1 Q. Describe the evolutionary process of organization design and different perspectives of organization design and their relevance. Q. Explain the meaning and purpose of Job design and briefly discuss the impact technology has on Job design. Q. Discuss the purpose of organizational analysis and briefly describe the tools which could be used for organizational analysis and their effectiveness. Q. Identify different kinds of change which take place in organization and strategies which are used for change and their effectiveness. Discuss how resistance to change can be handled before implementing it. Give examples. Q. Discuss the process of institution building and the role of chief executive in institution building with an example. 1.Organization design-A process for improving the probability that an organization will be successful.More specifically, Organization Design is a formal, guided process for integrating the people, information and technology of an organization. It is used to match the form of the organization as closely as possible to the purpose(s) the organization seeks to achieve. Through the design process, organizations act to improve the probability that the collective efforts of members will be successful. Typically, design is approached as an internal change under the guidance of an external facilitator. Managers and members work together to define the needs of the organization then create systems to meet those needs most effectively. The facilitator assures that a systematic process is followed and encourages creative thinking. Hierarchical Systems Western organizations have been heavily influenced by the command and control structure of ancient military organizations, and by the turn of the century introduction of Scientific Management. Most organizations today are designed as a bureaucracy in which authority and responsibility are arranged in a hierarchy. Within the hierarchy rules, policies, and procedures are uniformly and impersonally applied to exert control over member behaviors. Activity is organized within sub-units (bureaus, or departments) in which people perform specialized functions such as manufacturing, sales, or accounting. People who perform similar tasks are clustered together. The same basic organizational form is assumed to be appropriate for any organization, be it a government, school, business, church, or fraternity. It is familiar, predictable, and rational. It is what comes immediately to mind when we discover that ...we really have to get organized! As familiar and rational as the functional hierarchy may be, there are distinct disadvantages to blindly applying the same form of organization to all purposeful groups. To understand the problem, begin by observing that different groups wish to achieve different outcomes. Second, observe that different groups have different members, and that each group possesses a different culture. These differences in
desired outcomes, and in people, should alert us to the danger of assuming there is any single best way of organizing. To be complete, however, also observe that different groups will likely choose different methods through which they will achieve their purpose. Service groups will choose different methods than manufacturing groups, and both will choose different methods than groups whose purpose is primarily social. One structure cannot possibly fit all. , the form of organization must be matched to the purpose it seeks to achieve. The Design Process Organization design begins with the creation of a strategy — a set of decision guidelines by which members will choose appropriate actions. The strategy is derived from clear, concise statements of purpose, and vision, and from the organization’s basic philosophy. Strategy unifies the intent of the organization and focuses members toward actions designed to accomplish desired outcomes. The strategy encourages actions that support the purpose and discourages those that do not. Creating a strategy is planning, not organizing. To organize we must connect people with each other in meaningful and purposeful ways. Further, we must connect people with the information and technology necessary for them to be successful. Organization structure defines the formal relationships among people and specifies both their roles and their responsibilities. Administrative systems govern the organization through guidelines, procedures and policies. Information and technology define the process(es) through which members achieve outcomes. Each element must support each of the others and together they must support the organization’s purpose. Exercising Choice Organizations are an invention of man. They are contrived social systems through which groups seek to exert influence or achieve a stated purpose. People choose to organize when they recognize that by acting alone they are limited in their ability to achieve. We sense that by acting in concert we may overcome our individual limitations. When we organize we seek to direct, or pattern, the activities of a group of people toward a common outcome. How this pattern is designed and implemented greatly influences effectiveness. Patterns of activity that are complementary and interdependent are more likely to result in the achievement of intended outcomes. In contrast, activity patterns that are unrelated and independent are more likely to produce unpredictable, and often unintended results. The process of organization design matches people, information, and technology to the purpose, vision, and strategy of the organization. Structure is designed to enhance communication and information flow among people. Systems are designed to encourage individual responsibility and decision making. Technology is used to enhance human capabilities to accomplish meaningful work. The end product is an integrated system of people and resources, tailored to the specific direction of the organization.
