of 100

Ocean Geographic Issue 29 2014

Published on January 2019 | Categories: Documents | Downloads: 5 | Comments: 0
191 views

Comments

Content

www.OGSociety.org

   1    1     $    S    U   s   r   e    h    t    O  ,    0    5     $    g   n   o    K    g   n   o    H  ,    8   e   p   o   r   u    E  ,    6    £    K    U  ,    0    8  .    1    1     $    i   e   n   u   r    B  ,    0    1     $    A    S    U  ,    0    2    M    R   a    i   s   y   a    l   a    M  ,    5    9  .    0    1     $   e   r   o   p   a    g   n    i    S  ,    5    9  .    0    1     $   a    i    l   a   r    t   s   u    A

   N    O    I    T    I    D    E    E    L    B    A    N        4   I        1        0   A        2   T        /        7   S      :    U        9   S        2        E   E        U        S    H        S        I    T

PLIGHTS of Our Ocean Dr. Hanny Batuna – Hero of the Sea SUSTAINABLE SUS TAINABLE SEAFOOD

LEMBEH STRA IT

MA LAPASCUA

CENDER AWASIH BAY

BENEFITS

OF

T H E PR PR E M I E R MEMBERSHIP ✦

ONE-YEAR MEMBERSHIP TO OCEAN GEOGRAPHIC GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 



ONE-YEAR SUBSCRIPTION TO OCEAN GEOGRAPHIC GEOGRAPHIC JOURNAL



$200 $20 0 DISCOUNT DISCOUNT FOR ALL OCEAN GEOGRAPHIC GEOGRAPHIC EXPEDITIONS EXPEDITIONS



PRIORITY RESERV RESERVATION ATION AND INVITATION TO EVENTS  AND EXPEDITIONS



DISCOUNT VOUCHERS VOUCHERS WO WORTH RTH UP TO $2OO FOR ANY OCEAN GEOGRAPHIC RESORT AND LIVE-ABOARD PARTNERS



ACCESS TO AW AWARD-WINING PHOTOGRAPHY AND ESSAYS



A LIMITED EDITION PREMIER MEMBERSHIP ‘O’ PIN



CONTRIBUTE TO OCEAN GEOGRAPHIC’S GEOGRAPHIC’S SAVE SAVE OUR SEAS FUND



$5O VOUCHER VOUCHER FOR NAUTILUS LIFELIN LIFELINE E



VOTING PRIVILEGES

By signing up as Premier Member, you will be contributing to change and Ocean Geographic Society’s ongoing mission of conservation and education.

OceanGeographic.org   (sign up online or page 96)

OG RESORTS AND LIVE-ABOARD PARTNERS

Minahasa Lagoon Resort Minahasalagoon.com

Scuba Seraya Resort Yosdivelembeh.com

ScubaSeraya.com

Maldives Princess MaldiveSafari.com

MV Seahorse Indocruises.com

AfricanWatersports.com

Aiyanar Beach and Dive Resorts

Avalon Cuban Diving Centers

Aiyanar.com

cubandivingcenters.com

CONTENT ISSUE

29:7/2014

The Sustainable Edition

FOUNDING SUPPORTERS

ON THE COVER:

THRESHER SHARK photographed by Steve De Neef at Malapascua This edition’s cover received the most votes from OG’s  Assoc iate s, Edito ria l Boar d and Pr emier Me mbers .

OCEAN WATCH

ESSAY 

09

Fish: To eat or not to eat (Sustainable Seafood)  Alex Rose

24 (A Pioneer of the Blue Planet)   Peter Scoones

20 64

Gillian McDonald

BLUE (A Global Convergence of the Ocean Arts and Sciences) Ocean Geographic

Garden of the Gods (Art serving nature)

MEDIA PARTNER

Cassandra Dragon, Charlie Fasano

27 (Plights of our ocean)

Killing ourselves ourselves quickly 

46

 The Shark that Rebuilt an Island

NAUTILUS’S WINDOW

35

Faces of the Ocean  Jayne Jenkins

SUPPORTING ORGANISATIONS

 Steve De Neef 

67

Dr. Dr. Hanny Batuna (A Man of the Ocean) Michael Michae l AW, AW, Dr. Dr. Mark Erhmann, Erhman n,

SOJOURNS

87

Protecting a Phenomenon (The Whale Sharks of Cenderawasih Bay

International League of Conservation Photogapher(s) www.ILCP.com

 Michael AW 

 PhD, Dr. Dr. Carden Wallace, Wallace, Phd,  Arlene Batuna

73

A Naturalist in Lembeh Mike Scotland

CAPTURES

57

83

 Lionel Unch

 An Absolute Essential Essential for Digital Underwater Photographers Gillian McDonald

 Nancy Merridew OCEAN INSIDER

55

The Vizl Effect Christian Vizl Mac Gregor 

60 (Very Important Bag)

The British Society of Underwater Photographers Photographers www.bsoup.org

 V.I.P

2

MissionBlue™ Sylvia Earle Alliance www.thesealliance.org

EDITOR’S EPISTLE

Nature’s capacity for survival is evident. Take Ta Prohm, one of the many temples built in Angkor, Siam Reap, duri ng the 12th and 13th century. Today, Today, most of it is engulfed by the root s of the giant banyan and silk-cotton trees (some of them over 400 years old) growing out of its ruins. These trees start out as seedlings that take root in cracks on the roof. The roots flow down the temple walls between the rocks, pushing them apart, yet paradoxically  prov idin g suppo rt . That is, unt il the tree dies… then an enti re section of the temple will collapse. You do not need to be an engineer to realise that over a period of centuries, these trees would eventually pull the temple apart and bring it down. Trees!  And let’s not forget the 102-year- old float ing forest ; o rigi nal ly a large steam ship condemned to dismantling in Homebush Bay,  Aust ral ia, a fte r the S econd World War, it n ow hous es a fore st! Manki nd’s capacity for survival however, however, is questionable. Despite the plethora of knowledge and technology that surrounds us about climate change, ocean acidification, overfishing, rising sea levels, and the importance of our ocean to our surv ival, we seem happy to continue plodding (more likely rolling uncontrollably at this stage) down the path of self-destruction; not only ignoring but debunking and even ridiculing what scientists have been trying to tell us for decades. Instead of changing our ways, we dump even more toxins, more garbage into the ocean – the very ocean we get our seafood from. How revolting is that? There is a reason why I avoid seafood as much as possible. Perhaps the solution to overfishing is to create more awareness about marine toxic pollution. If more people knew that over  10 bill ion litres of industrial waste (excluding offshore oil and gas effluents) is discha rged directly into U.S. waters alone  every day, and heavy metals (arsenic, lead, mercury, cyanide, together with over 30 other dangerous chemicals) are often found in marine life, seafood consumption would probably decrease and overfishing would cease to be an issue. I would also like to give special mention to cancer-causing toxins such as pesticides, dioxins, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), and PAHs (poly-aromatic hydrocarbons) and radioactive waste… all of which are found in our ocean – the very ocean we swim in and eat from. Is it any wonder cancer is on the rise? We are killing our planet, and ourselves. However dismal and bleak it might seem, I like to think we still have a sliver of hope. This issue marks the start of our eighth  year of produc tion for Ocean Geogr aphic . We ha ve grow n over the last seven years, and will soon have two print and two online editions. All this is possible only because of of you; just by by being associates or members of the society, you have contributed to the production of a benchmark journal of the ocean, helping to educate and inspire conservation of our ocean. You give us that glimmer of hope for this planet. For that and your support, all of us at Ocean Geograph ic would like to say: THANK YOU.

Evonne Ong Chief Editor

lowepro.com PS: Your views consummate a meaningful relationship and keep the fire for quality burning. We value your views. Write to me at: [email protected] OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

3

Michael AW – Founder Founding Editors Joe Moreira: David Doubilet : Dr Carden Wallace : Dr Alex Mustard : Dr Ger ald Allen: Emor y Kristof : Stan Waterman : Doug Perrine : Jennifer Hayes : Christopher Lee

Charter Members  Adam Rea d  Adele ne Lynch  Adri enne Sa vage  Agnie szka Ma lkowska  Alas tair D ow  Alet a Pitst ock  Amand a Dies  Andr eas Jas chek  Andr ew Carr  Andr ew Aylet t  Anne -Mar ee Fros t  Anth ony Atki nson  Anth ony Tan  Aqua P ros Sw im Scho ol Inc  Armi n Gelt inge r Barbara Hinton Bari Gowan Barry Stimpson Bernard Hart Bob Hollis Brent Bain Brian Jones Brian Daly  Brian Newbold Carl Brandes Carle Parkhill Carly Sorensen Caroline Lim Charles Bowden Chris Kowalski Coreen Lee Pooi Yee Corpus Christi H School Craig Koltasz Craig Grube Dale Ponsford Darren Pill Dave Ball Dave Sorbo David Hettich David Hughes David Kittos David Watson Dean Boyce Deborah Bowden

Dennis Shepard Dennis Olivero Des Paroz Digant Desai Dorothy Schooling Emily Chan Eric Matson Eric Winters Erica Lansley  Ernie Brooks Faris Alsagof Fenella Cochrane Ferdie Franklin Freda Ho Gary Wilson Gary Samer Gina Mascord Gordon Brown Graeme Thomas Graham Thompson Graham Reynolds Grant Graves Gwen Shah-Ingram Gwen Noda Halszka Antoszewska Hamish Foster Heather Sowden H Bartram & C Alleway  Helke Florkowski Hellmuth Weisser Henrik Nimb Ian Sheeld-Parker Ian Barcham Ian Dewey  Ignacio Esparza Inger Vandyke Ingvar Eliasson Janna Jones Janne Hultberg Jason Santospirito Jefrey Bohn Jennifer O’Neil Jeroen Deknatel

Jessica Schoonderwaldt Jim Morrison Joanne Marston Jordan Thomson Jorgen Rasmussen Jukka Nurminen Kal Attie Kathy Nikas Kellie Wood Kian Hing Soo KL Kwang Klaas Mekking Kliment Kolosov K Bilham & F Cosgrove Larissa Cheong Leesa & David Pratt Leon Ebbelaar Lex Beatty  Malcolm Neo Malcolm Peisley  Marcel Eckhardt Margaret Flierman Marie Goarin Mark Gerlach Mark Seielstad Mark Templeman Martin Havlicek Matt Curnock Maxi Jennifer Eckes Melanie Teloniatis Michael Holme Michal Krzysztofowicz Michelle Chua Mick Moran Mickey Pascoe Mikael Jigmo Natalie Forster Nicholas Kuhn Nick Robertson-Brown Nico Paradies Nicola Goldsmith Novianti Songtono Owen Scott

Patricia Pei Voon Lee Patrick Schwarz Paul Castle Paul Double Paul Turley  Paul Gagnon Paul Ryan Peter Maerz Petrina Tay  Pij Olijnyk Ramadian Bachtiar Rebecca Simpson Robert Yee Robert Hughes Robert Lupo Dion Ron Currie Ruben Gamoo Sam & Jo Bartram Samuel Ong Sarah Jacob Selwyn Gregory Sng Simon Talbot Sol Foo Sonia Gentle Stacey Herman Steve Tucker Susan Howard Teresa Hemphill Terry Farr Tim Gleeson Tomos Hedges Tony Manning Tony & Phyll Bartram Travis Graham Troy Horsburgh  Vict or Len dzion owski  Virg inia Fa ge W D Fong Wayde Simes Wendy McIlroy  Wendy Campbell Wyland Wendy Benchley 

Charter membership is now closed. Join now as Premier Member – see p96.

www.OGSociety.org 4

BEYOND THE ORDINARY EXPEDITIONS

Life is not measured by the number of breaths we take, but by

THE MOMENTS THAT TAKE OUR BREATH AWAY BAHAMAS: FEB / MARCH

Great Hammerheads: Tiger Sharks

CUBA – JARDINES DE LA REINA: MARCH MALDIVES – BAA AND NORTHERN ATOLLS: AUGUST

Silkies & Reef sharks, Goliath Groupers and American Salt water Crocodiles

Sharks, Mantas and Rainbow Reefs

INDONESIA – CENDERAWASIH BAY: SEPTEMBER

Whale sharks, Dr Seus Reef and Ancient Sea

SOUTH AFRICA – SARDINE RUNS: JUNE

EXPEDITION LEADERS & PHOTO PRO

Christian Vizl, Mathieu Meur and Michael AW  All Ocean Geo graphic expeditio ns are specia lly resear ch and design for optimum interaction oppor tunities. Spots are limited. Ocean Geographic member priority and discount apply. OceanGeographic.org : [email protected] [email protected] OGSociety.org .org

Dolphins, Bronze Whalers, Dusky Sharks, Brydes and Humpback Whales and Gannets

The Editorial Board MICHAEL AW dirECTor & BoArd MEMBEr

Michael’s saturated colour imageries have earn him more tha 60 teatal awas; hs wk have bee featue in BBC Wildlife, National Geographic, the Smithsonian, GEo, ocea GEoGrAPHiC, Asa Gegaphc, Act Asa, natue Fcus t am e but a few. i 2010, he was a ecpet f the WYLAND ICON award for Conservation. His most glorious achievement is a Palme D’or for “Philippines – Heart of the Ocean”, won at the Wl Uewate Pctues Festval, Face 2009. He s als a ecpet f three awards from the Natural History Museum BBC Photographer of the Year Wllfe Cmpett  200 0, 2010 a  2006 he w the Best We awa   the uewate categ. Mchael AW s the fue f oceanEvmet’s a chat gazat egstee wth Evmet Austala. i 2008 Sta Waterman conferred Michael with the Peter Benchley Shark Conservation  Awa b Sh aks re seach isttu te  ec gt f hs hg hl-ee ctve a ueletg campag agast shak  sup csumpt  the Asa Pacc region. Michael is also the founder of Asian Geographic.

CARDEN WALLACE PhD HonorAry EdiTor & & BoArd MEMBEr

Carden’s research has focused on biogeography and biodiversity, particularly on corals and tropical biota. Her current interests are directed towards other tropical countries, especially Indonesia. She feels strongly that scientists should give back all they possibly can, in communicating and applying the results of their work. With her apptmet  1987 as Cuat  Chage, Cae Wallace became the st woman to head the Museum of Tropical Queensland in Townsville. Among the hgh pts  he caee was the PoL Pze f Evmetal reseach, awae  1992 t Cae alg wth fu the scetsts fm James Ck University for their exciting discovery of mass annual spawning on the Great Barrier Reef by over a hundred species of coral. This dramatic example of sexual synchronization is unique among animals, and its discovery by the team  1984 attacte mmeate scetc a mea at tet au the wl. Cae s a ba membe f oceanEvmet

JENNIFER HAYES HonorAry EdiTor

Je s a aquatc eclgst wh has cllecte a cuple f gauate egees  zlg, mae a shees blg. She came into underwater journalism (photography and wtg) ut f shee ecesst t elve ull scetc presentations and publications . To put it simply, simply, strong images f acet stuges spawg, hatchg, mgatg ae tel more captivating to an audience than bar graphs and pie charts. Photography and science lead to natural history articles and then into popular journalism. Je fme a pateshp wth dav dublet  1999 a c-fue the stck pht cmpa; Uesea images ic. Je a dav c-phtgaph and write for assignment features for numerous domestic and international publications, ad shoots and book projects.

DAVID DOUBILET

David is the world’s most celebrated underwater phtgaphe wth ve ft stes publshe  natal Geographic. David challenges himself to redefine photographic boundaries each time he enters the water. His passion is the undersea majesty of light and how to capture it. Completely at home on a coral re ef, a World War II wreck, a deep dark fjord or among the great giants in our sea, David has relentlessly pursued the many hidden layers of cora l reefs around the globe. His cold water wor k has mmese hm  the ch wates f new Zeala, Tasmaa, Sctla, Japa, the nthwest Atlatc a n theast Pacc. recet phtgaphc jues have taken him into some of the largest freshwater systems on our planet such as the great Okavango Delta system in Botswana and the St. Lawrence River.

EMORY KRISTOF HonorAry EdiTor

Em’s phtgaph has scvee the uexple wls f the eep sea. i August 1998 Kstf’s pctues f the Titanic were presented in the National Geographic magazine article, “Tragedy in Three Dimensions.” The pictures, taken  1991 emplg hgh-test lghtg sstems, acheve upeceete etal ue t avaces  3-d cmpute veetg. B  1942, Kstf stue jualsm at the Uvest f Ma la at Cllege Pak a eceve a bachel’s egee  1964. Kstf was a natal

6

This is a production from the hearts and souls of a passionate team. We are blessed with the suppor t of some of the most published authors and image makers of our natural world.  OceanNEnvironment is privileged to introduce the editorial board of  OCEAN GEOGRAPHIC the almanac of our seas.

Board of Directors, OceanNEnvironment Ltd

Gegaphc sta phtgap he fm 1964 t 1994 a has puce 39 atcle s for the National Geographic magazine. Kristof’s accomplishments have earned many awards for both writing and photography photography,, including the NOGI Award for  Ats fm the Ue wate  Sce t f Ame ca  1988 a a Exple s Club Lwell Thmas Awa f Uewate Explat  1986. That same ea Kristof received the American Society of Magazine Publishers Innovation in Photography Award for their photographic coverage of the Titanic. Kristof was pesete wth the 1998 J. Wt Leme Fellwshp Awa b the U.S. National Press Photographers Association “for being one of our profession’s most imaginative innovators with particular attention to pictures from beneath the ocean brought to the readers of National Geographic magazine.”

STAN WATERMAN HonorAry EdiTor

Stan has been at the forefront of scuba diving since its inception as a recreational sport both at home and throughout the world. Stan was co-director of underwater photography and the second unit in the production of The Deep, a movie based on Peter Benchley’s best-selling novel. novel. More recent productions include documentaries for ABC’s “Spt f Avetue” sees a the “Expet Eath” sees  ESPn. Sta has eceve umeus hus a awas f hs wk  televs, clug ve Emmes, tw Gl Meals fm the U.K. Uewate Flm Festval, fu Gle Eagles, a lfetme Achevemet Awa fm the Mam Exp a fm Bst Sea rves, the Custeau dve f the yea Awa, the Richard Hopper Day Memorial Medal from the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, and most recently has been inducted to the International Scuba dvg Hall f Fame.

DOUG PERRINE HonorAry EdiTor

Doug is widely regarded as one of the world’s foremost marine wildlife photographers. His photographs have been reproduced in virtually every major nature magazine in the world, as well as in thousands of books, calendars, greeting cards, posters, etc. His photography has won a number of awards, including the prestigious BBC/ British Gas Wildlife Photographer of the Year competition in the animal behaviour category and the Nature’s Best/Cemex competition in the Professional Marine Wildlife category. He is also the author of seven books on marine life, and numerous magazine articles.

GERALD ALLEN PHD HonorAry EdiTor

Gerald is an internationally renowned authority on the classcat a eclg f cal eef shes f the ia a Pacc oceas. He s the auth f 31 bks a 400 scetc publcats. He has a tmate kwlege f sh lfe  cal eefs, havg lgge me tha 7,000 ves. Fel studies form an integral part of Dr. Allen’s research, probably more so than any other marin e biologist. He receive d a Ph.D. in marine zoolog y fm the Uvest  f Hawa  1971, 1971, havg e hs thess  aemeshes. He seve as Cuat f Fshes at the Weste Aust ala Museum  Peth f 24 years before leaving to take a position with Conservation International as their Scece Team Leae. He s a past Peset f the Austala Scet f Fsh Biology, an honorary foreign member of the Ame rican Society of Ichthyology and Herpetology, and a recent recipient of the prestigious K. Radway Allen  Award for O utstan ding Contr ibutions in Ichthyol ogical Scie nce.

The Editorial Board WYLAND HonorAry EdiTor

Marine life artist Wyland has developed an international reputation for his commitment to marine life conservation. Most notable, is his monumental marine life murals, the Whaling Walls. Spanning thousands of square feet, these massive works of art expose the thrilling diversity and beauty of life that exists below the surface of our ocean planet to more than one billion people each year. Today, this multi-faceted artist works in multiple meums, fm ls, wate clus, aclcs, Japaese k patgs, bze sculptues, e art photography, and mixed media.

HOWARD AND MICHELE HALL HonorAry EdiTorS

Howard and Michele are perhaps best known for their underwater iMAX® flms – it the deep 1994, isla f the Shaks 1998 espectvel. i 2002 Hwa was uewate sequece ect a Mchele was lcat maage f Cal reef Avetue, a lm  whch bth he a Mchele ae featue -camea. i 2005 the ecte a puce deep Sea 3d whch was awae Best Pctue at the Gat Scee Cema Asscat Cfeece a Best Lage Fmat Flm at Wlscee 2006. i 2009 the Hall’s elease Ue the Sea 3d. Ths lm w best cematgaph at the Gat Scee Cema Asscat Cfeece  2009 a Best dcumeta at the iteatal 3d Scet  2010. Hwa’s caee as a uewate atual hst lm puce, cematgaphe, stll phtgaphe a wte bega  the eal 1970’s. 1970’s. Hs photographs have been published internationally in hundreds of books and magazines clug: Lfe, natual Hst Magaze, natal Gegaphc, GEo, Tee Sauvage, London Illustrated News, and BBC Wildlife. Howard has authored several books including Shaks, dlphs, The Kelp Fest, Successful Uewate Phtgaph, a Secets f the Ocean Realm. Michele Hall is an accomplishe d still photographer whose imag es have bee publshe b natal Gegaphc, Fathms, natal Wllfe, ocea realm, a ma the magazes a bks. Hwa a Mchele have w seve Emm Awas.

DIRECTOR

Michael AW

RESEARCH & PUBLISHER ASSISTANT Jaca EDITOR EMERITUS CHIEF EDITOR

Jgm

Christopher Lee

Eve og

Em Kstf, Wla, Carden Wallace PhD, Gerry Allen PhD, Alex Mustard PhD, dav dublet, Jefe Haes, dug Pee, Stan Waterman, Michelle Hall and Howard Hall, Laurent Ballesta HONORARY EDITORS

FEATURE EDITOR

Gill McDonald

SCIENCE EDITOR Alex FIELD EDITORS

Ro se

Pamela Mat, Steve Jes

COPY AND FIELD EDITOR: COPY EDITORS

Mathieu Meur

Mathieu Meur, Gill McDonald

OCEANOGRAPHER-IN-RESIDENCE Cabell

Davis PhD

PHOTOGRAPHERS-IN-RESIDENCE Mkael

Jgm, Jge rasmusse, Matheu Meu, F Pu We, Chsta Vzl CONTRIBUTORS  Mike

Scotland, Steve De Neef, Nancy Merridew, Jae Jeks, Mchelle Westmla, Jae Mga, Elle Culeats, Chale Fasa, Mak Ehma, Alee Batua DESIGNER P.S Looi PRODUCTION CO-ORDINATOR ADVERTISING & EVENTS

Daniel Tay

Gill Sands

ACCOUNTS & CIRCULATION Aliso n

Redh ead

OCEANENVIRONMENT – EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

CHRISTOPHER LEE EdiTor EMEriTUS

Christopher was the co-founder of Asian Geographic and the managing et f sx eas utl 2005. Chs was als beh the successful transformation of Scuba Diver Australasia, and was its managing editor utl 2005. He has wke  a age f mae csevat ssues clug the successful Sa n t Shak s campag. Chs has als seve  the ba f oceanEvmet. Bulg  hs eal caee  ecmc eseach, he s cuetl a Se Ecmst wth the depa tmet f Evmet and Climate Change (NSW) in Australia.

