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Pediatrics – Question Bank - RGUHS

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question bank of rguhs university final postgraduate exams for M.D(pediatrics) and D.Ch course - chapter wise

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Paediatrics – question bank - RGUHS
Cardiovascular system
1. A 10-year-old boy is brought with history of convulsions and altered sensorium. On
examination, his BP was 180/110 mm of Hg. Describe the DD, lab investigations and
treatment of this case.
2. A 2-day-old neonate is brought with history of convulsions. What are the likely
causes based on history and physical examination. How will you investigate and
manage this child.
3. A 3-year-old child having fever for 4 days suddenly develops breathlessness,
tachycardia and sweating. Describe the DD of this case and its treatment.
4. A one-year-old child is referred for an asymptomatic cardiac murmur. Outline the
likely causes. How will you differentiate an innocent murmur from that of a
congenital heart disease, on clinical ground?
5. Acute left ventricular failure, aetiology features and management
6. Acute rheumatic fever, chorea, subcutaneous nodules, prophylaxis, all
7. Adenosine
8. Anatomy of conducting system of heart
9. Anatomy of ductus arteriosus
10.Asd, osteum secundum
11.Bradycardia in children
12.Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
13.Cardiac catheterization
14.Cardiomegaly
15.Cardiomyopathy
16.Cardiovascular risk factors in children
17.Classification. Merits and demerits of various antihypertensive drugs.
18.Classify antiarrhythmic drugs used in children. Describe the mechanism of action
and uses of amiodarone.
19.Classify stable and unstable arrhythmias. Discuss the types of SVT with their ECG
changes.) Outline the approach to manage unstable arrhythmia.
20.Clinical uses of a) Anti – RH D b) I.V.I.S
21.Coarctation of aorta
22.Complications of Fallot’s tetrology and their management
23.Cyanotic congenital heart diseases at birth
24.Dandywalker’s syndrome -CCF (Congestive Cardiac Failure)
25.Describe briefly the pathophysiology of congestive cardiac failure and
management of refractory failure
26.Describe the etiopathogenesis of SVT in children. Discuss the diagnosis and
management of a child with SVT
27.Development of heart
28.Dextrocardia
29.Diagnosis and management of constrictive pericarditis
30.Diagnosis of cardiomyopathy
31.Digitoxicity
32.Digoxin
33.Discuss aetiology, diagnosis, and management of childhood hypertension
34.Discuss the aetiopathogenesis and management of primary cardiomyopathy
35.Discuss the approach to a child with acute congestive heart failure
36.Discuss the causes of hypertension in a 7 year old child, approach of investigation
and management of such a case

37.Discuss the pathogenesis of CCF and the role of vasodilators in its management
38.Discuss the pathophysiology of cardiogenic shock. How are the various
hemodynamic parameters affected in cardiogenic shock? Discuss steps in
monitoring and treatment of cardiogenic shock.
39.Discuss the pathophysiology, clinical features, and medical management of
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
40.Discuss the role of vasodilator therapy in CCF. Enumerate various vasodilator agents
use in CCF and their respective mechanism of action.
41.Discuss the signs and symptoms of infective endocarditis, its treatment and
prevention
42.Discuss the treatment of hypertension in children. Classify the drugs used to treat
hypertension and briefly mention their mechanism of action.
43.Discuss the various minimally surgical invasive devices and procedure available for
the management of common congenital heart disease in children.
44.Dopamine
45.Doppler echo
46.Draw a labelled diagram of foetal circulation. Indicate partial pressure of Oxygen
and oxygen saturation values at key points in this circulation.
47.Draw an algorithm for managing pulseless ventricular tachycardia and Ventricular
fibrillations.
48.Ebsteins anomaly
49.Enumerate causes, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and management of pericardial
effusion
50.Essential hypertension in children
51.Fetal circulation and changes after birth.
52.Hemodynamics and diagnosis of Ebsteins disease
53.How do you classify congenital cyanotic heart diseases? Discuss their management
54.Hydrops fetalis
55.Innocent murmur
56.Investigations in a child with hypertension
57.List the causes of CCF in a 2-year-old child. Describe different types of VSD
according to position and size. Write indicators of surgical intervention/ device
closure.
58.Management of cardiogenic shock
59.Management of supraventricular tachycardia
60.Multiple pregnancies
61.Non cardiac causes of ccf
62.Non-invasive cardiac surgery in paediatrics
63.Normal ecg in children, use of ecg in diagnosing chd
64.Pathogenesis, clinical features and management of infective endocarditis
65.Pathophysiology , diagnosis and treatment of Eisenmenger syndrome.
66.Pathophysiological consequences of cyanotic congenital heart diseases
67.Pathophysiology of cyanotic spell.
68.Pda
69.Preventive cardiology in adolescents
70.Primary endocardial fibroelastosis
71.Primary myocardial diseases in children
72.Recent advances in ccf
73.Recent advances in the management of hypertension
74.Recurrence of rheumatic fever
75.Refractory congestive heart failure ; causes and management
76.Respiratory Distress- surgical causes