2. Job design refers to the way that a set of tasks, or an entire job, is organized. Job design helps to determine: • What tasks are done? • How the tasks are done, • how many tasks are done, and • in what order the tasks are done. It takes into account all factors which affect the work, and organizes the content and tasks so that the whole job is less likely to be a risk to the employee. Job design involves administrative areas such as: • job rotation, • job enlargement, • task/machine pacing, • work breaks, and • Working hours. A well designed job will encourage a variety of 'good' body positions, have reasonable strength requirements, require a reasonable amount of mental activity, and help foster feelings of achievement and self-esteem. 3. Organizational analysis may be done for different purposes. These include: 1) Enhancing the general understanding of the functioning of Organizations (i.e. educational or research purposes.) (The direct beneficiary is the researcher or the analyst rather than the Organization). Such a study may aim at enhancing the understanding of human behaviour through a study of it in organisation, or to enhance the understanding of the society as reflected in organisational life. 2) Planning for growth and diversification An analysis or a diagostic study may be necessary for planning growth, diversification, expansion etc. Organisational analysis may reveal the
strengths that could be used for growth and diversification, weak spots that need to be removed in the new plans, the precautions to be taken, structural dimensions to be kept in mind etc. Several insights may be provided on structure, people, systems, styles, technology etc. that have implications for growth. 3) Improving Organisational Effectiveness or Planning General Improvements Organisational Analysis may be used also for improving the general efficiency of an organisation. On the basis of a diagnosis made out of the analysis action steps could be initiated in terms of toning up administration, introducing new management systems and processes, reduction of wasteful expenditure, introduction of time savers, change of personnel policies to enhance employee motivation, restructuring of some parts, training, elimination of unwanted structures and teasers, improvements in general health of the organisation etc. 4) Organisational Problem Solving Whenever some subsystems departments, units etc. fall sick or start creating problems a diagnosis may be undertaken with a view to identify the source of the problem and take corrective action. A sick unit, a bottleneck, a communication block, a poor performing department, frequently occurring conflict between two departments, repeated failures of a management system or an organisational process, a frequent violation of an organisational norm, fall in discipline, reduction in output absenteeism, increase in conflicts etc. can all lead to the need for an organisational diagnosis of a part of the organisatioin or the entire organisation.
tools of organisational analysis Observation represents the careful and planned method of recording certain
phenomena, objects, events in conjunction with a given situation. Constantinescu, etc. (2008) considers it necessary, within the organisation, to focus on observing the interaction between employees, in order to find answers to questions such as: What is the working pace of the employees - slow, methodical, alert, spontaneous? What rituals do you notice in the enterprise? What are the values disseminated? Do the meetings generally provide revealing information? Who participates in these meetings? Who speaks? Whom do these people speak to? To what extent is sincerity situated in these meetings? How much time is devoted to different topics? The topics which often recur and which are discussed in depth frequently represent indications of the organisational culture values. Observations are used for gathering data on the symbols which are analyzed by the qualitative analysis methods. Observations include mostly behavioural material, but also semantic symbols. Observations of behavioural symbols include monitoring and recording the organizational rituals, such as, for example, the celebration of company day as a ritual of integration. There will also be careful attention focused on the state and architecture of the buildings, decor, billboards, staff dress code, behaviour and habits, working environment, the way in which everyone fulfils their role, employee behaviour in conflict situations. The analysis of these aspects allows knowing the reality, the working environment, both the organisation’s physical components and the emotional, psychological elements, harder to decipher at first glance. The opinion interview technique always involves oral information, having the
advantage of flexibility, of the ability to get specific answers to each question. Along with the use of the questionnaire, it is one of the techniques most often used in