LAURENT BALLESTA HonorAry EdiTor

Laurent is a marine scientist, photo journalist and documentary maker f the Fech TV pgam Ushuaa natue. He was the ugest phtgaphe t have w thee Gl ve awas at the Wl Festval f Uewate Pctues. i i 2005, Lauet authe wth Pee descamp “Plaète Mes” – the bk was late taslate t ve laguages a publshe b natal Gegaphc. He was the s t t captue the Celacath  the habtat at 110m. Lauet s als the auth f “Secets e Méteaée” whch was the st t eveal the eep wate (180m) f the Meteaea Sea.

Cassandra Dragon (Australasia), Gillian McDonald (UK), David Borus (USA), Ronny Rengkung (Indonesia) Eml Cha (Sgape) MUSIC DIRECTOR

Ec Bettes

BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT MANAGER

Sidney Seok (Malaysia) [email protected] [email protected] PHOTO SUBMISSIONS [email protected] ADVERTISING [email protected] FEEDBACK [email protected] CUSTOMER SERVICE

EDITORIAL ENQUIRIES

www.OGSociety.org www.OceanGeographic.org SUPPORTING ORGANISATIONS

Published by OceanNEnvironment Ltd Member of Environment Australia CABELL DAVIS PhD oCEAnoGrAPHiC in rESidEnCE

Cabell is a Senior Scientist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution a s the dect f WHoi’s ocea Lfe isttute wth ve 30 eas’ expeece  plakt eclg. He has cucte eseach  50 oceanographic cruises and co-developed the Video Plankton Recorder, an underwater video microscope with automatic imaging of high-resolution fragile plankton data. He re cently worked with MIT engineers to develop a small underwater digital holographic camera for imaging plankton. He is now melg the mpact f clmate chage  the shees ecsstem.

OCEAN GEOGRAPHIC AUSTRALIA:

Po Bx 2138 Calgf Cut, nSW 2118 Austala Tel: +61 2 9686 3688 Fax: +61 2 9686 8438 OceanEnvironment.org

OceanNEnvironment.net

PRINTED BY:

Colourscan Co (Pte) Ltd www.colourscan.com.sg

  EVONNE ONG CHiEF EdiTor

dacg. dvg. dugs. nt ece ssal  that e  e  a specc combination (in case you are wondering). Drugs are her profession. A pharmacist who has spent most of her career lecturing and training, she cuetl vesees the tag wth Asa-Pacc f a phamaceutcal cmpa. dvg s he lve. A av ve sce 1998, he lve f the ocean and wildlife conservation, led her to progress from land to underwater photography,, and eventually cross paths with Michael Aw. After a good deal of photography cajlg b Mchael Aw, she all state  etg he st full ssu e  2011 2011 a has t lke back since. She has since written several ar ticles for the magazine as well as newspapers, been involved in several projects with OG and has also been a judge in several international underwater photography competitions. Dance is her passion. If you want to know more, you will have to ask her when you meet her!

DISTRIBUTOR SINGAPORE: DISTRIBUTOR AUSTRALIA: DISTRIBUTION UK: DISTRIBUTION USA: DISTRIBUTOR INDONESIA:

MICA (P) 142/08/2013

MPH Pte Ltd NDD Distribution Pty Ltd PHONE: 61 (02) 9381 3100 Gill McDonald David Borus PT Javabks iesa PHONE: +62 21 4682 1088 ISSN 1834-910

ALL RIGHT RESERVED:

©OCEAN GEOGRAPHIC, OceanNEnvironment Reproduction in any form, electronic, print, photocopy or extract s whole or in part is prohibited. OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

7

OUT NOW 

 The 100th Year Tribute to Ernest Shackleton’s Endurance End urance A ntarct ntarctic ic (1914) Ex Expe pedition dition CAPTURED BY SOME OF THE WORLD’S MOST CELEBRATED WILDLIFE PHOTOGRAPHERS , this limited edition tribute comprises the absolute nest of over 20,000 images. Only 1914 copies Fine Art Production  AUTH OR Michael AW

PRINCIPAL PHOTOGRAPHERS Michael AW: Ernie Brooks: David Doubilet : Jennifer Hayes :  Andr eas J asche k : Am os Nac houm : Jenny E. Ros s

 ART IST Wyland

SUPPORTING PHOTOGRAPHERS Emory Kristof, Steve Jones, Davide Vezzaro, Edward Dixon, Scott Portelli, Jorgen Rasmussen, Carl Brandes, Eric Bettens, Emily Chan, Stephen Henshall, Alhay Avila, Bartosz Strozynski, Henry Yip, Elizabeth Quat, Wendy McIlroy, Gwen Noda, Chris Chan





Box bound edition with Five ready-to-frame prints packaged A$198 Classic case-bound limited edition A$118

*Each book comes with it own Certicate of Authenticity 

Order your Copy now To order an autographed copy, email us at: [email protected]  Part of the pr ocee oceeds ds from the sale sal e of Elysium Ely sium Epic Ep ic will wil l go towar ds the Ocean Geographic Ocean Change Photographic Index (GOCPI). This  index focuse s on spec speciation iation,, habit habitat at and clim climate ate change image images s for education and research assessment.

OceanGeographic.org : ELYSIUMEPIC.org

to or 

EAT EA T

NOT TO EAT (Sustainable Seafood)

Essay by Alex Rose | Photographs by  Michael AW  AW 

Essay  Understanding what sustainable seafood truly means and using our collective buying power to SHIFT GLOBAL DEMAND TOW TOWARDS MORE ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY OPTIONS.

 W 

all

to shift global demand towards more

growth”. However, our growth has been

up

environmentally friendly options are the

far from sustainable. The Industrial

knowing that

waves of the future. It is no longer a case

Revolution forever changed the way we

seafood is a

of “plenty of fish in the ocean”. In order

fish, and signalled the beginning of the

healthy part

to get a clearer picture of exactly what

of our diet,

“plenty” once was (so that we have a goal

but is it healthy for our planet? Bluefin

in mind when discussing the rebuilding

tuna has been fished to the brink of

of fisheries), we will need to begin by

extinction, wild salmon spawning runs

travelling back into the pre-industrial

get sparser each year, the north Atlantic

world.

e

have

grown

destructive fishing practices in which we currently find ourselves. With the advent of steam-powered ships, humans were now able to regularly

cod fishery collapsed in the early 1990s,

a

employ quite possibly the most efficient,

advancement,

 yet destructive method of fishing ever

ways ever invented. This may make a

growth, and invention associated with

conceived: the beam trawl. This piece of

trip to the grocery store to pick up a

hallmarks of progress such as the steam

equipment is nothing more than a large

engine, telegraph, reliable light bulbs,

net held open by a wood or metal beam

canned

assembly

that is then dragged through the ocean,

lines, and incredible expansion of our

but until steam was used to power fishing

and wild shrimp is harvested in one of

The

the most environmentally destructive

 period

 piece of “sustainable” “sustainable” seafood for dinner seem like a daunting task but it all comes down to being a conscious consumer. We must all be aware of the choices we have and which ones are good for both

Industrial of

Revolution

incredible

food,

large-scale

was

world’s canals, roads, and railways.

 vessels, sailing ships driven by wind wind alone alone were not strong enough to haul these huge

our bodies and our environment. Fishery

The foundations of daily life changed

management practices that accurately

drastically as massive improvements

reflect the needs of fish populations

in mining, manufacturing, technology,

instead of the relentlessly increasing

agriculture, and transportation altered the

actually convened commissions starting

human demand, and laws that reward

socioeconomic and cultural landscape of

in the late 1870s with the goal of reducing

sustainable fishing methods and punish

our existence. Nobel Prize winner and

the carnage brought on by trawlers,

the opposite are also necessary if we are

economist, Robert E. Lucas, Jr., once

catalysed by an already apparent decline

to continue harvesting our ocean beyond

said, “For the first time in history, the

in fish catches in the North Sea. These

living standards of the masses of ordinary

efforts did nothing to curb the steady

 people have begun to undergo sustained

growth of a fleet of t rawlers increasing increasing in

the middle of this century. Understanding what sustainable seafood truly means and using our collective buying power

10

age of un sustainable and environmentally

Fish…to Eat or Not to Eat

nets. The pestilential power of trawls was recognized and regularly debated long before their widespread use. The English

size, destructive capacity, and numbers.

PRAWN FISHERIES PRAWN FISHERIE S ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR ONE THIRD OF THE WORLD'S DISCARDED CATCH, CA TCH, DESPITE PRODUCING LESS THAN TWO PERCENT OF GLOBAL SEAFOOD

Essay  Trawling nets are now equipped with chains, rock hoppers and giant tires which allow the nets to be dragged over uneven terrain, decimating al l underwater habitats as they are pulled along the ocean bed.

T

r a w l e r s indiscriminately capture all living things

in

their

 path and leave in a

their

wake

complete

destruction

of

the seafloor. This

was evident at the turn of the century when fishermen tried to demand that their governments outlaw the use of these detrimental fishing practices. A New England newspaper article in 1911 stated that, “the continued operation of these trawlers scraping over the fishing grounds

The world’s wild catch remains at an astronomical 170 billion pounds annually; this amount is equal in weight to the entire human population of China!

and destroying countless numbers of  young and immature fish, is the greatest menace to the future of fisheries, and the greatest danger the fisheries have

T

ever faced along this coast”. Sadly, not only did these factual proclamations not reduce trawler use, this fishing method has grown ever more efficient. Nets are now equipped with chains (to stir up all remaining wildlife) rock hoppers and giant tires which allow the nets to be dragged over uneven terrain, decimating all habitats as they are pulled along the ocean bed. According to the Alaska Marine Conservation Council, 82% of everything caught by bottom trawling in North Pacific Prawn trawlers catch 10-20kg of marine species in the tropics to obtain just 1kg of prawns. This "bycatch"" is dis carded, dead or dying, overboard. "bycatch

fisheries is unwanted bycatch, which is discarded dead and dying back into the ocean. Factors like this one make it almost impossible to accurately estimate the damage done by trawling, but one does not need to be a fisheries biologist to comprehend the magnitude of biomass loss brought about by trawlers and other types

of

environmentally

destructive

fishing methods such as long lining and dynamite fishing.

12

Fish…to Eat or Not to Eat

ONE-AND-A-HALF CENTURIES OF RAMPANT PILLAGING of our world’s waters by unsustainable shing practices,

has reduced the bounty of our seas to a mere glimmer of what it once was. rampant

collapses began to occur, the validity of

(Gadus morhua) will ever return to their

 pillaging of our world’s world’s waters by

the idea that our ocean could be overfished

former levels of abundance, nor will

unsustainable

has

was dismissed as impossible. Even into

they really be the same fish. This is due

reduced the bounty of our seas to a mere

the early 1980s, the U.S was still heavily

to two main factors: our unintentional

glimmer of what it once was. It has been

subsidizing the expansion of the American

selective alteration of the cod genome,

determined that all the major stocks of

fishing fleet to the tune of about $800

and the scarcity of fish for cod to eat. By

large fish in the world such as cod, tuna,

million in order to make up for declining

fishing a stock to collapse, we are taking

swordfish, halibut, and many others

catch numbers. This huge increase in

out the biggest fish first, followed by the

have been reduced to approximately

fishing pressure along with the use of the

next biggest fish, etc. By the time a stock

10% of what their populations were in

ubiquitous ocean destroyer, the trawler,

has reached the stage of collapse, the

the 1950s. Ironically, this is the number

brought about something unimaginable:

only fish left that are still reproducing

associated with the total “collapse” of a

the collapse of the Atlantic cod fishery. In

and consequently passing on their genes,

fishery, a term defined as “a state where

1992, the Canadian government closed the

are much smaller than what the average

90 percent or more of the historical

Grand Banks to cod fishing and in 1994,

sized fish used to be prior to intense

 population  population is gone.” It has also been

the Georges Banks, known as the most

overfishing. Studies show that “removal

shown that it only takes 10 to 15 years

 prolific cod fishing grounds grounds in the United

of 70-80 percent of a fish population

of modern industrial fishing pressure to

States and the area whose abundance

has a certain degree of reversibility…

reduce any healthy fish community to

gave Cape Cod its name, were officially

in a case where 20-30 percent of fish are

this 10% mark. Yet the world’s wild catch

closed to commercial cod fishing. This

still in the water, the population may be

remains at an astronomical 170 billion

“industrial fish” that had been the very

unstable and vulnerable but still has a

 pounds annually; this amount is equal in

image of plenty and the definition of

reasonable potential for recovery because

weight to the entire human population

commonness, was nearly wiped out and

the genome of the stock is not likely to

of China! As fish populations shrank, our

only about 5% of the historic population of

have been heavily depleted”. When 90

fishing methods were made even more

cod remained. Great care has been taken

 percent or or more of the fish have been been lost,

efficient in order to extract the same

since the closing of these once-fecund

it is probable that the entire fish genome

amount of seafood. Even as I write, our

fishing grounds, and the Sustainable

has been affected and that a full recovery

last giant bluefin tunas are being hunted

Fisheries Act was passed in 1996, to

is unlikely; this is the scenario playing

down by sophisticated sonar in the largely

ensure that these populations are rebuilt

out in the North Atlantic cod fishery. By

unmanageable international waters of the

in a reasonable timeframe. Policy makers

catching all the big animals, fishermen

open ocean, and slaughtered to feed our

are always under extreme pressure from

have inadvertently selected for smaller

bottomless appetite for sashimi. There are

fishing interests to raise allowable catch

fish. The other major problem is that the

too many exploited populations of fish to

limits to satisfy our growing demand for

fish populations that cod depend on for

cover in anything less than a book, but in

whitefish flesh, a requirement on the order

food are also drastically declining. Cod

an effort to succinctly analyse the nature

of 40 billion pounds annually (that is the

eat fish in the herring family, all of which

and condition of our world’s fisheries, I

equivalent of 41,000 fully loaded Boeing

require open access to clean, shallow,

will focus on four representative marine

747s), but have managed to maintain some

freshwater spawning grounds, conditions

animals and the issues associated with

of these crucial cod breeding grounds as

which have all but disappeared as a result

each of them: cod, salmon, tuna, and

no catch zones, allowing their decimated

of dam construction. These prey species

shrimp.

 populations  populations to recover recover and stabilize. stabilize.

are also being harvested from the ocean at

One-and-a-half

centuries fishing

of

practices,

unsustainable rates, essentially ensuring  All the way up until until the 1970s when when some

However, even with these regulations,

that cod will be unable to return to their

of the first documented local fishery

it is unlikely that the North Atlantic cod

original range or density due to a lack of food.

OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

13

Essay 

here

been

 populations  populations has been well documented documented

up to British Columbia, Alaska, and parts

both

since the end of the 19th century when

of Russia, and the fishing of these fragile

and

countless river tributaries were dammed

sub-populations is heavily regulated and

reasonable

for power generation, cutting off the

monitored from one year to the next,

fish,

access these fish need to their natal

but even this has not kept the runs from

which

spawning grounds. There is Atlantic and

diminishing or oceanic salmon from being

entirely

Pacific salmon and both are anadromous

caught.

successful. Farming cod, or any large

fish, meaning that they live, feed, and

 predatory fish for that that matter, matter, represents a

grow in the sea, but return to fresh water

While there is not much wild sal mon to be

net loss in terms of marine protein removed

to reproduce. Each fish will come back

had, our supermarkets are all overflowing

from the sea because several pounds of

to spawn only in the waters from which

with their succulent orange flesh. This is

feed are required to make one pound of

it hatched, making salmon extremely

because the majority of the salmon we

saleable fish. This poor feed conversion

susceptible to local extirpations resulting

consume is farm raised. Being a large

ratio

to

from anthropogenic changes in natural

 predatory fish, salmon must consume

farm and buy, as well as contributes to

landscapes. Between the damming of

large amounts of food in order to sustain

T makes

overfishing

are lower on the food chain. Replacing cod with different been

attempts farm find

has

predators

been

expensive

SALMON HAS BEEN CALLED “THE KING OF FISH,”

has

the

New

Zealand

hoki

fishery

sustainably hopes

of

themselves

was an effort

in

a

neither

difficult

grow

cod

“replacement”

as well. There to

to

of

small fish that

whitefish

have

of

but unfortunately has not been treated that way. Salmon farms have been linked with a range of

SERIOUS, DEVASTATING, IMPACTS IMPACTS ON THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

div ert ing

14

and

gain

enough

weight

to

be

able

to

the

incredibly

strenuous

make and

time consuming  journey

from

the open ocean back

to

their

fres hwat er s p a w n i n g grounds.

This

means that the feed conversion ratio for salmon

our consumption of cod, but the hoki

rivers and streams, which barred them

is atrocious. Over the last few decades,

fishery also collapsed under the weight of

from reproducing, and the aggressive

salmon have been selectively bred to

demand and improperly set catch limits.

fishing of the largest known aggregation

grow faster and get to “market size” on

 Alaskan pollock is currently filling the

of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo

in the

much less food than wild salmon needs.

 void left by cod with an annual annual harvest of

waters off Greenland beginning in the

It takes 10 kilograms of small fish and

2 billion pounds, primarily made into fish

1950s, wild populations of these fish are

other prey items to produce 1 kilogram

sticks and other highly processed, cheap

now virtually non-existent and none are

of wild salmon, whereas it only takes

whitefish products. It is yet to be seen

commercially fished. The story of the

about four kilograms of feed to produce

if pollock can withstand this collection

Pacific salmon in the genus Oncorhynchus

one kilogram of farmed salmon. This is

 pressure long long term.

is decidedly different. These fish birth

still a problematic ratio that reflects an

and spawn in the rivers and tributaries

unfortunately large net seafood loss, but

The next fish on our menu is salmon.

of the American Pacific northwest and

is probably the least disturbing aspect of

Salmon has been called “The King of

Russia, and spend most of their lives in

salmon farming.

Fish,” but unfortunately has not been

the Bering Sea. Increasingly sparse runs

treated that way. The decline of salmon

of these fish still occur from California

Fish…to Eat or Not to Eat

salar )

xxxxxxxxxxxx

Pollutants are not the only problem  facing fa rmed sa lmons. Re cent studies have found contamination  with rad ioactive w aste and t here are concerns about the use of malachite green to kill parasites and infections.

F

arming of carnivorous

farm one of the most predatory animals

 Atlantic Tun Tuna a (ICCA (ICCAT), T), and every year

fish

presents

in the ocean. As such, the feed conversion

these same catch limits are dramatically

many problems. Salmon

for bluefin tuna is incredibly high at 20:1,

broken because there are few ways to

are

commonly

meaning that it requires 20 kilograms of

enforce the laws governing the take of

farmed in open ocean

food to produce 1 kilogram of tuna. This

seafood from the open ocean. If we are

netted pens where they

may sound like a financially suicidal

to save these fish without imposing a

are in close contact with wild populations

investment, but the desire for this fish

worldwide moratorium on the catching of

of salmon. This is a serious issue because

only seems to be increasing along with its

bluefins, we must radically decrease our

many farmed populations of salmon

scarcity.

consumption of these amazing creatures.

species most

harbour parasites such as sea lice due

“Dining on a 230 kilo bluefin tuna is the

to unnaturally high stocking density, and

This insatiable drive to catch every last

seafood equivalent of driving a Hummer,”

as wild fish swim near the pens, they

bluefin can only be illustrated by the

says Paul Greenberg, author of Four Fish,

become infected too. This is particularly

following: a single tuna weighing 220

and should be avoided entirely.

detrimental to young wild salmon and

kilograms was sold in Japan’s infamous

they often perish. Antibiotics are also

Tsukiji fish market for 1.8 million dollars

Eating one kilo of bluefin tuna is roughly

used to control disease and these are

last year. Considering that breeding adult

the same as eating 200 kilos of less

then released directly into the ocean.

bluefins can weigh over 680 kilograms, this

resource demanding seafood such as

There are usually “dead zones,” areas of

was a small fish, and yet it commanded a

tilapia, sardines, or shellfish. While it

low oxygen where life cannot survive,

mind-boggling price of almost $8,108 per

is favourable to consume sea creatures

beneath these fish pens as a result of

kilo. The breeding stock of these animals

that are lower on the food chain in place

large amounts of animal waste and

is being decimated at an alarming rate and

of eating our ocean’s top predators, this

uneaten pellet food being degraded via

it is estimated that there could be as few

will not necessarily solve our problems.

decomposition, a process that consumes

as 9,000 giant spawners left in the western

Shrimp is a prime example of this paradox.

oxygen. There is also the issue of large

stock of the North Atlantic. As explained

Trawling is still the most common method

 percentages  percentag es of farmed salmon escaping

by Charles Clover in his book The End of

used to capture shrimp in the wild, a

and competing with wild salmon for

the Line, “The eastern Atlantic bluefin is

 practice that is responsi responsible ble for levelling

food. Farming salmon is currently not

now listed as an endangered species and

seascapes and wiping out entire species.

an environmentally friendly alternative

estimated to be equivalent to the giant

Wild shrimp have one of the highest

to catching wild fish, but perhaps the

 panda in its closenes closenesss to extinction extinction.. The

bycatch rates of anything in the ocean,

near future will bring us a land-based

western Atlantic bluefin stock is in even

with 10–14 kilograms of unwanted bycatch

 polyculture  polycultu re system of fish, algae, and

worse shape and is officially described

for every kilograms of shrimp produced.

filter feeders that reduces waste while

as critically endangered. That puts it in

It is estimated that up to 22 billion pounds

minimizing the environmental impact of

the same bracket as the black rhino.”

of seafood may be discarded annually as

eating a predator.

