadline, your role would be to keep pushing your team to finish the work and deliver on time. (2) Client Satisfaction:

Satisfaction of the client however does not mean that you rush to finish the work on time without ensuring that standards are met. The reputation of your organization would depend on the quality of the delivery of your projects. This is another factor you should not lose sight of throughout the project. Your role would also be to keep reminding the team members that quality is key. (3) No Budget Overrun:

No project can be started off without the preparation of the budget. Although this is just a forecast of the costs that would be incurred, it is essential that this budget is prepared after careful research and comparing prices to get the best. You would need to consider ways of cutting costs while also ensuring that you meet the needs of the client as well as meeting the standards expected of your organization. This budget must include all costs, with regard equipment, labor and everything else. You then need to try and always stick to the budget, although it's always best to leave some allowance for a few 100 dollars for any additional expenses that may arise. (4) Requirements Coverage:

Another goal of a manager involves meeting all requirements of the client. You would need to therefore have all specifications at hand, and go through them every once in a while to ensure that you are on track. If there is confusion as to any requirements, it would be best for you to get them cleared at the very beginning. (5) Team Management:

While you would have to ensure that all aspects of the project are maintained, you are also responsible as a manager for the happiness of your team.

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You need to keep in mind that it is the incentives and encouragement provided to them that will make them work harder and want to complete the work on time, thereby helping you reach your goals. If the team members are unhappy with the way things are being carried out, productivity will also in turn decrease, pulling you further away from achieving your goals. It is essential therefore to always maintain a warm friendly relationship with them. The communication within the team should be very effective. They should be willing to voice out their opinions, while you listen to their suggestions and consider including them in the project. This is after all a team effort. Your goals with regard to the project are also their goals. Conclusion: The role of a sacrifices. If these goals are outlined to the management team at the very beginning, there in no way for the delivery of the goals to be delayed in any way as everyone will always be aware of what they need to achieve and by when. manager is therefore no easy task. It involves taking up a lot of

responsibility as each of the goals of the project must be met without making too many

Why Study Management?
I have four reasons for you. Working in and through organisations Even if you end up as a surgeon, or rock-tennis-opera-movie star, your career will surely involve working in organisations. As an economist, accountant or marketer – or indeed in any job - your effectiveness will depend on how adept you are at understanding the organisation you work in, and getting things done through it. You will need good models of how people behave in organisations, of the sources of power and influence, of the nature of leadership. You will find these models in our courses in Organisation Behaviour, Organisation Theory, Communication, and Industrial Relations. 8

Connecting to the world New Zealand is one of the smallest - and is the most isolated - country on earth. For that reason, we work extra hard at connecting to the global economy. Six million people hold New Zealand passports; only four million of them live here. Maybe your career will take you to one of the great centres of global economic activity: New York, London, Tokyo. If you feel the need to understand more about how to be effective in international as well as national contexts, and about the global business system and the giant global corporations that run it, our courses in International Management are a key resource for you. Pure fascination Organisations are among the most fascinating phenomena you can study. Why do they even exist? Why do they arrange the activity that goes on within and around them in the way that they do? Why is it that every organisation is different – even when they are direct competitors in the same industry? How do the people who live and work within them learn how to get along and make decisions inside these vast and confusing systems? If you can understand your organisation better, you can make it work for you. We think we can help you gain that advantage. Career opportunities A wide and varied range of roles and careers is open to you when you study Management at either undergraduate or postgraduate level including general management, consulting, business strategy, training and development, recruitment, human resources, employment relations, public policy, business consulting and senior management roles in business and industry. ESSENTIAL MANAGEMENT TERMS Planning In organizations, planning is a management process, concerned with defining goals for company's future direction and determining on the missions and resources to achieve those target. To meet the goals, managers may develop plans such as a business plan or a marketing plan. Planning always has a purpose. The purpose may be achievement of certain goals or targets. 9

Main characteristics of planning in organizations are: • • • • • • • • • • Planning increases the efficiency of an organization. It reduces the risks involved in modern business activities. It facilitates proper coordination within an organization. It aids in organizing all available resources. It gives right direction to the organization. It is important to maintain a good control. It helps to achieve objectives of the organization. It motivates the personnel of an organization. It encourages managers' creativity and innovation. It also helps in decision making.

The planning helps to achieve these goals or target by using the available time and resources. The concept of planning is to identify what the organization wants to do by using the four questions which are "where are we today in terms of our business or strategy planning? Where are we going? Where do we want to go? How are we going to get there?..."[8] Organizing Organizing (also spelled organising) is the act of rearranging elements following one or more rules. Anything is commonly considered organized when it looks like everything has a correct order or placement. But it's only ultimately organized if any element has no difference on time taken to find it. In that sense, organizing can also be defined as to place different objects in logical arrangement for better searching. Organizations are groups of people organized for some purpose, such as business or political activities.

