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Networking of Computer (Concept)

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CONCEPT OF NETWORING
 INTRODUCTION OF NETWORKING  TYPES OF NETWORK  NETWORK MEDIA  NETWORKING DEVICES  NETWORK TOPOLOGIES  OSI MODEL & NETWORK PROTOCOLS  WIRELESS TRASMISSION  WIDE AREA NETWORK  IEEE AND NETWORKING STANDARD

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INTRODUCTION OF NETWORKING
A computer network is an interconnection between or more computer by witch we can share information & Data to another Computer System.

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INTRODUCTION OF NETWORKING
A network is any collection of independent computers that communicate with one another over a shared network medium. A computer network is a collection of two or more connected computers. When these computers are joined in a network, people can share files and peripherals such as modems, printers, tape backup drives, or CD-ROM drives. When networks at multiple locations are connected using services available from phone companies, people can send e-mail, share links to the global Internet, or conduct video conferences in real time with other remote users. When a network becomes open sourced it can be managed properly with online collaboration software. As companies rely on applications like electronic mail and database management for core business operations, computer networking becomes increasingly more important.

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TYPES OF NETWORK
There are about eight types of networking which are used worldwide these days, both in house and commercially.  LAN (Local Area Network)  WAN (Wide Area Network)  MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)  PAN (Personal Area Network)  WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network)  SAN (Storage/Server/Small Area Network)  CAN (Campus/Controller/Cluster Area Network)  DAN (Desktop Area Network)…
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LAN
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers in a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building. The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to wide area networks (WANs), include their usually higher data-transfer rates, smaller geographic area, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines. ARCNET, Token Ring and other technology standards have been used in the past, but Ethernet over twisted pair cabling, and Wi-Fi are the two most common technologies currently used to build LANs.
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WAN
A wide area network (WAN) is a telecommunication network that covers a broad area (i.e., any network that links across metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries). Business and government entities utilize WANs to relay data among employees, clients, buyers, and suppliers from various geographical locations. In essence this mode of telecommunication allows a business to effectively carry out its daily function regardless of location. This is in contrast with personal area networks (PANs), local area networks (LANs), campus area networks (CANs), or metropolitan area networks (MANs) which are usually limited to a room, building, campus or specific metropolitan area (e.g., a city) respectively.
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MAN
A Metro Ethernet is a computer network that covers a metropolitan area and that is based on the Ethernet standard. It is commonly used as a metropolitan access network to connect subscribers and businesses to a larger service network or the Internet. Businesses can also use Metro Ethernet to connect branch offices to their Intranet.

Ethernet has been a well known technology for decades. An Ethernet interface is much less expensive than a SONET/SDH or PDH interface of the same and width. Ethernet also supports high bandwidths with fine granularity, which is not available with traditional SDH connections. Another distinct advantage of an Ethernet-based access network is that it can be easily connected to the customer network, due to the prevalent use of Ethernet in corporate and, more recently, residential networks. Therefore, bringing Ethernet in to the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) introduces a lot of advantages to both the service provider and the customer.
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PAN
A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computerized devices, including telephones and personal digital assistants. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication), or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink). A wireless personal area network (WPAN) is a PAN carried over wireless network technologies such as IrDA, Bluetooth, Wireless USB, Z-Wave, or even Body Area Network. The reach of a WPAN varies from a few centimeters to a few meters. A PAN may also be carried over wired computer buses such as USB . A wireless personal area network (WPAN) is a personal area network - a network for interconnecting devices centered around an individual person's workspace - in which the connections are wireless. Wireless PAN is based on the standard IEEE 802.15. The three kinds of wireless technologies used for WPAN are Bluetooth, Infrared Data Association, and Wi-Fi.

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WLAN, SAN, CAN, DAN
WLAN: A wireless local area network (WLAN) links two or more devices using some wireless distribution method (Radio), and usually providing a connection through an access point to the wider internet. SAN: A storage area network (SAN) is a dedicated network that provides access to consolidated, block level data storage. SANs are primarily used to make storage devices, such as disk arrays, tape libraries, and optical jukeboxes, accessible to servers so that the devices appear like locally attached devices to the operating system. CAN: Controller–Area Network (CAN or CAN-bus) is a vehicle bus standard designed to allow microcontrollers and devices to communicate with each other within a vehicle without a host computer. DAN: The Desk Area Network (DAN) is a multimedia workstation based around an ATM interconnect (as shown in the above diagram). All communication between peripherals and even between the CPU and its main memory is achieved by sending ATM cells through a switch fabric.
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EXAMPLES OF DATA NETWORK

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TWO TYPE OF NETWORK ENVIRONMENT

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NETWORK MEDIA
Network media (sometimes referred to as networked media) refers to media mainly used in computer networks such as the Internet.

