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STUDY ON CONTRIBUTION OF SMARTPHONES IN
FULFILLING REQUIREMENTS AND NEEDS OF CONSUMER
ONLINE SHOPPING

Submitted by:
MIRZA DANISH
B.COM (HONS) 3RD SEM
A7004614158
SPECIALIZATION: MARKETING
Under guidance of:

DR. SHAILJA DIXIT
ASST. PROFESSOR
ABS, Lucknow
(COMPANY REPORT IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE AWARD OF FULL TIME MASTERS IN
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (2014-17)

AMITY BUSINESS SCHOOL, LUCKNOW

1. I will be responsible for my misuse or wrongful disclosure of confidential
information and for my failure to safeguard my access code or other
authorization to access confidential information. I understand that I have no
right or ownership interest in any confidential information referred to in this
agreement. The University may at any time revoke my access code, other
authorization or access or confidential information. At all time during my
internship with Amity University, I will act in the best interests of PMC.
I have read and understand the above definition of “ confidential information “ I
agree that I will not at any time, both during and after my enrollment in
University Internship, communicate or disclose confidential information to any
person corporation or entity.
It is understood that any breach of confidentiality will result in immediate
termination of the internship and that a report of the breach will be made by the
concerned Head of Institution.

HAVE READ THE ABOVE CONFIDENTIALITY AGREEMENT AND AGREE TO ITS
TERMS.

AGREED ___________________________________

(SIGNATURE)

___________________________________

(PRINTED FULL NAME)

___________________________________

(DATE)

Signature of Authorized signatory of the institution
(Institution deputing the students)

ACCEPTED

REGISTRAR

AMITY UNIVERSITY, UP
NOIDA

Synopsis for Term paper
A project report on marketing strategies used by domino’s in India .Different methods used by
the company to boost their sales and to beat their competitors.

Student’s Name

MIRZA DANISH

Enrolment No

A7004614158

Program

B.COM (HONS.)

Industry / Organization’s name
Address

AMITY UNIVERSITY
AMITY UNIVERSITY MALHOUR CAMPUS, NEAR
MALHOUR RAILWAY STATION , LUCKNOW

External Guide’s Name

DR. SHAILJA DIXIT

Contract Details:
Mobile:

8009999900

Email:

[email protected]

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This Company Report had been written at the Amity Business School Sciences at the Amity
University,Lucknow.
I would like to show my sincere gratitude to those people who contributed and made it possible
for me to prepare this term paper. I would like to thank my supervisor DR. SHAILJA DIXIT for
all his support and guidance through the entire study. Mam had help me in completing this
Company Report by providing not only academic guidance but moral support for during stressful
times. I would like to thank to all people who helped me, contributing to my knowledge and
honing the required skills to complete this task.

MIRZA DANISH
A7004614158

STUDENT’S CERTIFICATE

Certified that this report is prepared based on the COMPANY REPORT Undertaken by me in
“STUDY

ON

CONTRIBUTION

OF

SMARTPHONES

IN

FULFILLING

REQUIREMENTS AND NEEDS OF CONSUMER ONLINE SHOPPING”, under the able
guidance of DR. RICHA RAGHUVANSHI in the partial fulfilment of the requirement for award
of degree of Bachelor of Commerce B.Com(Hons.) from Amity University, Uttar Pradesh,
Lucknow.

Date:………………

MIRZA DANISH
(Student)

DR. RICHA RAGHUVANSHI
(Faculty Guide)

Prof.V.P.Sahi
(Director(ABS))

FACULTY CERTIFICATE

Forwarded here with a term paper report on “STUDY ON CONTRIBUTION OF
SMARTPHONES IN FULFILLING REQUIREMENTS AND NEEDS OF CONSUMER
ONLINE SHOPPING ”, Submitted by MIRZA DANISH , Enrollment No.—A7004614158,
student of B.Com(Hons.)-3rd-C.
This project report is partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of
Commerce (Honours) from Amity University Lucknow Campus, Uttar Pradesh.

DR. SHAILJA DIXIT
AMITY UNIVERSITY
LUCKNOW CAMPUS
UTTAR PRADESH

DECLARATION

“STUDY OF SALES PROMOTIONAL STARTEGY OF LEADING COSMETIC
BRANDS IN INDIA”

I understand what plagiarism is and am aware of the University’s policy in this regard

I declare that
a) The work submitted by me in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of
degree Bachelor of Commerce (Honors) assessment in this report is my own; it has not
previously been presented for another assessment.
b) I declare that this report is my original work. Wherever work from other source has been
appropriately acknowledged and referenced in accordance with the requirements of
NTCC Regulations and Guidelines.
c)

I have not used work previously produced by another student or any other person to
submit it as my own.

d) I have not permitted, and will not permit, anybody to copy my work with the purpose of
passing it off as his or her own work.
e) The work conforms to the guidelines for layout, content and style as set out in the
Regulations and Guidelines.

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Online shopping (sometimes known as e-tail from "electronic retail" or eshopping) is a form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to
directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet using a web
browser. Alternative names are: e-web-store, e-shop, e-store, Internet shop,
web-shop, web-store, online store, online storefront and virtual store. Mobile
commerce (or m-commerce) describes purchasing from an online retailer's
mobile optimized online site or app.
An online shop evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at
a bricks-and-mortar retailer or shopping center; the process is called
business-to-consumer (B2C) online shopping. In the case where a business
buys from another business, the process is called business-to-business (B2B)
online shopping. The largest of these online retailing corporations
are Alibaba,Amazon.com, and eBay.

HISTORY

Michael Aldrich, pioneer of online shopping in the 1980s.
English entrepreneur Michael Aldrich invented online shopping in 1979. His
system connected a modified domestic TV to a real-time transaction
processing computer via a domestic telephone line. He believed
that videotex, the modified domestic TV technology with a simple menu-

driven human–computer interface, was a 'new, universally applicable,
participative communication medium — the first since the invention of the
telephone.' This enabled 'closed' corporate information systems to be opened
to 'outside' correspondents not just for transaction processing but also for emessaging and information retrieval and dissemination, later known as ebusiness. His definition of the new mass communications medium as
'participative' [interactive, many-to-many] was fundamentally different from
the traditional definitions of mass communication and mass media and a
precursor to the social networking on the Internet 25 years later.
In March 1980 he went on to launch Redifon's Office Revolution, which
allowed consumers, customers, agents, distributors, suppliers and service
companies to be connected on-line to the corporate systems and allow
business transactions to be completed electronically in real-time.
During the 1980s he designed, manufactured, sold, installed, maintained and
supported many online shopping systems, using videotex technology. These
systems which also provided voice response and handprint processing predate the Internet and the World Wide Web, the IBM PC, and Microsoft MSDOS, and were installed mainly in the UK by large corporations.
The first World Wide Web server and browser, created by Tim Berners-Lee in
1990, opened for commercial use in 1991. Thereafter, subsequent
technological innovations emerged in 1994: online banking, the opening of
an online pizza shop by Pizza Hut, Netscape's SSL v2 encryption standard for
secure data transfer, and Intershop's first online shopping system. The first
secure retail transaction over the Web was either by NetMarket or Internet
Shopping Network in 1994. Immediately after, Amazon.com launched its

online shopping site in 1995 and eBay was also introduced in 1995. Alibaba's
sites Taobao and Tmall were launched in 2003 and 2008, respectively.
Retailers are increasingly selling goods and services prior to availability
through pretail for testing, building, and managing demand.

INTERNATIONAL E-COMMERCE STATISTICS

Statistics show that in 2012, Asia-Pacific increased their international sales
over 30% giving them over $433 billion in revenue. That is a $69 billion
difference between the U.S. revenue of $364.66 billion. It is estimated that
Asia-Pacific will increase by another 30% in the year 2013 putting them
ahead by more than one-third of all global ecommerce sales.
The largest online shopping day in the world is Singles Day, with sales just
in Alibaba's sites at US$9.3 billion in 2014.
Customers

Online customers must have access to the Internet and a valid method of
payment in order to complete a transaction.
Generally, higher levels of education and personal income correspond to
more favorable perceptions of shopping online. Increased exposure to
technology also increases the probability of developing favorable attitudes
towards new shopping channels.

In a December 2011 study, Equation Research surveyed 1,500 online
shoppers and found that 87% of tablet owners made online transactions with
their tablet devices during the early Christmas shopping season.
Product selection

Consumers find a product of interest by visiting the website of the retailer
directly or by searching among alternative vendors using a shopping search
engine.
Once a particular product has been found on the website of the seller, most
online retailers use shopping cart software to allow the consumer to
accumulate multiple items and to adjust quantities, like filling a physical
shopping cart or basket in a conventional store. A "checkout" process follows
(continuing the physical-store analogy) in which payment and delivery
information is collected, if necessary. Some stores allow consumers to sign
up for a permanent online account so that some or all of this information only
needs to be entered once. The consumer often receives an e-mail
confirmation once the transaction is complete.
Less sophisticated stores may rely on consumers to phone or e-mail their
orders (although full credit card numbers, expiry date, and Card Security
Code, or bank account and routing number should not be accepted by e-mail,
for reasons of security).

Payment

Online shoppers commonly use a credit card or a PayPal account in order to
make payments. However, some systems enable users to create accounts and
pay by alternative means, such as:


Billing to mobile phones and landlines[13][14]



Cash on delivery (C.O.D.)



Cheque/ Check



Debit card



Direct debit in some countries



Electronic money of various types



Gift cards



Postal money order



Wire transfer/delivery on payment



Invoice, especially popular in some markets/countries, such as
Switzerland



Bit coin or other crypto currencies

Some online shops will not accept international credit cards. Some require
both the purchaser's billing and shipping address to be in the same country as

the online shop's base of operation. Other online shops allow customers from
any country to send gifts anywhere.
The financial part of a transaction may be processed in real time (e.g. letting
the consumer know their credit card was declined before they log off), or may
be done later as part of the fulfillment process.
Product delivery

Once a payment has been accepted, the goods or services can be delivered in
the following ways. For physical items:


Shipping: The product is shipped to a customer-designated address.
Retail package delivery is typically done by the public postal system or a
retail courier such as FedEx,UPS, DHL, or TNT.



Drop shipping: The order is passed to the manufacturer or third-party
distributor, who then ships the item directly to the consumer, bypassing
the retailer's physical location to save time, money, and space.



In-store pick-up: The customer selects a local store using a locator
software and picks up the delivered product at the selected location. This
is the method often used in the bricks business model.

For digital items or tickets:


Downloading/Digital distribution: The method often used for digital
media products such as software, music, movies, or images.



Printing out, provision of a code for, or e-mailing of such items
as admission tickets and scrip (e.g., gift certificates and coupons). The
tickets, codes, or coupons may be redeemed at the appropriate physical or
online premises and their content reviewed to verify their eligibility (e.g.,
assurances that the right of admission or use is redeemed at the correct
time and place, for the correct dollar amount, and for the correct number
of uses).



Will call, COBO (in Care Of Box Office), or "at the door" pickup: The
patron picks up pre-purchased tickets for an event, such as a play, sporting
event, or concert, either just before the event or in advance. With the onset
of the Internet and e-commerce sites, which allow customers to buy
tickets online, the popularity of this service has increased.