These incredible animals that can travel

bycatch, including not just fish but sea

at speeds topping 64 kilometres per

turtles, marine mammals, and sea birds

 A fish that should never be farmed is

hour and accelerate faster than most

as well. According to a 2009 marine policy

bluefin tuna, yet this is an idea being

European sports cars, have been fished to

study, “All modern forms of commercial

 promoted as a “solution” to our great

the brink of extinction, making them the

fishing produce bycatch, but shrimp

dilemma with this animal. It is not so

most threatened wildlife that we are still

trawling is by far the most destructive:

much farming; it is really just fattening.

allowed by law to eat.

it is responsible for a third of the world's

This unfortunate practice involves netting

bycatch, while producing only 2 percent

shoals of young bluefins, keeping them in

The

bluefin

sea cages, and feeding them huge amounts

difficult

their

overfishing of all species, annual catches

of wild caught forage fish until they are fat

habitat falls into the category of the

of shrimp are decreasing together with

enough to sell. This method is intensely

“high seas,” a part of the ocean that is

their average size.

flawed because not only is it doing

essentially unmanageable. Catch limits

nothing to reduce the fishing pressure

are set each year by the International

on these animals, but it is attempting to

Commission for the Conservation of

to

fishery manage

is

particularly

because

of all seafood”. As is typical with the

20 KILOGRAMS OF FOOD F OOD TO PRODUCE 1KILOGRAM OF TUNA. TUNA. IT REQUIRES

Essay  arming of shrimp

Examining the poor condition of four of

so the fish that are left have somewhere

is a valid option,

our ocean’s most iconic seafood species

safe to spawn and grow, while pressuring

but

way

can be rather disheartening as it seems

governments to limit subsidies that

coastal

as though we may have already pushed

encourage unsustainable fishing practices.

shrimp farming

our fragile marine ecosystems beyond

We need to regulate and monitor fishing

is conducted is

the point of recovery (in some instances

to reduce the amount of illegal catch,

detrimental

to

this might indeed be the case). If global

while

shoreline

overfishing continues at its present rate,

global demand for seafood by choosing

habitats. The organic wastes, antibiotics,

most of our world’s fisheries will collapse

sustainable options in our daily lives. It

and chemicals associated with raising

by the year 2050. We are harvesting

is also important not to underestimate

these marine animals in large densities

seafood at a much faster rate than it can

the power of conscious consumerism,

often wind up polluting ground water and

be naturally replaced; 80 percent of our

and programs such as Seafood Watch,

estuarine wetlands . As stated by the World World

world’s fish stocks are already either fully

Fish Watch, and Right Bite have created

Wildlife Fund, “In some cases, ecologically-

exploited or in decline. Pavan Sukhdev of

“seafood guides” to help us all make

sensitive habitat has been cleared to

the UN Environmental Programme said

better choices.

create ponds for shrimp production. Also,

that, “We are in the situation where 40

some aquifers that supply water to farms

 years down the line we, effectively, effectively, are

If

have been contaminated with salt water.

out of fish.”

destroy

F

the

most

our

left

simultaneously

unchecked, the

modulating

our

(overfishing)

will

ecosystem

and

marine

 jeopardize the food security of more

Some forms of shrimp farming have had a devastating effect on mangroves around

The good thing about knowing these

than a billion people for whom fish are a

the world. These mangroves are vital for

statistics, however discouraging they may

 primary source of protein. The Food and

wildlife and coastal fisheries, and serve as

be, is that we still have time to change our

 Agricultural Organization Organization confirmed confirmed that,

buffers to the effects of storms. Their loss

future. Much of the damage that has been

“One in five people on this planet depends

has destabilized entire coastal zones, with

done is at least reversible to some extent

on fish as the primary source of protein.”

negative effects on coastal communities.”

if we are able to accurately measure and

Shrimp farming has the potential to be

effectively manage remaining fish stocks,

Overfishing is ultimately robbing future

both sustainable and highly profitable, but

modify and minimize destructive fishing

generations of their food supply for the

it must be conducted in environmentally

methods, protect vulnerable ecosystems,

temporary

friendly ways that do not contribute to

and change our eating habits. We must

today and must be stopped before there is

 pollution and habitat habitat destruction. destruction.

establish more Marine Protected Areas

no chance of recovery. So, what are you

profitability

of

companies

having for dinner?

THE GOOD THING ABOUT KNOWING KNOWING,, however discouraging they may be, is that

 WE STILL HAVE HAVE TIME TO CHANGE OUR OUR FUTURE. 18

Fish…to Eat or Not to Eat

 YOU ARE

INVITED

TO A BENCHMARK EXPEDITION THAT REDEFINES

A RT RT,, EXPLORATION & THE CONSERVATION OF OUR PLANET.  Join the principal team comprising of Dr Sylvia Earle, David Doubilet, Jennifer Hayes, Ernie Brooks, Michael AW, Amos Nachoum, Wyland, Göran Ehlmé, and Leandro Blanco  in August 2015, on a mission to capture the sights, sounds and splendour of the enthralling Arctic, in an exquisite book, a film and exhibitions across eight major cities. The expedition will start from Longyearbyen to North Spitsbergen, North and East Greenland and end in Iceland. Besides panoramas of glaciers, icebergs and snowy mountains, the expedition will focus on polar bears, walruses, belugas, narwals,  Arctic foxes, auks, snowy owls, muskoxen, Arctic hares, fin and blue whales.

If you are a naturalist, scientist, photographer, fine art artist or musician, consider securing YOUR LEGACY in this expedition by using your

INSPIRING GREATER  APPRECIATION  APPRECIATION AND LOVE FOR THE ARCTIC AND A GREATER  AW  AWARENESS OF THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CLIMATE CHANGE. talent towards

For an application form and more information: [email protected] ELYSIUMEPIC.ORG : OCEANGEOGRAPHIC.ORG

BLUE

Top : Humpback whales  Bottom : Weddell Seal, Terre Adelie Antarctic

COURTESY DISNEYNATURE'S OCEANS 

B

Capt Don Walsh presenting at Blue Ocean Film Festival

ringing

together a potent mix of artists, scientists,

Kinder, launched the concept of BLUE

together a diverse ecosystem of ocean

conservationists,

all-stars, industry professionals and the

industry

decision

makers,

five years ago to meet the need for public

inquisitive

teachers,

engagement around an ocean in need.

general public, the BLUE Ocean Film

lively kids and more. Come to be in the

“Film and photography are powerful

Festival & Conservation Summit (BLUE)

company of kindred spirits. Come to

tools for reaching broad audiences about

goes beyond showcasing the world’s best

be entertained, inspired, informed and

complicated issues in ways that people

ocean films. These hundreds of films are

make useful contacts. Come to have a

can understand and relate to,” said

merely the tip of the iceberg, just one

good time… whatever strums your blue

Charlie. “We understand how challenging

facet

heartstring, but just come!”

even the best film ideas can be to get off

of

 platform

BLUE’s for

multi-disciplinary

collaboration, collaboration,

leaders,

creative

the ground and wanted to help in that

expression and discussion of complex

BLUE attracts people working to save our

 process by bringing the right people

issues. It has become the premier watering

ocean, which undeniably needs each one

together.”

hole for governments, scientists, artists,

of us being innovative and collaborative.

explorers, actors, and ocean enterprises,

Events have included a “blue who’s who”

In 2013, an announcement was made that

 providing  providing a springboard springboard for individual individual

of luminaries including James Cameron,

BLUE, the Prince Albert II Foundat ion and

empowerment and stewardship to help

HSH Prince Albert II, Daryl Hannah, Jean

the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco

save Earth’s blue life support system.

Michel Cousteau and other celebrities

would team up to host the summit on

who are in the spotlight, along with the

alternate years, between Monaco and

Launched in 2009 in Savannah, Georgia,

ocean’s

the St. Petersburg/Tampa Bay area. The

the festival combines the international

behind the scenes.

greatest

advocates

working

strategic partnership with Monaco allows

ocean film festival with a world-class

the festival to further its international

conservation summit and film-making

The

industry conference. Recognised as a

competition

 platform for synergy, synergy, BLUE has become

filmmaking and the visual media. BLUE’s

During the official announcement of

the most magnetic event in the global

Conservation Summit and industry and

the partnerships, HSH Prince Albert

ocean

intriguing

conservation programs play a role in

II emphasised the need to increase

 people meet, exchange exchange ideas, and solve

facilitating innovation and professional

environmental consciousness and the

 problems together together..

development and in helping to get

important role BLUE plays in bringing

 projects afloat. afloat.

ocean conservation to the forefront. “This

community

where

BLUE

Ocean honours

Film

Festival

excellence

in

Dr. Sylvia Earle described BLUE as “more than films, more than a celebration of

reach and collaborations.

event uses the power of film, photography, BLUE’s co-founders, Deborah and Charlie

entertainment and science to educate,

all things wet, the BLUE Ocean Film

empower and inspire ocean stewardship

Festival & Conservation Summit brings

around the globe,” he said. “To awaken consciousness

toward

environmental

 protection more effectively, effectively, our best weapons are those that win over hearts and minds.”

Stingray and clouds

 DAVID DOUBILET  DOUBILET 

OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

21

Watch Ocean  S 

 ave Our Seas Fund 

BLUE has also leveraged its extensive film archive library to create BLUE On Tour, an international educational outreach  program; this travelling show provides global and domestic opportunities to host mini BLUE events with select films and speakers to address issues relevant to the audience. “Unfortunately, most  people know very little about our ocean or why they should be concerned about its health,” said Charlie. “We are thrilled by how effective this outreach has been. BLUE On Tour has already been presented in Mexico, Australia, New Zealand, China

Ocean Explorers – Sylvia Earle, Don Walsh, Phil Nyutten, Anatoly Sagevitch, James Cameron, Emory Kristof 

and Auburn University in the US.” BLUE is dedicated to a healthy ocean, healthy planet and healthy humanity. Deborah Kinder shared her vision for co-creating BLUE as a multi-disciplinary event. “I knew I wanted to be involved in ocean conservation, but there are so many issues that I didn’t want to choose  just one problem to devote my time to because they are all so interconnected,” she explained. “Visual media is the most powerful tool we have for raising awareness

and

inspiring

action.

It’s

how we can reach a global audience in a short span of time and in a way that helps everyone to understand some very complicated issues.” The health of the ocean is not only about  protecting marine life but the health of humanity. Not in the future, but right now. It is not something that can be fixed through crisis management. The goal of BLUE is to address the major oceanic issues and engage the public in a fun and interactive way. The BLUE festival can let the world know what is going on beneath the waves, and then create enough momentum to solve problems. Whether a member of the general public or a seasoned professional, everyone

22

BL UE – A Global CONVERGENCE of the Ocean Arts & Sciences ences

can find something of interest. It is easy

BLUE 2014 is bigger than ever, featuring

to get swept up in the BLUE wave that is

more than 150 award-winning ocean

a captivating mix of arts, science, ocean

films

lovers and environmental all-stars. Eco-

 provoking  provokin g

conscious

as

and technology exhibits that include

corporate sponsors and are afforded the

manned submersibles and the latest

opportunity to directly showcase their

For the first time, Ocean Geographic will attend BLUE  2014, from 3 – 9 November in St. Petersburg, Tampa Bay, Florida.  Blueoceanfilmfestival.org

companies

participate

sustainability to an influential audience. James Cameron and Capt Don Walsh Walsh receivin g their Blue Ocean Film Festival award

and

more

than

conservation conserva tion

in ocean innovations.

40

thought-

discussions, discussio ns,

Save Our Seas Foundation is the conservation unit of OceanNEnvironment, an NGO with charity status registered with Environment Australia. CURRENT PROJECTS

• Asia-Pacic Ocean Health Report: Ongoing Assessment & Conservation Initiatives of Marine Protected Areas • Shark Conservation: Conservation: Say No to Shark Fins Campaign in East Asia, from 2001 – present • Coral Reefs: supporting supporti ng initiatives initiati ves led by some of the world’s leading conservation scientists. SOS contributes to projects that monitor marine protected areas, status of endangered and threatened species in the Asia Pacic. • Visual Index: database of species, habitats, habitat s, climate change images for education and research assessment. • Ocean Watch: updates and reports by associates and correspondents TO SUPPORT SOS AS PARTNERS OR DONORS, EMAIL: [email protected] SOS OCEAN WATCH PARTNERS

The Watch Watch for DIVING LEGENDS  A legend among divers’ watche s is reborn ; thi s year Rolex brings back a brand new updated version of the Oyster Perpetual Sea-Dweller, a model created in 1967. This new 40 mm technical divers’ watch is the latest in Rolex innovation: Cerachrom bezel insert in ceramic, long-lasting Chromalight luminescence, paramagnetic blue Parachrom hairspring, Oysterlock safety clasp and Rolex Glidelock bracelet extension system. Originally designed for the  pioneers of professiona l deep- sea divi ng, the Sea-D weller 4000 is equipped with one of the inventions that contr ibuted to its stature: the helium escape valve, patented by Rolex in 1967. This ingenious safety valve releases helium from the watch case as the gas expands during the decompression  phase s of deep w ater satu ration dives, while preser vin g t he waterproofness of the watch. The Sea-Dweller 4000’s Oyster case, guaranteed waterproof to a depth of 1,220 metres is a paragon of robustness and reliability. The characteristically shaped middle case is crafted from a solid block of particularly corrosion-resistant 904L steel. The fluted case back is hermetically screwed down with a special tool exclusive to Rolex watchmakers. The winding crown, fitted with the  patent ed Triplock Tr iplock triple tr iple water proofnes s syst em, screws down securely against the case, offering watertight security akin to a submarine’s hatch. It is protected by a crown gua rd that is an integral part of the middle case. The crystal is made of virtually scratchproof sapphire. The waterproof case of the Sea-Dweller 4000, housing its high precision movement, ensures optimal protection from water, dust,  press ure and shocks. Without doubt the new Sea-Dweller 4000 is a watch for divi ng legends.

PETER SCOONES  A Pioneer of Blue Planet  Tribute by Gillian McDonald  Photos by Georgette Douwma, Jane Morgan, Anna Kochergina

PETER SCOONES ’S LONG STANDING STANDING ILLUSTRIOUS INVOLVEMENT INVOLVEMENT WITH THE BBC included ‘Reefwatch’, ‘ Reefwatch’, ‘The Trials Trials of Life’, ‘Sea Trek’, Trek’, ‘Life in the Freezer’, ‘The Blue Planet’ and ‘Planet Earth’ There is little, if anything, that Peter

equipment, Peter built a couple of aqua

his camera down to its carcass, wash

did not know about underwater image

lungs using RAF machine shops, recycled

and sun-dry all the vital electronic circuit

making. A BAFTA and two Emmys,

aircraft oxygen tanks and various hoses.

boards and have it working again in as

surrounded

other

“Demand valves are fairly simple things”

little as a couple of hours”.

awards were testament to his creative

he said, with typical understatement

achievements. But it was Peter’s dual

and modesty. It was not long before his

 At the end of his nine year stint, he left

expertise in both artistic cinematography

 passion for image-making, image-making, diving and

the RAF and joined a colour laboratory

and technical wizardry which made him

nature came together. There was no such

in London. For the next few years,

unique and extraordinarily accomplished

thing as an underwater housing back then

he learnt as much about underwater

in this challenging field. His creative

so Peter had to build his own and in this,

filming as possible. To supplement his

talent took him many times around the

he was truly a pioneer. He would scavenge

strong technical background and optical

world for a string of unrivalled wildlife

discarded aircraft windows, return them

knowledge he thoroughly researched

documentaries, many for the BBC Natural

to stores and claim a replacement, thus

and read everything ever written on

History Unit in the company of perhaps

acquiring pristine sheets of Perspex

the subject, teaching himself. As his

the

distinguished

to

made

reputation grew, there came a knock on

known,

Sir

cement from Perspex chips dissolved in

the door of his workshop in Richmond,

David Attenborough. However, he also

chloroform, controls from used hydraulic

 just outside London. London.

designed, built and maintained all his

linkages and created waterproof shafts

 Attenborough  Attenborough (who subsequently subsequently became became

own equipment, remaining at the cutting

– this was before O-rings were widely

Sir David) and a colleague from the BBC

edge of his field right up to the end of his

available. “There was the Rolleimarin

Natural History Unit who wanted to film

life, with an underwater career spanning

designed by Hass but that was way

a live coelacanth in low-light conditions

nearly five decades.

outside

which

- something that had never been done

Peter was a maverick of the most

evolved out of Cousteau’s Calypsophot

before. Attenborough was heading to the

 productive  productive kind; he did everything his own

didn’t emerge until 1963, necessity is the

Comores islands as part of the BBCs ‘Life

way, and that was invariably far superior

mother of invention – if it doesn’t exist,

on Earth’ series to follow up on reports

to anyone else’s way. After leaving

build it”. That basically described Peter’s

of local fishermen hauling coelacanths up

school as a qualified naval architect, his

entire life in one sentence.

from the deep. He had heard about Peter’s

greatest

wildlife

by

numerous

and

most

presenter

ever

model

housings

our

budget,

from.

He

Nikonos

It

was

David

latest low-light camera and wanted to

eyesight prevented him from training as an officer. With National Service looming,

In 1967, Peter formed the British Society

hire it. Peter seized his opportunity. Not

he quickly joined the RAF “to learn

of Underwater Photographers (BSoUP),

only had he read about the coelacanth in

something useful”, which turned out to

together with Colin Doeg. Despite being

school and long harboured an ambition to

be photography – ironic considering his

seriously ill at the time, he still regularly

film it, but he also knew his camera was

“poor” eyesight. A keen sailor, he caught

attended monthly meetings in London,

a unique and innovative asset and he was

a glimpse of the captivating underwater

right up until the end of 2013. Colin said of

not about to hand it over for someone

world while cleaning the bottom of his

Peter, “Being a superb camera mechanic

else to use. He recalled, “I told them they

dinghy in Singapore. He then persuaded

as well as accomplished photographer

could have my equipment for free as long

the Navy to teach his group the basics

helped Peter handle with aplomb, the

as they paid for me to go with them and

of diving, and they formed a diving club.

most dreaded event in any underwater

operate it”.

However, due to limited equipment, they

 photographer’  photographer’ss life... a flood. It was an

became highly adept at snorkelling and

unforgettable experience to see him

Thus

learned to hold their breath. “I could hold

calmly pour pints of sea water out of his

involvement with the BBC including

my breath underwater for 3-4 minutes,”

custom-made camera housing and begin

‘Reefwatch’, ‘The Trials of Life’, ‘Sea

Peter said in a recent interview. “You

to salvage his expensive video camera

Trek’, ‘Life in the Freezer’, ‘The Blue

can’t film while breathing; it disturbs you,

anywhere on land or sea. Surrounded

Planet’ and ‘Planet Earth’ which was the

makes you wobble”.

by an awe-struck audience and often an

first broadcast in high definition. These

In an attempt to resolve the issue of limited

ashen producer or client - he could strip

began

Peter’s

long

standing

OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

25

Essay  which was the forefront of technological

against his condition and it was that

world into the living rooms of the world.

advancement,using

Definition

strong-willed, single-minded refusal to

It is certain that they have inspired many

(HD) technology for the first time. The

give in that shaped much of Peter’s long

of today’s divers to take the plunge.

chances are, each time you take a camera

and illustrious career in the underwater

During ‘Sea Trek’, Peter enhanced the

underwater, you are using some form of

world. It was a great privilege to have

 polecam which which he had originally originally invented

technology or technique which originated

spent a couple of months with Peter in

for filming killer whales in Norway for

from Peter’s mind. It would be forgivable

the Red Sea during the last few years of

an Australian broadcaster. The whales

if this uniquely talented man had had a

his life. He was creative and innovative

would not approach if there was a diver

sense of arrogance or conceit about his

right to the end, still building bespoke

in the water so Peter put the camera on

many achievements. However, this was

housings in his well-stocked workshop

a pole over the bow of an inflatable boat

not so. Peter was more than happy to share

and testing them in the field using his

and drove right up to the creatures. The

his knowledge and discuss any topic with

unique blend of vision and technology to

resulting film, ‘Wolves of the Sea’, included

openness and generosity. “I’m just a chap

the utmost. He was a very special man

the first recording of whales ‘carousel

who is learning how to take excellent

and his family, friends and the entire

feeding’, herding herring into balls near

 pictures underwater.” underwater.” he told me during

the underwater world will be much

the surface then using their tails to stun

that recent interview. It sounded falsely

worse off with his passing. Peter is

them before scooping them up. The film

modest, but he really meant it.

survived by his wife Georgette Douwma,

 productions  productions

brought

the

underwater

High

a

went on to win the annual Wildscreen Scoones,

the

legendary

highly

accomplished

Festival. For ‘Sea Trek’, Peter used the

Peter

and

 photographer  photographer in her own right, and his

 polecam to film dolphins in the Bahamas

 pioneering  pioneering underwater imagery genius,

two children Fiona and Robin from an

coming towards the boat rather than going

 passed away peacefully peacefully in his sleep at

earlier marriage.

away, and this was yet another first.

the age of 76 early on Sunday 20 April 2014, surrounded by his family. Peter,

Peter’s most recent, major involvement

from London, had been battling illness

was with yet another BBC/ Attenborough

for a number of years. Despite finally

landmark documentary, ‘Planet Earth’,

succumbing, Peter fought long and hard

Peter Scoones at Celebrate the Sea Festival 2009, Manila 

Filming sea lions with pole camDyer Island, South Africa 

26

underwater

BL UE – A Global CONVERGENCE of the Ocean Arts & Sciences ences

KILLING Ourselves Quickly… (Plights of Our Ocean)

Report by Ocean Geographic Photographs by  Michael AW 

Essay 

O

ur ocean is the Earth's

for conservation. However, in the last 100

Our ocean sustains all life on earth and

life-support

system.

 years, our population population has grown from

 yet we continue to neglect it, harming

It provides food and

1.8 billion in 1914 to 7.2 billion (ANU);

innumerable marine life, and polluting

oxygen,

our

coupled with industrial development,

one of our most important resources.

coastal environments,

the use of fossil fuel and a consumerism

In the battle for the preservation of our

and

economy, we have placed immeasurable

environment, the health of our oceans

climate. Through the ages, mankind has

stress on our world’s ocean. The ocean

should be our number one priority. Here,

relied on the ocean and its seemingly

is getting warmer faster than predicted,

we would like to shed some light on the

immense resources with little concern

creating havoc to the world’s climate.

 plight of our ocean, and how we are are killing killing

and

regulates

our

shapes

atmosphere

ourselves rapidly in the process.

Overpopulation

28

Killing Ourselves Quickly…

Ocean Acidifcation Ocean acidity has increased by 30 percent

having trouble coping. Increased acidity

globally during the last 200 years. The

in the ocean would lead to a shortage of

changing acidity of our ocean threatens

carbonate, a key building block some

to

chemical

animals (and plants) need to build their

balance upon which marine life depend

shells and skeletons; these animals

for survival. The basic science behind

include shellfish like clams, oysters,

acidification is that the ocean absorbs

crabs, lobsters and corals. Corals are

carbon dioxide through natural processes,

the framework builders of reefs, by

but at the rate at which we are pumping it

far the most diverse ecosystem in our

into the atmosphere through burning fossil

ocean. The effects of acidification will

fuels, the ocean's pH balance is dropping

not stop with coral reefs; corals are

to a point where life within the ocean is

simply the first piece in a domino effect

throw

off

the

delicate

with sweeping impact that will be felt throughout the ocean.

Coral bleaching 

OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

29

Essay 

Overfshing  We have been sucking all life out of the ocean as though resources are infinite. In truth, we are already scraping the bottom of the barrel. Many marine scientists consider overfishing to be the worst impact humans are causing on the ocean. The Food and Agriculture Organization

estimates

that

over

70

 percent of the world’s world’s fish species are either exploited or depleted. By capturing fish faster than they can reproduce, we are disrupting entire ecosystems that interact with those species, from the food they eat to the predators that eat them. These losses make the ecosystems even more vulnerable to other disturbances, such as pollution. A complete overhaul of fishing policies is needed to create a sustainable system, and this requires global cooperation.