qualitative research. The interview is, however, a complex technique that requires certain abilities and skills from the researcher, especially social, communication and self-reflection skills. The interview is used in the study of organisational culture to collect qualitative data about the cognitive elements of the culture, such as assumptions, values, norms and attitudes. Interviews may also serve to identify symbols, certain expressions, stories, anecdotes specific to the organisation. “To successfully use the interview in organisational culture research, it is important to determine the persons that will be interviewed, when, where and how the interview will be conducted, the set of questions that will be used and the method of recording it” (Janidijevid, 2011 , p 85). Interviews help us perceive the consistency between what the interviewees say and the facts recorded from other sources.” These perceptions are generally useful for: · defining an updated vision of the history, the important events and its impact on the functioning of the organisation; · establishing a system of values and its assessment based on the concrete facts recounted by the interviewees; · defining the existing professions within the organisation, of the way in which the activities are conducted in a formal or less formal way” (State O., 2004, p 159). Generally, the interview provides interesting qualitative data, but it is time-consuming, it has high costs and it can record errors caused by the person conducting the research. The questionnaire represents, alongside with the interview, the most used tool
and also the main quantitative method for collecting information on organisational culture analysis. Questionnaires are considered the basis of objective research for analysing the cognitive elements of the culture. Janidijevid (2011) believes that the main advantages of this tool are: · the possibility of widely using it on a large number of subjects;
· speed and easiness in collecting data and in quantifying the different elements related to culture; · a simpler way of establishing the various relationships between culture and other components, as well as the organisation’s performance; · the possibility to compare the results. The topics that may be talked in the questionnaire are: · mission and core values of the organisation; · philosophy on which it is based; · fundamental directions of organisational culture; · cooperation; · communication system; · freedom of opinion; · the motivation / reward / penalisation system; · the way the organisation’s leader is perceived . “In terms of form of the questionnaire, there are several types of questions: closed (allowing only the choice between two or more pre-established types of answers), mixed and open (the answer being expressed freely by the subject). The open questions are suggested in the study of complex problems, providing rich information both about the personality of the investigated and about the problem analysed” (Cismaru, 2008, p 17). Nevertheless, the application of questionnaires has certain disadvantages: - the possibility that the questions may not be understood by the entire population surveyed; - the existence of multiple meanings of different concepts used in the questionnaire;
- the stiffness and inability to adjust the questions to the organisational context and to the subjects participating in the survey; - superficiality of results; - inability to perform historical and context analyses. 4.TYPES OF CHANGE There are various areas within the organizational domain where changes can be brought about for operational enhancement of the organization as well as desirable behavior of members. The various types of changes that can have considerable impact on the organizational culture are: a) Strategic Change This is a change in the very mission of the organisation. A single mission may have to be changed to multiple missions. For example, when British Airways acquired a major part of U.S. Air, the culture of the entire organization had to be modified to accommodate various aspects of American organisational culture into the British organisational culture. b) Structural Change Decentralized operations and participative management style have seen more recent trendsin the organisational structure. Since these structural changes shift the authority and responsibility to generally lower level management, it has a major impact on an organisation’s social climate and members have to be prepared to develop a team spirit as well as acquire skills to make on-the-spot decisions at points of operations. 8 c) Process-oriented Change These changes relate to technological developments, information processing, automation and use of robotics in the manufacturing operations. This means replacing or
retraining personnel, heavy capital equipment investment and operational changes. This would affect the organisational culture and hence changes in the behaviour patterns of members. d) People-oriented Change Even though, any organisational change affects people in some form, it is important that the behaviour and attitudes of the members be predictable and in accordance with the expectations of the organization and be consistent with the mission and policies of the enterprise. These changes are directed towards performance improvement, group cohesion, dedication and loyalty to the organization as well as developing a sense of self-actualisation among the members. These can be developed by closer interaction with employees and by special behavioural training and modification sessions A number of theories and models have been postulated. Olmosk has presented a comprehensive view of a number of Change strategies and called them ‘Seven pure strategies of change’. Each of these strategies have been briefly summarised and explained.