Shopping cart systems
Simple shopping cart systems allow the off-line administration of products
and categories. The shop is then generated as HTML files and graphics that
can be uploaded to a web space. The systems do not use an online database.
[

A high-end solution can be bought or rented as a stand-alone program or as

an addition to an enterprise resource planning program. It is usually installed
on the company's web server and may integrate into the existing supply
chain so that ordering, payment, delivery, accounting and warehousing can be
automated to a large extent.
Other solutions allow the user to register and create an online shop on
a portal that hosts multiple shops simultaneously from one back office.
Examples

are

Big

Commerce,Shopify and Flick

Rocket. Open

source shopping cart packages include advanced platforms such as
Interchange,

and

off-the-shelf

solutions

such

as Magneto, osCommerce,Shopgate, PrestaShop, and Zen Cart. Commercial
systems can also be tailored so the shop does not have to be created from
scratch. By using an existing framework, software modules for various
functionalities required by a web shop can be adapted and combined.
Design

Customers are attracted to online shopping not only because of high levels of
convenience, but also because of broader selections, competitive pricing, and
greater access to information. Business organizations seek to offer online
shopping not only because it is of much lower cost compared to bricks and
mortar stores, but also because it offers access to a worldwide market,
increases customer value, and builds sustainable capabilities.[clarification needed][18]
Information load

Designers of online shops are concerned with the effects of information load.
Information load is a product of the spatial and temporal arrangements of
stimuli in the web store. Compared with conventional retail shopping, the
information environment of virtual shopping is enhanced by providing
additional product information such as comparative products and services, as
well as various alternatives and attributes of each alternative, etc.
Two

major

dimensions

of

information

load

are

complexity

and

novelty. Complexity refers to the number of different elements or features of
a site, often the result of increased information diversity. Novelty involves the
unexpected, suppressed, new, or unfamiliar aspects of the site. The novelty

dimension may keep consumers exploring a shopping site, whereas the
complexity dimension may induce impulse purchases.
Consumer needs and expectations

A successful web store is not just a good looking website with dynamic
technical features, listed in many search engines. In addition to disseminating
information, it is also about building a relationship with customers and
making money.
Businesses often attempt to adopt online shopping techniques without
understanding them and/or without a sound business model; often, businesses
produce web stores that support the organizations' culture and brand name
without satisfying consumer expectations. User-centered design is critical.
Understanding the customer's wants and needs is essential. Living up to the
company's promises gives customers a reason to come back and meeting their
expectations gives them a reason to stay. It is important that the website
communicates how much the company values its customers.
Customer needs and expectations are not the same for all customers. Age,
gender, experience and culture are all important factors. For example,
Japanese cultural norms may lead users there to feel privacy is especially
critical on shopping sites and emotional involvement is highly important on
financial pensions sites. Users with more online experience focus more on the
variables that directly influence the task, while novice users focus on
understanding the information.
To increase online purchases, businesses must use significant time and money
to define, design, develop, test, implement, and maintain the web store. Truly

said, it is easier to lose a customer than to gain one. Even a "top-rated"
website will not succeed if the organization fails to practice common
etiquette such as responding to e-mails in a timely fashion, notifying
customers of problems, being honest, and being good stewards of the
customers' data. Because it is so important to eliminate mistakes and be more
appealing to online shoppers, many webshop designers study research on
consumer expectations.
User interface

An automated online assistant, with potential to enhance user
interface on shopping sites.
The most important factors determining whether customers return to a
website are ease of use and the presence of user-friendly features.
Usability testing is important for finding problems and improvements in a

[25]

web site. Methods for evaluating usability include heuristic evaluation,
cognitive walkthrough, and user testing. Each technique has its own
characteristics and emphasizes different aspects of the user experience.

Market share
E-commerce B2C product sales totaled $142.5 billion, representing about 8%
of retail product sales in the United States. The $26 billion worth of clothes
sold online represented about 13% of the domestic market, and with 72% of
women looking online for apparel, it has become one of the most popular
cross-shopping categories. Forrester Research estimates that the United States
online retail industry will be worth $279 billion in 2015. The popularity of
online shopping continues to erode sales of conventional retailers. For
example, Best Buy, the largest retailer of electronics in the U.S. in August
2014 reported its tenth consecutive quarterly dip in sales, citing an increasing
shift by consumers to online shopping.
There were 242 million people shopping online in China in 2012.
For developing countries and low-income households in developed countries,
adoption of e-commerce in place of or in addition to conventional methods is
limited by a lack of affordable Internet access.

ADVANTAGES
Convenience
Online stores are usually available 24 hours a day, and many consumers have
Internet access both at work and at home. Other establishments such as
internet cafes and schools provide internet access as well. In contrast, visiting
a conventional retail store requires travel and must take place during business
hours.

In the event of a problem with the item (e.g., the product was not what the
consumer ordered, the product was not satisfactory), consumers are
concerned with the ease of returning an item in exchange for either the
correct product or a refund. Consumers may need to contact the retailer, visit
the post office and pay return shipping, and then wait for a replacement or
refund. Some online companies have more generous return policies to
compensate for the traditional advantage of physical stores. For example, the
online shoe retailer Zappos.com includes labels for free return shipping, and
does not charge a restocking fee, even for returns which are not the result of
merchant error. (Note: In the United Kingdom, online shops are prohibited
from charging a restocking fee if the consumer cancels their order in
accordance with the Consumer Protection (Distance Selling) Act 2000).
Information and reviews

Online stores must describe products for sale with text, photos, and
multimedia files, whereas in a physical retail store, the actual product and the
manufacturer's packaging will be available for direct inspection (which might
involve a test drive, fitting, or other experimentation).
Some online stores provide or link to supplemental product information, such
as instructions, safety procedures, demonstrations, or manufacturer
specifications. Some provide background information, advice, or how-to
guides designed to help consumers decide which product to buy.
Some stores even allow customers to comment or rate their items. There are
also dedicated review sites that host user reviews for different products.
Reviews and even some blogs give customers the option of shopping for

cheaper purchases from all over the world without having to depend on local
retailers.
In a conventional retail store, clerks are generally available to answer
questions. Some online stores have real-time chat features, but most rely on
e-mails or phone calls to handle customer questions.
Price and selection

One advantage of shopping online is being able to quickly seek out deals for
items or services provided by many different vendors (though some local
search engines do exist to help consumers locate products for sale in nearby
stores). Search engines, online price comparison services and discovery
shopping engines can be used to look up sellers of a particular product or
service.
Shipping costs (if applicable) reduce the price advantage of online
merchandise, though depending on the jurisdiction, a lack of sales tax may
compensate for this.
Shipping a small number of items, especially from another country, is much
more expensive than making the larger shipments bricks-and-mortar retailers
order. Some retailers (especially those selling small, high-value items like
electronics) offer free shipping on sufficiently large orders.
Another major advantage for retailers is the ability to rapidly switch suppliers
and vendors without disrupting users' shopping experience.

DISADVANTAGES

Fraud and security concerns
Given the lack of ability to inspect merchandise before purchase, consumers
are at higher risk of fraud than face-to-face transactions. Merchants also risk
fraudulent purchases using stolen credit cards or fraudulent repudiation of the
online purchase. However, merchants face less risk from physical theft by
using a warehouse instead of a retail storefront.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption has generally solved the problem of
credit card numbers being intercepted in transit between the consumer and
the merchant. However, one must still trust the merchant (and employees) not
to use the credit card information subsequently for their own purchases, and
not to pass the information to others. Also, hackers might break into a
merchant's web site and steal names, addresses and credit card numbers,
although the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard is intended to
minimize the impact of such breaches. Identity theft is still a concern for
consumers. A number of high-profile break-ins in the 2000s has prompted
some U.S. states to require disclosure to consumers when this happens.
Computer security has thus become a major concern for merchants and ecommerce service providers, who deploy countermeasures such as firewalls
and anti-virus software to protect their networks.
Phishing is another danger, where consumers are fooled into thinking they are
dealing with a reputable retailer, when they have actually been manipulated
into feeding private information to a system operated by a malicious party.
Denial of service attacks are a minor risk for merchants, as are server and
network outages.

Quality seals can be placed on the Shop web page if it has undergone an
independent assessment and meets all requirements of the company issuing
the seal. The purpose of these seals is to increase the confidence of online
shoppers. However, the existence of many different seals, or seals unfamiliar
to consumers, may foil this effort to a certain extent. A number of resources
offer advice on how consumers can protect themselves when using online
retailer services. These include:


Sticking with known stores, or attempting to find independent
consumer reviews of their experiences; also ensuring that there is
comprehensive contact information on the website before using the
service, and noting if the retailer has enrolled in industry oversight
programs such as a trust mark or a trust seal.



Before buying from a new company, evaluate the website by
considering issues such as: the professionalism and user-friendliness of
the site; whether or not the company lists a telephone number and/or street
address along with e-contact information; whether a fair and reasonable
refund and return policy is clearly stated; and whether there are hidden
price inflators, such as excessive shipping and handling charges.



Ensuring that the retailer has an acceptable privacy policy posted. For
example, note if the retailer does not explicitly state that it will not share
private information with others without consent.



Ensuring that the vendor address is protected with SSL (see above)
when entering credit card information. If it does the address on the credit
card information entry screen will start with "HTTPS".



Using strong passwords, without personal information. Another option
is a "pass phrase," which might be something along the lines: "I shop 4
good a buy!!" These are difficult to hack, and provides a variety of upper,
lower, and special characters and could be site specific and easy to
remember.

Although the benefits of online shopping are considerable, when the process
goes poorly it can create a thorny situation. A few problems that shoppers
potentially face include identity theft, faulty products, and the accumulation
of spyware. If users are required to put in their credit card information and
billing/shipping address and the website is not secure, customer information
can be accessible to anyone who knows how to obtain it. Most large online
corporations are inventing new ways to make fraud more difficult. However,
criminals are constantly responding to these developments with new ways to
manipulate the system. Even though online retailers are making efforts to
protect consumer information, it is a constant fight to maintain the lead. It is
advisable to be aware of the most current technology and scams to protect
consumer identity and finances.
Product delivery is also a main concern of online shopping. Most companies
offer shipping insurance in case the product is lost or damaged. Some
shipping companies will offer refunds or compensation for the damage, but
this is up to their discretion.

Lack of full cost disclosure
The lack of full cost disclosure may also be problematic. While it may be
easy to compare the base price of an item online, it may not be easy to see the

total cost up front. Additional fees such as shipping are often not be visible
until the final step in the checkout process. The problem is especially evident
with cross-border purchases, where the cost indicated at the final checkout
screen may not include additional fees that must be paid upon delivery such
as duties and brokerage. Some services such as the Canadian-based Wishabi
attempts to include estimates of these additional cost, [33] but nevertheless, the
lack of general full cost disclosure remains a concern.

Privacy
Privacy of personal information is a significant issue for some consumers.
Many consumers wish to avoid spam and telemarketing which could result
from supplying contact information to an online merchant. In response, many
merchants promise to not use consumer information for these purposes,
Many websites keep track of consumer shopping habits in order to suggest
items and other websites to view. Brick-and-mortar stores also collect
consumer information. Some ask for a shopper's address and phone number
at checkout, though consumers may refuse to provide it. Many larger stores
use the address information encoded on consumers' credit cards (often
without their knowledge) to add them to a catalog mailing list. This
information is obviously not accessible to the merchant when paying in cash
or through a bank (money transfer, in which case there is also proof of
payment).

Product suitability
Many successful purely virtual companies deal with digital products,
(including information storage, retrieval, and modification), music, movies,

office supplies, education, communication, software, photography, and
financial transactions. Other successful marketers use drop shipping
or affiliate marketing techniques to facilitate transactions of tangible goods
without maintaining real inventory.
Some non-digital products have been more successful than others for online
stores. Profitable items often have a high value-to-weight ratio, they may
involve embarrassing purchases, they may typically go to people in remote
locations, and they may have shut-ins as their typical purchasers. Items which
can fit in a standard mailbox—such as music CDs, DVDs and books—are
particularly suitable for a virtual marketer.
Products such as spare parts, both for consumer items like washing machines
and for industrial equipment like centrifugal pumps, also seem good
candidates for selling online. Retailers often need to order spare parts
specially, since they typically do not stock them at consumer outlets—in such
cases, e-commerce solutions in spares do not compete with retail stores, only
with other ordering systems. A factor for success in this niche can consist of
providing customers with exact, reliable information about which part
number their particular version of a product needs, for example by providing
parts lists keyed by serial number.
Products less suitable for e-commerce include products that have a low valueto-weight ratio, products that have a smell, taste, or touch component,
products that need trial fittings—most notably clothing—and products where
colour integrity appears important. Nonetheless, some web sites have had
success delivering groceries and clothing sold through the internet is big
business in the U.S.

Aggregation
High-volume websites, such as Yahoo!, Amazon.com,and eBay, offer hosting
services for online stores to all size retailers. These stores are presented
within an integrated navigation framework, sometimes known as virtual
shopping malls or online marketplaces.
Impact of reviews on consumer behaviour

One of the great benefits of online shopping is the ability to read product
reviews, written either by experts or fellow online shoppers.
The Nielsen Company conducted a survey in March 2010 and polled more
than 27,000 Internet users in 55 markets from the Asia-Pacific, Europe,
Middle East, North America, and South America to look at questions such as
"How do consumers shop online?", "What do they intend to buy?", "How do
they use various online shopping web pages?", and the impact of social
media and other factors that come into play when consumers are trying to
decide how to spend their money on which product or service. According to
the research, reviews on electronics (57%) such as DVD players, cellphones,
or PlayStations, and so on, reviews on cars (45%), and reviews on software
(37%) play an important role in influencing consumers who tend to make
purchases online. Furthermore, 40% of online shoppers indicate that they
would not even buy electronics without consulting online reviews first.
In addition to online reviews, peer recommendations on online shopping
pages or social media websites play a key role for online shoppers when they
are researching future purchases. 90% of all purchases made are influenced

by social media.[37] Each day, over two million buyers are shopping online for
jewelry.