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Leading Leading is another of the basic function within the management process " Leading is the use of influence to motivate employees to achieve organizational goals" (Richard Daft). Managers must be able to make employees want to participate in achieving an organization's goals. Three components make up the leading function:
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Motivating employees Influencing employees Forming effective groups.

The leading process helps the organization move toward goal attainment. Control (management) Definitions Control of an undertaking consists of seeing that everything is being carried out in accordance with the plan which has been adopted, the orders which have been given, and the principles which have been laid down. Its object is to point out mistakes in order that they may be rectified and prevented from recurring. Control is checking current performance against per-determined standards contained in the plans, with a view to ensure adequate progress and satisfactory performance. According to Harold Koontz: Controlling is the measurement and correction of performance in order to make sure that enterprise objectives and the plans devised to attain them are accomplished. According to Stafford Beer: Management is the profession of control. In 1916, Henri Fayol formulated one of the first definitions of control as it pertains to management:

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Control consists of verifying whether everything occurs in conformity with the plan adopted, the instructions issued, and principles established. It['s] object [is] to point out weaknesses and errors in order to rectify [them] and prevent recurrence.[1] Also control can be defined as "that function of the system that adjusts operations as needed to achieve the plan, or to maintain variations from system objectives within allowable limits". The control subsystem functions in close harmony with the operating system. The degree to which they interact depends on the nature of the operating system and its objectives. Stability concerns a system's ability to maintain a pattern of output without wide fluctuations. Rapidity of response pertains to the speed with which a system can correct variations and return to expected output.[3] A political election can illustrate the concept of control and the importance of feedback. Each party organizes a campaign to get its candidate selected and outlines a plan to inform the public about both the candidate's credentials and the party's platform. As the election nears, opinion polls furnish feedback about the effectiveness of the campaign and about each candidate's chances to win. Depending on the nature of this feedback, certain adjustments in strategy and/or tactics can be made in an attempt to achieve the desired result. From these definitions it can be stated that there is close link between planning and controlling. Planning is a process by which an organisation's objectives and the methods to achieve the objectives are established, and controlling is a process which measures and directs the actual performance against the planned goals of the organisation. Thus, goals and objectives are often referred to as siamese twins of management. the managerial function of management and correction of performance in order to make sure that enterprise objectives and the goals devised to attain them being accomplished. Management skills • • • Political: used to build a power base and establish connections Conceptual: used to analyze complex situations. Interpersonal: used to communicate, motivate, mentor and delegate

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Diagnostic: ability to visualize most appropriate response to a situation Technical: Expertise in one's particular functional area.[9]

Levels of management Most organizations have three management levels: first-level, middle-level, and toplevel managers. These managers are classified in a hierarchy of authority, and perform different tasks. In many organizations, the number of managers in every level resembles a pyramid. Each level is explained below in specifications of their different responsibilities and likely job titles. Top-level managers Consists of board of directors, president, vice-president, CEOs, etc. They are responsible for controlling and overseeing the entire organization. They develop goals, strategic plans, company policies, and make decisions on the direction of the business. In addition, top-level managers play a significant role in the mobilization of outside resources and are accountable to the shareholders and general public. According to Lawrence S. Kleiman, the following skills are needed at the top managerial level. • Broadened understanding of how: competition, world economies, politics, and social trends effect organizational effectiveness. Top management's role is: • • Lay down the objectives and broad policies of the enterprise. Issues necessary instructions for preparation of department budgets, procedures, schedules, etc. • • • • Prepares strategic plans and policies for the enterprise. Appoint middle level executives, i.e., departmental managers. Controls and coordinate activities of all departments. Maintain contact with the outside world. 13

• •

Provides guidance and direction. Answer to shareholders for the performance of the enterprise.

Middle-level managers Consist of general managers, branch managers and department managers. They are accountable to the top management for their department's function. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions. Their roles can be emphasized as executing organizational plans in conformance with the company's policies and the objectives of the top management, they define and discuss information and policies from top management to lower management, and most importantly they inspire and provide guidance to lower level managers towards better performance. Their functions include: • Design and implement effective group and inter-group work and information systems. • • • • Define and monitor group-level performance indicators. Diagnose and resolve problems within and among work groups. Design and implement reward systems that support cooperative behavior. First-level managers

Consist of supervisors, section leads, foremen, etc. They focus on controlling and directing. They usually have the responsibility of assigning employees tasks, guiding and supervising employees on day-to-day activities, ensuring quality and quantity production, making recommendations, suggestions, and up channeling employee problems, etc. First-level managers are role models for employees that provide: • • • • Basic supervision Motivation Career planning Performance feedback