The Fellowship Strategy
The assumption underlying this strategy seems to be, “If we have good, warm inter-personal relations, all other problems will be minor.” Emphasis is placed on getting to know one another and on developing friendships. Groups that use this model often sponsor discussions, dinners, card parties, and other social events that bring people together. The fellowship strategy places strong emphasis on treating everyone equally; this often is interpreted as treating everyone the same way. All people must be accepted; no one is turned away. When the group is making decisions, all members are allowed to speak, and all opinions are weighed equally. No fact, feeling, opinion, or theory is considered inherently superior to any other. Arguments are few, because conflict generally is suppressed and avoided. The Political Strategy-
Political Strategists tend to believe that “If all the really influential people agree that something should be done, it will be done.” They emphasise a power structure that usually includes not only formally recognised leaders but informal, unofficial leaders as well. Much of the work done under the political strategy is the result of the leaders’ informal relationships. The political strategy emphasises the identification and influence of people who seem most able to make and implement decisions. It usually focuses on those who are respected and have the largest constituency in a given area. One’s level of influence is based on one‘s perceived power and ability to work with other influential people to reach goals that are valued by one‘s constituency. The Economic Strategy
Economic strategists believe that “Money can buy anything or any change we
want.” They emphasise the acquisition of or — at the very least, influence over — all forms of material goods, such as money, land, stocks, bonds, and any other tradable commodity. This strategy is widely used in the United States and the Western world and is used most often by large corporations and by the very rich. Inclusion in a group that espouses this approach usually is based on possession or control of marketable resources. Influence within the group is based on perceived wealth. Most decisions are heavily, if not completely, influenced by questions of profitability as measured by an increase in tangible assets. This approach is highly rational, based on the assumption that all people act more or less rationally from economic motives. As a result, such groups often have high needs for control and for rationality. The Academic Strategy
The academic strategy assumes that “People are rational. If one presents enough facts to people, they will change.” To this end, academic strategists undertake an unending series of studies and produce thousands of pages of reports each year. Inclusion in a group that plans to use the academic strategy to solve problems or to make changes is based primarily on one’s expertise in a given area or on one’s desire to acquire such knowledge. Leadership and influence within the group generally depends on the degree to which the person is perceived as an expert. Newcomers to the field are considered to have little to contribute, while those with advanced degrees or many years of specialized study receive a great deal of attention. The Engineering Strategy
Users of this strategy try to bring about behavioural change without dealing directly with the people involved. The underlying assumption is, “If the environment or the surroundings change enough, people will be forced to change.” Therefore, engineering strategists may spend a great deal of time studying physical layouts, patterns of interaction, and role descriptions in work places and classrooms without ever speaking to the employees or students. Groups that approach change in this way often recruit members based on their Process of Change Organizational Development and Change Technical skills. Group needs often are defined in terms of technical skills, Which are considered more important than interpersonal styles. The Military Strategy
The military-style approach to change is based on the use of physical force. The name military has been given to this approach because it conveys the appropriate connotation to most people, not because the military is the sole user of this approach. Police Departments, “revolutionary” student groups, and some teachers, for example, employ the military strategy. The basic assumption behind this approach is, “People react to genuine threats. With enough physical force, people can be made to do anything.” Therefore, considerable time is spent in learning to use weapons and to fight. Physical conditioning, strength, and agility are valued. Membership in military-strategy groups often is determined by one‘s physical power and by one‘s willingness to submit to discipline. Both within the group and in its dealings with the external environment, influence is exerted primarily through the fear of authority and through the threat of punishment. Members of military-style groups need control, status, and security. They often tend to
view most problems and relationships in terms of power, authority, threat and exploitation. The Confrontational Strategy
The confrontational approach to change is based on the assumption that if one can mobilise enough anger in enough people and force them to look at a problem, the required changes will follow. Although conflict is stressed, this strategy emphasises nonviolent conflict rather than physical force. Membership in such a group is based on one’s ability to deal with and to use conflict in ways that benefit the group.
the organisation I am referring to the organization, I am familiar with is a -a large manufacturer/ marketer of safety products -the products are used as [personal protection safety] [ industrial safety] -the products are distributed through the distributors as well as sold directly -the products are sold to various industries like mining/fireservices/defence/ as well as to various manufacturing companies. -the company employs about 235 people. -the company has the following functional departments *marketing *manufacturing *sales *finance/ administration *human resource *customer service
*distribution *warehousing/ transportation *TQM
ADOPT THE FOLLOWING MODEL FOR CHANGE
1.Explain the reason for change with facts. If there are risks , acknowledge them but explain why it is worth taking the risks.
2.Objectively explain the benefits that could result from the change.
3.Get ready and sell the benefits at all times.
5.Listen in depth.
6.Seek questions and clarifications / answer them.
7.Invite participation and ask for suggestions .
8.Avoid surprise because this stirs up unreasoning opposition.
9.Acknowledge the rough spots and show you plan to
10.Establish a timetable.
11.Set standards and explain your expectations.
12.Contact the informal leaders and use their resources.
13. Acknowledge the staff cooperation / support.
14.Provide feedback on the progress.
15.Reinforce the positive . 16.Keep the two way communication open.