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITTERATURE

There are a lot of researches about online shopping. Most studies
intended to investigate factors affecting consumers' purchasing behavior
on the Web. Swaminathan, Lepkowska-White, and Rao (1999) refered
vendor characteristics, security of transactions, content for privacy, and
customer characteristics as factors influencing electronic exchange.

Wolfinbarger and Gilly suggested that consumers purchase and shop
online with both reasons: goal-oriented and experience-oriented.
According to Miyazaki and Fernandez (2001), perceived risk affected
consumer online purchasing behavior negatively. They also found that
Internet experience is negatively related to the existence of concerns
regarding the privacy and security of online purchase and the perceived
risks of conducting online purchases. Donthu and Garcia (1999)
proposed that risk aversion, innovativeness, brand consciousness, price
consciousnes, importance of convenience, variety-seeking propensity,
impulsiveness, attitude toward adverting, attitude toward shopping, and
attitude toward direct marketing would influence online shopping
behavior and found that among them, age, income, importance of
convenience, innovativeness, risk aversion, impulsiveness, varietyseeking propensity, attitude toward direct marketing, and attitude toward
advertising were factors influencing online shopping behavior. Li, Kuo,
and Russell (1999) found that "Consumers who make online purchase
perceive the Web to have higher utilities in communication, distribution,
and accessibility than those who do not make online purchases, and
frequent online purchases perceive higher utility than occasional online
purchasers" and "Consumers who make online purchases consider
themselves more knowledgeable about the Web as a channel than those
who do not make online purchases, and frequent online buyers consider
themselves more knowledgeable than occasional online buyers."

According to Jarvenpaa, Tractinsky, and Vitale (1999), perceived size,
perceived reputation, trust in store, atitude, and risk perception would be
factors affecting online purchasing behavior.

More Than 90% Of Consumers Use
Smartphones While Shopping

Consumers are relying more on their mobile devices to communicate,
research products and acquire information. As a result, retailers need to
prioritize mobile as a key communication and engagement channel.
After all, more than 90% of consumers use their smartphones while shopping
in retail stores, according to a survey from SessionM. While more than
approximately 54% of consumers use their devices to compare prices, others
search for product information (48.4%) and reviews (42%). Although

smartphones now giving consumers immediate access to vital product
information, the brick-and-mortar store still adds value by allowing
consumers to touch and try on products before they make a final decision.
“Consumers still find in-store shopping to be an easier experience because
they have the ability to try on and touch things,” said Patrick Reynolds, VPof
Marketing at SessionM. “In the future, retailers need to innovate ways to
simulate physical interactions with items that resemble those of the in-store
experience as closely as possible.”
o conduct the study, titled: Retail Shopping: Connecting The Multichannel
Shopper, SessionM fielded an eight-question mobile survey to more than
12,000 randomly selected smartphone users from June 12 to June 26. The
study was designed to help retailers better understand how consumers shop
and the role that smartphones specifically play in the buying journey.
Retailers that make their web sites, products, prices, coupons and loyalty
programs accessible via mobile devices can realize a number of benefits,
including improved customer engagement, sales and loyalty. Supporting this
point, 57% of consumers said they would be likely to shop at a store if they
received messages or push notifications about relevant deals and coupons
while shopping at that store. More importantly, 77% of respondents said they
are more likely to shop at a store that has a loyalty program.
“Retailers can leverage first-party consumer data to send messages or push
notifications about deals and coupons while someone is in the store
shopping,” Reynolds said in an interview with Retail Touch Points. “With

mobile, everything becomes real-time. Customer experience surveys can be
launched while customers are still in the store, making feedback more
relevant, accurate and in the moment.”
By leveraging beacon technology, retailers also can send relevant messages
while customers move throughout the store, according to Reynolds. Retailers
can then “measure what [consumers] engage with and disengage with, and
eventually close the purchasing loop. Next time customers are in the store,
the retailer knows their habits and shopping methods to personalize their
experience even more.”

Mobile Commerce To Reach An All-Time
High
Despite mobile’s growing role in the store experience, more consumers are
expected to use their devices to purchase products through 2015. Nearly all
(85%) respondents said their mobile buying frequency has either remained
the same or increased over the pas year. Approximately 41% said their mobile
buying frequency had increased, while 15% said they purchased items via
mobile significantly more often. Consumers who don’t purchase items with
their mobile devices said they were concerned about the security of their
personal information. Other respondents said the small product images made
them insecure about their purchase decisions.
Due to the surge in mobile sales, “many retailers are investing more heavily
in mobile shopping apps in addition to their mobile-optimized web sites,”

Reynolds explained. “Consumers often prefer mobile apps because the
experience tends to be more personalized thanks to the customer data brands
are able to gather and incorporate.”
The study concluded that although retailers have access to basic customer
demographics, they can only truly access a full picture of the customer
journey if they understand mobile shopping behaviors. Now that companies
can access this first-party data, they can better connect online and offline
channels, as well as analyze offer effectiveness and optimize outreach to
increase sales and loyalty.

What may also be surprising is that unlike younger consumer segments, tablet
ownership is higher than smartphones, with more than one in four seniors (26
percent) owning a smartphone and 35 percent owning a tablet.
For marketers looking for additional audiences and methods to capture revenue, it
would be wise to consider cart abandonment marketing, because nearly half (48
percent) of those 65 and over found cart reminder emails to be helpful. The
research found that 58 percent expected a cart reminder email with no incentive,
while 21 percent thought free shipping should be offered. Coincidentally, 21
percent also expected a dollar or percentage discount.
So, what do these figures tell us and how should this impact your marketing
efforts? A first step is to give seniors more credit for being more technologically
savvy than one may have previously assumed. All consumers, regardless of age,
are looking for the best deals and have fully incorporated multiple devices into the
shopping process. In addition, all consumers expect a seamless transition between
site and stores as well as between devices. The older demographic should be taken
into

consideration

when

announcements

about

these

connections

and

enhancements are made. To do this effectively, segmenting subscribers by age
when making these announcements would be a good strategy. That way, you can
focus the message for those 65+ on the ease of shopping and your customer service
commitment, while dropping youth-focused imagery and language.
All shoppers today can switch brands with the swipe of a screen or click of a
button, no matter their age. Don't underestimate the 65-and-over crowd's
willingness to leave a shopping cart to go find a better deal in a store or, on your
competitor's site. Customizing the cart reminder experience to specifically address
this consumer's needs and behavior could help you get them back on your site to
buy and build long-term loyalty.

Lastly, it is important to analyze behavioral data on your site and in the inbox to
evaluate whether seniors are shopping in a particular way or if there are certain
points within their customer journey where shopping is abandoned. Seniors may be
nearly as connected as other generations, but their needs and frustrations may
differ compared to other groups. Setting methods in place to look at the shopping
experience and understand what motivates your 65+ shopper will help to keep
them engaged and ultimately will help to better define messaging strategies that
build long-term engagement and sales.

CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Methodology:
I began my search for electronic sources by using the search engine Google. I used
keywords such as, “online shopping and effects on economy” and “online shopping
and its advantages”. I chose these words because they related to my topic very
well. I chose the articles that I used for my bibliographies by looking through the
online sources and seeing if the information pertained to my subject matter and
research

Print Sources:
I found my print sources by going to Google Scholar. I used keywords such as,
“online shopping and effects on economy” and “online shopping and its
advantages”. I chose the articles for their excellent relevance to my research
question.
Empirical Source:

For my empirical source, I did a survey. I gave the survey to girls on my dorm
floor. I selected the girls for my survey, because they will actually shop and they
would be able to answer the questions in a truthful matter. I asked the following
questions: Have you ever made a purchase online? How often on average times a
month do you purchase products online? Do you think that online shopping is more
or less convenient than traditional shopping? What do you purchase online (Rank
in order of 1-3: Clothing, Food, Vacations)? Do you think that you purchase more
online then in actual stores? Do you think online shopping is hurting or helping the
economy?
Limitations:

While obtaining my research, I came across a few bumps. I had a hard time trying
to find print articles that pertained to my research exactly. I overcame this obstacle
by trying to eliminate articles that just had to do with a sale. I also realized that you
have to use very strict keywords when searching. Another problem that I had was
that I passed out my survey and many of the girls on my floor did not return the
survey, so I only had 5 surveys to base my research of off. I know now that for next
time, I need to just go door to door and ask the people questions directly.

Mobile Consumers Are Smarter
Shoppers
On a cold, crisp Thursday night in Montreal, a large-scale downtown bookstore is
filled with customers perusing rows of books, toys and home décor objects with
their smartphones and mini-tablets in hand. Among them, a frowning middle-aged
man is doing comparison shopping on the store’s competitor website while a
fidgety, lip-biting red-haired woman is nervously posting a picture of a green fluffy
monster to Facebook in order to get her friends opinion on this last-minute gift idea
for her five-year-old niece before the store closes.
The widespread use of smartphones and tablets has become both a blessing and a
curse for retailers. Mobile shoppers want instant access to information. When they
use their phones inside a store or en route to a retail location, they aren’t interested
in doing intensive research. They are preparing themselves to make a purchase and
are using their mobile phones as tools to find local deals or to do some comparison
shopping in a quick and efficient way. Consumers have become much savvier
about shopping thanks to their mobile devices. Many shoppers can now be seen
“showrooming” or browsing stores with their smartphones held out to gather
information about products before they decide to buy the items online.
The Verge recently reported the story of an Australian retail storeowner who started
charging customers $5 for “just looking,” in order to offset losses from shoppers
who browse and then buy online. Are retailers reacting adeptly and quickly enough
to this new breed of mobile consumers who use their smartphones as decisionmaking tools to guide them through their shopping experiences? As consumers are
increasingly using their smartphones to discover what’s around them, retailers need

to get smarter about how to use mobile to their advantage by rethinking the offline
shopping experience to meet the needs of mobile-empowered shoppers.
SoLoMo, short for social-local-mobile, is a mobile-centric approach that aims to
provide a higher level of precision to local search results. The increasing popularity
of smart phones and tablets, combined with the fact that mobile users spend the
bulk of their time on social networks, has brought about this opportunity for local
retailers to attract in-store traffic. Mobile consumers will most commonly use their
devices to discover what’s nearby, and then visit the stores in person to do some
comparison shopping.
However, it takes more than the addition of local information to search engine
results for retailers to capitalize on the increasing use of mobile. An obvious firststep for retailers is to optimize their online presence for local search. Some
proactive retailers have developed simple and innovative solutions by offering a
quick snapshot of pricing on their mobile landing page or a ZIP code box to
generate a map to the nearest store location. Others have gone a little further by
making sure visitors can opt-in to receive mobile promos while they are in the
store or in a nearby location. The next step for retailers is to consider geofencing, a
technology that can target consumers inside the store by sending offers and
promotions to their smartphones when they are entering or nearing a specific area,
even down to a particular aisle in a grocery store.
A more comprehensive approach to mobile optimization must take into
consideration the entire digital ecosystem of a store. This is exactly what
McDonald’s Spain asked Nurun to accomplish last year when we undertook the
localization of the restaurant’s website and mobile site as well as the development
of a mobile app for iPhone and Android devices. Nurun also undertook the internal
management of this complex ecosystem to make sure that a very large amount of
relevant information (articles, press notes, nutritional data and allergens for close

to 100 products, restaurants listings with different services and characteristics,
multimedia content and digital coupons) could all be easily accessible across all
devices, each with its own adapted experience.
Savvy retailers should also establish their business presence on content-driven
discovery services such as Yelp. When current and potential customers notice that
a store is listed on Yelp, they have the opportunity to share their personal reviews.
This, in turn, allows retailers to engage in an open dialogue with their customers by
addressing

their

reviews—positive

or

negative—and

provide

additional

information and further support. Services such as Yelp also offer retailers the
opportunity to sell deals and gift certificates through their business listing.
Even if a portion of smartphone users are still reluctant to share their locations in
order to cash in on coupons or special offers, there are other ways to leverage the
popularity of mobile devices. A mobile loyalty card program is another possible
strategy for retailers who are looking for ways to influence in-store purchase
decisions. Moreover, mobile loyalty programs provide retailers with much more
detailed information about to the level of participation and the behaviors of their
customers compared to traditional loyalty methods, such as punch cards.
The Mercury News recently reported that Safeway, the grocery store chain, saw a
13 percent net income increase in the final three months of 2012 following the
launch of a mobile loyalty program. Safeway executives credited this strong
financial performance to the popularity of its “Just for U”program, which offers
coupons and other deals that are specifically tailored to each customer's specific
shopping habits. Customers can receive the digital coupons on their tablets and
smartphones. This success story stems from the principle that retailers need to give
consumers the information they need, when and where they need it. Safeway
designed the program around what is important to the individual customer. The
program allows clients to access personalized deals based on their purchasing

history and add them to their loyalty card. Unlike regular coupons, these offers can
be used as many times as the customer wants for up to 90 days. Customers can
explore in-store deals and add them to their profile. All these offers can also be
accessed through a personalized grocery list where all items can be sorted based on
the shopper's purchasing routine, the offer expiration date or the store aisle.