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TWISTED PAIR CABLING
Twisted pair cabling is a type of wiring in which two wires are twisted together for the purposes of canceling out electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external sources; for instance, electromagnetic radiation from unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables, and crosstalk between neighboring pairs. It was invented by Alexander Graham Bell.  Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Is more common in high-speed networks. The biggest difference you will see in the UTP and STP is that the STP use's metallic shield wrapping to protect the wire from interference.  Unshielded twisted pair (UTP): UTP cable is also the most common cable used in computer networking. Modern Ethernet, the most common data networking standard, utilizes UTP cables. Twisted pair cabling is often used in data networks for short and medium length connections because of its relatively lower costs compared to optical fiber and coaxial cable.
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CATEGORY OF UTP

CATEGORY CAT 1 CAT 2 CAT 3 CAT 4 CAT 5 CAT 6

USED FOR Voice Process Computer Networking Computer Networking Computer Networking Computer Networking Computer Networking

SPEED 1 MBPS 4 MBPS 10 MBPS 16 MBPS 100 MBPS 1000 MBPS

PAIR WIRES 2 Pair 4 Wires 4 Pair 8 Wires 4 Pair 8 Wires 4 Pair 8 Wires 4 Pair 8 Wires 4 Pair 8 Wires

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UTP COLOR CODES

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MEASURING BANDWIDTH

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NETWORK DEVICES
Computer network devices also known as communication devices and they constitute a data communication network. Computer networking devices are also called network equipment. Common basic networking devices & Icon:  Hubs  Switches  Router  Bridge  Repeaters  Modems  MSAU  CSU/DSU
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HUB & SWITCH DEVICE
HUB: The central connecting device in a computer network is known as a hub. There are two types of a hub i.e. active hub and passive hub. Every computer is directly connected with the hub. When data packets arrives at hub, it broadcast them to all the LAN cards in a network and the destined recipient picks them and all other computers discard the data packets. Hub has five, eight, sixteen and more ports and one port is known as uplink port, which is used to connect with the next hub. Works on OSI layer 1. SWITCH: Like the router, a switch is an intelligent device that maps the IP address with the MAC address of the LAN card. Unlike the hubs, a switch does not broadcast the data to all the computers, it sends the data packets only to the destined computer. works on OSI layer 2.

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ROUTER & BRIDGE DEVICE
ROUTER: Router is a network communication device that is used to connect logically and physically different networks. Works on OSI layer 3.

BRIDGE: A bridge is a network communication device that is used to connect one segment of the network with another that uses the same protocol. It operates at the Data link layer of the OSI layers model.

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REPEATER & MODEM DEVICE
REPEATER: A repeater is a communication device that retransmits the weak signals with greater power. It receives the signals over the wireless, optical transmission and network cable mediums such as copper wire, UTP/STP and fiber optic cables and regenerates the analog or digital signals. MODEM: A modem is a communication device that is used to provide the connectivity with the internet. Modem works in two ways i.e. modulation and demodulation. It coverts the digital data into the analog and analog to digital

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MSAU & CSU/DSU DEVICE
MSAU:A Multi Station Access Unit (MSAU) is a hub or concentrator that connects a group of computers ("nodes" in network terminology) to a token ring local area network. For example, eight computers might be connected to an MSAU in one office and that MSAU would be connected to an MSAU in another office that served eight other computers. In turn that MSAU could be connected to another MSAU.

CSU / DSU: CSU/DSU stands for Channel service unit and Data Service unit. CSU/DSU is a pair of the communication devices that converts the LAN data frames into the size of WAN data frames. CSU terminates the link at the customer’s premises. It connects the terminal with the digital line. DSU performs the actual transmission and receives the signals.