Irresponsible Fish Farming   Aquaculture,  Aquaculture, or fish farming, is the growing response to rapidly depleting fish stock in ocean. While it sounds like a good idea, it unfortunately has many negative consequences due to poorly managed operations. The main problem with aquaculture is efficiency: 5 to 20 fish are needed as feed to produce one fish. Nutrient and chemical pollution can occur easily in open-ocean operations when fish feed, excrement and medication are released into the environment. Farmed fish may accidentally be released into the wild, with destructive effects such as loss of native stocks, disease transmission, and

damaging

changes

in

habitat.

Unfortunately, the biggest hindrance to overcoming the challenges of an industry that supplies nearly 50 percent of the world’s fish food supply is that it currently remains relatively unregulated.

30

Killing Ourselves Quickly…

Ghost fishing caused by discarded fishing nets

Ghost Fishing  Ghost fishing occurs when discarded fishing nets or lines continue to catch fish and other marine life. Often, the traps trigger a chain-reaction when larger predators come to eat the smaller ones that have been ensnared, only to get themselves entangled in the mess. The issue of ghost fishing is most common with passive gear that has been abandoned, especially with the long liners.

OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

31

Essay 

Removal of key species such as sharks and dolphins

Loss of Sentinel Species Decimation of the ocean’s most important

When finned, the sharks are thrown back

regulate. Despite the 1986 moratorium on

 predators has significant significant consequences consequences

into the water, often still alive and left

many types of whaling, it still continues

that ripple down the food chain. About 50

to bleed to death. Unfortunately, sharks

to be a problem, with some nations like

to 100 million sharks are killed each year,

reproduce fairly slowly and do not have

 Japan looking looking for loopholes loopholes and lobbying lobbying

either as bycatch from fishing vessels or

a large number of offspring, so these

for lax regulations.

directly hunted for their dorsal fins, used

actions have long-lasting repercussions

in an expensive soup popular across Asia.

on the delicate ecosystems they help

Loss of Coral Reefs Keeping the coral reefs healthy is another major issue right now. A focus on how to protect the coral reefs is important, considering coral reefs support a huge amount of small sea life, which in turn supports both larger sea life and us, not only for immediate food needs but also economically. Global warming is the  primary cause of coral bleaching, bleaching, but there are other causes as well. Science is working on ways, but it also is a matter of setting aside marine conservation areas. Figuring out ways to protect this "life support system" is a must for the overall health of our ocean.

Coral reefs are the "life support system" of our ocean.

32

Killing Ourselves Quickly…

Offshore Drilling  Offshore drilling continues to be a debate, but it is clear that greater oil production would only exacerbate the dilemmas of our oceans. The use of fossil fuels is the reason our oceans have been heating up and becoming more acidic, but offshore drilling takes the risks even further. When oil is extracted from the ocean floor, other chemicals like mercury, arsenic, and lead come up with it. In addition, the seismic waves used to find oil harm aquatic mammals and disorient whales. In 2008, 100 whales had beached themselves as a result of ExxonMobil exploring for oil with these techniques. Furthermore, the infrastructure transporting oil often erodes

the

coastline,

creating

more

 problems.

Offshore oil and gas mining 

Mercury Pollution Scientists report that mercury levels in our ocean have risen over 30 percent in the last 20 years, and will continue increase another 50 percent in the next few decades. Emissions from coal power  plants are the primary culprit, culprit, dispensing  poisonous  poisonous mercury that that works its way up up the food chain, eventually coming to us through the fish we eat. This neurotoxin affects the development of the brain in foetuses and has been linked to learning disabilities.

Dead Zones Dead zones are areas of the sea floor with little or no dissolved oxygen. These areas are often found at the mouths of large rivers, and are caused primarily by fertilizers carried in runoff. This lack of oxygen kills many creatures and destroys Dead zones

entire habitats. At our current rate, dead zones will increase by 50 percent before the end of this century. OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

33

Essay 

Garbage field found at 2.5 kilometres kilometres below the Sulu Sea 

Garbage The ocean is among our biggest resources for life on earth, but it is also our biggest dumping ground. It is astounding how much of our trash finds its way into the ocean. Animals become entangled and trapped in our garbage, delicate sea life like coral and sponges are destroyed, sea turtles and dolphins often choke on plastic bags (mistaking them for jellyfish or squid),  plastic bits also clog up the digestive system of birds and other marine mammals causing them to starve to death. If that is not bad enough, hopefully the bigger-than-Texas trash vortex in the Pacific Ocean and its smaller cousin in the Atlantic will help serve as a wake-up call.

The dinosaurs did not see the meteors coming.

What is our excuse? 34

Killing Ourselves Quickly…

Nautilus's indow  W indow

MANATEE, FLORIDA – HAVE YOU GOT MY GOOD SIDE

Nikon D800E 16mm fisheye F4 @ 1/160 No strobe

Faces of the

OCEAN “I got up and took a good look at the enemy. The dugong – also know n as the halicore – is very much like a manatee, or lamantine. Its body is terminated by a long tail, and its lateral fins by fingers. The difference between the dugong and manatee consists in the former being armed with two long  pointed teeth in the t he upper jaw jaw,, which form a defence for each site…Ned Land, his body thrown back a little, brandished his harpoon. Suddenly a hissing noise was heard and the dugong disappeared.”  20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, Jules Verne, circa 1850

Nautilus's indow  W indow JAYNE JENKINS

– Faces of the Ocean portfolio

Coming face-to-face with a great white

 you, and if you are calm calm in the water, water, Mum

are so unique and each is so different.

shark has to have been one of the most

will let you be with her calf – and that is

My local dive site in Sydney is home to

exciting and memorable dives of my life.

a feeling of pure joy. Another favourite

many seahorses and I feel so privileged

The black motionless eye pierces your

of mine is the manatee. It is so ugly, it is

I have the opportunity to see them on a

soul, tugs at your heart strings and your

beautiful; some would say only its mother

regular basis. Other marine residents at

 protective instinct instinct kicks in. You You just want

could love it. My fascination with them

this local dive site include the adorable

to keep returning to meet them again and

is addictive and I stayed in the water for

and amazing frogfishes. It never ceases to

again, and show the world their beauty.

hours just enjoying their company.

amaze me, how they can open their mouth

But coming face-to-face face-to-f ace with a humpback

so wide and swallow food almost twice

whale (especially a calf), is completely

Seeing the very majestic and fragile

their body size. I love showing someone

different. different . It is curious, playful and shows

seahorse was like a fairy-tale coming true

for the first time all these special marine

 you all the new tricks it learnt learnt from Mum. Mum.

as these little creatures look like they

life and seeing their expressions. It always

The eye of the humpback also follows

should only exist in Disney movies. They

guarantees a smile.

actively involved in many facets of the

funding and awareness to protect these

diving industry and has been for over

creatures for future generations. generations.

three

organised

 Jayne is currently currently a resident resident photographer photographer

numerous diving expeditions throughout

 /consultant  /consultant with the Catlin Seaview

the Asia-Pacific region, leading her to

survey. This is fast becoming a game-

work as a safety diver and researcher for

changing creative scientific project. Using

 various underwater underwater films, television and

specially designed technology, the Catlin

 photographic  photographic expeditions, expeditions, including including the

Seaview Survey will record and reveal the

cave diving spectacular, Sanctum. It is

world's oceans and reefs like never before,

 Jayne's passion and skill for underwater underwater

in high-resolution, 360-degree panoramic

 photography  photography for which she she is known best.

 vision. Jayne is also Vice President and

 Always willing to donate her images to

Board of Director member to the Our

ocean conservation projects and good

World Underwater Scholarship Society

causes, and with a love for many of the

(OWUSS) - a scholarship sponsored by

ocean's

inhabitants

Rolex for young underwater enthusiasts.

such as sharks, whales and seahorses,

Due to her work, Jayne has been honoured

 Jayne hopes her images will help to raise

by being inducted into the prestigious

 Jayne 

  started diving in

the chilly waters along the rugged Welsh coastline before moving to Australia in 1973. An avid diver and distinguished underwater

photographer,

Jayne

is

decades.

most

Jayne

has

threatened

Woman Divers’ Hall of Fame and was awarded the OZTeK Industry Recognition  Award to acknowledge acknowledge people who have made a significant contribution to the development and advancement of diving within the Asia-Pacific region. Jayne's drive and enthusiasm for the ocean is admirable and she has inspired countless individuals to take up diving and to appreciate the oceans.

36

‘Faces of the Ocean’

POTATO COD AT COD HOLE, AUSTRALIA – OPEN WIDE Nikon D300 Tokina 10–17mm F14 @ 1/160 twin Ikeleite DS125's

OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

37

Nautilus's indow  W indow

HUMPBACK WHALE, TONGA –INQUISITIVE CALF Nikon D300 Tokina 10–17mm F9 @ 1/160 No strobes

38

‘Faces of the Ocean’

ORNATE COW FISH, SOUTH AUSTRALIA –READY FOR THE PARTY Nikon D200 60mm macro F14 @ 1/125 twin Ikelite DS125 strobes

Nautilus's indow  W indow

PAINTED FROG F ISH, SYDNEY Nikon D800E 60mm macro F14 @ 1/250 Twin Ikelite DS160 strobes

40

‘Faces of the Ocean’

AUSTRALIAN FUR SEAL, SOUTH AUSTRALIA – WHO IS THAT IN THERE? Nikon D800 16-35mm F8 @ 1/160 Twin ikelite DS160

Nautilus's indow  W indow

GREAT WHITE SHARK, SOUTH AUSTRALIA – NATURES DENTAL FLOSS Nikon D800E 16–35mm F8 @ 1/160 twin Ikelite DS160 strobes

42

‘Faces of the Ocean’

WEEDY SEA DRAGON, SYDNEY – DRAGONS OF THE UNDERWORLD

Nikon D300 60mm macro F20 @ 1/160 Single DS125 strobe

Nautilus's indow  W indow

LEAFY SEA DRAGON, SOUTH AUSTRALIA (Top) Nikon D300 60mm macro F16 @ 1/160 Single DS125 strobe

PYGMY SEAHORSE, RAJA AMPAT (Right) Nikon D300 60mm macro F16 @ 1/320 Single Ikelite DS125 strobe

44

‘Faces of the Ocean’

 Gardens of te  te 

 u  ue e e n   Q 

 t thh e 

the Ultimate Underwater Paradise • Pristine Reefs protected since 1960 : Sharks Galore – Silkies, Caribbean in big numbers :  American Saltwater Crocodiles

• Giant Goliath groupers : Tarpons Tarpons in school : Pristine mangrove forest

 cu  c ubandivingcenter erss.com  

mail : [email protected] vng gcenters rs..com [email protected]

OCEAN GEOGRAPHIC CUBA GARDENS OF THE QUEEN EXPEDITION

– find out more at OceanGeographic.org

CUBA 

The

that 

Rebuilt  an  an

Essay & Photographs by Steve De Neef 

ISLAND

November 8, 2013

  is a day that

will never be forgotten by the Filipinos. Super Typhoon Haiyan, locally known as Yolanda, passed over the Philippines that day and proved to be the strongest typhoon to ever make landfall. Yolanda left thousands dead and millions homeless, changing lives forever. Since then, many of the affected people have been struggling to resume their lives and continue their livelihood. The support from the rest of the world has been enormous but even with all this help, it has been very ve ry hard for some to recover, especially in terms of livelihood.

Essay 

O

ne

place

managed

that to

r e c u p e r a t e

relatively is

an

quickly

Malapascua, idyllic

island

located just north

of Cebu, where the eye of Yolanda passed. Miraculously, there were no casualties on the island but most houses and boats turned into rubble after this super typhoon passed. One of the main reasons that Malapascua has done well in recovering so swiftly is be found at about nine kilometres offshore, at a submerged seamount called Monad Shoal. Monad Shoal is unique; every morning, many divers descend into the deep blue waters surrounding this seamount, just to observe a special spectacle. At dawn, pelagic thresher sharks ( Alopias pelagicus), locally known as Lawihan come up to the shallower parts (24–32 metres) of this seamount. Seeing these gracious sharks appearing from the deep is a cherished experience. In the early morning light from afar, they are no more than a faint silhouette with that distinctive tail whipping rhythmically from side to side.

Kids playing around the t yphoon wreckage, Malapascua 

48

The Shark that Rebuild an Island

 A rainbow of hope c omes after every storm

New homes being built on Malapascua 

OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

49

 As they come closer closer,, these silhouette silhouettess

Fortunately for Malapascua, the cleaning

compared to before the typhoon. Tourists

suddenly turn into one of the most elegant

stations at Monad Shoal, and its thresher

are still coming to see the pelagic thresher

sharks in the ocean. None of the divers

sharks were spared from the wrath of

sharks and this is good for the island’s

are afraid; sharks are  nothing  like the

Yolanda. In a matter of days after Yolanda,

economy – about 80 percent the income

man-eating creatures some media portray

Malapascua had already received huge

on Malapascua is directly related to the

them to be. They are in fact, not nearly

support from the local dive industry and

dive industry. Some resort owners have

as interested in us as we are in them,

 previous tourists who fell in love with

even taken it further and started their own

and we can count ourselves lucky if they

the island and their Lawihan. Local dive

NGO. Rebuild Malapascua is one of them;

do come near. These nocturnal oceanic

resorts and resorts from different islands

they provide livelihood programs for the

sharks come here for one reason only –

all contributed food, money, building

locals and are currently building a modern

to get cleaned by cleaner fishes like the

materials,

more.

medical centre (something the island

cleaner and moon wrasses ( Labriodes

Six months after the typhoon passed,

currently lacks). Another dive resort on

dimidiatus 

lunare)

almost everyone who had lost his or her

the island even went as far as buying land

that inhabit the multiple cleaning stations

home managed to rebuild and continue

to build 35 new homes for their employees;

found at Monad Shoal. Nowhere else in

with their livelihood. Some locals even

the houses were all built using funds

the world can you see thresher sharks on

say they have better homes now than

collected from donations worldwide.

and

Thalassoma

a daily basis and observe them up-close. It is this unique phenomenon that makes Malapascua famous.

Shark tourism at Monad Shoal, Malapascua

boats,

labour

and

NOWHERE ELSE IN THE WORLD CAN YOU SEE SE E THRESHE THRESHER R SHARKS ON A DAILY BASIS and observe them up-close. up-close. It is this unique phenomenon that makes Malapascua famous.

Many locals on Malapascua rely on

by many of the islanders. The people

marine park fees do not trickle down to

divers visiting the island as some sort

of Malapascua truly love Lawihan. The

all fishermen who use these places as

of livelihood, even most fishermen are

distinctive figure of the pelagic thresher

their fishing grounds. Some fishermen

happy with the dive industry since this

shark can be found all over the island;

have little choice but to continue to fish

allows them to sell fish directly to the

from the numerous souvenir stalls to the

there. On top of that, thresher sharks

resorts for a good price without having

basketball court, pictures of thresher

are still directly targeted and caught as

to leave the island. If it was up to Felimar

sharks are everywhere. And why would

by-catch on a regular basis. In May 2014,

Malagase, a local dive guide, these

anyone not love this shark that brings

 pictures of thresher sharks being cut up

sharks would be protected nationwide

fortune to the island?

on the beach in Talisay, Cebu, a place

as the income derived from tourism far

relatively near Malapascua, made the

outweighs the one-time sale of a thresher

It is not all good news though. In 2002,

news. It is sad that these sharks are both

shark at a market. He insists that if

both Monad Shoal and Gato Island

adored and killed in the same province.

there were no thresher sharks around

(another island known more for its

Technically, within the province of Cebu,

Malapascua, tourism would not be what

reef sharks) were declared as marine

thresher sharks enjoy protection but in

it is today. Before there was any tourism,

reserves by the local government of

reality, this law is often not enforced.

he had to rely on fishing as a livelihood;

Daanbantayan. While this was a step in

In other areas, like Donsol in the Bicol

working as a dive guide is far more

the right direction, it has not been able to

region, it is common to see thresher shark

 profitable  profitabl e and reliable. He also believes

stop illegal fishing. Both places still fall

meat at the local market and in all sorts

many of the donations given by people

 victim to destructive destructive fishing fishing methods like like

of dishes; their fins however, never make

after the typhoon are directly related

dynamite and longline fishing. The income

it to the market as they are sold for much

to the thresher sharks – a belief shared

derived from tourism and the associated

higher prices right off the boat.

 A

ccording

to

the

sell for around Php8,000 (US$180). The

tourism on Malapascua survives, broader

Thresher

Shark

meat sells for Php90–150 (US$2–3.50)

 protection is necessary. necessary. Currently the

Research

and

 per kilogram while the fins can go for as

only shark that is protected nationwide

Conservation project

much as Php1000 (US$22) per kilogram.

is the whale shark. All thresher sharks

(an NGO based on

Currently, all three species of thresher

are prone to unsustainable fisheries and

Malapascua)

the

sharks (bigeye, common and pelagic) are

by-catch and with their low fecundity

 value of one live thresher shark at Monad

listed as vulnerable on IUCN’s Redlist.

(2-4 pups) and long gestation period,

Shoal can be in excess of Php6,000,000

This means if no active measures are

 population  population can decline quickly. quickly. In most

(around US$135,000) per year. This same

taken to protect them, they can quickly

 places thresher shark populations populations are

shark at a local fish market would only

fall into the endangered category or

already down by more than 75 percent

worse, become extinct – something that is

compared to the 1980’s.

likely to happen since they are among the more demanded shark species for global

For now, there is hope for Monad Shoal.

fisheries. As these sharks are pelagic in

Since April 2014, the local dive shops

nature, protecting them in just one place

have come together and are sending out

is a good start but it will not do much

a boat at night to patrol and ward off

in the long run since they can still be

illegal fishing activities. Oscar and Alvin

caught while travelling out of protected

are two of the locals who patrol Monad at

waters. To make sure thresher sharks and

night; however, without any real authority or resources, they say it is very hard to stop people from fishing here and it can be dangerous to try. They can only ask fishermen to leave, and sometimes they do, sometimes they do not. Both of them agree these sharks should be protected and their importance for the island should be acknowledged. They said that in late April

Thresher shark,  Alopia s pelagi cus

Protectors of the thresher sharks of Monad Shoal

2014, they found a discarded fishing net

sharks

happening

that estimates global shark ecotourism

near the shoal with a dead thresher shark

more often. However, the real challenge

brings in US$314 million annually and are

caught inside (other dive shops reported

is getting fishermen to tap into the

expected to more than double in the next

the net had two thresher sharks and a

shark tourism economy, as without an

20 years. If that is the case, then it would

turtle, all dead). In May, they encountered

alternative income, it is hard to stop

exceed the current profit made by shark

four fishermen using dynamite, some

the fishing. It is not entirely impossible

fisheries. In order for this to happen, we

compressor fishermen and long liners.

though, many of the boatmen and even

have to choose to protect these beautiful

They know more enforcement is needed

dive guides in Malapascua used to be

fish just like the people of Malapascua do.

to protect this unique place but in the

fishermen.

 And once you have seen one, it is not a

being

caught

are

hard decision to make.

meantime; they will do what they can to  protect and preserve Monad Monad Shoal. Shoal.

Tourism on the island is developing well and the thresher’s popularity is growing

It does seem like things are moving in the

and providing jobs. With the right attitude,

right direction in the Philippines. People

some help from the tourism industry,

are slowly becoming aware of the fact

government agencies and NGOs, these

that sharks are essential in maintaining

top predators might still stand a chance.

healthy ocean ecosystems and are worth

Researchers Researchers from the University of British

more alive than dead, outcries on social

Columbia published a paper in 2013

network sites and newspapers about

*Editor's Note: With the assistance of our associate, Jovic  Santos of Splash Photography, Ocean Geographic and Michael AW donated proceeds  from the sale of “Heart of the Ocean” to  purchase chainsaws to help help rebuild rebuild the island.  Jovic Santos also sent 1 x 20FCL of brand  new clothes clothes for affected areas areas for Malapascua,  Leyte and Cebu. The power saw is still being used on the island and is under the care of Gary Cases, owner of Dive Link.

 About the author  Steve De Neef is a photojournalist who specializes specialize s in conservation, documentary and underwater  photography  photography.. His main focus is covering covering environmental environmental issues in the Coral Coral Triangle Triangle region and he uses his images and stories to encourage conservation of our blue planet. He’s the chief  photographer  photographer of the Large Marine Vertebrate Project in the Philippines and a member of the  prestigious  prestigious Ocean Artist Artist Society. Society. He regularly regularly works with with Greenpeace Greenpeace and other NGO’s. NGO’s.

Steve De Neef  OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

53

THE FINEST BEACH & DIVE RESORT IN ANILAO, PHILIPPINES

“IMAGE OF THE EDITION” WINNER,

BENJ BEN JA MI MIN N MA M AGANA

 Finest Accommodation : Fine Dining : Fine Diving

‘Heavenly Light’ Cenotes (sinkholes) are the most peculiar aquatic ecosystems of the Yucatan Peninsula. A wide morphological variety is observed; from caves filled with ground water to open cenotes. In this picture, the sunbeam penetrated at noon, making it a magical diving experience. This picture was captured at Uitsan, close to Merida city, Yucatan, Mexico. CONGRATULATIONS CONGRATULA TIONS TO Benjamin Magana . You will receive

the ‘Image of Edition’ award consisting consisting of a Merit of Excellenc Excellence e certificate and an A$200 OG expedition voucher. Get

YOUR PICTURE 

Published in Ocean Geographic.

Your images must be submitted as JPEGs, saved at the quality setting 10 in Photoshop, and must be 1920 pixels on the longest dimension. Please name each file using your name and the subject, for example: JessicaTigershark. Each photo must be accompanied by a 60-word short story. Email your  pictures and stories to: [email protected] Your submission may win  you the ‘Image of the Edition’ award – a Merit of Excellence certificate and a A$200 cash voucher which may be used to purchase Ocean Geographic merchandise or offset payment for any OG expedition. Submission of your  pictures to YOUR PICTURE  constitutes a grant to Ocean Geographic Society to publish the winners at any time in print as well as online.

The choice of Discerning Divers  Tel. no. email  

: +63 917 866 6332 +63 999 999 7452 : [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]

Visit our website : www.aiyanar.com

CEAN Insider

The VIZL EFFECT

There is something undeniably powerful and timeless about black and white pictures. Black and  white images evoke moods, highlight details that are usually ambiguous in colour, and it is a technique  we can employ to tell compelling stories through imagery. In this rst edition of Ocean Insider, we share with you the black and white post-production technique embraced by OG's new photographer-inphotographer-inresidence, residen ce, Christian Vizl MacGregor. Ma cGregor.We now n ow fondly fo ndly call his artistic passion, The VIZL EFFECT .

OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

55

P

hotography

the single most important aspect when it comes to creating appealing, inspiring and touching images. Far beyond technical issues, what is most important is how to apply and manipulate the available light in order to create pictures with dramatic effect, carrying depths of emotion, using contrast and tonalities as a means to emphasise form and structure. I focus on the emotional impact of the final shot that will connect on a deeper level, with the  people who who look at these photographs. photographs.  Just as as a poet uses words words to to create create poetry poetry,, a photographer uses light to create images. So when I am underwater taking  pictures, one of my goals is to create  poetic images through the use of light.  And this is why I love black and white; by eliminating the distraction of colours, I can explore more deeply, the emotional impact of my images. To create them, it is important to "see" the scene in black and white, looking for contrasts that will emphasise the form. Also important, is exposing what you want to achieve in terms of your grey scale and planning for whatever you have in mind for that  particular  particular image. There are a number of "correct exposures" for the blue of the ocean, but a high exposure will render a light blue that will turn into a light grey; on the other hand, a low exposure will render a dark blue that will turn into a dark grey. Because of the

The VIZL EFFECT

colour. This is one of the most important

information, it is best to capture the image

steps in the process and it involves a lot

in colour, then convert it to black and

of creativity. Here is where I decide if a

white. Once I have converted my images,

light grey is to be taken up to be an almost

I like to give them as much contrast as

complete white or a dark grey into black.

 possible.

Currently, I am working on a very high contrast series of images, so I am taking

is all about light, and in my opinion, it is

56

way the digital camera sensor obtains its

For that, I adjust the luminance of each

it to the max. If necessary, I go back to

 primary colour. For example, if I have a

the tone curves to adjust the highlights

 very dark grey tone of the ocean, since

and the shadows. During this process, it

its primary colour is blue, I reduce the

is important to activate the highlights and

luminosity of the blue, taking that dark

shadows clipping function in the upper

grey into a complete black. I do not think

corners of the histogram to avoid over or

every image is suited for black and white,

underexposed areas.

but when it does, there is nothing like it! Finally, I adjust the sharpening, noise For post-production, I use Lightroom 5;

reduction

in the 'develop' tab I start with the basic

needed. I even add some grain to some of

adjustments like white balance, contrast,

my images. I love the feeling of intimacy

clarity and spot removal. Then I convert it

and profoundness it gives to them. Always

to Black and White. Then I take a moment

keep in mind that there are no fixed rules

to observe the image and try to find out

on how to use all these adjustments. They

what the image needs to bring out the

are all just tools that are available to us

best of it. How can I improve it in all

for use in the creative process, applying

 possible ways paying special attention attention

each adjustment individually, depending

to the emotional impact that it conveys.

on your mood and your artistic view.

Then I scroll down to the black and white mix, and start adjusting each individual

and

profile

correction

if

Digital Underwater Photographers

HERE IS YOUR OPPORTUNITY TO LEARN FROM THE PROS, THE MASTERS OF PHOTOGRAPHIC PHOTOGRAPHI C CRAFTSMANSHIP CRA FTSMANSHIP,,  to create beautiful images of our Ocean Planet in today’ today’ss world of digital photograph photographyy Michael Aw Aw and Mathieu Meur have become the Essential Mentors to thousands of underwater photographers, and here is your opportunity to reach new heights with in underwater photography with this fast track to success book!  – Ernie Brooks

Review by Gillian McDonald 

ESSENTIAL DIGITAL UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHY MASTERCLASS is

another excellent book in Michael AW’s AW’s popular ‘Essential’ series.

B

oth Michael and his regular collaborator, Mathieu Meur, have an extremely rich and deep history in all aspects of the art of underwater

   e     l    u     d    o     M

1

 photography,  photography, which they have shared in this informative book. This is a truly essential guide;

lightweight and portable, yet containing a wealth of practical information, which will serve photographers at virtually any level.

 Compact, DSLM (mirrorless) and DSLR cameras.

1/1 Digital Evolution Until the advent of digital cameras, the most frustrating thing for a new underwater photographer was the preposterously low success rate. It was not uncommon for a beginner to return with his first 10 rolls of film, only to find 90% of the pictures either over or underexposed. The successful 10% were, at best, images of perhaps half a fish tail or out of focus pictures of their buddy. Underwater photography was but a cruel joke for most. Digital photography provided sudden advantages over traditional film for the underwater photographer.

Advantages:

1 2 3

 Immediate review of images. Underexposed? Shoot again and vary the composition, then shoot another 10, if you need to.

Readers will find the modular structure of the book easy to follow. In module one, the basics of digital photography are broken down to a basic level, addressed in clear language with ample diagrams and examples. Topics such as understanding

9

Digital Essentials

4 5

Understanding Digital Photographic Language In order to get the most out of your digital camera, it is important to first understand a few technical terms. Aperture:  The aperture can be thought of like the i ris of the eye. The larger Aperture:  The the aperture, the more light gets into the camera, and vice versa. Aperture values are typically represented in f-stops (e.g. f2.0, f2.8, f4, f5.6, etc.). The greater the number, the smaller the aperture is. The aperture you set on your camera also has an impact on the depth-of-field. If all other parameters are constant, the smaller the aperture, the greater the depth-of-field is and vice versa.

By using a large storage media such as a 16GB or even up to a 128GB memory card, you can just about shoot endlessly. Another result of digital i s the tremendous saving on consumables and incidentals – there is now no need to buy film, and pay for processing loads of shots which have a high probability of ending up in the bin. Since it is not necessary to spend much money on storage media, you can afford to be trigger happy, shoot more to hone your skills without risking spending a small fortune. The learning curve can be as steep as you like without making a hole in your wallet. Another advantage of digital technology is the tremendous flexibility that this medium can afford. Whether at home or while on holidays, you can email pictures to your friends and family to share, post them on the web, review them on your computer and create slideshows.

f2.8

 

f5.6

f11

Depth-of-Field (DOF):  Depth-of-field refers to the area of the photograph in front and behind the main focus point which appears sharp. A large depthof-field means a greater portion of the picture is in focus. Conversely, in order to emphasise a certain feature or area of the picture, you may use a shallower depth-of-field, which will result in a blurred background.

exposure, shutter speeds and resolution will provide beginners, who are just embarking on their underwater photographic

ESSENTIAL SSENTIAL DIGITAL UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHY MASTERCLASS

Module 1 :Digital :Digital Essential 

module _3rd

.indd 8-9

86

5:

am

 journey,  journey, with the building blocks to make sense of the underwater specifics covered in the rest of the book.    e     l    u     d    o     M

2

Shooting Digital Underwater

2 / 1 Seeing Colour & Light Underwater

Module two moves on to the science and practicalities of

Horizontal distance also reduces light. If you are three metres deep and three metres from the subject, the water between you and the subject absorbs red and orange light as though you were about six metres deep. Compounding the two factors, photographs captured at beyond 10 metres are mostly blue and green. The ocean absorbs the long wavelength light (the red end of spectrum) first. Short wavelength light (the blue end of spectrum) is absorbed last.

41

Lighting conditions underwater differs significantly to those on land. Mastering the use and control of light is the essence of successful photography.

shooting underwater as opposed to land, and also introduces different lighting approaches. There are plenty of relevant  photos throughout the book, providing a visual context for the

3 metres red is gone. 5 metres orange is gone. 10 metres yellow is gone. 18 metres green is gone. 25 metres blue green is gone. 30 metres only blue remains.

techniques being explained. Colour and Light Underwater

As a scuba diver you would have learnt that colour diminishes with depth; water particles interact with light by absorbing respective wavelengths (see diagram above). First the reds and oranges disappear, followed by yellows, greens and lastly only blue remains. The loss of the colour red is dramatic as it is already noticeable at just one metre depth. Another factor that challenges an underwater photographer is that light also diminishes with depth. The density of water being 800 times greater than air at sea level reduces sunlight penetration.

Module 2 :Shooting :Shooting DigitalUnderwater 

module _3rd

.indd

   e     l    u     d    o     M

Shot at 15m natural light – note the blue tinge – lost of red, orange, yellow

HINTS

1. Natural light photography at six metres or more will have a bluish tinge. 2. The use of a UR-PRO or Magic Filter can be used to artificially restore some of the colour, at the sacrifice of one f-stop. But in bright day light the UR-PRO filter will cause a strong orange tinge when used in water shallower than six metres. 3. Alternative light sources such as underwater strobes are absolutely essential to capture the ‘true’ colour of marine animals.

ESSENTIAL SSENTIAL DIGITAL UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHY MASTERCLASS

0-

86

3 The Art of

 Aside from necessary technical information, the book also covers the aesthetic aspects of photography in module three – composition and artistic approach. From the machinery of the tools to the magic of the results, the art is as critical as the mechanics in achieving success in this field.

3/1 The Aesthetics of Composition I remember one evening in 1989 when I was heading out for a night dive during a photo shoot-out in Flores. Walking past a member of the jury, Gerald Soury from France, he beckoned my attention and told me “I hope you will make many good pictures.” This stopped me to ponder… he did not use the word shoot nor photograph but instead wished me to make good pictures. Through the years, I have practised following his wisdom. After learning how to play with the camera, there comes a point where you will be thinking about making a nice picture. I have learnt to appreciate photography as a form of fine art; our canvas is of course film and in the case of digital, it is the sensor; the camera and lenses are the paint brushes and the medium in which we work is light.

Module 3 :The :The Art of Underwater Photography 

module3_3rd

 An Ab so lu te Es se nt ia l fo r Di gi ta l Un de r wa te r Ph ot og ra ph er s

65

Underwater Photography

Treat a photograph like a picture – it i s a bunch of little details put together to make the whole. So plan the details, the focus, the statement, pick the big or small details to be part of your finished picture. We need to spend time working on understanding what it takes to make a photograph, not just the technical aspects but more importantly the artistic approach that must be included to get the end result. Approaching photography from this perspective, the science though essential is secondary, the artist in you is controlling the photographic process.

58

5: 3 am

.indd 6 -65

Tomato clownfish

Nikon D4, single Ikelite DS161, 1/4 power, f22, 1/125s, 60mm f2.8 lens

Taking a picture is really simple – my two-year old can do it just as well as you and I. Place the camera in a stable position and push the shutter to shoot the picture – that is all it takes! But placing the camera in the right position is a very artistic kind of thing – it entails our perception, our point of view. Ask three photographers to shoot at the same subject and you may end up with three picture of the same subject but with three different emphases, three different perspectives. Each picture reflects the photographer’s point of view, and most often we will find one that is more appealing than the other two. In composition we will learn about the lines, the horizon line, putting emphasis on the foreground, placed low you are placing importance on the upper part of the scene and we of course we need to pay attention to the intersections, where lines cross, where tones blend together and become one.

ESSENTIAL SSENTIAL DIGITAL UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHY MASTERCLASS

96

:

am

   e     l    u     d    o     M

4 Darkroom The Digital

4/1 Picture Managemen Managementt Just like in film photography, the digital photographic process continues after a tri p. Previously, the continuation required processing film, reviewing and culling images, cataloguing and storing them for various uses. It is essential that you follow the same discipline. However, instead of good old fashioned film, you will be working with the digital medium. As a digital photographer, the following software are essential to manage your pictures. 1. Adobe Photoshop with Bridge (essential) 2. Photo Mechanic – camerabits.com (optional) 3. Lightroom – adobe.com (optional)

2

Create subfolders and name according to the day or sites of your trip. Also create a new subfolder – name it for instance La Paz hi res tiff  –  – this is where you store processed pictures.

83

Though the world has moved on from the days of film, post-production processing is still as valid and necessary as it was when we consigned our

3

Transfer images from your portable storage device or storage media to respective folders. You should rename all images using the trip location and your name, retaining the original filename (e.g. DSC_1888 to LaPaz_MichaelAW). Renaming using Adobe Bridge is a fast and easy process. Open up the folder revealling all the pictures in Adobe Bridge. On Windows, use Control A, and on Mac, Command A – then click Tools > Batch Rename.

4

Review images with Adobe Bridge. Rate and select those with potential. In Bridge, assign 1 to 5 stars by pressing Control 1 to Control 5 on PC (Command 1 to Command 5 on Mac). Delete those that are not worth keeping.

5

First process Raw images in Bridge; open in Camera Raw – pick the white balance tool and click on a point in the picture you think is white or neutral. Make other adjustments such as exposure, clarity and brightness. Save the processed image as TIFF 300dpi in your hi res tiff folder.

Processing and Managing Pictures

 precious films films to a professional professional development development lab. The difference however, is that the darkroom is now in our own hands. Thus, it is vital to understand how to approach picture management and the digital workflow. This is all covered in module four with some really useful tips on

HINTS

Set up a dedicated desktop PC or Mac as your digital workstation. Essentially the faster the CPU, the better. It is also best to have an extra hard drive dedicated to storing images. Again, get the biggest capacity that your budget allows. USB 3.0 or FireWire is essential for speedy download. A high definition monitor is highly reccomended – the monitors of choice for discerning professionals are the Eizo CG series. (Eizo.com)

getting the best from the raw material stored on  your memory memory cards after a productive productive dive.

How to Manage Digital Stock? In the assigned hard drive, create a new folder, naming it after the location you have just been to (e.g. La Paz_2013).

1

Module 3 :TheDigitalDarkro : TheDigitalDarkroom 

module _3rd

ESSENTIAL DIGITAL UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHY MASTERCLASS

.i ndd 8 -83

96

: 7 am

Finally, module five provides more advanced    e     l    u     d    o     M

5

Beyond the Basic

105

techniques and much food for thought, including shooting with models, using continuous light and

MASTERCLASS

even entering competitions.

5/1 Painting With Lights Light is everything in photography we are essentially painting with light. Light breathes life, depth and emotion into our picture. Of course, our choice of subject, composition and background are all critical but the way we use light can take our image to whole new level. This is particularly so underwater - less light can be more. Time your photographic ventures sensibly and ensure illumination enhances rather than overpowers. To create spectacular pictures underwater, you must to be able to appreciate natural light. Seeing light in the underwater realm begins with an understanding of how water is affected by light, be it from the sun or your strobe. Most underwater photo images are illuminated in some way by strobes, which bring out the vibrant colours so often associated with marine animals. However, it would be fair to say that all our masters are experts with use of ambient light and most began their career by experimenting with natural light. Seascape imagery lends itself to the use of natural light and most wide-angle images rely on the background blue being ill uminated by the sun. Good use of the sun’s position has a critical effect on the result you will achieve when shooting with natural light. If the sun’s light is coming from your back, your subject will be well illuminated and appear light against a dark deep blue background. The idea is to get as close as possible to your subject to prevent any shades of blue (or green) from merging with those of the background. Be aware though, as harsh, bright overhead midday sun will sap colour from the picture, making it washed out, overpowering shadows and details. Another dramatic art form of underwater photography is silhouetted images.

Module  5 :BeyondtheBasicsMASTE : BeyondtheBasicsMASTERCLASS 

module5_3rd

.i ndd

0 - 05

This accomplished guide is written in an easy This is achieved when a subject is placed i n front of the sun. The subject’s black form is then silhouetted against a pleasant blue (or green) background or sunburst. With careful execution, dramatic ‘cathedral lights’ can be easily achieved with digital cameras.

to read, informal style. In some ways, the most  valuable parts of the the book are the comprehen comprehensive sive

Essential TIPS 1

 Take your exposure reading from the brightest part of the scene to produce a true silhouette, play with a range of different exposures. Use manual mode and bracket with shutter speed. Capturing the ‘perfect’ is subjective – it is all about capturing moods and emotions

2

 Shoot into the sun when it is low in the sky: morning between 9am to 11am and afternoon between 3pm to 5pm are the best times to shoot. These are the ‘magic hours’.

3

Catch the light in the eyes of your subject = remember the eye have it all. Focus to capture the life-giving catch-lights in animals’ eyes – these can give portraits that distinctive sparkle.

4

 Experiment with camera angles, especially with large subjects. This often adds extra dimension to the subject.

5

  Experiment with single and twin strobes. More, however, is not necessarily better. Some of the most iconic underwater images are illuminated with just one small strobe.

hints sections sprinkled throughout. If you only read these useful little nuggets, you would be well  prepared to get in the water and start shooting. However, I highly recommend you read the whole book and I guarantee it will expand your

ESSENTIAL DIGITAL UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHY MASTERCLASS

86

5: 5 am

knowledge bank and bring your underwater  photography  photography skills to a whole new new level. level.

 A defnitive work work packed with with readily absorbed INFORMATION , tips and techniques that have made his underwater images admired around the world, Michael Aw’s, ‘Essential Underwater Photography Photography Masterclass’ will undoubtedly come to be regarded as a classic of its kind.

 David Strike – Editor, Editor, Nektonix/ Nektonix/ “Organiser “Organiser,, OZT OZTeK” 

*you can order your author autographed copy now. Ocean Geographic Member Special: $26  postage included (Internationa (International) l) or $23 postage include included d for residents in Australia and Singapo Singapore. re. Email:  fi[email protected]   fi[email protected] m or purchase at  MichaelA  MichaelAW W.com

OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

59

CEAN Insider V.I.B. (Very (Very Important Impo rtant Bags) – OG’s Honorary & Associates Reveal their Secrets S ecrets DOUG PERRINE – professional: Ocean Geographic Honorary Editor Camera bag of choice:

I have various bags and cases. I choose the bag and the equipment according to the job I'm doing. The one I use most often is a 20 yearsold plus Lowepro photo backpack. It doesn't show a model name or number on it and I don't remember, but I'm sure they still make something similar.  What do you put in the the bag?

“Again, it depends totally on what I'm shooting. My current camera of choice is the Nikon D800E. Lenses will depend upon the subject matter, but might include the Nikkor 80-400mm, Nikkor 17-35mm, Nikkor micro 60mm or 100mm, and/or Sigma 15mm fisheye, or others. Essential inclusions are microfiber cloth (for lenses), flash cards, water bottle, lightweight rain poncho, plus plastic garbage bag to cover  pack in case of downpour downpour.” .”

 Why is this your favourite bag?

“It holds a lot of stuff, has padded dividers and a cushioned back, is water-resistant, and has padded shoulder straps & waist strap,  plus a chest strap, to stabilize t he load and make it comfortable on extended hikes.” Your thoughts on underwater photography:

“ If the picture in your mind is one  you've already seen – then then there is little reason for you to try to take that picture – it's already been done! If you can envision an image that you have not yet ever  seen, and start thinking about  how to create it, then you are being creative.” 

FOO POO WEN – serious shooter: Ocean Geographic Photographer-in-Residence Photographer-in-Residence Camera bag of choice:

I always carry two bags, Think Tank Airport  Accelerator Backpack & Crumpler Seven Million Dollar Home (think tank lightning fast attachment)  What do you put in the the bag?

“Think Tank Airport Accelerator Backpack: 1 x MDX-5D3 housing : 1 X optical 7.5" dome port, 1 x 4" Mini dome port : 2 x YS250pro strobes & chargers: 1 x Patima Gopro 2 housing : 1 x Extension Port : 2 x Focus Gears : 2 x Dome Diffusers : 2 x sync Cords : miscellaneous: attachments/ ball joint adapters/Allen Keys Crumpler Seven Million Dollar Home: 2 x 5D MK3 body, 1 35mm F2.8L II USM, 1 x 8-15mm F4L Fisheye USM: 1 x 70200mm f2.8L IS II USM, 1 x EX-580 Flash, 1 x Gopro Hero2”

60

 V.I .B . (v er y im po rt an t ba gs ) – OG ’s Ho no ra r y & As so ci at es Re ve al th ei r Se cr et s

 Why is this your favourite bag?

“Think Tank Accelerator Minimalist look, maximum CarryOn capacity, huge range of included  paddings,  paddings, thick carry carry strap cushions cushions for maximum comfort. help further reduce scrutiny by hanging a  plushie! Crumpler Seven Million Dollar – It fits my required Range of camera gears, thick pads, most importantly, it's a gift from my wife.” Your thoughts on underwater photography:

“ Every photo you take  depicts your state of  mind at that point in time.” 

MICHELLE WESTMORLAND  – professional: founding member member of ILCP (International (International League of Conservation Photographers) Camera bag of choice:

Lowepro Pro Roller x 200 AW and also the Rolling Trekker (no longer made) but the replacement is the Pro Runner x 450 AW.”  What do you put in the the bag?

“All my delicate camera bodies and lenses along with flashes, computer, hard drives. Sometimes I pack my Seacam housing and delicate fisheye dome port with my carry on.”  Why is this your favourite bag?

“Lowepro has always been my bag of choice. I never have issues of early wear and tear – they last a very long time. I can rest assured that the dimensions are designed for carry on for delicate items. In addition, addition, I use use a very very simple Igloo (Isky) rolling cooler for much of my underwater equipment such as strobes, arms, accessories and sometimes include the housing. It’s simple and for use as check-in, I never worry about it screaming “Hey, I have expensive camera equipment inside.” “

Your thoughts photography:

on

underwater

“I have had the privilege  of photographing marine life since 1984. Each dive  gave me new and dramatic  experiences.  experiences. From the tiny  creatures that hide in the  coral to magnificent marine  mammals that give our world balance, it is an environment where new discoveries are  made every day. I believe in the  power of imagery to motivate  stewardship  stewardship and protection protection of the fragile underwater world.  It is equally important to  connect with the indigenous  peoples of the world – man is, in fact, a part of nature.” 

JAYNE JENKINS:  – Serious Shooter: Shooter: Ocean Geographic Geographic Associate Photographer Photographer Camera bag of choice:

Lowepro for cameras as carry on. I have two - smaller one for just doing topside and roller one if taking all gear. I also use a Pelican case as check-in baggage.”

 Why is this your favourite bag?

“The bag is comfortable to carry and has enough space for what I require. It is also strong and durable.” Your thoughts of underwater photography:

 What do you put in the the bag?

“Two x D800, 16-35mm lens, 16mm Fisheye, 60mm Macro lens, 105mm Macro lens. Depends on where I am going – sometimes, 80-400mm Nikon zoom lens, cleaning cloths, compact flash cards, chargers.”

“ I never dive without without one of my cameras. cameras. You never know what you might miss. If you leave leave it in the backpack, backpack, you could could  miss out on an amazing opportunity opportunity.”  .” 

MATHIEU MEUR  – Professional, Author: Editor Editor for Ocean Geographic Geographic Camera bag of choice:

Naneu K4L  What do you put in the the bag?

“I typically put one or two DSLR bodies along with lenses and a land flash, a dome  port, laptop and iPad, a bag full of chargers for all my gadgets, dive computers, a toiletry bag and medicine pack, my travel documents, and a bunch of other things.”  Why is this your favourite bag?

“My main concern when choosing a camera bag is to ensure that I can fit all my stuff into it, in a safe and secure

manner. The zippers should be of strong build, as I subject them to severe tests of endurance. The bag should also be waterproof, or come with a splash-proof cover. This is essential when working around water bodies most of the time. The Naneu K4L ticks all the boxes in this respect. The compartments are arranged ingeniously, the bag is spacious, and yet, it fits nicely into the overhead compartment in planes.” Your thoughts photography:

about

underwater

“ I don’t fish, and I don't eat  fish. I prefer to capture them with my camera.” 

OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

61

JANE MORGAN  – Professional : Ocean Geographic Geographic Photographer Your bag of Choice: My trusty companion is a Lowepro Pro Runner 450. I use it for camera bodies and lenses both at home and on location. As I'm quite small framed I found that lots of camera bags were too large and put a strain on my back. However, this little number fits me  perfectly and I can spend all day hiking in rough terrain and hardly notice that it’s there. The only downside is often not being able to fit enough in, so on travel overseas I put on an extra photo jacket for extra lenses.

Your thoughts Photography:

on

Underwater

 Shooting underwater has always been a form of  meditation for me, once my  head is underwater it’s as if nothing else exists, just  my camera and me. Wildlife  photography will help you to live in the moment as your  entire being is concentrating and waiting for that perfect  shot!

ELLEN CUYLAER C UYLAERTS TS  – Serious Shooter: Shooter: Premier member member of Ocean Geographic Geographic  What is your camera bag of choice?

“ThinkTank 'Logistic Manager 30' as check in bag, National geographic rollaboard as hand luggage with laptop x D800 and Olympus EPL-2 in its housing as spare underwater solution in case the checked in luggage doesn't arrive.”  What do you put in the bag? bag?

“Housing NA-D800, Dome Zen 230, Strobes: Sea & sea YS-250PRO, Macro  port for 60mm. Nikkor 60 mm, fibre fibre optic strobe cables with spares, diffusers, arms and clamps, extra batteries, 7 x CF 500 32 GB memory cards, 4 x CF 1000 32 GB memory cards, chargers forD800, for YS250 strobes, for EPL-2, Extra O-rings, duct tape, fibre cloth, strips, grease, Sola 1200 & 2000.”

 Why is this your favourite bag?

“Filled with my 'basics' this Think Tank bag hold about 22-23kg, the maximum weight allowed by most airlines.” Your thoughts photography:

on

underwater

“ I try to capture not the  encounters I have with  marine life but the feelings  I experience being there at that time. Past, present and  future come together in the  healing process of life. The  oceans give me so much,  I want to give back with images that touch people's  hearts so they will care,  educate and preserve.” 

MICHAEL AW   – Professional, contributing underwater underwater photographers. photographers. Senior Fellow, Fellow, ILCP Camera bag of choice:

Lowepro Pro Trekker AW 400, Lowepro Prorunner 350 AW  What do you put in the the bag?

“Seacam housing, one mini-dome, S45  viewfinder,  viewfinder, two x Ikelite DS161, three DSLR, one topside flash, one mini, lenses required for the assignment or expeditions, chargers, one dive computer, laptop, duct tape, spare O rings, media cards, sync chord, fibre cloth, marker. Other housings, ports etc. are checked-in.”  Why is this your favourite bag?

“It has my name on it! But seriously, LOWEPRO is innovative and they make 62

 V.I .B . (v er y im po rt an t ba gs ) – OG ’s Ho no ra r y & As so ci at es Re ve al th ei r Se cr et s

the toughest bags that simply last and last…. And last. The zips are waterproof and come with their own rain poncho – most importantly, the brand has strong environmental policies.” Your thoughts photography:

on

underwater

“Underwater photographers are ambassadors of the  ocean. Our ocean is in trouble. It is essential that we use our pictures to bring  greater appreciation and  preservation of the ocean.  Shoot with passion. Be  original, be the first.” 

THE GREATEST SHOW BENEATH THE SEAS AfricA’s AfricA ’s Big AnimAls spec speciAlist iAlist

BEYOND THE ORDINARY ORDI NARY ADVENTURES  AFRICANWATERSPORTS.COM  AFRICANWATERSPORTS.COM [email protected] 

Founder of African Watersports, Walter Bernardis, has devoted a lifetime of research and work to Tiger sharks, Great Whites, and the most exciting marine animal interaction on our planet – the Sardine Run. Discerning underwater photographic experts such as Michael AW, Amos Nachoum and Franco Banf choose to shoot exclusively with Walter. You too can go with the best!

BLUE – A Global CONVERGENCE of the t he Ocean Arts & Sciences

GODS  – Art Serving Nature (An Ocean Geographic Save Our Seas Project)

Report by Charlie Fasano Cassandra Dragon Photographs by Emily Chan

Shiva, the main figure of the Garden of Gods – adopted by Ocean Geographic Society.

 Left : Each statue is meticulously meticulously crafted by skilled masons  with the deta il and sym metry of fi ne calibre art  Above : "Planting" a garden of statues underwater is no easy task 

The state of the world’s coral reefs indicate strong signs of anthropogenic damage; in some places, more than others. Pemuteran, Bali, is no exception, with heavy scars in the reef to remind the villagers of a time when dynamite and cyanide were used to extract coral and fish. Even though this is no longer  practised, the scars remain. remain. While coral reefs around the world have shown their ability to rebuild after  physical damage, we have found several ways to help them along. The Pemuteran Bio Rock Electric Reef initiated by Tom Goreau, PhD, and the Underwater Temple Garden installed by Chris Brown and his team at Reef Seen Seen Divers’ Divers’ Resort, are examples of how artificial reefs have been able to successfully restore nature’s underwater splendour. Garden of the Gods was an idea conceived some three years ago. Inspired by the Christ of the Abyss statue in Florida, Cassandra Dragon shared her concept with Chris Brown after diving the Underwater Temple Garden. As with all successful projects, the meeting happened over a couple of beers, formalised with a handshake, and the Garden of the Gods  project was spawned.

 As the name suggests, Garden of the Gods is an underwater garden with statues expressing the Balinese culture by giving reverence to the local folklore and beliefs. The word “garden” is appropriate for the  project as it is an artistic garden garden installed installed to grow corals for all of nature to thrive. Indeed, garden projects are important both above and below water, to help nature rebuild. It is also essential that this  project benefits the local stakeholders, stakeholders, and respects local religious culture as well as village authorities. With over 40 almost life-size statues, the Garden of the Gods is one of the largest and most ambitious man-made underwater art attractions undertaken in Asia-Pacific. This underwater site is in Pemuteran Bay, about 400 metres in front of the beach at Reef Seen. Inspired by the Balinese legend of Dewata Nawa Sanga, the statues of eight Balinese Gods (Brahma, Rudra, Mahadeva, Sangkara,  Vishnu,  Vishnu, Sambhu, Iswara, and Mahesora), are set in a circle Bleganjur, musician of the Gods

each positioned according to one of the eight directions of the wind. Shiva, the chief God, is positioned in the centre, sitting on a large turtle (this is in honour of a turtle conservation project in Pemuteran), Ganesha is at Shiva’s left side, together with Balinese musicians and dancers depicting the performance of “Bedawang Taksu” – ‘the spirit of the turtle’ dance, created locally and inspired by Reef Seen Turtle Hatchery and Balinese Dance projects. The four species of turtles found in the area are also represented in the garden, along with stone lamps, fountains and benches. These statues demonstrate that the interaction between man-made art and environmental science forms a complex reef structure over time for marine life to colonize, inhabit and increase biomass on a grand scale. These eventual underwater living sculptures will offer divers a mystical underwater experience of another world where art intertwines and develops from the effects of nature with the efforts of man. One of the greatest benefits of an

OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

65

Watch Ocean  S 

 ave Our Seas Fund 

artificial reef is that it will reduce marine tourism pressure on existing natural coral reefs, allowing repair, regeneration and recovery from human impact. Garden of the Gods touches all aspects of culture, community and the concept of art serving serving nature. It is what makes art art important for man and nature. The statues are an honourable representation of the local beliefs; local villagers can relate to the garden as it is a part of their cultural heritage. The art is shared with everyone in the community and with anyone visiting. The ocean-loving people of Pemuteran can view their gods and share it with the many tourists who come here to dive. The aesthetics and craftsmanship of the statues is excellent. Each one is meticulously crafted by skilled masons with the detail and symmetry of fine calibre art. These structures not only help regrow corals, they provide protection and a place for fishes and invertebrates to flourish. This project drives home the point that art can be used to drive conservation. From a cultural perspective, the Garden becomes a piece of art that gives back to the people through nature and reverence.

Besides the deployment of the statues, it was crucial to get the local community involved and educated on protecting the reef in the surrounding water along with an emphasis on employing and educating the local local villagers. villagers. This meant meant that the local villagers would benefit and profit from their hard work and patience in  protecting, repairing and maintaining maintaining their marine assets. They would have to be responsible for monitoring the existing bio-rock installations, as well as assisting in the construction and maintenance of Garden of the Gods. It is important that the local villagers are the main beneficiaries. Foreign and domestic owned businesses coming into the area must ensure that a large majority of their staff are from the village, and help locally-owned businesses to operate in a manner that will ensure economy and conservation of the area can develop, not  just for tourism, but also for education education and sustenance. Only then will the Garden of the Gods be able to serve as an example for other villages to follow. Over the last few years, 20 locals in Pemuteran have been trained as “Reef

Gardeners”. This is a team of young  people recruited from the various fishing organizations trained to maintain and  protect the reefs of Pemuteran Bay. Bay. They are taught methods of protecting the reefs of the area by removing the crown-ofthorns starfish and the Drupella shell. At the same time, they also learnt to repair broken corals that have been damaged, either by careless boat anchoring, nets, divers or by natural causes. Between 1996 and 1998, over 75,000 crown-ofthorns starfish were removed from the Pemuteran Reefs coupled with the repair of broken corals, effectively hundreds of years of coral growth was saved. Much like gardeners on land, the Reef Gardeners attend to their underwater gardens. The Reef Gardeners are now responsible for the maintenance of the Garden of the Gods. With the fanfare of religious ceremonies, the statues were deployed from the 23 to 29 of May this year. It is the aim of the founders and sponsors of Garden of the Gods to inspire conservation of our seas and communities in Bali and beyond. The reef restoration projects in Pemuteran have provided the younger generation with education and new skills for job  placements in the tourism tourism industry. industry.

How you can ADOPT A GOD Your sponsorship helps preserve the future of the environment in Pemuteran, along with the development of the existing positive initiatives that allow the community to manage the destination for the benefit and enjoyment of future generations. One hundred  percent of the funds donated go directly to the project. Yo Your ur contribution helps support the recruitment and training of new Reef Gardeners to maintain existing and future projects. OceanNEnvironment is proud to adopt the Garden of the Gods  into the Ocean Geographic – Save Our Seas program. You can help by sponsoring one of the statues in the garden and/or make a donation to help train new Reef Gardeners. Email: [email protected] or [email protected]  Statue Sponsors Chris Brown : Paul Brown : Michael AW : Emily Chan : Datuk Dr Saw Huat Seong Wyland: Sven Fautz : Cassandra Dragon : Luisa Sacerdote : Tracey Jennings : Georginne Bradley : Jay Ireland : Larry McKenna : Paul Turley : Keiron Keene : Amanda & Adrian : Paul Tanner : Siva Shanker : Tommy & Carla Hughes Ocean Geographic Society : Ocean Artists Society : Sea Gods Wetsuit 66

The Garden of the Gods –

 Ar t Se rv in g Na tu re

DR. HANNY BATUNA  A Man of the Ocean “What we do for ourselves dies with us. What we do for others and the world remains and is immortal.” —Albert Pines—

Essay  ” I've learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but PEOPLE WILL NEVER FORGET HOW YOU MADE THEM FEEL.”

—Maya Angelou— DR. HANNY BATUNA WAS AN EXTRAORDINARY GENTLEMAN; a Hero of North Sulawesi, a Hero of the Sea. He was an adventurer; always curious, intrinsically drawn to the ocean and what it holds; he was happy going where no one else had gone before. The joy of exploration drove him to venture beyond whatever risks and dangers there may be.

1978, in a YMCA open water course while he was on post-doctorate study in New Orleans. Determined to share his piece of heaven with expat friends; Dr. Batuna started NDC, the first dive centre in North Sulawesi in 1981. Unfortunately, he was

He was a visionary who saw the prospect and potential of Manado – training new divers, sharing the splendour of Bunaken Marine Park which he has helped protect and share with the world, not as a business but as an avenue for  people to enjoy the gifts of the sea. He was a healer, who tended to the sick throughout the day and night. He was a courageous professional – he was instrumental in bringing in a decompression chamber to Manado, not just for decompression sickness but for treatment of other illnesses as well. Dr. Batuna was a quiet achiever, an honest gentleman who enjoyed pursuing causes he believed in rather than for glamour or expectation of any recognition.

I remembered Dr. Batuna took me for my first dive at Bunaken Marine Park. He showed me the abyssal wall of Lekuan One; that wall was adorned with over hanging soft corals and golden sea fans. In just a couple of days, he introduced me to an underwater  paradise so lush and bountiful, bountiful, with reef fishes and sea turtles, that I thought it was a heaven on earth.

Dr. Batuna and Michael AW at Murex circa 1996

Dr. Batuna first scuba dived in the early 1970s; with a curious mind and buddies of pearl divers, he explored Manado Bay in search of pearls. The equipment they received from the local traders was comprised of double hose regulators, harness and tanks with  J valves. There was no buoyancy buoyancy device (BCD), no depth gauge, pressure gauge or wet suits. Fins only came much later.  After several hundred dives, Dr. Batuna finally got to use a horse collar BCD in

68

Dr Hanny Batuna, A Man of the Ocean

I am blessed to have met Dr. Batuna in 1988 in Chumphon – we were both candidates at a NAUI diving instructor  program. We We hit it off instantly and it was then that Ineke and Dr. Batuna invited me to Manado. However, as a high-flying advertising professional, I had absolutely no idea where Manado was. In 1992, after retiring from the world of advertising, I finally visited Dr. Batuna at Murex Dive Resort, and my life was changed forever.

ripped off by his local partner. Undeterred, he opened up Murex Dive Resort in November 1987, setting the course for Bunaken to become one of the top diving destinations destinations on our planet. It was in those early years that Dr. Gerry Allen, PhD, an ichthyologist, came and dived with Dr. Batuna. After being introduced to the diversity of Manado Bay and Bunaken, Gerry promoted the area in scientific circles and would return many times.

I was then only an unqualified novice underwater photographer. With tenuous confidence, I asked if I could stay to make more pictures for a book about Bunaken. Of course, at that time I had no idea how to write or  produce a book, but it seemed like a good idea, not to mention a great excuse to remain in  paradise. Dr. Dr. Batuna and his wife Ineke were generous, welcoming me with open arms and sort of adopted me into the family. I ended up staying for eight months in the loft of the dining area at Murex Resort. ‘Beneath Bunaken’ was finally published in 1993. The Governor of North Sulawesi and Mayor of Manado bought thousands of copies. The Minister of Tourism,  Joop Ave, Ave, used ‘Beneath Bunaken’ Bunaken’ in his trade mission around the world and also as a Gift of State at the Asia-Pacific

Economic Co-operation Conference of 1994. Silk Air bought hundreds of copies, and started direct flights from Singapore to Manado in 1994. In plain words, my career was launched all because of Dr Batuna’s faith in me, and the rest is history. I remember going out on the maiden  voyage of the MV Serenade, Serenade, the first live-aboard in North Sulawesi built by Dr. Batuna, in 1992. Our journey was to the Togean Islands in Central Sulawesi. There were several chickens on the back deck of the vessel. As we returned from a dive each evening, I noticed there would be one bird less on the deck. When I asked Dr. Batuna what happened, he told me that it had gone to chicken heaven. In the years to come, we made several more exploratory expeditions on the Serenade to Sangie and Talaud, Halmerhera and we returned to the Togean a few times. He showed me several amazing reefs he had previously discovered, underwater  volcanoes  volcanoes and wrecks, and we also explored many new ones. Dr. Batuna was an adventurer. In my first trip to Manado, together we salvaged the telegraph off the Molas wreck. In 1993, he brought me to explore Lembeh Strait - that was way before it became world famous. We found loads of nudibranchs, and other strange critters we had never seen before. Then Kungkungan Bay Resort was established in 1994 and again, history was made. Dr. Batuna was also a dedicated healer. With a small boat, he often visited remote  villages in outlying islands, moving from  village to village village to promote promote healthy healthy living living and give free medication. His daughter,  Angelique,  Angelique, has said that although he owned a private practice, he was not

Batunai damselfish ( Amblygly phidod on batun ai) – named after Dr. Batuna by Dr. Gerry Allen, PhD

a good businessman; he would accept  payment with bananas and other crops, sometimes none. Ibu Batuna was the one that kept the business going. In his gentle demeanour, he demonstrated a quiet authority over his staff and crew, and I admired his kindness towards the local  villagers we visited in our travels. I feel honoured and privileged to have known and spent time with Dr. Batuna. He has taught me well. I am glad that he had been recognised with the Ocean Geographic Hero of the Sea award in 2011, a well-deserved recognition for a modest  visionary who ignited the spark that has made Manado a premier dive destination worldwide.

Dr. Batuna, your legacy remains and  you live on through many of us. You You live on in our ocean; I will smile each time I see you through colonies of  Acropora batunai, a very beautiful staghorn coral named after you by Dr. Carden Wallace. You were there when we first discovered the species in the Togean Island in 1997. Each time I return to the sea, I shall also look forward to swim among swarms of Batunai damselfish ( Amblyglyphidodon batunai), the damselfish named after  you by Dr. Gerry Allen, PhD. From the depth of the ocean and the bottom of my heart, I thank you for inspiring love for our ocean, our families and friends.  Michael AW 

DR. BATUNA WAS A VISIONARY WHO SAW THE PROSPECT OF BUNAKEN  – sharing the splendour of the

marine park which he has lobbied to protect with the world, as a destination for people to enjoy the gifts of the sea.

MY Serenade – first live -aboard dive vessel in North Sulawesi – built by Dr. Batuna  OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

69

Essay 

 Acropora batun ai, a very beauti ful stag horn coral named after Dr. Batuna by Dr. Carden Walllace, PhD. Pic by Paul Muir.

The fact that Hanny – a highly educated doctor of medicine - was willing to also change the oil on the engine or haul up dive gear on to the beach was something that quietly impressed his staff in a way no other "boss" had ever done. IF ONLY OUR CURRENT WORLD LEADERS SHOWED THE SAME DEGREE OF HUMILITY HUMILITY,, GENEROSITY AND RESPECT FOR  ALL, OUR PLANET WOULD BE A VER VERY Y DIFFERENT PLACE. PLACE.

I

first met Hanny Batuna in 1993, as a graduate student coming to North Sulawesi to investigate climate change signals in long-lived coral skeletons. Though our main area of work was to be the Sangihe-Talaud  Archipelago,  Archipelag o, MUREX served as a comfortable base at the start and end of the 3-week expedition, and my strongest memories of the trip were of the generosity and warmth of Hanny and Ineke. I had spent the past two years of my PhD work living in the relative austerity of a small fishing village island in South Sulawesi. The verdant paradise of the MUREX estate, with excellent homecooking and family aura engendered by the Batunas, immediately made me want to uproot myself and relocate to Manado. The ongoing push to conserve the stunning reefs of Bunaken National Park, inspired by Hanny's dedicated efforts of more than a decade at that point, was an eye-opener to me; my experience with reef management in Indonesia then consisted only of watching my Makassarese neighbours spreading their sea charts on a table and planning their next 1–3 month bomb-and-cyanide fishing voyage! Four years later, later, I made that move. In 1997, my wife Arnaz and I, spent the latter half of our honeymoon at MUREX, and began preparing to move over to Bunaken Island. I eagerly listened to Hanny and Ineke speak of the history of Bunaken and the challenges facing it, and 70

Dr Hanny Batuna, A Man of the Ocean

their opinions on important next steps for conservation work and managing marine tourism in Bunaken. Those talks (and many subsequent ones with their daughter Angelique and son in law Danny) served largely as my initial schooling in marine conservation, and I've drawn on those lessons and perspectives ever since, applying them also to my work in Raja  Ampat and and the Bird's Head Head Seascape Seascape over the past decade. Over the next seven years, we lived in North Sulawesi. Hanny and Ineke welcomed us like family into the extended Batuna clan. When Arnaz was pregnant with our first two children, they insisted that we spend the last few weeks of both of her pregnancies at MUREX whilst awaiting labour, and our kids have long looked at the Batunas as their Indonesian family. Indeed, my fondest memories of North Sulawesi are of attending Batuna clan get-togethers - weddings, birthdays, Christmas parties and visits to Hanny's farm in Wowontulap. Always the humble and soft-spoken gentleman, Hanny nonetheless commanded the utmost respect and adoration of the younger Batunas (children, nephews, nieces, grandchildren and in-laws). Paired with the flair and sophistication (but nononsense pragmatic leadership) of Ineke, they were a model couple presiding over a storybook-like extended family whose closeness was unlike anything I had ever experienced in the U.S. Though I doubt I will ever be half as successful, I resolved to try to create in my own family, that same tight-knit atmosphere of warmth and

respect that Hanny and Ineke engendered in their family. The other aspect of Hanny's character that left a lasting impression on me was his quiet and confident style of leadership. His staff, of which there were many (from farm hands to dive guides to boat drivers and cooks), unanimously had an enormous amount of respect for Dr. Batuna and showed a dedication to and trust in him that was without parallel in my experience. Over the years of watching their interactions, it became clear to me that he commanded such respect from them precisely because of the generosity and respect he showed to all, and his willingness to take on any task. I am quite sure that for many of his staff, the fact that Hanny - a highly educated and worldtravelled doctor of medicine - was willing to also change the oil on the engine or haul up dive gear on to the beach was something that quietly impressed them in a way no other "boss" had ever done. If only our current world leaders showed the same degree of humility, generosity and respect for all, our planet would be a  very different different place. place. Indonesia, and indeed our Ocean Planet, has truly lost a "Hero of the Sea". Hanny will be greatly missed, but as Michael Aw eloquently notes in his eulogy, eulogy, his spirit and teachings live on – in his children, grandchildren, and the many, many lives he touched during a long and remarkable life. Farewell, Dr Batuna.  Mark Erhmann PhD

I truly believe that a legacy of this generosity is a joyful and caring attitude to the ocean that  WE SHOULD

STRIVE TO MAINTAIN IN HIS MEMORY. I first met Dr Hanny and Mrs Ineke Butuna in 1994, the second year of what was to become a 20-year enchantment with Indonesian coral reefs. Introduced by Michael Aw, I was astonished to make the acquaintance of such an erudite and respected medical  practitioner,  practitioner, who had also quite clearly devoted his life to the sport and science of diving! More than this, Hanny and Mrs Batuna held nightly court with a diverse assemblage of divers from around the world, in their tranquil and beautiful dive resort MUREX; they even ran their own live-aboard – theirs was a life deeply connected with the ocean. Dr Batuna was described to me as one of the  pioneers of diving diving in Indonesia. Indonesia. I believe that he was paramount in setting standards for dive safety and dive medicine and protocols for the operation of dive teams, while at the same time setting an environmental ethic that has had a strong and continuing influence on the dive industry throughout Indonesia. His generous spirit has been remarked upon by many, and I truly believe that a legacy of this generosity is a joyful and caring attitude to the marine environment that we should strive to maintain in his memory. I look back in gratitude at the wonderful underwater sights revealed to me under Dr Batuna’s guidance – ash slopes and underwater volcanos in Sangihe-Talaud, unique coral faunas of the mysterious Togian Islands, wash-pool headlands in the North Sulawesi peninsula, miniature  jewel-creatures  jewel-creatures in the Lembeh Straits and the magnificent coral walls of Bunaken. Many of these contributed names to new species of staghorn corals, but the gorgeous Togian Islands table-coral Acropora batunai will always remind me of wonderful trips on the MV Serenade, nights spent in the fine company of the MUREX mob and an exemplary and much treasured Indonesian citizen and man of the sea, Dr Hanny Batuna.