In-Store Mobile Shopping
Along these same lines, Nurun recently worked with L’Oréal Paris to create an
interactive kiosk that helps consumers find the perfect product for their needs and
improve the overall in-store cosmetics shopping experience. The application
features intuitive, and non-intrusive, functionalities that assist consumers with their
product selection. Here again, the process is based on a simple insight: consumers
want tools that can help them pick the right product by reducing the scope of their
search, and in the process, make the retail store experience more intuitive.
Complementary to the existing mobile application, Instant Beauty, this new
installation represents the final step in a complete consumer purchase support
initiative.
Retailers have an opportunity to transform the in-store shopping experience by
examining the behaviors that derive from the mobile activities of their clients.
They need to find ways to give their consumers the local info they want and
include location-based offers or deals to reinforce loyalty. However, most retailers
are struggling to respond to new consumer demands and they don’t necessarily
have the financial means to develop their own innovative business model.
Fortunately, there are now convenient and readily available mobile payment and
mobile loyalty solutions that retailers can integrate to enhance the shopping
experience in their own stores.

The Convergence of Mobile Payments and Mobile Loyalty Programs
Retailers who are looking for turn-key solutions to improve the in-store shopping
experience

should

consider

mobile

wallets

solutions

such

as Google

Wallet or Apple’s Passbook. These two companies have taken different approaches
to the idea of mobile wallet that integrates payment solutions, loyalty programs and
security considerations.
The Google Wallet app allows users to pay with any credit or debit card they own
by tapping their phone to an NFC-equipped terminal. The app takes care of the
payment and can also automatically redeem Google offers from participating
merchants. In comparison, Apple’s Passbook app offers consumers a simple way to
manage and use all sorts of mobile payment items such as coupons, boarding
passes and loyalty cards from partner companies such as Starbucks, Target,
McDonalds, Barnes & Noble and more. In both cases, the goal is convenience.
There is no doubt that mobile payment is an appealing solution for consumers who
are looking for the same hassle-free, in-store checkout experience they receive
when shopping online. It’s also an efficient way to keep track of one’s expenses.
And there’s the added advantage for retailers who are now able to identify, track
and reward mobile shoppers. By increasing their customer’s loyalty, there is an
opportunity for retailers to generate more revenue.

Helping Consumers Make Better Choices
Even with myriad options, most retailers are missing out on the opportunity to
leverage these emerging mobile shopping behaviors and apply them to their
consumers. Despite increased traffic driven to their stores by localized search
results on smartphones, many retailers still haven’t made strides in the mobile
world. Simple steps, such as offering free wi-fi in bricks-and-mortar locations are
still rare.

Instead of being concerned with a store filled with customers doing comparison
shopping on their smartphones, retailers would be better advised to think of all the
sales lost because their website isn’t mobile friendly. Finding the solution involves
recognizing the shift in consumer habits and mindset, and working to build a new
in-store experience that becomes interdependent on technology. Retailers need to
keep a closer eye on innovative approaches to remain competitive.
By adopting a new approach that is more in sync with the needs of mobile
shoppers, retailers have a better chance of maintaining customer satisfaction and
loyalty over time. The value of mobile payments and loyalty programs goes far
beyond convenience.

Online Shopping and It's affects on the Economy:

Many people argue that online shopping is hurting the economy,
but from my research I can say that online commerce is boosting
the economy during this economic downturn. Online retail sales
are set to rise 17% this year to 204 billion dollars (Watershed
Publishing, 2010, Paragraph 1). Many people are shopping
online, “National experts say that this year’s Cyber Monday, up to
106 million people are expected to log on and shop…” As seen in
the picture to the left. Many consumers shop on Cyber
Monday, because of the great deals.This past Cyber Monday, the

Monday after thanksgiving, online sales rose 22 percent to 1.25
billion dollars
The only deterrent for our economy might be the act of taxation
of the products sold online, because the government can only add
a sales tax if there is a physical store location within the state
borders. Our government has just recently enacted legislation
that would create a tax code to address online shopping taxation.
People are saying that online shopping is not helping the
economy because people shopping online is resulting in the
decrease of employment. This is not a true statement. People will
always still go to a physical location and shop. There will never be
a shortage of consumers going to the malls. If anything, online
shopping is boosting the economy by creating a
more convenient way for consumers to buy the product.

Shopping Via Smartphone
Benefits Consumers

Shopping via smartphone is on the rise. Consumers are using their
smartphones to shop smarter. They are using their phones

o

Shopping Via Smartphone Benefits Consumerscompare prices and research

products in retail stores. They are also making purchases online right
from their smartphones. It is also becoming increasingly common for
consumers to use social media while shopping. Producers are tapping
into this through social media interaction and advertising. According
to First Data, smartphones rule as shopping tools. The study found that:


57% of Americans use smartphones.



48% use their smartphones to compare prices.



56% use social media.



35% use social media while shopping.



44% make purchases via smartphones.
Consumers value their time and they are increasingly using smartphones
to simply their shopping experience and maximize the value they receive
for the dollars they spend.

How is shopping via smartphone helpful to shoppers?
Shopping via smartphone adds value to the shopping experience for the
consumer. App developers are increasingly finding ways to empower
consumers to make wise purchase decisions with ease. Apps and
websites allow consumers to make informed decisions. They can
compare prices, check reviews and even get feedback on social media all
while shopping. Consumers do not need as much time to make a

decision because they can ask friends and compare what others think all
before reaching the cashier. Some stores even offer the ability to
purchase items online and pick them up in the store. Consumers are
using this route to bypass lines and sales people in retail stores.
Mobile wallets are also fast becoming a way to streamline the shopping
process. Currently, mobile wallet usage is considerably low, but
consumers are attracted to the ease of use and a way to personalize their
shopping experience. Advertisers will offer more than ads, but will offer
a personal experience including coupons, offers and purchase
suggestions based on your profile and needs.
Making sure that you have a secure shopping via smartphone
experience
Security is one of the highest concerns when shopping via smartphone.
Don’t be afraid to reap the benefits and convenience for fear of internet
safety and security. As with any smartphone use, it is important to
protect yourself online. Educate yourself about smartphone use and
protect yourself from problems like hacking and identify theft. You can
keep your information safe by following these tips:


Use verified websites – Check the URL for an icon. Most browsers
include a color-change on the left side of the location bar to indicate that
the site has been verified as legitimate. It is also a good idea to go to the
site directly and not through a third party link.



Check for https – Https is a secure version of http. Some
webrowsers will display a lock in the address bar if the site is secure.
Https means your information is encrypted and the site is secure.



Install antivirus software – Many people secure their home
computers, but forget that a smartphone is also a computer. Be sure
to Protect Your Device Against Mobile App Malware.

Chapter 4
Data analysis

Between the 13th and 15th of May 2015 1,090 mobile phone

(including smartphone) using members of the goo Research online
monitor group completed a private mobile internet-based
questionnaire. 57.0% of the sample were female, 1.9% in their
teens, 19.1% in their twenties, 36.7% in their thirties, 28.8% in their
forties, and 13.5% aged fifty or older.
I’m in the never even accessed category; the survey was, I believe,
focused on physical goods, not services, so buying from an App
Store was not counted.

Between the 21st and 24th of May 2015 1,089 members of the goo
Research mobile monitor group completed a private mobile internetbased questionnaire. 61.0% of the sample were female, 2.7% in
their teens, 27.5% in their twenties, 35.4% in their thirties, 23.9% in
their forties, and 10.7% aged fifty or older.
I’ve bought exactly one thing online, an Android app on special offer
at 40 yen. I needed to register my credit card with Google Wallet,
but I did that through a PC as I would be more sure of the security
there.

Between the 20th and 23rd of February 2015 1.096 mobile phoneusing (including smartphone) members of the goo Research online
monitor group completed a private mobile phone-based
questionnaire. 62.9% of the sample were female, 4.2% in their
teens, 32.1% in their twenties, 33.7% in their thirties, 20.3% in their
forties, and 9.8% aged fifty or older.
I’ve never done any mobile shopping, so I don’t really know what the
drawbacks are. I also worry about the security aspect from a
smartphone; for instance it’s harder to see if a page is running SSL,
and there’s less tools for protecting against spyware – I think the risk
of spyware on mobiles is overblown, but I don’t have the confidence
that I have on the PC of having a clean machine.

Between the 31st of October and the 4th of November 2015 1,086
members of the goo Research online monitor group completed a
private mobile phone (including smartphone)-based questionnaire.
59.9% of the sample were female, 3.8% in their teens, 29.7% in
their twenties, 34.5% in their thirties, 24.5% in their forties, and
7.6% aged fifty or older.
I’ve never shopped online from my mobile for all the three reasons
listed in Q1SQ2, and other reasons would include that the services I
buy from are all overseas, and they don’t work very well, if at all, on
Japanese mobiles.

Between the 8th and 10th of August 2015 1,098 members of the
goo Research monitor group completed a private mobile-based
(including smartphone) survey. 58.3% of the sample were female,
3.8% in their teens, 27.8% in their twenties, 35.8% in their thirties,
23.5% in their forties, and 9.1% aged fifty or older.
I’ve never done any mobile shopping, for all the three reasons listed,
and I could probably fill out the “other” answer with a number of
additional reasons.

Between the 20th and 30th of May 2015 1,100 mobile phone-using
members of the goo Research monitor pool completed a mobile
phone-based questionnaire. 60.7% of the sample were female, 4.7%
in their teens, 26.6% in their twenties, 35.0% in their thirties, 25.5%
in their forties, and 8.3% aged fifty or older.
A little apology for being a bit quiet for the last few days, but I’m
currently in Germany at a rather busy conference. Normal service
should be resumed next week!

Between the 5th and 7th of January 2015 1,096 mobile phone-using
members of the goo Research online monitor group completed a
private internet-based questionnaire. 59.0% of the sample were
female, 2.8% in their teens, 24.7% in their twenties, 37.7% in their
thirties, 26.6% in their forties, and 8.3% aged fifty or older.
I’ve never bought anything through my mobile phone, and even
though my wife does a lot of PC-based shopping, she has never to
my knowledge used her mobile. The strange thing is that mobile
shopping should be more secure, or at least a mobile phone is easier
to lock down, yet as far as I am aware most mobiles such as
Japanese feature phones have little or no protection against many
kinds of attacks. However, there are various moves afoot to correct
that, such as some stuff I am involved in.

Between the 13th and 16th of September 2010 1,017 members of the
goo Research mobile monitor group completed a private internetbased querstionnaire. 56.0% of the sample were female, 3.5% in
their teens, 25.6% in their twenties, 39.4% in their thirties, 24.6% in
their forties, and 6.9% aged fifty or older.
I’ve never bought anything through my mobile, and don’t think I
ever will, at least not until I get a smartphone.
In Q2SQ2, I’m not really sure about the 3.9% who do mobile
shopping while physical shopping! Perhaps it means people who for
instance find a book they want in a bookshop, but pop onto Amazon
to order it at a lower price?

CONCLUSION
 The most preferred product of online buying is travelling tickets and clothing
remains the least preferred choice of online shoppers.
 Among the payment options, Payment on delivery through cash in the safest
choice of payment, while credit card are next preferred choice, online bank transfer
is least preference choice.
 Online shoppers seek for clear information about product and service, time
saving, convenience, security and delivery on time are all important factor for
online shopping. The offers with punch lines “Attractive offers” do not attract
online shoppers.
 Most of the consumers who have experienced online shopping are very
satisfied.