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BASEBAND & BROADBAND
 Baseband

In a baseband transmission, the entire bandwidth of the cable is consumed by a single signal. In broadband transmission, signals are sent on multiple frequencies, allowing multiple signals to be sent simultaneously. Baseband refers to a message signal that is transmitted and broadband refers to send the message to every one who is having a receiver.
 Broadband

The term broadband refers to a telecommunications signal or device of greater bandwidth, in some sense, than another standard or usual signal or device (and the broader the band, the greater the capacity for traffic). Different criteria for "broad" have been applied in different contexts and at different times.
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NETWORK INTERFACE CARD
A network interface card (NIC) is a printed circuit board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a personal computer. Also called a LAN adapter.

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NETWORK TOPOLOGIES
“The way in which the connections are made among all the computers is called the topology of the network”. Network topology specifically refers to the physical layout of the network, specially the location of the computers and how the cable is run between them.
 The most common topologies are

 Bus  Star  Ring  Mesh

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BUS TOPOLOGIES
Computer

Computer

Computer

Computer

The bus topology is the simplest and most common. It is often used when a network installation is small, simple, or temporary. It is a Passive topology. This means that computers on the bus only listen for data being sent, they are not responsible for moving the data from one computer to the next. In an active topology network, the computers regenerate signals and are responsible for moving the data through the network. On a bus network, all the computer are connected to a single cable. When one computer sends a signal using the cable, all the computers on the network receive the information, but only one (Addressee) accepts it. The rest disregard the message.
Computer Computer

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BUS TOPOLOGIES
Computer

Computer

Computer

Computer

 ADVANTAGE: The bus is simple, reliable in very small
Computer

Computer

network, and easy to use. The bus requires the least amount of cable to connect the computers together and is therefore less expensive than other cabling arrangements. Failure of one node does not affect the rest of network.  DISADVANTAGE: Heavy network traffic can slow a bus considerably. A break in the cable or lake of proper termination can bring the network down. It is difficult to troubleshoot a bus.

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STAR TOPOLOGIES

Computer

Server

Hub
Computer
Computer

In a star topology, each device has a dedicated point to point link only to central controller, usually called a hub/server/host. Each computer on a star network communicates with a central hub that resends the message appropriate computer(s). The hub can be active or passive. An active hub regenerate the electrical signal and sends it to all the computers connected to it. This type of hub is often called a multiport repeater. Active hub require electrical power to run. A passive hub, such as wiring panels, merely acts as a connection point and does not amplify or regenerate the signal. Passive hubs do not require electrical power to run.
Computer

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STAR TOPOLOGIES

Computer

Server

Hub
Computer
Computer

 ADVANTAGE: It is easy to modify and add new computers to a
Computer

star network. During adding/deleting a node network can function normally. When the capacity of the central hub is exceeded, it can be replaced with one that has a larger number of ports to plug lines into. Provide for centralised monitoring and management of the network. Single computer failure do not necessarily bring down the whole star network.
 DISADVANTAGE: If the central hub fails, the whole network

fails to operate. It cost more to cable a star network. Require dedicated server and NOS

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Computer

RING TOPOLOGIES

Computer Computer

In a ring topology, each computer is connected directly to the next computer in line, forming a circle of cable. It uses token to pass the information from one computer to another. Every computer is connected to the next compute in the ring, and each retransmit what it receives from the previous computer. The message flow around the ring in one direction. Ring is an active topology. There is no termination because there is no end to the ring.
Computer Computer

Token passing a method of sending data in a ring topology. A small packet, called the token passed around the ring to each computer in tern. If a computer has information to send, it modifies the token, adds address information and the data and sends it down the ring. The information travels around the ring until it either reaches its destination or returns to the sender. A token can circle a ring 200 meters in diameter at about 10,000 times a second.

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Computer

RING TOPOLOGIES

Computer Computer

 ADVANTAGE: All the computers have equal access to the
Computer Computer

network. Even with many users, network performance is even. Allows error checking, and acknowledgement.
 DISADVANTAGE: Failure of one computer can affect the

whole network. It is difficult to troubleshoot the ring network. Adding or removing computers disturbs the network.

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Computer

MESH TOPOLOGIES

Computer

Computer

In a mesh topology, every devices has a dedicated point to point link to every other device. A fully connected mesh network therefore has n(n-1)/2 physical channels to link n devices. To accommodate that many links, every device on the network must have n-1 input/output ports.
Computer

Computer

The type of network topology in which some of the nodes of the network are connected to more than one other node in the network with a point-to-point link – this makes it possible to take advantage of some of the redundancy that is provided by a physical fully connected mesh topology without the expense and complexity required for a connection between every node in the network.