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Recent Change management Change management is an approach to shifting/transitioning individuals, teams, and - in general - organizations from a current state to a desired future state. It is an organizational process aimed at helping change stakeholders to accept and embrace changes in their business environment or individuals in their personal lives. [citation needed] In some project management contexts, change management refers to a project management process wherein changes to a project are formally introduced and approved.[1] Change management uses basic structures and tools to control any organizational change effort. The goal is to maximize benefits and minimize the change impacts on workers and avoid distractions.[2] Approach Organizational change is a structured approach in an organization for ensuring that changes are smoothly and successfully implemented to achieve lasting benefits. In the modern business environment, organizations face rapid change like never before. Globalization and the constant innovation of technology result in a constantly evolving business environment. Phenomena such as social media and mobile adaptability have revolutionized business and the effect of this is an ever increasing need for change, and therefore change management. The growth in technology also has a secondary effect of increasing the availability and therefore accountability of knowledge. Easily accessible information has resulted in unprecedented scrutiny from stockholders and the media. Prying eyes and listening ears raise the stakes for failed business endeavors and increase the pressure on struggling executives. With the business environment experiencing so much change, organizations must then learn to become comfortable with change as well. Therefore, the ability to manage and adapt to organizational change is an essential ability required in the workplace today. Due to the growth of technology, modern organizational change is largely motivated by exterior innovations rather than internal moves. When these developments occur, the organizations that adapt quickest create a competitive advantage for themselves, while the companies that refuse to change get left behind. This can result in drastic profit and/or market share losses.

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Organizational change directly affects all departments from the entry level employee to senior management. The entire company must learn how to handle changes to the organization. When determining which of the latest techniques or innovations to adopt, there are four major factors to be considered: 1. 2. 3. 4. Levels, goals, and strategies Measurement system Sequence of steps Implementation and organizational change

Regardless of the many types of organizational change, the critical aspect is a company’s ability to win the buy-in of their organization’s employees on the change. Effectively managing organizational change is a four-step process: 1. 2. 3. 4. recognizing the changes in the broader business environment. developing the necessary adjustments for their company’s needs. training their employees on the appropriate changes. winning the support of the employees with the persuasiveness of the appropriate

adjustments. As a multidisciplinary practice that has evolved as a result of scholarly research, Organizational Change Management should begin with a systematic diagnosis of the current situation in order to determine both the need for change and the capability to change. The objectives, content, and process of change should all be specified as part of a Change Management plan. Change Management processes may include creative marketing to enable communication between changing audiences, as well as deep social understanding about leadership’s styles and group dynamics. As a visible track on transformation projects, Organizational Change Management aligns groups’ expectations, communicates, integrates teams and manages people training. It makes use of performance metrics, such as financial results, operational efficiency, leadership 16

commitment, communication effectiveness, and the perceived need for change to design appropriate strategies, in order to avoid change failures or resolve troubled change projects. Successful change management is more likely to occur if the following are included: 1. Benefits management and realization to define measurable stakeholder aims,

create a business case for their achievement (which should be continuously updated), and monitor assumptions, risks, dependencies, costs, return on investment, dis-benefits and cultural issues affecting the progress of the associated work. 2. Effective Communications that informs various stakeholders of the reasons for

the change (why?), the benefits of successful implementation (what is in it for us, and you) as well as the details of the change (when? where? who is involved? how much will it cost? etc.). 3. Devise an effective education, training and/or skills upgrading scheme for the

organization. 4. Counter resistance from the employees of companies and align them to overall

strategic direction of the organization. 5. 6. Provide personal counseling (if required) to alleviate any change-related fears. Monitoring of the implementation and fine-tuning as required.

Restructuring and Outsourcing: A conceptual framework examining the relationship between corporate restructuring and outsourcing of key value-adding activities to external suppliers and partners is presented. The model proposes that the restructuring process serves as a catalyst to a series of complex changes within the firm that make outsourcing an attractive alternative to internal investments in the development of new skills and capabilities. High levels of merger and acquisition activity, as well as leveraged buy-outs (LBOs), are expected to produce a diminished resource base for organizational learning and technology development. Continued reliance on outsourcing, in turn, can potentially “lock out” the firm from participating in future technologies and new industries.