REFRENCES
Ajzen, I. (1985), From Intention to Actions: A Theory of Planned Behavior. In J.
Kuhl and J. Beckmann (Eds), Action Control: From Cognition to Behavior (pp 1139). Springer Verlag, New York
Ajzen, I. (1991), “The Theory of Planned Behavior”, Organizational Behavior and
Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211
Anderson, E., & Weitz, E. (1989), “The Measurement of Intercultural Sensitivity
Using the Concepts of Individualism and Collectivism”, Journal of Intercultural
Relations, 16, 413-436

Bauer, Raymond A. (1960), “Consumer Behavior as Risk Taking.” Dynamic
Marketing for a Changing World, Chicago, IL, American Marketing Association,
398-98
Chiles, T. H., & McMackin, J.F. (1996), “Integrating Variable Risk Preferences,
Trust, and Transaction Cost Economics”, Academy of Management Review, 21, 7399
Cox, D. F. (1967), Risk Taking and Information Handling in Consumer Behavior,
Boston, MA: Harvard University Press
Croft, Martin (1998), “Shopping At Your Convenience,” Marketing Week, 21 (89),
36-37
Doney, P. M., & Cannon, J. P. (1997), “An Examination of the Nature of Trust in
Buyer-seller Relationships”, Journal of Marketing, 61, 35-51
Dohthu, Naveen and Adriana Garcia (1999), "The Internet Shopper," Journal of
Advertising Research, 39 (3), 53-58
Dowling, G.R., & Staelin, R. (1994), “A Model Of Perceived Risk And Intended
Risk-Handling Activity”, Journal of Consumer Research, 21, 119-134
Ganesan, S. (1994), “Determinants of Long-term Orientation in Buyer-seller
Relationships”, Journal of Marketing, 58, 1-19

LIMITATIONS

While obtaining my research, I came across a few bumps. I had a hard
time trying to find print articles that pertained to my research exactly. I
overcame this obstacle by trying to eliminate articles that just had to do
with a sale. I also realized that you have to use very strict keywords
when searching. Another problem that I had was that I passed out my

survey and many of the girls on my floor did not return the survey, so I
only had 5 surveys to base my research of off. I know now that for next
time, I need to just go door to door and ask the people questions
directly.

BIBLOGRAPHY
 https://smallbusiness.yahoo.com/advisor/shopping-via-smartphone-benefitsconsumers-113000920.html
 http://onlineshoppingpoe.weebly.com/implications.html
 http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/Fall02/Kim/reference.htm
 http://whatjapanthinks.com/tag/shopping/page/3/

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This Company Report had been written at the Amity Business School Sciences at the Amity
University,Lucknow.
I would like to show my sincere gratitude to those people who contributed and made it possible
for me to prepare this term paper. I would like to thank my supervisor DR. SHAILJA DIXIT for
all his support and guidance through the entire study. Mam had help me in completing this
Company Report by providing not only academic guidance but moral support for during stressful
times. I would like to thank to all people who helped me, contributing to my knowledge and
honing the required skills to complete this task.

MIRZA DANISH
A7004614158

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Online shopping (sometimes known as e-tail from "electronic retail" or eshopping) is a form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to
directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet using a web
browser. Alternative names are: e-web-store, e-shop, e-store, Internet shop,
web-shop, web-store, online store, online storefront and virtual store. Mobile
commerce (or m-commerce) describes purchasing from an online retailer's
mobile optimized online site or app.
An online shop evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at
a bricks-and-mortar retailer or shopping center; the process is called
business-to-consumer (B2C) online shopping. In the case where a business
buys from another business, the process is called business-to-business (B2B)
online shopping. The largest of these online retailing corporations
are Alibaba,Amazon.com, and eBay.

HISTORY

Michael Aldrich, pioneer of online shopping in the 1980s.
English entrepreneur Michael Aldrich invented online shopping in 1979. His
system connected a modified domestic TV to a real-time transaction
processing computer via a domestic telephone line. He believed
that videotex, the modified domestic TV technology with a simple menudriven human–computer interface, was a 'new, universally applicable,
participative communication medium — the first since the invention of the
telephone.' This enabled 'closed' corporate information systems to be opened
to 'outside' correspondents not just for transaction processing but also for emessaging and information retrieval and dissemination, later known as ebusiness. His definition of the new mass communications medium as
'participative' [interactive, many-to-many] was fundamentally different from
the traditional definitions of mass communication and mass media and a
precursor to the social networking on the Internet 25 years later.
In March 1980 he went on to launch Redifon's Office Revolution, which
allowed consumers, customers, agents, distributors, suppliers and service
companies to be connected on-line to the corporate systems and allow
business transactions to be completed electronically in real-time.

During the 1980s he designed, manufactured, sold, installed, maintained and
supported many online shopping systems, using videotex technology. These
systems which also provided voice response and handprint processing predate the Internet and the World Wide Web, the IBM PC, and Microsoft MSDOS, and were installed mainly in the UK by large corporations.
The first World Wide Web server and browser, created by Tim Berners-Lee in
1990, opened for commercial use in 1991. Thereafter, subsequent
technological innovations emerged in 1994: online banking, the opening of
an online pizza shop by Pizza Hut, Netscape's SSL v2 encryption standard for
secure data transfer, and Intershop's first online shopping system. The first
secure retail transaction over the Web was either by NetMarket or Internet
Shopping Network in 1994. Immediately after, Amazon.com launched its
online shopping site in 1995 and eBay was also introduced in 1995. Alibaba's
sites Taobao and Tmall were launched in 2003 and 2008, respectively.
Retailers are increasingly selling goods and services prior to availability
through pretail for testing, building, and managing demand.

INTERNATIONAL E-COMMERCE STATISTICS

Statistics show that in 2012, Asia-Pacific increased their international sales
over 30% giving them over $433 billion in revenue. That is a $69 billion
difference between the U.S. revenue of $364.66 billion. It is estimated that
Asia-Pacific will increase by another 30% in the year 2013 putting them
ahead by more than one-third of all global ecommerce sales.

The largest online shopping day in the world is Singles Day, with sales just
in Alibaba's sites at US$9.3 billion in 2014.
Customers

Online customers must have access to the Internet and a valid method of
payment in order to complete a transaction.
Generally, higher levels of education and personal income correspond to
more favorable perceptions of shopping online. Increased exposure to
technology also increases the probability of developing favorable attitudes
towards new shopping channels.
In a December 2011 study, Equation Research surveyed 1,500 online
shoppers and found that 87% of tablet owners made online transactions with
their tablet devices during the early Christmas shopping season.
Product selection

Consumers find a product of interest by visiting the website of the retailer
directly or by searching among alternative vendors using a shopping search
engine.
Once a particular product has been found on the website of the seller, most
online retailers use shopping cart software to allow the consumer to
accumulate multiple items and to adjust quantities, like filling a physical
shopping cart or basket in a conventional store. A "checkout" process follows
(continuing the physical-store analogy) in which payment and delivery
information is collected, if necessary. Some stores allow consumers to sign
up for a permanent online account so that some or all of this information only

needs to be entered once. The consumer often receives an e-mail
confirmation once the transaction is complete.
Less sophisticated stores may rely on consumers to phone or e-mail their
orders (although full credit card numbers, expiry date, and Card Security
Code, or bank account and routing number should not be accepted by e-mail,
for reasons of security).
Payment

Online shoppers commonly use a credit card or a PayPal account in order to
make payments. However, some systems enable users to create accounts and
pay by alternative means, such as:


Billing to mobile phones and landlines[13][14]



Cash on delivery (C.O.D.)



Cheque/ Check



Debit card



Direct debit in some countries



Electronic money of various types



Gift cards



Postal money order



Wire transfer/delivery on payment



Invoice, especially popular in some markets/countries, such as
Switzerland



Bit coin or other crypto currencies

Some online shops will not accept international credit cards. Some require
both the purchaser's billing and shipping address to be in the same country as
the online shop's base of operation. Other online shops allow customers from
any country to send gifts anywhere.
The financial part of a transaction may be processed in real time (e.g. letting
the consumer know their credit card was declined before they log off), or may
be done later as part of the fulfillment process.
Product delivery

Once a payment has been accepted, the goods or services can be delivered in
the following ways. For physical items:


Shipping: The product is shipped to a customer-designated address.
Retail package delivery is typically done by the public postal system or a
retail courier such as FedEx,UPS, DHL, or TNT.



Drop shipping: The order is passed to the manufacturer or third-party
distributor, who then ships the item directly to the consumer, bypassing
the retailer's physical location to save time, money, and space.



In-store pick-up: The customer selects a local store using a locator
software and picks up the delivered product at the selected location. This
is the method often used in the bricks business model.

For digital items or tickets:


Downloading/Digital distribution: The method often used for digital
media products such as software, music, movies, or images.



Printing out, provision of a code for, or e-mailing of such items
as admission tickets and scrip (e.g., gift certificates and coupons). The
tickets, codes, or coupons may be redeemed at the appropriate physical or
online premises and their content reviewed to verify their eligibility (e.g.,
assurances that the right of admission or use is redeemed at the correct
time and place, for the correct dollar amount, and for the correct number
of uses).



Will call, COBO (in Care Of Box Office), or "at the door" pickup: The
patron picks up pre-purchased tickets for an event, such as a play, sporting
event, or concert, either just before the event or in advance. With the onset
of the Internet and e-commerce sites, which allow customers to buy
tickets online, the popularity of this service has increased.

Shopping cart systems
Simple shopping cart systems allow the off-line administration of products
and categories. The shop is then generated as HTML files and graphics that
can be uploaded to a web space. The systems do not use an online database.
[

A high-end solution can be bought or rented as a stand-alone program or as

an addition to an enterprise resource planning program. It is usually installed
on the company's web server and may integrate into the existing supply
chain so that ordering, payment, delivery, accounting and warehousing can be
automated to a large extent.

Other solutions allow the user to register and create an online shop on
a portal that hosts multiple shops simultaneously from one back office.
Examples

are

Big

Commerce,Shopify and Flick

Rocket. Open

source shopping cart packages include advanced platforms such as
Interchange,

and

off-the-shelf

solutions

such

as Magneto, osCommerce,Shopgate, PrestaShop, and Zen Cart. Commercial
systems can also be tailored so the shop does not have to be created from
scratch. By using an existing framework, software modules for various
functionalities required by a web shop can be adapted and combined.
Design

Customers are attracted to online shopping not only because of high levels of
convenience, but also because of broader selections, competitive pricing, and
greater access to information. Business organizations seek to offer online
shopping not only because it is of much lower cost compared to bricks and
mortar stores, but also because it offers access to a worldwide market,
increases customer value, and builds sustainable capabilities.[clarification needed][18]
Information load

Designers of online shops are concerned with the effects of information load.
Information load is a product of the spatial and temporal arrangements of
stimuli in the web store. Compared with conventional retail shopping, the
information environment of virtual shopping is enhanced by providing
additional product information such as comparative products and services, as
well as various alternatives and attributes of each alternative, etc.

Two

major

dimensions

of

information

load

are

complexity

and

novelty. Complexity refers to the number of different elements or features of
a site, often the result of increased information diversity. Novelty involves the
unexpected, suppressed, new, or unfamiliar aspects of the site. The novelty
dimension may keep consumers exploring a shopping site, whereas the
complexity dimension may induce impulse purchases.
Consumer needs and expectations

A successful web store is not just a good looking website with dynamic
technical features, listed in many search engines. In addition to disseminating
information, it is also about building a relationship with customers and
making money.
Businesses often attempt to adopt online shopping techniques without
understanding them and/or without a sound business model; often, businesses
produce web stores that support the organizations' culture and brand name
without satisfying consumer expectations. User-centered design is critical.
Understanding the customer's wants and needs is essential. Living up to the
company's promises gives customers a reason to come back and meeting their
expectations gives them a reason to stay. It is important that the website
communicates how much the company values its customers.
Customer needs and expectations are not the same for all customers. Age,
gender, experience and culture are all important factors. For example,
Japanese cultural norms may lead users there to feel privacy is especially
critical on shopping sites and emotional involvement is highly important on
financial pensions sites. Users with more online experience focus more on the

variables that directly influence the task, while novice users focus on
understanding the information.
To increase online purchases, businesses must use significant time and money
to define, design, develop, test, implement, and maintain the web store. Truly
said, it is easier to lose a customer than to gain one. Even a "top-rated"
website will not succeed if the organization fails to practice common
etiquette such as responding to e-mails in a timely fashion, notifying
customers of problems, being honest, and being good stewards of the
customers' data. Because it is so important to eliminate mistakes and be more
appealing to online shoppers, many webshop designers study research on
consumer expectations.
User interface

An automated online assistant, with potential to enhance user
interface on shopping sites.
The most important factors determining whether customers return to a
website are ease of use and the presence of user-friendly features.
Usability testing is important for finding problems and improvements in a

[25]

web site. Methods for evaluating usability include heuristic evaluation,
cognitive walkthrough, and user testing. Each technique has its own
characteristics and emphasizes different aspects of the user experience.