I reminisced about the thrill, my sister and I did not feel scared nor did we panic – it was as if

 WITH OUR FA FATHER HOLDING OUR HANDS, WE WERE INVINCIBLE. INVIN CIBLE. What made my father a great man? It was his acts of kindness, his integrity, his genuine care for others, his passion for the environment, and his love to his family. He was a man of few words,  yet meaningfully meaningfully communicative. communicative. His departure left a profound sadness, his  presence deeply missed. My father had always been my role model, my rock and my hero. I learned generosity, kindness, a love for nature and the outdoors from this wonderful man.  A medical doctor by training, my father was a general practitioner who specialized in the treatment of tuberculosis. His encounters with many coastal people fuelled a desire to help cure them of this disease. He had a private practice established at the front part of our modest family home in Manado. Some of his  patients were farmers farmers and and fishermen fishermen from remote villages with little means. They would bring their harvest as payments for medicine and consultation, and would travel the great distances with sacks of bananas, sometimes cassavas, and filled his waiting room with anticipation and hope. He gave them the same attentive care and respect, listened closely to their troubles and treated their illnesses. On my travels to these tiny villages  years later, later, I would come across people that had received his kindness and it always touched me how fondly he was remembered. So true, the quote from the author Maya Angelou,” I've learned that  people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel.” His work for the health department often took him to remote places to distribute medicine to the government clinics. With his interest in nature and the underwater life, he would happily do these trips and took his family along with him. Some of these trips were journeys by boats or by

four-wheel drive jeeps on damaged roads, crossing rivers with washed out bridges. This way, he fostered the love of nature and adventure early on in our childhood. My father’s zest for adventure and marine exploration led him to be a pioneer scuba diver in North Sulawesi. When he founded Murex Dive Resort with my mother, my siblings and I went through SCUBA certification and were hooked on the sport as well. One dive I did together with my father and my sister Angelique, was at Ron’s Point at Bunaken. This dive spot is notorious for strong currents. The dive started off with a gentle current along the wall but then the current became stronger, changed directions and swept us off the wall. Suddenly we were in the middle of a downward spiral current. I remember seeing my depth gauge fall from 18 to 30 metres within seconds. My sister, dad and I held hands and started finning furiously toward the surface. We held on to each other with my father right there keeping us calm and assured until we surfaced. We talked about that dive later and still reminisce about the thrill, my sister and I did not feel scared nor did we panic it was as if with our father holding our hands, we were invincible. My parents shared a spiritual bond and were in love with each other till the  very end. My father loved to surprise my mother with presents; my siblings and I quickly learned to recognize his giddy smile when he was hiding something special. He overflowed with love for my mother and his family and we were ever so blessed because of him. My father’s tender smile is what I remember most. He left too soon, but I know he lives on in me, in my children, in the ocean he helped  protect, and in the many people whose lives he helped change for the better. I love you, Papa.  Arlene Batuna

Carden Wallace PhD

OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

71

Exotic Exotic Diving Diving Expeditions Expeditions by by

MSY MSY Seahorse Seahorse Indonesia’s Indonesia’sFine FineDiving DivingSpecialist Specialist Fine FineDiving Diving::Fine FineCruising Cruising Fine FineDining Dining

 Alor  Alor::Ambon Amb Ambo Ambon onn::Cendrawasih Cend Cendra Cendrawasih rawasih wasihBay  Bay  Komodo Komodo::Raja RajaAmpat Ampat::Triton TritonBay  Bay 

[email protected] [email protected]

Visit our website : www.aiyanar.com

in Lembeh Essay & Photographs by Mike Scotland 

 MICHAEL AW 

Essay 

DARWIN HAD AL ALW WAYS REGA REGARDE RDED D WALL WALLACE ACE  AS THE CO-AUTHOR CO-AUTHOR OF EVOLUTION EVOLUTION.. He used Wallace’ Wallace’ss collections and an d eld notes for much of his research. THESE LEGENDS OF SCIENCE HAD

ENORMOUS ENTHUSIASM, AND POSSESSED POWERS OF OBSERV OB SERVA ATION AND DEDUCTIO D EDUCTION N THAT THA T WERE SECOND TO NONE. If SCUBA had been available then, Darwin’s Darwin’s HMS Beagle would be full of sh tanks; Wallace’ allace’ss famous collection of eighty thousand t housand beetles beet les  would be thirty thousand gobies, and the British Museum would be full of South East Asia’s marine critters.

C

harles Darwin

and snorkelling was rare in 1855. Can you

wrasse are a perfect example of adaptive

and

imagine what they would have written

radiation.

Alfred

W a l l a c e

about if SCUBA had existed then?

were two of the

Today, there are millions of well-informed

greatest

I can only imagine what it would be like

naturalists who love the sea. SCUBA

minds of the

if they were alive today and enrolled in

is a great example of new technology

nineteenth

a scuba diving course. They would most

opening the door to new discoveries. The

century. I feel

likely be chattering away in excited voices

growth of knowledge that we are all a

for them because they missed the best

after their first dive: What about the rays

 part of is inspiring. inspiring. In the last forty years,

of the Galapagos and South East Asia –

and sharks? I wonder if they have a

our knowledge of the sea has exploded

beneath the waves. Unfortunately

common ancestor. Those eight species of

exponentially.

for

them, SCUBA had not been invented then

THE NEW AGE OF EXPLORATION

74

Darwin and Wallace were heroes in the

the

the

in Sydney, just a few kilometres from

great age of exploration; twenty-first

 Australasian  Australasian landmasses. However, there

my home. I had delighted in discovering

century naturalists are all players in the

is no true Wallace line under the sea. This

these beauties in Lembeh just weeks

exploration of the world’s underwater

geographical barrier is irrelevant for most

before.

wilderness. It gives us hope that all

sea creatures. I marvel at the species of

divers can raise the consciousness of the

fish and sea slugs from Lembeh that are

I regard Lembeh Strait as nature’s Noah’s

human race and save the seas for future

not uncommon in Australian waters.

 Ark. All manner of marine life reside

generations to enjoy.

The list includes cornetfish, frogfish,

here in a condensed version of the best

aeolid sea slugs, coral banded shrimps

that South East Asia has to offer; an

Lembeh Strait is right on the Wallace

and many more. Recently, we have been

underwater zoo filled with an incredible

line. This deep-water boundary separates

 photographing  photographing convict gobies right here

biodiversity biodiversity of marine life.

 A Naturalist in Lembeh

Malaysian

archipelago

and

The sunset’s burnt orange and mauve hues created a mellow feel as we geared up. We head down to the dark volcanic sand sea floor just seven metres below. It appeared barren for a brief moment and then, I spotted a beautiful mimic octopus. The excitement had begun! I followed  John down to 15 metres and within within a few minutes, we had a stunning one metre Bobbit worm. Its head was 20 centimetres out of its burrow waiting in ambush for its dinner. I photographed it left, right and close up, fascinated by its terrifying jaws and shimmering body. I could imagine the excruciating pain if the worm decided to bite me.  John found a baitfish and steered it towards the Bobbit worm with his metre long reef stick. The Bobbit worm took the scent. I pre-focussed, making sure that I had the baitfish in focus and room for the Bobbit worm to enter the viewfinder. The monster struck with lightning speed! I pressed the shutter as soon as I could. I had missed it completely! The worm had caught the fish and dragged it into Bobbit worm ( Eunic e  aphrod itois) itois)   feeding. Lembeh St. North Sulawesi

its burrow within a few hundredths of a second. My reflexes operate only within  MICHAEL AW  AW 

mere tenths of a second. I was out of my league in the lightning-fast game

LETHAL CARNIVOROUS BOBBIT WORMS

of survival in the sea. All I managed to  photograph  photograph was a cloud cloud of sand. sand. We tried again on another night. John

One of the most dramatic critters that I

my dive guide, John, if we could find

steered a larger fish toward the Bobbit

encountered in Lembeh Strait was the

the Bobbit worm and maybe even feed

worm. It opened its deadly jaws wider

Bobbit worm ( Eunice aphroditis). They

it. John is an excellent dive guide with

and struck with the same lightning speed.

are, without a doubt, the most efficient

intricate knowledge of the seventy dive

This time, the worm had to strike several

 predator

sites in Lembeh, making him an invaluable

times to catch its dinner so I could take

asset for divers.

a few shots. It was a gruesome display of

of

the

segmented

worms.

 Annelids have have two main classes. The first

 predatory power. power. The Bobbit Bobbit worm is one

includes earthworms and leeches. The other consists of polychaetes or bristle

He replies, “No promises, we will try a

of the most efficient killers I have ever

worms. Bobbit worms are the biggest and

dive site called ‘Retak Larry’ tonight.” We

seen; the double clamp jaw of the worm is

most ferocious of the polychaetes.

motor off from Dabirahe Resort into the

an adaptation suited to its killer lifestyle.

sunset, heading north for Retak village.

Watching this ferocious predator in action

They are highly photogenic with their

This dive site was named in honour of

is a brilliant example of natural selection.

iridescent shiny bodies and fearsome

Larry Smith, an American critter finder

 jaws. During my stay at Lembeh, I asked

who was famously known as ‘King of the Critter Hunters’ before he died. OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

75

Essay 

Crab with eggs

NATURAL SELECTIO SE LECTION N IN SHRIMPS… OVERCOMING THE ODDS. ODDS. Crustaceans are a great case in point

During

that

segment from the front; males release

to illustrate natural selection. It seems

everything was breeding; every crab and

sperm from the eighth segment. The

crustaceans are in the middle of every

shrimp had loads of eggs. Lembeh was

male will place a sperm packet inside the

food chain in the sea. They are a major

like an underwater maternity hospital. I

female’s vulva, and she will then use it to

food

spent a lot of time exploring soft coral

fertilise her eggs over the next few weeks.

trees. With John’s help, I photographed

I spotted hundreds of shrimp eggs under

cowries, soft coral crabs, porcelain crabs,

her tail. Crabs devote a lot of energy to

alpheid shrimps and gobies on these

reproduction. The female crab not only

 Dendronepthya corals.

carries the fertilized eggs, she regularly

source

for

most

carnivores



everything eats them! Predators,

small

and

large,

gorge

themselves on crustaceans all day, every

my

stay,

it

seemed

day. Just how do crustaceans survive

76

fans them with fresh oxygenated water

against these incredible odds? The answer

Prawns, shrimp, lobsters and crabs are

of course, is via mass reproduction.

decapods

“Make more babies!” is the war cry of the

 Alpheid shrimps, like all of the decapods decapods

crustaceans.

have ovaries with vulvas on the sixth

 A Naturalist in Lembeh

i.e.

ten-legged

crustaceans.

to help their development.

Zebra crab

THE STRUGGLE FOR SURVIVAL SURVIVAL IN ZEBRA CRABS Zebra crabs can be found on the toxic and

Under the flap, females have five pairs

ovulates, she releases a pheromone into

elusive sea urchins. They have adopted

of hairy appendages. She glues her

the water. Males detect this ‘perfume’

the same cryptic colouration as their host,

eggs to these appendages, protecting

and come running to her side. She, of

giving them the perfect camouflage. One

them with her broad flap. Males on the

course, cannot mate until she moults.

sea urchin had three large zebra crabs on

other hand, have only two pairs of these

Mother Nature has given female crabs

it. Both females were heavily pregnant –

appendages as the other three pairs

the ability to synchronise egg fertility and

I could see her broad female abdominal

have completely degenerated. These two

moulting. Males have special claspers to

flap protecting hundreds of eggs.

remaining appendages are the equivalent

restrain the females. They can be seen

of crab penises and have been modified to

coupled together for up to two days until

Crabs have tiny abdomens, probably

transfer a sperm packet into the female

her old shell is shed. During this time,

making up only two percent of their total

crabs’ vulva.

she is vulnerable to predators. Males will

body mass (they are all chest and head).

 protect her and defend her from predators predators

Female crabs have broad abdominal flaps

Crustaceans have a sense of smell that

while those in males are very narrow.

rival that of sharks. When the female

for a few days until her shell hardens.

OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

77

Essay 

MANTIS SHRIMPS AND THE  WHEEL OF KARMA

F

emale mantis shrimps use

them until they hatch to increase their

their

chances of survival.

to

front

carry

appendages

thousands

of

eggs in a ball, where she

The wheel of karma however, turns the

 protects them until they

tide once these mantis shrimps grow into

hatch. Their eggs and larvae are highly

adults. They turn into one of the most

 prized by predators, all of which devour

ferocious predators on the reefs eating

eggs by the millions – few eggs actually

everything from lionfish to puffer fish

survive to adult hood.  A mother mantis

and even the deadly blue ring octopus,

shrimp knows that her eggs will be eaten

by literally punching (or slashing) their

immediately once she lets them go, so

lights out.

she must remain vigilant and hold on to Mantis shrimp

CARDINAL CARDINAL FISH FI SH New Born he next dive,

 progeny.  progeny. They They were were guarding guarding the breeding

a photograph of the eggs being expelled

I

male, presumably prepared to sacrifice

from its mouth, hatching larval fish. It was

their lives to protect him!

all over within seconds – the large mass

a

noticed group

six

of

cardinal

of eggs was expelled. I would have missed

fish. A single

On a night dive, my dive guide John

this very rare event twice over except

male,

with

became very excited. He urged me to

for the persistence of my excellent dive

enlarged

 photograph  photograph a small cardinal fish. I took

guide. I did feel a little silly!

 jaws, had eggs

a fleeting photo and was about to move

in its mouth.

on. John made it very clear that I had to

My buddy on this dive was Godlife, an

 As I tried to

look again. It was a male with eggs in its

excellent local underwater photographer.

get some photographs, I quickly realized

mouth. I photographed the eggs and again

He said he had been waiting for this

that the other five were females and only

was about to move on.

opportunity for many years and had never

the

the male had the enlarged jaw, specially

78

seen it. His camera was playing up and

adapted for mouth brooding of eggs. The

 John was gesticulating gesticulating excitedly. excitedly. So I

he was so distraught that he was joking

females were preventing me from getting a

turned back to take a closer look at the

about being in tears. I realized I had just

clear shot. I was observing a group of fish

cardinal fish again. I could not believe

had a golden moment. Right time, right

cooperating to ensure the safety of their

it! The eggs in its mouth were actually

 place, right camera lens. Sometimes you

hatching. I quickly settled in to coordinate

can be lucky!

 A Naturalist in Lembeh

FLAMBOYANT

CUTTLEFISH HATCHLINGS We found a single flamboyant cuttlefish egg in a bivalve shell. By a stroke of luck,  John was able to get it to hatch right before my camera! I had my 105 mm macro lens with a close-up wet lens on – perfect for photographing the birth of

The Dr.

world

expert

on

cephalopods,

Mark Norman from Australia, has

confirmed

that

flamboyant

cuttlefish

 possess a powerful powerful toxin. It is not

this flamboyant cuttlefish. The shots were

tetrodotoxin like the blue ring octopus

satisfactory, but I knew I could do better!

but a completely new, equally powerful toxin. The flesh of this sepia is inedible. At

 A few days later later,, John found another shell with thirteen ripe eggs! We had a golden opportunity. I could see fully developed six

millimetre

flamboyant

cuttlefish

one second after birth, they were making bright displays to warn off predators. These toxic hatchlings can therefore survive in open water.

moving inside the eggs. When the eggs were gently touched, the juvenile used its tail spike to puncture a hole in the egg,

This is a brilliant example of an adaptation to survive the extreme environmental

squeezed out half way and then seemed to

 pressure of predation. predation. Survival of the

give up and stopped. Then with a sudden

fittest here means the hatchlings have the

surge of energy, popped out and swam

 protection  protection of toxins and they also have

off. Its first reaction was to adopt the attack posture and flash its bright colours at me. Beautiful!

fully functioning chromatophores from birth.

We

observed

an

adult

flambuoyant

cuttlefish ( Metasepia pfefferi) feeding. They have eight legs and two hectocotylus tentacles, which are twice as long and these are used for feeding and mating. First, they extend their long feeding tentacles towards their prey. Seemingly taking aim and judging the distance of the strike. Next, the hectocotylus is fully retracted. Then, they strike with full speed. The prey fish (they like fish) is grasped in a split second and delivered into the beak of the cuttlefish. Cuttlefish usually use the beak to cut the fish just behind its head to sever their spinal cord in a single bite. Like all molluscs, the fish is shredded using the flesh-rasping tooth known as the radula, before swallowing smaller pieces of fish.

Flamboyant cuttlefish

OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

79

Essay 

RHINOPIAS SCORPIONFISH I had to wait until the 11th day of my trip to find a Rhinopias scorpionfish. These fish specialize in mimicking the colour and texture of the leather coral, Sarcophyton. I took plenty of photos of my Rhinopias from every angle. However, I was thinking about the other night’s dive with the Bobbit worm. As soon as I got

The Rhinopias struck with lightning

back in the boat, I said to my dive guide,

speed and gulped down half the fish. It

“John, I think that Rhinopias is hungry.”

took a moment to rest then gulped down some more. At the end, a huge bulge in

 prey was the the same same size size as the frogfish. frogfish. The

Rhinopias often stay put for days. That

the stomach could be seen. It was in the

frogfish might look cute but it is one of the

night, we managed to relocate the lethal

shape of a fish! A large fish tail was poking

most lethal killers in the ocean. It ate the

 predator by looking at the depth contour

out of its mouth for minutes.

fish although it took a few minutes to get it

near our prime site.

all in. Both predators have an expandable

John brought a

fusilier close to the Rhinopias. The prey

We repeated the same feeding technique

stomach – a necessary adaptation for

was two-thirds the size of the predator.

with a frogfish one night. This time, the

gorging on enormous meals.

Rhinopias eyeing its next meal.

80

 A Naturalist in Lembeh

CRYPTIC CAMOUFLAGE  AND  WARNING  WARNING COLOURS COLOURS I would like to think that many divers

mimicking

flatworms,

leatherjackets

Wallace was the first to explain the

are well–versed (or at least have an

(filefish) mimicking Valentine’s puffer

significance of bright colours to warn

interest) in marine biology and evolution.

fish and even hybridization of species

birds not to eat toxic caterpillars. Warning

We regularly see the effects of natural

of angelfish. The sea is a paradise for

colouration is far more common in the

selection when sharks clean up sick,

students of evolution and Lembeh is a

sea. Lionfish show off their bright colours

injured fish. We see the bright colouration

special Garden of Eden where divers can

to warn preditors about their toxic spines.

of flatworms and nudibranchs warning fish

see real magic in the waters.

that they are toxic. We see nudibranchs

Bright colours in marine animals like the nudibranch and pygmy seahorse warn predators of thir toxicity 

OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

81

Essay 

 WALLACE WROTE ABOUT HIS CONCERN  WALLACE  WITH WHA WHAT T HE REGARDED THEN AS THE IMPENDING CALAMITY ON OUR PLANET: deforestation and its damaging effects. These days, it has become an even greater threat to the planet. CLIMATE TE My view about  ANTHROPOGENIC CLIMA CHANGE IS THAT DEFORESTATION IS THE ELEPHANT IN THE CUPBOARD THAT IS EQUAL TO CARBON DIOXIDE OUTPUT.  Wee all need to go and plant a tree every week. The two  W culprits are the chainsaw and the internal combustion machine.

I make no bones about it. I am a fan of

When we venture underwater, we can

about the variety of butterfly fish derived

Wallace. He wrote books on thedistribution distributi on

see the marvels of adaptive radiation radiation that

from a common ancestor.

of animals across continents, and is

so captivated Darwin in the Galapagos

only 22 years old when he sailed on the

considered the father of Zoogeography,

Islands. Darwin’s finches are the textbook

Beagle for his five-year round-the-world

the geographical distribution of life. He

example used to teach millions about how

trip. Wallace was in his late twenties; he

observed geographical boundaries and

finches adapted to survive in ecological

did fourteen years of field research.

the effect of isolation on species. He

niches

speculated on pressures that created

developing anatomically different beaks.

If Darwin and Wallace were alive today,

change in species. The basic premise

This meant that finches could survive

they would surely be avid scuba divers,

of evolution is that species change over

on different diets and not compete with

 possibly your buddy buddy on the dive boat. You You

time.

Wallace developed the idea of

each other for the same food source.

could tell them about your underwater

natural selection independently and did

Each species developed a niche in which

adventures and discuss the survival of the

many more years of field research than

it could survive and proliferate, avoiding

hairy sea hare and its cryptic camouflage.

Darwin did. Darwin regarded Wallace as

competition.

They

in

differing

environments

Darwin was

by

one of the foremost thinkers on evolution

would

delight

in

seeing

collection of underwater photographs

of the nineteenth century. They were co–

We see many examples of this grand idea

and marine discoveries. After each dive,

authors of these concepts.

at Lembeh that clearly illustrate this point.

 you would be engrossed in a sparkling

Darwin’s lecture could well have been

conversation

involving

some

of

greatest scientific ideas of all time.

 About the author  Mike Scotland learned to dive in 1976 and became a Padi Instructor in 1982.  After having having taught actively for many many years, years, he he developed developed the  Marine Biology  for Scuba Divers course twenty years ago. He loves to teach the anatomy of

marine life. He is a BSc in Maths and Zoology. His first underwater camera was a Nikonos II but he is currently using a Nikon D200 in a Nexus Housing with two Inon strobes.

Mike Mike Scotland Scotland www.mikescotlandscuba.com 82

your

 A Naturalist in Lembeh

the





Lionel Unch (Harvard University Summer School 2013)

Essay by Nancy Merridew

Essay 

 Y

OU ARE ABOUT

Lionel slaughters freely but is always

CAROLYN MANNING’S FLIP

TO

in the cross hairs. His eyes scan for the

FLOPS

SERIAL KILLER 

shadows of octopuses, fish and seals

THE

– Lionel Unch. A quick,

who could snap him right up. Encased

at the Harvard Summer Farmers’ Market.

clean kill is not his style;

in an olive polychrome armour, streaked

Her toenail polish gleamed scarlet, uniting

instead, he dismembers

orange, teal and maroon, with matching

the colour theme of her cotton singlet and

 victims and devours them alive. alive. However, However,

gargantuan claws, Lionel’s exoskeleton

the procession of lobsters that decorated

Lionel is not depraved and his struggle

has saved him more than once. But his

her white sandal straps. Each of those flip

to survive reflects the ordeal of all living

shell has no defence against parasites

flop lobsters was around an inch long –

beings. Not so long ago, Lionel was the

and bacteria. If lobsters could talk,

the same size Lionel had been when he

guest of honour at a neighbourhood feast.