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Computer

MESH TOPOLOGIES

Computer

Computer

 ADVANTAGE: Because of the dedicated link, no traffic
Computer

Computer

between computers. Failure of one node computer not affect rest of the network. Because of the dedicated link privacy and security are guaranteed. Point to point links make fault identification and fault isolation easy.
 DISADVANTAGE: Due to the amount of cabling and

number of input output ports, it is expensive. Large space is require to run the cables. Large space is require to run the cables.

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OSI MODEL
7 Application

6 Presentation
5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical

To address the problem of networks increasing in size and in number, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) researched many network schemes and recognized that there was a need to create a network model that would help network builders implement networks that could communicate and work together and therefore, released the OSI reference model in 1984.
ISO - International Organization for Standardization OSI - Open System Interconnection IOS - Internetwork Operating System
The ISO created the OSI to make the IOS more efficient. The “ISO” acronym is correct as shown. To avoid confusion, some people say “International Standard Organization.”
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Layer 7 - The Application Layer
7 Application

6 Presentation
5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical

This layer deal with networking applications. Examples:  Email  Web browsers PDU - User Data

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Layer 6 - The Presentation Layer
7 Application

6 Presentation
5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical

This layer is responsible for presenting the data in the required format which may include:  Encryption  Compression PDU - Formatted Data

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Layer 5 - The Session Layer
7 Application

6 Presentation
5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical

This layer establishes, manages, and terminates sessions between two communicating hosts.

Example:  Client Software ( Used for logging in)
PDU - Formatted Data
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Layer 4 - The Transport Layer
7 Application

6 Presentation
5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical

This layer breaks up the data from the sending host and then reassembles it in the receiver.

It also is used to insure reliable data transport across the network.
PDU - Segments
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Layer 3 - The Network Layer
7 Application

6 Presentation
5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical

Sometimes referred to as the “Cisco Layer”. Makes “Best Path Determination” decisions based on logical addresses (usually IP addresses).

PDU - Packets

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Layer 2 - The Data Link Layer
7 Application

6 Presentation
5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical

This layer provides reliable transit of data across a physical link. Makes decisions based on physical addresses (usually MAC addresses).

PDU - Frames

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Layer 1 - The Physical Layer
7 Application

6 Presentation
5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical

This is the physical media through which the data, represented as electronic signals, is sent from the source host to the destination host. Examples:  CAT5 (what we have)  Coaxial (like cable TV)  Fiber optic PDU - Bits
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IP ADDRESING
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. When the packet arrives at a router connected to the destination network, the router uses the IP address to locate the particular computer connected to that network. Accordingly, IP address has two Versions .

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IPv.4 & CLASSES
As early as 1992, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) identified two specific concerns: Exhaustion of the remaining, unassigned IPv4 network addresses and the increase in the size of Internet routing tables.

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a version of the Internet Protocol (IP) intended to succeed Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4), which currently directs almost all Internet traffic, but it is unable to fulfill the demand for IP addresses. IPv6 allows up to 2128 addresses, a massive increase from the 232 (about 4.3 billion) addresses that IPv4 supports, and includes several other improvements.
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NETWORK AND HOST DIVISION
Each complete 32-bit IP address is broken down into a network part and a host part. A bit or bit sequence at the start of each address determines the class of the address. There are 5 IP address classes.

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ADDRESS CLASS PERFIXES
To accommodate different size networks and aid in classifying these networks, IP addresses are divided into groups called classes. This is classful addressing.

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NETWORK & BROADCOST ADDRESS

NETWORK
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BROADCOST

PUBLIC & PRIVATE IP ADDRESESS
Public IP Addresses must be obtained from an Internet service provider (ISP) or a registry at some expense. Unique addresses are required for each device on a network. No two machines that connect to a public network can have the same IP address because public IP addresses are global and standardized. All machines connected to the Internet agree to conform to the system.