Market share
E-commerce B2C product sales totaled $142.5 billion, representing about 8%
of retail product sales in the United States. The $26 billion worth of clothes
sold online represented about 13% of the domestic market, and with 72% of
women looking online for apparel, it has become one of the most popular
cross-shopping categories. Forrester Research estimates that the United States
online retail industry will be worth $279 billion in 2015. The popularity of
online shopping continues to erode sales of conventional retailers. For
example, Best Buy, the largest retailer of electronics in the U.S. in August
2014 reported its tenth consecutive quarterly dip in sales, citing an increasing
shift by consumers to online shopping.
There were 242 million people shopping online in China in 2012.
For developing countries and low-income households in developed countries,
adoption of e-commerce in place of or in addition to conventional methods is
limited by a lack of affordable Internet access.

ADVANTAGES
Convenience
Online stores are usually available 24 hours a day, and many consumers have
Internet access both at work and at home. Other establishments such as
internet cafes and schools provide internet access as well. In contrast, visiting

a conventional retail store requires travel and must take place during business
hours.
In the event of a problem with the item (e.g., the product was not what the
consumer ordered, the product was not satisfactory), consumers are
concerned with the ease of returning an item in exchange for either the
correct product or a refund. Consumers may need to contact the retailer, visit
the post office and pay return shipping, and then wait for a replacement or
refund. Some online companies have more generous return policies to
compensate for the traditional advantage of physical stores. For example, the
online shoe retailer Zappos.com includes labels for free return shipping, and
does not charge a restocking fee, even for returns which are not the result of
merchant error. (Note: In the United Kingdom, online shops are prohibited
from charging a restocking fee if the consumer cancels their order in
accordance with the Consumer Protection (Distance Selling) Act 2000).
Information and reviews

Online stores must describe products for sale with text, photos, and
multimedia files, whereas in a physical retail store, the actual product and the
manufacturer's packaging will be available for direct inspection (which might
involve a test drive, fitting, or other experimentation).
Some online stores provide or link to supplemental product information, such
as instructions, safety procedures, demonstrations, or manufacturer
specifications. Some provide background information, advice, or how-to
guides designed to help consumers decide which product to buy.

Some stores even allow customers to comment or rate their items. There are
also dedicated review sites that host user reviews for different products.
Reviews and even some blogs give customers the option of shopping for
cheaper purchases from all over the world without having to depend on local
retailers.
In a conventional retail store, clerks are generally available to answer
questions. Some online stores have real-time chat features, but most rely on
e-mails or phone calls to handle customer questions.
Price and selection

One advantage of shopping online is being able to quickly seek out deals for
items or services provided by many different vendors (though some local
search engines do exist to help consumers locate products for sale in nearby
stores). Search engines, online price comparison services and discovery
shopping engines can be used to look up sellers of a particular product or
service.
Shipping costs (if applicable) reduce the price advantage of online
merchandise, though depending on the jurisdiction, a lack of sales tax may
compensate for this.
Shipping a small number of items, especially from another country, is much
more expensive than making the larger shipments bricks-and-mortar retailers
order. Some retailers (especially those selling small, high-value items like
electronics) offer free shipping on sufficiently large orders.

Another major advantage for retailers is the ability to rapidly switch suppliers
and vendors without disrupting users' shopping experience.

DISADVANTAGES
Fraud and security concerns
Given the lack of ability to inspect merchandise before purchase, consumers
are at higher risk of fraud than face-to-face transactions. Merchants also risk
fraudulent purchases using stolen credit cards or fraudulent repudiation of the
online purchase. However, merchants face less risk from physical theft by
using a warehouse instead of a retail storefront.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption has generally solved the problem of
credit card numbers being intercepted in transit between the consumer and
the merchant. However, one must still trust the merchant (and employees) not
to use the credit card information subsequently for their own purchases, and
not to pass the information to others. Also, hackers might break into a
merchant's web site and steal names, addresses and credit card numbers,
although the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard is intended to
minimize the impact of such breaches. Identity theft is still a concern for
consumers. A number of high-profile break-ins in the 2000s has prompted
some U.S. states to require disclosure to consumers when this happens.
Computer security has thus become a major concern for merchants and ecommerce service providers, who deploy countermeasures such as firewalls
and anti-virus software to protect their networks.

Phishing is another danger, where consumers are fooled into thinking they are
dealing with a reputable retailer, when they have actually been manipulated
into feeding private information to a system operated by a malicious party.
Denial of service attacks are a minor risk for merchants, as are server and
network outages.
Quality seals can be placed on the Shop web page if it has undergone an
independent assessment and meets all requirements of the company issuing
the seal. The purpose of these seals is to increase the confidence of online
shoppers. However, the existence of many different seals, or seals unfamiliar
to consumers, may foil this effort to a certain extent. A number of resources
offer advice on how consumers can protect themselves when using online
retailer services. These include:


Sticking with known stores, or attempting to find independent
consumer reviews of their experiences; also ensuring that there is
comprehensive contact information on the website before using the
service, and noting if the retailer has enrolled in industry oversight
programs such as a trust mark or a trust seal.



Before buying from a new company, evaluate the website by
considering issues such as: the professionalism and user-friendliness of
the site; whether or not the company lists a telephone number and/or street
address along with e-contact information; whether a fair and reasonable
refund and return policy is clearly stated; and whether there are hidden
price inflators, such as excessive shipping and handling charges.



Ensuring that the retailer has an acceptable privacy policy posted. For
example, note if the retailer does not explicitly state that it will not share
private information with others without consent.



Ensuring that the vendor address is protected with SSL (see above)
when entering credit card information. If it does the address on the credit
card information entry screen will start with "HTTPS".



Using strong passwords, without personal information. Another option
is a "pass phrase," which might be something along the lines: "I shop 4
good a buy!!" These are difficult to hack, and provides a variety of upper,
lower, and special characters and could be site specific and easy to
remember.

Although the benefits of online shopping are considerable, when the process
goes poorly it can create a thorny situation. A few problems that shoppers
potentially face include identity theft, faulty products, and the accumulation
of spyware. If users are required to put in their credit card information and
billing/shipping address and the website is not secure, customer information
can be accessible to anyone who knows how to obtain it. Most large online
corporations are inventing new ways to make fraud more difficult. However,
criminals are constantly responding to these developments with new ways to
manipulate the system. Even though online retailers are making efforts to
protect consumer information, it is a constant fight to maintain the lead. It is
advisable to be aware of the most current technology and scams to protect
consumer identity and finances.

Product delivery is also a main concern of online shopping. Most companies
offer shipping insurance in case the product is lost or damaged. Some
shipping companies will offer refunds or compensation for the damage, but
this is up to their discretion.

Lack of full cost disclosure
The lack of full cost disclosure may also be problematic. While it may be
easy to compare the base price of an item online, it may not be easy to see the
total cost up front. Additional fees such as shipping are often not be visible
until the final step in the checkout process. The problem is especially evident
with cross-border purchases, where the cost indicated at the final checkout
screen may not include additional fees that must be paid upon delivery such
as duties and brokerage. Some services such as the Canadian-based Wishabi
attempts to include estimates of these additional cost, [33] but nevertheless, the
lack of general full cost disclosure remains a concern.

Privacy
Privacy of personal information is a significant issue for some consumers.
Many consumers wish to avoid spam and telemarketing which could result
from supplying contact information to an online merchant. In response, many
merchants promise to not use consumer information for these purposes,
Many websites keep track of consumer shopping habits in order to suggest
items and other websites to view. Brick-and-mortar stores also collect
consumer information. Some ask for a shopper's address and phone number
at checkout, though consumers may refuse to provide it. Many larger stores
use the address information encoded on consumers' credit cards (often

without their knowledge) to add them to a catalog mailing list. This
information is obviously not accessible to the merchant when paying in cash
or through a bank (money transfer, in which case there is also proof of
payment).

Product suitability
Many successful purely virtual companies deal with digital products,
(including information storage, retrieval, and modification), music, movies,
office supplies, education, communication, software, photography, and
financial transactions. Other successful marketers use drop shipping
or affiliate marketing techniques to facilitate transactions of tangible goods
without maintaining real inventory.
Some non-digital products have been more successful than others for online
stores. Profitable items often have a high value-to-weight ratio, they may
involve embarrassing purchases, they may typically go to people in remote
locations, and they may have shut-ins as their typical purchasers. Items which
can fit in a standard mailbox—such as music CDs, DVDs and books—are
particularly suitable for a virtual marketer.
Products such as spare parts, both for consumer items like washing machines
and for industrial equipment like centrifugal pumps, also seem good
candidates for selling online. Retailers often need to order spare parts
specially, since they typically do not stock them at consumer outlets—in such
cases, e-commerce solutions in spares do not compete with retail stores, only
with other ordering systems. A factor for success in this niche can consist of
providing customers with exact, reliable information about which part

number their particular version of a product needs, for example by providing
parts lists keyed by serial number.
Products less suitable for e-commerce include products that have a low valueto-weight ratio, products that have a smell, taste, or touch component,
products that need trial fittings—most notably clothing—and products where
colour integrity appears important. Nonetheless, some web sites have had
success delivering groceries and clothing sold through the internet is big
business in the U.S.

Aggregation
High-volume websites, such as Yahoo!, Amazon.com,and eBay, offer hosting
services for online stores to all size retailers. These stores are presented
within an integrated navigation framework, sometimes known as virtual
shopping malls or online marketplaces.
Impact of reviews on consumer behaviour

One of the great benefits of online shopping is the ability to read product
reviews, written either by experts or fellow online shoppers.
The Nielsen Company conducted a survey in March 2010 and polled more
than 27,000 Internet users in 55 markets from the Asia-Pacific, Europe,
Middle East, North America, and South America to look at questions such as
"How do consumers shop online?", "What do they intend to buy?", "How do
they use various online shopping web pages?", and the impact of social
media and other factors that come into play when consumers are trying to
decide how to spend their money on which product or service. According to

the research, reviews on electronics (57%) such as DVD players, cellphones,
or PlayStations, and so on, reviews on cars (45%), and reviews on software
(37%) play an important role in influencing consumers who tend to make
purchases online. Furthermore, 40% of online shoppers indicate that they
would not even buy electronics without consulting online reviews first.
In addition to online reviews, peer recommendations on online shopping
pages or social media websites play a key role for online shoppers when they
are researching future purchases. 90% of all purchases made are influenced
by social media.[37] Each day, over two million buyers are shopping online for
jewelry.

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITTERATURE

There are a lot of researches about online shopping. Most studies
intended to investigate factors affecting consumers' purchasing behavior
on the Web. Swaminathan, Lepkowska-White, and Rao (1999) refered
vendor characteristics, security of transactions, content for privacy, and
customer characteristics as factors influencing electronic exchange.
Wolfinbarger and Gilly suggested that consumers purchase and shop
online with both reasons: goal-oriented and experience-oriented.
According to Miyazaki and Fernandez (2001), perceived risk affected
consumer online purchasing behavior negatively. They also found that
Internet experience is negatively related to the existence of concerns
regarding the privacy and security of online purchase and the perceived
risks of conducting online purchases. Donthu and Garcia (1999)
proposed that risk aversion, innovativeness, brand consciousness, price
consciousnes, importance of convenience, variety-seeking propensity,
impulsiveness, attitude toward adverting, attitude toward shopping, and
attitude toward direct marketing would influence online shopping
behavior and found that among them, age, income, importance of
convenience, innovativeness, risk aversion, impulsiveness, varietyseeking propensity, attitude toward direct marketing, and attitude toward
advertising were factors influencing online shopping behavior. Li, Kuo,
and Russell (1999) found that "Consumers who make online purchase

perceive the Web to have higher utilities in communication, distribution,
and accessibility than those who do not make online purchases, and
frequent online purchases perceive higher utility than occasional online
purchasers" and "Consumers who make online purchases consider
themselves more knowledgeable about the Web as a channel than those
who do not make online purchases, and frequent online buyers consider
themselves more knowledgeable than occasional online buyers."
According to Jarvenpaa, Tractinsky, and Vitale (1999), perceived size,
perceived reputation, trust in store, atitude, and risk perception would be
factors affecting online purchasing behavior.