Lionel would probably agree that life

first swam out of the plankton. Of course,

Claws snapping away like castanets, he

is precarious, and that only one thing is

back then, he was not scarlet.

 jigged his eight other legs in delight and

certain, as the Fight Club adage goes, “on

scuttled through an entrance tunnel.

a large enough timeline, the survival rate

Behind Carolyn’s right shoulder, pastry

Lionel’s long antennae whipped through

for everyone drops to zero.”

seller Ben Van Meter reflected how, at

MEET

A

the royal blue netting rope as he tore flesh

★★★★★

from the corpse.

FLAGSTONES

another time, Lionel’s status might have

BULGED AS HE HAULED THE

days, lobsters were everywhere, like a  plague of “insects from the bottom of the

– he is a lobster of the North American

TRAP ONTO THE DECK . Sorting

ocean,” shunned by all but the very poor.

 Atlantic,  Homarus americanus. Lionel

the catch, he was careful to avoid the

But with overfishing came scarcity, he

never knew his father; his mother left

lobster handshake – years ago one

said, and lobster became the food of the

straight after Lionel hatched from the

had got him right in the webbing of

rich.

safety of her tail’s wide crook. Around

his thumb and forefinger, and he never

seven years ago, as a metanauplius larva,

forgot the introduction. Manning was a

It was coming up to Fourth of July – a big

he entered the harrowing Planktonic

Massachusetts lobsterman; since he was

time of year for cookouts and lobster was

Development Club. Predators ate most

a boy he had loved Hull, loved being on

 popular.  popular. On Carolyn’s Carolyn’s stall table, right next

of Lionel’s several thousand siblings but

the water and loved lobster. That fine

to a whopping dried claw, shell crackers

he survived the next few larval cycles,

white 42-foot boat, the Carolyn M, was

sold for US$3. Stainless steel scales

metamorphosed to his current scorpion-

named after his wife. When they married,

gleamed on the red-and-white checkered

like form, then descended to a new life

his business became a family affair – C&C

tablecloth, ready to be crowned with

on the sea floor. So far he had beaten the

Manning Lobster and Fish. Carolyn knew

crustaceans. Lionel had weighed in on

odds.

it inside out. So did CJ, their youngest of

another set at 1.5 pounds – a long way off

four kids. At 10 years old, CJ wanted to

the titanic 44-pound lobster world record.

Lionel’s shorter antennae seek out meals

grow up like his dad, with his own 12-foot

Carolyn had sold two of her steamed

for his versatile palate. Breakfast might

boat to play on, and his very own little

lobsters that day, shrouded in foil, at

be a starfish – ambushed as she slides

lobster trap on board.

US$10 each. Other customers preferred

along a crevice, using his cutter claw to

★★★★★

amputate her arms then shred them into morsels. Supper might be a sea urchin

to steam their own but welcomed cooking advice.

LIONEL SPENT HIS LAST NIGHT

– their needled patches fall away, like a

with other lobsters suspended in a yellow

Beaming, Carolyn shared her recipe:  Boil

Mohawk being scalped, when his crusher

wire crate off the dock, behind the

 4 inches of water, toss in live lobsters

claw flexes. Crack! A mussel’s death throe

Manning family home where his gills were

(they do not need to be covered with

 pings through the Atlantic; next stop,

flushed fresh by Hull’s tide.

water), bring it back to the boil then

Lionel’s gullet. Lionel could likely have eaten another lobster or two in his time too.

84

PLAZA

ACROSS

been different. In America’s pioneering CHRIS MANNING’S SHOULDERS

Our killer is well-understood by ecologists

CLICKED

“Lionel Unch”

★★★★★

cook for 14 minutes. When the scarlet  metamorphosis occurs, serve with melted

butter and corn on the cob. No seasoning, no garnish.

 Van Meter spiced it up. Lobsters are not so passive when it is their turn to play prey, he said. They have been “known to kick off the lid and jump out of the  pot.” It is more than a little off-putting when lobsters “scream” while they cook but that sound, he reassured, is just steam escaping the shell. ★★★★★

LIONEL WAS IN THE DARK. Stacked alongside nine companions in the cooler, in relative tranquillity under a damp hessian sack, rubberbands bound their claws. A couple of other lobsters had left earlier and not returned. Lionel might have been wondering what was so good out there, when the lid lifted, light invaded the cooler and a hand plucked Mr L. Unch away.

 MichaelAW  MichaelAW.com

North American Atlantic lobster, Homaru s americ anus.

 About the author  Nancy holds three bachelor degrees in Arts (History), Science

(Marine

Biology;

Human

Physiology),

and

Medicine, from Australian universities. In 2013, she completed an intensive Journalism short course at Harvard University, and a Diploma of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in England. Currently working in Australia as a medical doctor, Nancy refuses to let go of her other interests and is thrilled to join the team at Ocean Geographic! Nancy loves nature and geology on all scales – microscopic and colossal – especially fossils, phytoplankton and seaweed. Her favourite topic is the Galápagos Islands. Sir Charles Darwin – epitome of creativity, genius, scientific rigour, humility and endeavour – is her idol. Writing on nature, ecology, history,  patient experiences, experiences, public health, infectious diseases and

Nancy Merridew

medical education, Nancy reflects on her global travels, education, work and social life –which deliver extraordinary encounters. OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

85

DEMA

SEE IT EXPERIENCE IT

2014

SHARE IT

SHOW

AT DEMA SHOW 2014 IN LAS VEGAS! NOVEMBER 19–22, 2014 | LAS VEGAS CONVENTION CENTER | LAS VEGAS, NEVADA | WWW.DEMASHOW.COM THE WORLD’S ONLY INTERNATIONAL TRADE-ONLY EVENT FOR DIVING, ACTION WATERSPORTS AND TRAVEL PROFESSIONALS!

FIND OUT MORE AND REGISTER NOW AT WWW.DEMASHOW.COM

facebook.com/demashow | twitter.com/dema_show |  linkedin.com/company/dema-org |  youtube.com/user/DEMAAssn |  pinterest.com/demashow

Protecting a PHENOMEN PHENOMENO ON The Whale Sharks of Cenderawasih Bay 

Essay and Photographs by Michael AW 

So journ

T

here are several

Located on the Eastern fringe of the

Like most that came, it was our passion for

 places in the world where whale sharks

Indonesian Archipelago, Cenderawasih

sharks that lured us to this remote outpost,

congregate:

Red

Bay is as remote as the Baliem Valley

to document and protect one of our ocean’s

Sea, Galápagos, Belize, the Seychelles,

on the Eastern half of the island of

Western Australia’s Ningaloo reefs, and

New Guinea. The bay itself harbours

Donsol in the Philippines. At each of

substantial secrets to the geological

these locations however, the sharks are

history and tectonic evolution of the

when I had all but an eight-day window

only resident for a period of one to three

region. Geologists established that until

before my next presentation; from London.

months before moving away. Nothing

recent times, the bay was geologically

I flew to Singapore then Jakarta, and several

else in this world compares to the recent

isolated from the flow of the Pacific tides.

domestic flights later, I finally met up with

discovery of the massive congregation of

This isolation has somewhat consecrated

my team in Nabire. It was like going back

whale sharks ( Rhincodon typus ) around

Cenderawasih to be an ancient sea with a

fishing platforms (bagans) in the southern

high percentage of endemic fish and coral

 part of Cenderawa Cenderawasih sih Bay Marine Park,

species that are found nowhere else on

in West Papua, Indonesia. Documented

the planet. Conservation International’s

washing lines and dilapidated shacks,

by the fishermen near Kwatisore village,

senior

Allen,

complete with dogs running out to greet

whale sharks can be found simply

an ichthyologist, proclaimed the bay

our aircraft on landing! Our fixer on the

‘hanging around’ their fishing platforms

"the Galápagos of the East” based on

ground, Ronny Rengkung, happened to

throughout the year! This is the only place

documented findings of an "evolutionary

know the local chief of police, so the latter

in the world where you do not have to

cauldron" of new and unique corals,

swim after the sharks – position yourself

shrimps

beneath a bagan and you could have up to

surveys documented 995 species of fish

12 sharks swimming right up to your face.

and over 500 species of corals - about

 At the break of dawn the next day, our

Legendary filmmaker and conservationist,

10 times more than the entire Caribbean

convoy of two small fibreglass boats laden

 Valerie  Valeri e Taylo Taylorr (affectionate (affectionately ly known as

combined!

with camera equipment and dive gear sped

Christmas

Island,

and

fish

Dr.

Gerald

species.

Extensive

exploratory trip) was in November of 2010,

in time; from multi-million-dollar airport terminals to a short airstrip peppered with

 picked us up from the airport and made all ground arrangements for our brief sojourn.

the Queen of Sharks), referred to this

across the calm waters of the bay to look

 phenomenon  phenomen on as the new 8th natural

for the fishing bagans two-and-a-half hours

wonder of our planet. 88

consultant,

most threatened giants. Our first (the

P r o t e c t i n g a P h e n o m e n o n –   The Whale Sharks of Cenderawasih Bay

north of Nabire.

One of the many fishing platforms (or bagans as the locals call them) scattered around Cenderawasih Bay.

Cenderawasih Bay is the only place on earth where w here you do not have to swim after the sharks – position yourself beneath the shing platform and you could have

12 SHARKS SWIMMING RIGHT RIG HT UP TO YOUR FACE.

OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

89

So journ It was only in 2009 that we first learnt of the presence of whale sharks in Cenderawasih Bay, and that their

CENDE CE NDERA RAW WASI ASIH H BA BAY Y IS TH THE E FIRST SITE IN THE WORLD

fascination for the fishing platforms (bagans) is much like that of bees to honey. About 23 of these semimobile platforms are located in the  vicinity of Kwatisore village at the

TO WITNESS

 whale sharks feeding from a shing net.

southern end of the marine park.  At dusk, massive nets are lowered beneath these platforms to about 18 metres. Floodlights illuminate the water from the surface to attract millions of ikan puri (three-inch baitfish). In the morning, the nets are raised, bringing up tons of ikan  puri. Some are collected collected to be used as bait for bonitos and any excess would be left in the net hanging just beneath the platform. The whale sharks in the bay have learnt to suck these small fishes from the net. Out of amusement or companionship, the fishermen decided to feed buckets of ikan puri to the sharks. The first time we approached a bagan, the fishermen told us there was a shark below. In a flash, we were in the water and found a  juvenile about 3 metres in length. We were not satisfied – one small shark was not good enough! We bounced back into the boat and headed to the next bagan. There, we were told, there were many "big fish". We jumped in to find seven whale sharks. They were swimming  placidly around under the platform, platform, occasionally rising up to the bottom of the nets filled with small fishes. They hung vertically in the water as they sucked, completely oblivious to our presence, moving on only for a breather or after being bumped off by another shark. The congregation of the seven animals ranged from 3 metres to 13 metres; big, powerful and much more gregarious than any

 Whale shark hangi ng v ertical ly, suck ing on one of the fishing nets beneath a bagan.

other whale sharks I had ever seen before. I knew immediately that this was a very special place.

90

P r o t e c t i n g a P h e n o m e n o n –   The Whale Sharks of Cenderawasih Bay

MY GRIN WAS WAS AS WIDE Within an hour or so, we had over 12 sharks around us – sharks outnumbering humans! With fishing nets that were brimming with

 AS THE SHARKS! It was a moment to die for.

 juicy tidbits, tidbits, they hung hung around, around, completely completely at ease with our company, even curious. Not being a predatory animal, their eyes are tiny relative to their body size, with soft surrounding skin that wrinkled up and closed over the eyes as they ate. They would swim right past us, avoiding contact with the exception of the occasional gentle  push to get get us out of the way way of their feast. feast. They seemed aware of our presence; apart from the odd gentle sideswipe, they nearly always managed to keep their enormous tails from hitting us. After the three-day recce, we confirmed that whale sharks are opportunistic feeders, able to associate human

companionship

with

food.

Cenderawasih Bay is the first location in the world to witness such behaviour.

 A sloppy and rather undignified moment with large, fleshy, colossal mouths all around me.

 Whale sharks are opportu nistic feeders able to associate human companionship  with food.

OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

91

So journ

 Whale sha rks outnumbered d ivers.

climbing on top one another with great urgency, taking in as much food as  possible before nightfall. nightfall. Throughout the four days, all members of our expedition were able to approach the sharks up close

Cenderawasih Bay lit the ame of 

FERVOUR TO PRESERVE P RESERVE AND PROTECT this magical place place..

and make eye contact both on snorkel and scuba. Once again, they were gentle and swayed their powerful tails in a manner to avoid hurting their human friends! Seemingly unopposed to our presence, some rose vertically alongside to pose with their clumsy bubble-blowing tactile

I

 At 7 am, we would usually have two to

Geographic

organised

three juveniles placidly feeding from the

expeditions;

net but by 10 am, there would be about

 At one point, I was composing a shot of

we

ten animals, ranging from 2 metres to 12

three sharks confronting fishermen on top

documented 35 individuals

metres, congregating to feed off the net or

of the bagan for more food; unknowingly

beneath five bagans. We

receive handouts from the fishermen on

two bigger sharks approached the bagan

began our observation each

the platform. Noon is the lull period with

from behind me. I felt a push and the next

day at first light, though

only a couple of juveniles still hanging

moment I felt like ham between bread,

sometimes we would start before sunrise

around, hoping for more handouts. At

sandwiched between five animals, each

to find up to six sharks feeding in the

about 4 pm when crepuscular rays radiate

weighing about 15 tons! Albeit a sloppy

dark. However, typical of sharks, lions

through the water like a dinner bell, the

and rather undignified moment with large,

and humans, prime feeding times are in

sharks seems to shed all inhibitions and

fleshy, colossal mouths all around me,

the mornings and evenings before sunset.

frantically rush in with mouths agape,

the sharks were gentle and I managed to

two over

92

friend.

n September of 2011, Ocean 10-day twenty

days,

P r o t e c t i n g a P h e n o m e n o n –   The Whale Sharks of Cenderawasih Bay

Conservation International’s senior consultant, Dr. Gerald Allen, calls

CENDERAWASIH BAY “THE GALÁPAGOS OF THE EAST” based on documented ndings of an “evolutionary cauldron” of new and unique corals and sh species escape from beneath them. Flabbergasted

the tags, the five whale sharks actively

should be to protect their well-being and

but my grin was as wide as the sharks. It

collected data of their daily diving and

habitat for future generations. We now

was a moment to die for; a whale of a tale

ranging behaviours. The tags used were

know that the sharks in the bay traverse

(pun intended) that I shall talk about for

 pop-up archival satellite-li satellite-linked nked tags; tags; once

great distances into the Pacific Ocean –

the rest of my life.

attached to the shark, they remained there

a few of them have been documented to

for around 200 days. At a programmed

return to feed in the bay. Though data is

Besides the fact that whale sharks rise to

release date, the tag detaches from the

still insufficient to determine the number

the surface of sea to feed on plankton and

anchored tether, floats to the surface, and

of whale sharks that frequent the bay, we

small fishes, very little is known about the

begins transmitting the data recorded

do know if the shark fins merchants move

Rhincodon typus. We do know that they

(depth, water temperature and roaming

in, all the animals in the bay could be

are cold-blooded, breathe through gills

range) to earth-orbiting satellites in the

harvested in just a few weeks!

and they are the biggest fish in the ocean.

 Argos system. The tagging exercise was

This year-round congregation and feeding

a significant effort in a far-flung place to

Whale

off the fishing bagans in Cenderawasih

learn more about these incredible animals

 Vulnerable  Vulnerable in the IUCN Redlist. But

Bay is the first of its i ts kind known. To further

and

mystery

the population at Cenderawasih faces

understand the range of these sharks, in

surrounding them — where and how

imminent danger as they are the prime

December of 2012, Dr. Mark Erdmann led

they mate, how they spend their early

target of ruthless shark fin merchants.

a Conservation International expedition

 years. The tags may or may not provide

Known as the king of sharks, whale shark

and successfully tagged five sharks. With

some answers but our primary concern

fins are considered the most valuable

hopefully,

unravel

the

sharks

are

already

listed

as

OG Issue 29 : 07/2014

93

Sojourn and therefore in greatest demand in

a ministerial decree on shark protection

Hong Kong. Our observations confirm

status. The regulation gave whale sharks

that sharks unintentionally entangled or

full protection status; this means that

has

accidentally caught in the fishing nets

killing a whale shark for any reason is

shark

are astonishingly frequent; for now, the

strictly prohibited.

*Since

2010,

been

Ocean

conducting

photographic

Geographic annual

whale

expeditions

to

Cenderawasih Bay on the MSY Seahorse.  All divers interacting with whale sharks

fishermen release the animals voluntarily. Cenderawasih Bay is an ancient sea with

 now contribute a fee of USD30 per pe rson to the Kwatisore village; additionally, the

Since the publication of a story in National

endemic fishes, a fairyland of soft and

Geographic in 2011, the phenomenon

hard coral reefs. Together with its year-

to interact with whale sharks beneath their

of Cenderawasih Bay gained worldwide

round congregation of feeding whale

 platform receive a fee of USD 300 to 500

attention. Besides the incursions of live-

sharks, it is the beauty of nature’s creation

aboard diving vessels, scientists from

 personified,  personified, lighting the flame of fervour

WWF and Conservation International

in us to preserve and protect this magical

OCEAN GEOGRAPHIC ANNUAL WHALE

also visited to document, research and

 place. Cenderawasih Cenderawasih Bay is a global

 SHARK PHOTOGRAPHIC EXPEDITION

 promote conservation conservation of these animals.

treasure. Ocean celebrity, Valarie Taylor,

Many lobbied for complete protection of

has a better description: the 8th natural

the species in Indonesia. Finally, in late

wonder of our world.

 fishing bagans contracted to allow divers

 per day.

Such arrangements encourage

the local stakeholders to accord greater  protection of the sharks. To participate in

TO CENDERAWASIH BAY in September/ October,

email:[email protected]

or

check out www.OceanGeographic.org

2013, the Indonesian government issued

Quick Facts about the

BIGGEST FISH IN THE OCEAN Scientific Name:  Rhincodon typus Life span :

Estimated to live 70–100  years

Mouth:

Up to 2m wide and can contain more than 4,000 tiny teeth.

Maturity and size: After an early growth spurt , whale sharks grow slowly, reaching maturity around an estimated 25–30 years of age. The smallest free-swimming whale shark measured  just over a 30 centimetres and was captured in the Philippines.

Culture:  M ost cultures where whale sharks are found have special names for them, typically relating to their size and characteristic spots. In Madagascar they are named “marokintana” meaning “many stars” and Mexicans call them “domino” – like the game. Conservation:   Whale sharks are listed as  Vulnerable to Extinction by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and listed on Appendix II of the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna (CITES), which helps to regulate their their trade. Whale sharks sharks are protected in several countries worldwide

 Wha le sharks becomi ng uninte ntionally tangled or accidentally caught in fishing nets are astonishingly frequent.

94

P r o t e c t i n g a P h e n o m e n o n –   The Whale Sharks of Cenderawasih Bay

— including Belize, Mexico, Honduras, the Maldives, Australia, Indonesia, the Seychelles, India, and the Philippines. However, However, the highly lucrative shark fin trade and the growing megaaquarium trade continue to put pressure on their population. Fishing also poses a serious threat to their survival; these animals can get entangled in purse, drift and gill nets, and risk being struck by ships while they bask or feed at the water’s surface. They are targeted by artisanal fisheries and occasionally by purse seine netters, primarily in the Indo-Pacific region. Although the meat is rarely consumed outside of eastern Asia, whale sharks are increasingly captured for their liver oil (used to waterproof boats) and for their fins (used as shop signs and status symbols).

PICTURES F THE YEAR

You are invited to share your experiences and special moments in the sea. YOUR PICTURES  ARE IMPERATIVE IMPERATIVE TO PROMOTING PROMOTING THE CONSERVATION CONSERV ATION OF OUR OCEAN.

COMPETITION

 As your work work will influence influence change, we acknowledge acknowledge its importance by awarding you with prestigious  Awards  Aw ards for Outstandi Outstanding ng Achievement, Achievement, Merit Merit of Excellence and Special commendations. The Ocean Geographic Pictures of the Year Awards are named in honour of some of THE MOST CELEBRATED IMAGE-MAKERS OF OUR OCEAN  Plus cash & holiday prizes ONE OCEAN Award – the SYLVIA EARLE  Award for Outstanding  Award Outstanding Achievement Achievement Portfolio Award – the DAVID DOUBILET  Award for Outstanding  Award Outstanding Achievement Achievement  Animal Portraits Portraits – the EMORY EMORY KRISTOF  Award  A ward for Outstanding Outstanding Achievement Achievement  Animal Behaviour Behaviour – the DOUG PERRINE PERRINE  Award  A ward for Outstanding Outstanding Achievement Achievement Black & White Print – the ERNIE BROOKS II  Award  A ward for Outstanding Outstanding Achievement Achievement Colour Print – the VALERIE TAYLOR Award for Outstanding Achievement Seascapes – the CARDEN WALLACE Award for Outstanding Achievement Creative Vision – the WYLAND Award for Outstanding Achievement Feature Length movie – the RON TAYLOR Award for Outstanding Achieveme Achievement nt Fish Behaviour – the GERRY ALLEN Award for Outstanding Achievement Short Movie – the HOWARD HALL Award for Outstanding Achievement

2013 Winner: Amos Nachoum  Animal Behaviour –  Doug Perrine Award for Outstanding Outstanding Achivement Achivement

ONE competition: 15 Categories  38 Prestigious Awards Awards

Pictures are a powerful medium for conservation. Images reveal untold stories, stir emotions and change hearts.

Ocean Geographic

Small Exotic Animals – the NEVILLE COLEMAN  Award  A ward for Outstanding Outstanding Achievement Achievement

encourages the use of images to

Seascapes with model – the KURT AMSLER  Award for Outstanding  Award Outstanding Achievement Achievement

CONSERVE AND CELEBRATE THE BEAUTY OF OUR PLANET.

Young Photographer of the Year Junior & Senior – the ALEX MUSTARD Award The OCEAN GEOGRAPHIC Merit of Excellence  Award  A ward for Novice Photographer Photographer THE OCEAN GEOGRAPHIC PHOTOJOURNALIST AWARD The MASTER OF COMPETITION AWARD – the overall Winner

 L  L A C  L y C lose 31 A  ug  F I NA  En tr  or g  c. o  p hi c.  gr a www.O c e a nG e o

Locally Grown

With super high-definition 4K video, you may be able to capture every shade of blue in the world. But we recommend adding a few more colors. The Vega Video + Photo Light will illuminate your subject with 2200 lumens of color-popping power in a package small enough to fit in your pocket. You'll never look at underwater video the same way again.

Find an Authorized Ikelite Dealer at ikelite.com.

Sponsor Documents

Or use your account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Forgot your password?

Or register your new account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link to create a new password.

Back to log-in

Close