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Empowering People Through Self-Managed Teams Recently, several organizations have approached us with interest in implementing a Self Directed Teams Strategy. Although the idea is not new, over the past few years, there has been a lot of attention to this methodology. In the early 21st century, organizations seem to be re-discovering the benefits of self-managed teams (also known as self-directed teams, or semiautonomous work groups). A combination of factors explains that interest: environmental pressures push for leaner organizational models, technology enables real time information exchange, and the nature of jobs has changed significantly in the last ten years. Even though the terms "self-managed" and "self-directed" are used frequently, they are rarely defined. As several authors have noted, there is no such thing as a typical selfmanaged team (Holpp, 1993, Shonk, 1992). Yet, it has been our experience that having a common definition can serve as a framework for discussion and dialogue on this topic. We define a self-managed team as "a group of people who have day-to-day responsibility for managing themselves and the work they do. Members of self-directed teams typically handle job assignments, plan and schedule work, make productionrelated decisions, and take action on problems. Members of self-directed teams work with a minimum of direct supervision. These teams are characterized by: • • • • Face-to-face interaction in natural work groups; Responsibility for producing a definable product or service; Responsibility for a set of interdependent tasks; and Control over managing and executing tasks.

Although we recognize the potential value of self-managed teams, it is also important to keep in mind that self-management is not an appropriate objective for all work groups in all organizations. Autonomous work group designs are best suited to situations in which there are no major barriers to sharing knowledge among all group members and tasks are routine. This kind of environment allows group members to acquire skills from one another and to gain mastery over task performance.

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Tasks which are unstable and require the application of a wide range of highly specialized skills or knowledge are not usually conducive to group self- regulation. Self-regulation cannot occur effectively since each group member has little influence over the others and little knowledge of the others' specialties. What these statements imply is that temporary teams, committees, or task forces that come together briefly to address a specific issue, problem or challenge are not suited for self- management. These include flight crews on an aircraft, surgical operating teams in a hospital, and emergency response teams that respond to a disaster situation. Self managed teams perform three (3) main roles in organizations: Accomplishing the team's work, organizing the team's work environment" and "managing the team's work processes. In order to effectively carry out the first role (accomplishing the team's work), team members need to have a common understanding of the team's work processes and the activities within each process. Examples of responsibilities that are a part of this role include: Identifying what work the team needs to do; Prioritizing the work so it can be accomplished within agreed-upon timelines; Deciding who does the work; Scheduling the work; Obtaining the necessary resources to do the work; Doing the work within agreed-upon timelines while meeting identified customers' requirements; Collecting data about the work; Interpreting data about the work; and Taking appropriate action based on that data. "Organize the team's work environment" is the second role to fall under missiondirected work. It promotes a systematic approach for effectively organizing and managing a team's total work environment and is based on the Japanese "5 S" methodology. Examples of responsibilities that fall under this role include: "Sorting" the necessary from the unnecessary within the work environment; "Simplifying" access to ensure there is a place for everything and everything is in its proper place; "Sweeping" both visually and physically to ensure safety, order, cleanliness, and routine maintenance has occurred; "Standardizing" the organization of the work area within and across groups to make it easier to visually sweep and recognize where everything is; and "Self discipline" in the ongoing study and reorganization of the work environment, as well as following through on all 5 S agreements.

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"Manage the team's work processes" is the third role that falls under mission-directed work. Examples of responsibilities that fall under this role include: Identifying the work processes that are the responsibility of the team; Creating a standard method for carrying out each work process, based on customers' requirements, that includes a plan for monitoring process performance over time; Continually improving how the work is done; Addressing problems that arise; Identifying opportunities for innovation; Sharing work process information with others throughout the organization; and Training team members on the team's work processes and related topics. Your team and or organization may have already made considerable progress in the arena of empowering people. While it takes a sound organizational architecture and support systems, one cannot deny that employee involvement plays an important role in the workplace of the future. As organizations struggle to survive and attempt to be agile, decisions about mission-directed work need to be made as close to the customer as possible. To date we know of no other way to obtain daily employee involvement and move decisions closer to the customer without self- managed teams. What are the challenges being faced by managers today and what are the relevant solutions? Another challenge that managers face today is workers who are not qualified to do the type of work. Solution: Same answer as above. Improve the screening process in human resources. The third problem that managers face is workers who are not interested in the work and so only do what is needed to get a check on payday. Solution: Include the workers in decisions for improving the business. Ask them questions, get input from workers on how to make the operation/company better. Ask workers for feedback on how they are treated, problems they see in the business. This will make them feel more respected and as part of the team, instead of like slaves. Hold a monthly class for employees that offer some type of personal development training. This is especially useful if the principles can be applied to the job. However, even if it can't be directly it can benefit the job as well as the employee.

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For instance....if employees are better informed about health, nutrition, handling debt, effective parenting, etc it means less stressed out employees which means they are more productive and have a better attitude. Also, they think highly of the company and appreciate the outreach. The become more loyal and responsible. Everyone will want a job at the company who cares. The last thing that needs to be mentioned is simple. Managers themselves are faces with not having a clue as to how to encourage, motivate and develop their crew.

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