==================================================== HOW DO YOU INITIATE CHANGE
Often it is easier to carry out a job if there is a specific plan to follow. When major changes are to be installed, careful planning and preparation are necessary. Strengthening the forces promoting the change and weakening resistance to it are the main tasks.
CREATE A CLIMATE FOR CHANGE
How people react to proposed changes is greatly influenced by the kind of climate for change that the manager/supervisor has created in the department.
HOW IS THE RIGHT KIND OF CLIMATE CREATED?
Supervisors and managers who have enthusiasm for progress and change build a healthy climate.
Creating the right climate is more than just passing on changes. It involves:
Encouraging employees to seek ways of improving their jobs.
Seeking suggestions and ideas from employees.
This requires the manager/supervisor to listen and seriously consider suggestions. It is easy to see that there is a great deal of ego involvement in coming forth with an idea for improvement. Change can become an exciting and dynamic way of life. The manager/supervisor determines the climate in which they initiate change.
GET READY TO SELL
Much of the difficulty in getting co operation stems from the employees lack of understanding of how the change will affect them. With a little effort, managers/supervisors can find most of the answers to employees' questions before they are even asked. Answers to these questions would be useful.
What is the reason for the change? Whom will it benefit and how? Will it inconvenience anyone, if so, for how long? Will training or re training be necessary? When does it go into effect?
Armed with the answers to these questions a manager/supervisor can head off many objections and can develop a plan to present the change.
IDENTIFY THE SOURCES OF HELP
Why should you, the managers and supervisors, shoulder the burden alone? Staff can frequently be a great help in preparing to sell a change by explaining technical aspects and demonstrating new techniques.
One of the most overlooked sources of help in introducing changes are the informal leaders in the work group. With their help the job becomes easier. Giving recognition to informal leaders puts them in a co operative frame of mind.
Since union stewards are often informal leaders, their co operation ought to be solicited. The backing of union stewards makes the job easier.
Change that upsets routines requires new knowledge or skills, or inconveniences people are bound to meet with some objections or resistance. Looking at a change from the employees point of view will usually be enough to help determine what their objections are likely to be. Knowing the objections, we can, with a little creative thought, turn these objections into advantages.
Showing the staff with reason or logic will not do the job. Managers/supervisors have to convince people that the change is really best for them and that will not happen until their objections are dealt with seriously.
Everyone is concerned with, "What's in it for me?"
"Will the change mean more satisfying work. greater security. opportunity to show what I can do. more responsibility. more pay. less fatigue. less confusion. greater independence?"
The benefits used to motivate people to co operate should be put on as personal a level as possible. It would be dishonest, however, not to recognise any disadvantages that a change may bring. These can usually be countered with long range benefits.
One of the techniques that is helpful in identifying the characteristics and values of the proposed changed condition is a "Word Picture". The picture makes the new condition desirable in the minds of the staff.
A)One of the ways this concept of "word picture" is used, is the physical change in office layout or new equipment or any other physical changes.
B)To picture or model a change in policy, organization or operation is more difficult than the physical change. The principle is the same. The picture can help in communicating the desirability of the change and in fine tuning the change because it makes it possible to discuss how things will operate. It may take the form of a flow chart, an organization chart or a description of relationships.
To use this approach for deciding whether to initiate a change, you can take the following steps:
Describe as clearly as possible the present situation.
Describe as clearly as possible the desired situation.
Analyse what specific changes will have to take place in the key factors involved to produce the desired situation. Look at such key factors as bosses, employees, equipment, physical environment, policies and procedures, work methods, materials and time. Identify the relevant factors.
Assess the strengths of the forces promoting the desired situation and of those resisting it.
Determine what action to take. Choices are:
A) Do nothing, the resistant forces are stronger than the forces promoting change.
B) Act to strengthen the promoting forces and/or to weaken resistance, by concentrating one's efforts on the key factors.
LISTEN IN DEPTH
Employees have a right to be heard. If employees are treated with respect, they probably will respond in kind. They will feel better too, if they know their concerns have been considered.
After having conscientiously sold the benefits of a change, it is tremendously important that the managers/supervisors see that their promises have materialized. A sincere interest in how the change has affected the employee and a willingness to make adjustments, help build the climate in which future changes will be initiated.