More Than 90% Of Consumers Use
Smartphones While Shopping

Consumers are relying more on their mobile devices to communicate,
research products and acquire information. As a result, retailers need to
prioritize mobile as a key communication and engagement channel.
After all, more than 90% of consumers use their smartphones while shopping
in retail stores, according to a survey from SessionM. While more than
approximately 54% of consumers use their devices to compare prices, others
search for product information (48.4%) and reviews (42%). Although
smartphones now giving consumers immediate access to vital product
information, the brick-and-mortar store still adds value by allowing
consumers to touch and try on products before they make a final decision.
“Consumers still find in-store shopping to be an easier experience because
they have the ability to try on and touch things,” said Patrick Reynolds, VPof
Marketing at SessionM. “In the future, retailers need to innovate ways to
simulate physical interactions with items that resemble those of the in-store
experience as closely as possible.”
o conduct the study, titled: Retail Shopping: Connecting The Multichannel
Shopper, SessionM fielded an eight-question mobile survey to more than
12,000 randomly selected smartphone users from June 12 to June 26. The
study was designed to help retailers better understand how consumers shop
and the role that smartphones specifically play in the buying journey.
Retailers that make their web sites, products, prices, coupons and loyalty
programs accessible via mobile devices can realize a number of benefits,

including improved customer engagement, sales and loyalty. Supporting this
point, 57% of consumers said they would be likely to shop at a store if they
received messages or push notifications about relevant deals and coupons
while shopping at that store. More importantly, 77% of respondents said they
are more likely to shop at a store that has a loyalty program.
“Retailers can leverage first-party consumer data to send messages or push
notifications about deals and coupons while someone is in the store
shopping,” Reynolds said in an interview with Retail Touch Points. “With
mobile, everything becomes real-time. Customer experience surveys can be
launched while customers are still in the store, making feedback more
relevant, accurate and in the moment.”
By leveraging beacon technology, retailers also can send relevant messages
while customers move throughout the store, according to Reynolds. Retailers
can then “measure what [consumers] engage with and disengage with, and
eventually close the purchasing loop. Next time customers are in the store,
the retailer knows their habits and shopping methods to personalize their
experience even more.”

Mobile Commerce To Reach An All-Time
High
Despite mobile’s growing role in the store experience, more consumers are
expected to use their devices to purchase products through 2015. Nearly all
(85%) respondents said their mobile buying frequency has either remained
the same or increased over the pas year. Approximately 41% said their mobile

buying frequency had increased, while 15% said they purchased items via
mobile significantly more often. Consumers who don’t purchase items with
their mobile devices said they were concerned about the security of their
personal information. Other respondents said the small product images made
them insecure about their purchase decisions.
Due to the surge in mobile sales, “many retailers are investing more heavily
in mobile shopping apps in addition to their mobile-optimized web sites,”
Reynolds explained. “Consumers often prefer mobile apps because the
experience tends to be more personalized thanks to the customer data brands
are able to gather and incorporate.”
The study concluded that although retailers have access to basic customer
demographics, they can only truly access a full picture of the customer
journey if they understand mobile shopping behaviors. Now that companies
can access this first-party data, they can better connect online and offline
channels, as well as analyze offer effectiveness and optimize outreach to
increase sales and loyalty.

What may also be surprising is that unlike younger consumer segments, tablet
ownership is higher than smartphones, with more than one in four seniors (26
percent) owning a smartphone and 35 percent owning a tablet.
For marketers looking for additional audiences and methods to capture revenue, it
would be wise to consider cart abandonment marketing, because nearly half (48
percent) of those 65 and over found cart reminder emails to be helpful. The
research found that 58 percent expected a cart reminder email with no incentive,
while 21 percent thought free shipping should be offered. Coincidentally, 21
percent also expected a dollar or percentage discount.
So, what do these figures tell us and how should this impact your marketing
efforts? A first step is to give seniors more credit for being more technologically
savvy than one may have previously assumed. All consumers, regardless of age,
are looking for the best deals and have fully incorporated multiple devices into the

shopping process. In addition, all consumers expect a seamless transition between
site and stores as well as between devices. The older demographic should be taken
into

consideration

when

announcements

about

these

connections

and

enhancements are made. To do this effectively, segmenting subscribers by age
when making these announcements would be a good strategy. That way, you can
focus the message for those 65+ on the ease of shopping and your customer service
commitment, while dropping youth-focused imagery and language.
All shoppers today can switch brands with the swipe of a screen or click of a
button, no matter their age. Don't underestimate the 65-and-over crowd's
willingness to leave a shopping cart to go find a better deal in a store or, on your
competitor's site. Customizing the cart reminder experience to specifically address
this consumer's needs and behavior could help you get them back on your site to
buy and build long-term loyalty.
Lastly, it is important to analyze behavioral data on your site and in the inbox to
evaluate whether seniors are shopping in a particular way or if there are certain
points within their customer journey where shopping is abandoned. Seniors may be
nearly as connected as other generations, but their needs and frustrations may
differ compared to other groups. Setting methods in place to look at the shopping
experience and understand what motivates your 65+ shopper will help to keep
them engaged and ultimately will help to better define messaging strategies that
build long-term engagement and sales.

CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Methodology:
I began my search for electronic sources by using the search engine Google. I used
keywords such as, “online shopping and effects on economy” and “online shopping
and its advantages”. I chose these words because they related to my topic very
well. I chose the articles that I used for my bibliographies by looking through the
online sources and seeing if the information pertained to my subject matter and
research

Print Sources:
I found my print sources by going to Google Scholar. I used keywords such as,
“online shopping and effects on economy” and “online shopping and its
advantages”. I chose the articles for their excellent relevance to my research
question.
Empirical Source:

For my empirical source, I did a survey. I gave the survey to girls on my dorm
floor. I selected the girls for my survey, because they will actually shop and they
would be able to answer the questions in a truthful matter. I asked the following
questions: Have you ever made a purchase online? How often on average times a
month do you purchase products online? Do you think that online shopping is more
or less convenient than traditional shopping? What do you purchase online (Rank
in order of 1-3: Clothing, Food, Vacations)? Do you think that you purchase more
online then in actual stores? Do you think online shopping is hurting or helping the
economy?

Limitations:

While obtaining my research, I came across a few bumps. I had a hard time trying
to find print articles that pertained to my research exactly. I overcame this obstacle
by trying to eliminate articles that just had to do with a sale. I also realized that you
have to use very strict keywords when searching. Another problem that I had was
that I passed out my survey and many of the girls on my floor did not return the
survey, so I only had 5 surveys to base my research of off. I know now that for next
time, I need to just go door to door and ask the people questions directly.

Mobile Consumers Are Smarter
Shoppers
On a cold, crisp Thursday night in Montreal, a large-scale downtown bookstore is
filled with customers perusing rows of books, toys and home décor objects with
their smartphones and mini-tablets in hand. Among them, a frowning middle-aged
man is doing comparison shopping on the store’s competitor website while a
fidgety, lip-biting red-haired woman is nervously posting a picture of a green fluffy
monster to Facebook in order to get her friends opinion on this last-minute gift idea
for her five-year-old niece before the store closes.
The widespread use of smartphones and tablets has become both a blessing and a
curse for retailers. Mobile shoppers want instant access to information. When they
use their phones inside a store or en route to a retail location, they aren’t interested
in doing intensive research. They are preparing themselves to make a purchase and
are using their mobile phones as tools to find local deals or to do some comparison
shopping in a quick and efficient way. Consumers have become much savvier
about shopping thanks to their mobile devices. Many shoppers can now be seen

“showrooming” or browsing stores with their smartphones held out to gather
information about products before they decide to buy the items online.
The Verge recently reported the story of an Australian retail storeowner who started
charging customers $5 for “just looking,” in order to offset losses from shoppers
who browse and then buy online. Are retailers reacting adeptly and quickly enough
to this new breed of mobile consumers who use their smartphones as decisionmaking tools to guide them through their shopping experiences? As consumers are
increasingly using their smartphones to discover what’s around them, retailers need
to get smarter about how to use mobile to their advantage by rethinking the offline
shopping experience to meet the needs of mobile-empowered shoppers.
SoLoMo, short for social-local-mobile, is a mobile-centric approach that aims to
provide a higher level of precision to local search results. The increasing popularity
of smart phones and tablets, combined with the fact that mobile users spend the
bulk of their time on social networks, has brought about this opportunity for local
retailers to attract in-store traffic. Mobile consumers will most commonly use their
devices to discover what’s nearby, and then visit the stores in person to do some
comparison shopping.
However, it takes more than the addition of local information to search engine
results for retailers to capitalize on the increasing use of mobile. An obvious firststep for retailers is to optimize their online presence for local search. Some
proactive retailers have developed simple and innovative solutions by offering a
quick snapshot of pricing on their mobile landing page or a ZIP code box to
generate a map to the nearest store location. Others have gone a little further by
making sure visitors can opt-in to receive mobile promos while they are in the
store or in a nearby location. The next step for retailers is to consider geofencing, a
technology that can target consumers inside the store by sending offers and

promotions to their smartphones when they are entering or nearing a specific area,
even down to a particular aisle in a grocery store.
A more comprehensive approach to mobile optimization must take into
consideration the entire digital ecosystem of a store. This is exactly what
McDonald’s Spain asked Nurun to accomplish last year when we undertook the
localization of the restaurant’s website and mobile site as well as the development
of a mobile app for iPhone and Android devices. Nurun also undertook the internal
management of this complex ecosystem to make sure that a very large amount of
relevant information (articles, press notes, nutritional data and allergens for close
to 100 products, restaurants listings with different services and characteristics,
multimedia content and digital coupons) could all be easily accessible across all
devices, each with its own adapted experience.
Savvy retailers should also establish their business presence on content-driven
discovery services such as Yelp. When current and potential customers notice that
a store is listed on Yelp, they have the opportunity to share their personal reviews.
This, in turn, allows retailers to engage in an open dialogue with their customers by
addressing

their

reviews—positive

or

negative—and

provide

additional

information and further support. Services such as Yelp also offer retailers the
opportunity to sell deals and gift certificates through their business listing.
Even if a portion of smartphone users are still reluctant to share their locations in
order to cash in on coupons or special offers, there are other ways to leverage the
popularity of mobile devices. A mobile loyalty card program is another possible
strategy for retailers who are looking for ways to influence in-store purchase
decisions. Moreover, mobile loyalty programs provide retailers with much more
detailed information about to the level of participation and the behaviors of their
customers compared to traditional loyalty methods, such as punch cards.

The Mercury News recently reported that Safeway, the grocery store chain, saw a
13 percent net income increase in the final three months of 2012 following the
launch of a mobile loyalty program. Safeway executives credited this strong
financial performance to the popularity of its “Just for U”program, which offers
coupons and other deals that are specifically tailored to each customer's specific
shopping habits. Customers can receive the digital coupons on their tablets and
smartphones. This success story stems from the principle that retailers need to give
consumers the information they need, when and where they need it. Safeway
designed the program around what is important to the individual customer. The
program allows clients to access personalized deals based on their purchasing
history and add them to their loyalty card. Unlike regular coupons, these offers can
be used as many times as the customer wants for up to 90 days. Customers can
explore in-store deals and add them to their profile. All these offers can also be
accessed through a personalized grocery list where all items can be sorted based on
the shopper's purchasing routine, the offer expiration date or the store aisle.

In-Store Mobile Shopping
Along these same lines, Nurun recently worked with L’Oréal Paris to create an
interactive kiosk that helps consumers find the perfect product for their needs and
improve the overall in-store cosmetics shopping experience. The application
features intuitive, and non-intrusive, functionalities that assist consumers with their
product selection. Here again, the process is based on a simple insight: consumers
want tools that can help them pick the right product by reducing the scope of their
search, and in the process, make the retail store experience more intuitive.
Complementary to the existing mobile application, Instant Beauty, this new
installation represents the final step in a complete consumer purchase support
initiative.

Retailers have an opportunity to transform the in-store shopping experience by
examining the behaviors that derive from the mobile activities of their clients.
They need to find ways to give their consumers the local info they want and
include location-based offers or deals to reinforce loyalty. However, most retailers
are struggling to respond to new consumer demands and they don’t necessarily
have the financial means to develop their own innovative business model.
Fortunately, there are now convenient and readily available mobile payment and
mobile loyalty solutions that retailers can integrate to enhance the shopping
experience in their own stores.
The Convergence of Mobile Payments and Mobile Loyalty Programs
Retailers who are looking for turn-key solutions to improve the in-store shopping
experience

should

consider

mobile

wallets

solutions

such

as Google

Wallet or Apple’s Passbook. These two companies have taken different approaches
to the idea of mobile wallet that integrates payment solutions, loyalty programs and
security considerations.
The Google Wallet app allows users to pay with any credit or debit card they own
by tapping their phone to an NFC-equipped terminal. The app takes care of the
payment and can also automatically redeem Google offers from participating
merchants. In comparison, Apple’s Passbook app offers consumers a simple way to
manage and use all sorts of mobile payment items such as coupons, boarding
passes and loyalty cards from partner companies such as Starbucks, Target,
McDonalds, Barnes & Noble and more. In both cases, the goal is convenience.
There is no doubt that mobile payment is an appealing solution for consumers who
are looking for the same hassle-free, in-store checkout experience they receive
when shopping online. It’s also an efficient way to keep track of one’s expenses.
And there’s the added advantage for retailers who are now able to identify, track

and reward mobile shoppers. By increasing their customer’s loyalty, there is an
opportunity for retailers to generate more revenue.