Private IP Addresses are another solution to the problem of the impending exhaustion of public IP addresses. As mentioned, public networks require hosts to have unique IP addresses. However, private networks that are not connected to the Internet may use any host addresses, as long as each host within the private network is unique.
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WIRELESS TRANSMISSION
Wireless signals are electromagnetic waves that can travel through the vacuum of outer space or through a medium such as air. No physical copper-based or fiber optic medium is necessary for wireless signals, which makes utilizing wireless signals a very versatile way to build a network. Wireless transmissions can cover large distances by using highfrequency signals. Each signal uses a different frequency measured in hertz so that they remain unique from and another. Wireless technologies have been around for many years. Satellite TV AM/FM radio, cellular phones, remote-control devices, radar, alarm systems, weather radios, cordless phones, and retail scanners are integrated into everyday life. Today, wireless technologies are a fundamental part of business and personal life.
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WIRELESS TRANSMISSION
Wireless Data Communications
The radio spectrum is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum used to transmit voice, video, and data. It uses frequencies from 3 kilohertz (kHz) to 300 gigahertz (GHz). This section considers only the part of the radio spectrum that supports wireless data transmission. Infrared (IR) - Very high data rates and lower cost, but very short distance. a Narrowband - Low data rates and medium cost. Requires a license and covers a limited distance. Spread spectrum - Medium cost and high data rates, Limited to campus coverage. Cisco Aironet products are spread spectrum. Broadband personal communications service (PCS) - Low data rates medium cost, and citywide coverage. Sprint is an exception; Sprint PCS provides nation wide and international coverage. Circuit and packet data (cellular data and cellular Digital Packet [ICDPDI])- Low data rates, high packet fees, and national coverage. Satellite - Variable data rates depending on type of service, high cost, and nationwide or world wide coverage.
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WIRELESS TRANSMISSION
Wireless Signals
When a signal is transmitted in a data format, you must consider the following three parameters: How fast - What data rate can be achieved? How far- How far can wireless LAN (WLAN) units be placed apart and still get the maximum data rate? How many - How many users can exist without slowing the data rate?

Type of modulation used - More complex modulation techniques provide greater throughput. Distance – The Faster signals transmitted, the weaker the signal becomes. Noise- Electronics noise and barriers negatively after RF.

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WIRELESS TRANSMISSION
Wireless Modulation
Modulation is the process by which the amplitude, frequency or phase of an RF of light wave is altered to transmit data. The characteristics of the carrier wave instantaneously are varied by another modulating waveform, Modulation blends a data signal (text, voice. and so on) into a cannier for transmission over a network.

The most common methods of modulation are as follows:Amplitude modulation (AM) - Modulates the height of the carrier wave Frequency modulation (FM) - Modulates the frequency of the wave Phase modulation (PM) - Modulates the polarity (phase) of the wave
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WIRELESS TRANSMISSION
Wireless Radio Frequency Bands
Most radio frequencies are licensed by government agencies, such as the federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the United States. To broadcast over these frequencies, you need to have a license and to pay a fee. Unlicensed frequency bands are easier to implement and cost less over time because they do not require licenses, Three unlicensed bands exist, as illustrated.

900 megahertz (MHz) - The 900-MHz band carries cordless and cellular phones.
2.4 gigahertz (GHz) - The 802.1lg and 802.11b standard, the most widely deployed wireless standard, operates in the 2.4-GHz unlicensed radio band, delivering a maximum date rate of 11Mbps. 5 GHz - Recently, the FCC opened up the 5-GHz band for unlicensed use by high-speed data

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WIRELESS TRANSMISSION
Wireless Media
When the computer was first introduced to the world, it was affordable by only large Corporations governments, and universities. From the first building-sized devices with minimal computing power to those that fit in the palm of a person's hand, huge leaps in technology have occurred. The same is true on the connectivity side of the industry

Wireless Devices and Topologies
A wireless network can consist of as few as two devices, two nodes with wireless NICs' The nodes can be desktop workstations or notebook computers. Equipped with wireless NICs' an ad hoc network can be established that equates to a peer to wire Network. Both devices act as servers and clients in this environment, and although it does provide connectivity, security is at a minimum along with throughput. Another problem with this type of network is compatibility oftentimes' NICs from different manufacturers do not interoperate. • External USB Wireless NIC • Internal Wireless NIC

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WIDE AREA NETWORK
A wide area network (WAN) is a telecommunication network that covers a broad area (i.e., any network that links across metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries). Business and government entities utilize WANs to relay data among employees, clients, buyers, and suppliers from various geographical locations. In essence this mode of telecommunication allows a business to effectively carry out its daily function regardless of location
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IEEE AND NETWORKING STANDARDS
The Institute of Electrical Engineering (IEEE) Developed a Series of Networking Standards to ensure that networking technology developed by respective manufactures are capability. IEEE 802 refers to a family of IEEE standards dealing with local area networks and metropolitan area networks.

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