5. The process of institution building is the energizing of people so that not only they internalize values that transcend narrow Self-interests but they also become infused with a sense of Mission in their total life. birth of an organization-Organizations originate at first, in the
minds of individuals, as an idea. An operative model with necessary resources and support mobilisation characterises the earliest stage. survival and sacrifice- An organization is born in a climate
of a new idea, hope and excitement, but has to struggle to survive in the world of competition and challenge. The need to survive, makes heavy demands on the entrepreneur’s money, confidence, commitment, effort, personal time and even family life. If this crisis is adequately resolved the organization gains a firm foot-hold, accepts realities and learns from experience. If unable to meet the challenges, demands and competition, the organization may become defunct or exist marginally with still heavier demands made on the entreprenuer. stability – which is the thirdstage. Organization should strive for an efficient work culture based on
discipline, reorganization or role relationships, adequate employee compensation structure, team-spirit and appropriate balance between short-term and long-term perspectives. It should also strive to stabilise its resources, customers, clientele etc. Resolving the crisis of achieving stability makes the organization efficient, strong and flexible; while inability to do so results in the organization returning back to the survival stage and stagnation. self-examination regarding where the organization stands in
the eyes of the public, customers, competitors and others. The organization should be prepared to look critically at its products and services and its internal and external operations. Thus it should be open to criticism and strive to monitor, review, evaluate and improve its performance from time to time. Resolving crisis at this stage successfully enhances the reputation of the organization and results in the improvement of its quality of goods and services. Failure to resolve the crisis leads to living on past laurels and ‘image-creation’ or ‘image-boosting’ which may be at variance with its actual performance the greater the variance the greater is the likelihood of returning to instability. Actualization-
The next issue that concerns the organization is to actualise its potentialities and to achieve uniqueness (characteristic of its activities). Such a goal can not be realised until the organisation is willing to bring the necessary changes that involve certain amount of risk. Successfully overcoming a crisis provides opportunities for growth and development to its personnel. Unsuccessful resolution leads to specialisation in a narrow field, conservatism and resistance that inhabits further development. The organization may not be able to realise its uniqueness. Social responsibility-
It concern involves the organization’s responsibility to society, a desire to gain soceity’s respect and appreciation and to improve the quality of life of its own employees. The crisis generated by efforts to be respected and appreciated depends upon the felt-needs for such an endeavour, organization’s financial status, investment opportunities elsewhere and the present self-image. By resolving this crisis correctly the organisation gains public respect and appreciation for itself as an institution contributing to society. Incorrect resolution leads to castigation by the public as ‘heedless barons’ or ‘heedless tycoons.’
Roles of Chief Executive Officer 1. leader Advises the Board Advocates / promotes organization and stakeholder change related to organization mission Supports motivation of employees in organization products/programs and operations
2. Visionary / Information Bearer
Ensures staff and Board have sufficient and up-to-date information Looks to the future for change opportunities Interfaces between Board and employees Interfaces between organization and community
3. Decision Maker
Formulates policies and planning recommendations to the Board Decides or guides courses of action in operations by staff
Oversees operations of organization Implements plans Manages human resources of organization Manages financial and physical resources
5. Board Developer
Assists in the selection and evaluation of board members Makes recommendations, supports Board during orientation and self-evaluation Supports Board's evaluation of Chief Executive
Responsibilities of Chief Executive Officer
There is no standardized list of the major functions and responsibilities carried out by position of chief executive officer. The following list is one perspective and includes the major functions typically addressed by job descriptions of chief executive officers. 1. Board Administration and Support
Supports operations and administration of Board by advising and informing Board members, interfacing between Board and staff, and supporting Board's evaluation of chief executive 2. Program, Product and Service Delivery
Oversees design, marketing, promotion, delivery and quality of programs, products and services 3. Financial, Tax, Risk and Facilities Management
Recommends yearly budget for Board approval and prudently manages organization's resources within those budget guidelines according to current laws and regulations 4. Human Resource Management
Effectively manages the human resources of the organization according to authorized personnel policies and procedures that fully conform to current laws and regulations 5. Community and Public Relations
Assures the organization and its mission, programs, products and services are consistently presented in strong, positive image to relevant stakeholders 6. Fundraising (nonprofit-specific)
Oversees fundraising planning and implementation, including identifying resource requirements, researching funding sources, establishing strategies to approach funders, submitting proposals and administrating fundraising records and documentation