Helping Consumers Make Better Choices
Even with myriad options, most retailers are missing out on the opportunity to
leverage these emerging mobile shopping behaviors and apply them to their
consumers. Despite increased traffic driven to their stores by localized search
results on smartphones, many retailers still haven’t made strides in the mobile
world. Simple steps, such as offering free wi-fi in bricks-and-mortar locations are
still rare.
Instead of being concerned with a store filled with customers doing comparison
shopping on their smartphones, retailers would be better advised to think of all the
sales lost because their website isn’t mobile friendly. Finding the solution involves
recognizing the shift in consumer habits and mindset, and working to build a new
in-store experience that becomes interdependent on technology. Retailers need to
keep a closer eye on innovative approaches to remain competitive.
By adopting a new approach that is more in sync with the needs of mobile
shoppers, retailers have a better chance of maintaining customer satisfaction and
loyalty over time. The value of mobile payments and loyalty programs goes far
beyond convenience.

Online Shopping and It's affects on the Economy:

Many people argue that online shopping is hurting the economy,
but from my research I can say that online commerce is boosting
the economy during this economic downturn. Online retail sales
are set to rise 17% this year to 204 billion dollars (Watershed
Publishing, 2010, Paragraph 1). Many people are shopping
online, “National experts say that this year’s Cyber Monday, up to
106 million people are expected to log on and shop…” As seen in
the picture to the left. Many consumers shop on Cyber
Monday, because of the great deals.This past Cyber Monday, the
Monday after thanksgiving, online sales rose 22 percent to 1.25
billion dollars
The only deterrent for our economy might be the act of taxation
of the products sold online, because the government can only add
a sales tax if there is a physical store location within the state
borders. Our government has just recently enacted legislation
that would create a tax code to address online shopping taxation.
People are saying that online shopping is not helping the
economy because people shopping online is resulting in the

decrease of employment. This is not a true statement. People will
always still go to a physical location and shop. There will never be
a shortage of consumers going to the malls. If anything, online
shopping is boosting the economy by creating a
more convenient way for consumers to buy the product.

Shopping Via Smartphone
Benefits Consumers

Shopping via smartphone is on the rise. Consumers are using their
smartphones to shop smarter. They are using their phones

o
Shopping Via Smartphone Benefits Consumerscompare prices and research

products in retail stores. They are also making purchases online right
from their smartphones. It is also becoming increasingly common for
consumers to use social media while shopping. Producers are tapping
into this through social media interaction and advertising. According
to First Data, smartphones rule as shopping tools. The study found that:


57% of Americans use smartphones.



48% use their smartphones to compare prices.



56% use social media.



35% use social media while shopping.



44% make purchases via smartphones.
Consumers value their time and they are increasingly using smartphones
to simply their shopping experience and maximize the value they receive
for the dollars they spend.

How is shopping via smartphone helpful to shoppers?
Shopping via smartphone adds value to the shopping experience for the
consumer. App developers are increasingly finding ways to empower
consumers to make wise purchase decisions with ease. Apps and
websites allow consumers to make informed decisions. They can
compare prices, check reviews and even get feedback on social media all
while shopping. Consumers do not need as much time to make a
decision because they can ask friends and compare what others think all
before reaching the cashier. Some stores even offer the ability to
purchase items online and pick them up in the store. Consumers are
using this route to bypass lines and sales people in retail stores.
Mobile wallets are also fast becoming a way to streamline the shopping
process. Currently, mobile wallet usage is considerably low, but
consumers are attracted to the ease of use and a way to personalize their
shopping experience. Advertisers will offer more than ads, but will offer
a personal experience including coupons, offers and purchase
suggestions based on your profile and needs.

Making sure that you have a secure shopping via smartphone
experience
Security is one of the highest concerns when shopping via smartphone.
Don’t be afraid to reap the benefits and convenience for fear of internet
safety and security. As with any smartphone use, it is important to
protect yourself online. Educate yourself about smartphone use and
protect yourself from problems like hacking and identify theft. You can
keep your information safe by following these tips:


Use verified websites – Check the URL for an icon. Most browsers
include a color-change on the left side of the location bar to indicate that
the site has been verified as legitimate. It is also a good idea to go to the
site directly and not through a third party link.



Check for https – Https is a secure version of http. Some
webrowsers will display a lock in the address bar if the site is secure.
Https means your information is encrypted and the site is secure.



Install antivirus software – Many people secure their home
computers, but forget that a smartphone is also a computer. Be sure
to Protect Your Device Against Mobile App Malware.

Chapter 4
Data analysis

Between the 13th and 15th of May 2015 1,090 mobile phone
(including smartphone) using members of the goo Research online
monitor group completed a private mobile internet-based
questionnaire. 57.0% of the sample were female, 1.9% in their
teens, 19.1% in their twenties, 36.7% in their thirties, 28.8% in their
forties, and 13.5% aged fifty or older.
I’m in the never even accessed category; the survey was, I believe,
focused on physical goods, not services, so buying from an App
Store was not counted.

Between the 21st and 24th of May 2015 1,089 members of the goo
Research mobile monitor group completed a private mobile internetbased questionnaire. 61.0% of the sample were female, 2.7% in
their teens, 27.5% in their twenties, 35.4% in their thirties, 23.9% in
their forties, and 10.7% aged fifty or older.
I’ve bought exactly one thing online, an Android app on special offer
at 40 yen. I needed to register my credit card with Google Wallet,
but I did that through a PC as I would be more sure of the security
there.

Between the 20th and 23rd of February 2015 1.096 mobile phoneusing (including smartphone) members of the goo Research online
monitor group completed a private mobile phone-based
questionnaire. 62.9% of the sample were female, 4.2% in their
teens, 32.1% in their twenties, 33.7% in their thirties, 20.3% in their
forties, and 9.8% aged fifty or older.
I’ve never done any mobile shopping, so I don’t really know what the
drawbacks are. I also worry about the security aspect from a
smartphone; for instance it’s harder to see if a page is running SSL,
and there’s less tools for protecting against spyware – I think the risk
of spyware on mobiles is overblown, but I don’t have the confidence
that I have on the PC of having a clean machine.

Between the 31st of October and the 4th of November 2015 1,086
members of the goo Research online monitor group completed a
private mobile phone (including smartphone)-based questionnaire.
59.9% of the sample were female, 3.8% in their teens, 29.7% in
their twenties, 34.5% in their thirties, 24.5% in their forties, and
7.6% aged fifty or older.
I’ve never shopped online from my mobile for all the three reasons
listed in Q1SQ2, and other reasons would include that the services I
buy from are all overseas, and they don’t work very well, if at all, on
Japanese mobiles.

Between the 8th and 10th of August 2015 1,098 members of the
goo Research monitor group completed a private mobile-based
(including smartphone) survey. 58.3% of the sample were female,
3.8% in their teens, 27.8% in their twenties, 35.8% in their thirties,
23.5% in their forties, and 9.1% aged fifty or older.
I’ve never done any mobile shopping, for all the three reasons listed,
and I could probably fill out the “other” answer with a number of
additional reasons.

Between the 20th and 30th of May 2015 1,100 mobile phone-using
members of the goo Research monitor pool completed a mobile
phone-based questionnaire. 60.7% of the sample were female, 4.7%
in their teens, 26.6% in their twenties, 35.0% in their thirties, 25.5%
in their forties, and 8.3% aged fifty or older.
A little apology for being a bit quiet for the last few days, but I’m
currently in Germany at a rather busy conference. Normal service
should be resumed next week!

Between the 5th and 7th of January 2015 1,096 mobile phone-using
members of the goo Research online monitor group completed a
private internet-based questionnaire. 59.0% of the sample were
female, 2.8% in their teens, 24.7% in their twenties, 37.7% in their
thirties, 26.6% in their forties, and 8.3% aged fifty or older.
I’ve never bought anything through my mobile phone, and even
though my wife does a lot of PC-based shopping, she has never to
my knowledge used her mobile. The strange thing is that mobile
shopping should be more secure, or at least a mobile phone is easier
to lock down, yet as far as I am aware most mobiles such as
Japanese feature phones have little or no protection against many
kinds of attacks. However, there are various moves afoot to correct
that, such as some stuff I am involved in.

Between the 13th and 16th of September 2010 1,017 members of the
goo Research mobile monitor group completed a private internetbased querstionnaire. 56.0% of the sample were female, 3.5% in
their teens, 25.6% in their twenties, 39.4% in their thirties, 24.6% in
their forties, and 6.9% aged fifty or older.
I’ve never bought anything through my mobile, and don’t think I
ever will, at least not until I get a smartphone.
In Q2SQ2, I’m not really sure about the 3.9% who do mobile
shopping while physical shopping! Perhaps it means people who for
instance find a book they want in a bookshop, but pop onto Amazon
to order it at a lower price?

CONCLUSION
 The most preferred product of online buying is travelling tickets and clothing
remains the least preferred choice of online shoppers.
 Among the payment options, Payment on delivery through cash in the safest
choice of payment, while credit card are next preferred choice, online bank transfer
is least preference choice.
 Online shoppers seek for clear information about product and service, time
saving, convenience, security and delivery on time are all important factor for
online shopping. The offers with punch lines “Attractive offers” do not attract
online shoppers.
 Most of the consumers who have experienced online shopping are very
satisfied.

REFRENCES
Ajzen, I. (1985), From Intention to Actions: A Theory of Planned Behavior. In J.
Kuhl and J. Beckmann (Eds), Action Control: From Cognition to Behavior (pp 1139). Springer Verlag, New York
Ajzen, I. (1991), “The Theory of Planned Behavior”, Organizational Behavior and
Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211
Anderson, E., & Weitz, E. (1989), “The Measurement of Intercultural Sensitivity
Using the Concepts of Individualism and Collectivism”, Journal of Intercultural
Relations, 16, 413-436

Bauer, Raymond A. (1960), “Consumer Behavior as Risk Taking.” Dynamic
Marketing for a Changing World, Chicago, IL, American Marketing Association,
398-98
Chiles, T. H., & McMackin, J.F. (1996), “Integrating Variable Risk Preferences,
Trust, and Transaction Cost Economics”, Academy of Management Review, 21, 7399
Cox, D. F. (1967), Risk Taking and Information Handling in Consumer Behavior,
Boston, MA: Harvard University Press
Croft, Martin (1998), “Shopping At Your Convenience,” Marketing Week, 21 (89),
36-37
Doney, P. M., & Cannon, J. P. (1997), “An Examination of the Nature of Trust in
Buyer-seller Relationships”, Journal of Marketing, 61, 35-51
Dohthu, Naveen and Adriana Garcia (1999), "The Internet Shopper," Journal of
Advertising Research, 39 (3), 53-58
Dowling, G.R., & Staelin, R. (1994), “A Model Of Perceived Risk And Intended
Risk-Handling Activity”, Journal of Consumer Research, 21, 119-134
Ganesan, S. (1994), “Determinants of Long-term Orientation in Buyer-seller
Relationships”, Journal of Marketing, 58, 1-19

LIMITATIONS

While obtaining my research, I came across a few bumps. I had a hard
time trying to find print articles that pertained to my research exactly. I
overcame this obstacle by trying to eliminate articles that just had to do
with a sale. I also realized that you have to use very strict keywords
when searching. Another problem that I had was that I passed out my

survey and many of the girls on my floor did not return the survey, so I
only had 5 surveys to base my research of off. I know now that for next
time, I need to just go door to door and ask the people questions
directly.

BIBLOGRAPHY
 https://smallbusiness.yahoo.com/advisor/shopping-via-smartphone-benefitsconsumers-113000920.html
 http://onlineshoppingpoe.weebly.com/implications.html
 http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/Fall02/Kim/reference.htm
 http://whatjapanthinks.com/tag/shopping/page/3/

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