77.Role of interventional cardiology in paediatrics
78.Second heart sound.
79.Severe hypertension in infancy
80.Significance of second heart sound in clinical practice
81.Supportive care of the preterm infant
82.Supraventricular tachycardia
83.Systolic murmur at lower left sternal border
84.Thrombocytopenia in the new-born
85.Tof - hemodynamics, all
86.Transient hypertension
87.Treatment of acute rheumatic carditis
88.Treatment of hypertension
89.Utility of MRI in diagnosis of Cardiovascular disorders.
90.Verapamil
91.Viral myocarditis
92.Vsd spontaneous closure
93.What are the congenital heart diseases associated with cyanotic spells. Write clinical
presentation and management of cyanotic spell.
94.What are the causes, manifestations and management of a young child with supra
ventricular tachycardia
95.Wpw syndrome
96.Write about fetal circulation and changes that occur at birth. Write a note.

Central nervous system:
1. 2 months old baby is brought to you because of “difficulty in handling because of
stiff limbs”. Discuss how you will follow up the body. What would be your strategies
in caring for the baby?
2. 3 year old child unconscious state - inv and management
3. Abdominal epilepsy
4. Absence seizures
5. An 8 year old apparently well boy presents with generalized seizures for the last one
hour. How will you approach this child? Management of this patient.
6. Approach to a child with acute flaccid paralysis and components of AFP surveillance.
7. Approach to an infant with myoclonic seizures
8. Arnold chiari malformation
9. Ataxia telangiectasia
10.Babinski sign.
11.Balance disorders in children.
12.Benign rolandic epilepsy
13.Briefly arterial supply of brain. Outline the causes of acute hemiplegia in a 2 year
old child.
14.Briefly role of electrophysiological studies in paediatric neurological disorders
15.Causes of congenital hydrocephalus? Describe clinical features and management of
an infant with Arnold Chiari malformation.
16.Causes of convulsions in children? Management of status epilepticus.
17.Causes of convulsions in infancy and childhood? How will you investigate such case
18.Causes of hydrocephalus in children. What is the pathogenesis and management.
19.Causes of hypercoagulable state in children? How will you manage of acute
hemiplegia?
20.Causes of thromboembolism in children, outline the management of acute
hemiplegia
21.Cerebral vascular occlusion - causes, inv, management
22.Child hood migraine
23.Chronic meningitis clinical approach and management
24.Circle of willis
25.Classification and management of migraine
26.Classification of epilepsy and treatment of simple partial seizure
27.Clinical and diagnostic approach to an eight year old child who came with recent
onset of recurrent attacks of partial seizures on the left side of the body
28.Clinical features, diagnostic evaluation and treatment of myasthenia gravis.
29.Condition mimicking seizures
30.Conditions that mimic seizures in children
31.Craniosynostosis
32.Criteria for brain death
33.Cryptogenic convulsion
34.CSF examination and its interpretation
35.Csf pathway, hydrocephalus
36.D/D and management of AFP in a 2 year old child
37.Dandy walker malformation
38.Dd of infant with hypotonia with trans section diagram of thoracic spinal cord
39.Define acute flaccid paralysis, Enlist the causes and investigations of a case of AFP.
40.Define migraine in children . Classification of migraine and write its management
41.Define raised ICP, describe its clinical features and management.
42.Diagnosis and management of a child with partial focal seizure
43.Diagnosis and management of viral encephalitis

44.Diagnosis and treatment of SSPE
45.Diastematomyelia
46.Differential diagnosis of floppy infant
47.EEG
48.Epidemiology, investigations and management of viral menigoencephalitis.
49.Aetiology and management of febrile seizures
50.Aetiology and pathophysiology of hydrocephalus.
51.Aetiology, clinical presentations diagnosis and management of ADEM
52.Etiopathogenesis, clinical symptomatology and differential diagnosis of childhood
stroke
53.Evaluation of a child with cerebral palsy
54.Family genetic counselling to parents with 2 boys having calf hypertrophy and
progressive proximal leg muscle weakness.
55.Febrile convulsion
56.Guillain barre syndrome
57.Headache in childhood
58.Headache, vomiting, gait ataxia - 20 days - 6 year child - inv and mx
59.Hemiplegia
60.Haemorrhagic csf
61.Hydrocephalus in infancy
62.Indications for the therapeutic use of newer anticonvulsants in childhood seizure
states and their potential adverse effects.
63.Infantile spasm
64.Infantile tremor syndrome
65.Infective polyneuritis
66.Intracranial calcification
67.Lennox gestaut syndrome
68.List the neurocutaneous syndromes. Describe the genetics, cellular defect, clinical
manifestation and diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis.
69.Lumbar puncture
70.Management of a 3 year old unconscious child
71.Management of a case of complex partial seizure.
72.Management of children with partial epilepsy
73.Management of intractable seizures in infancy
74.MELAS
75.Metachromatic leukodystrophy
76.Neurocutaneous syndromes
77.Neurotransmitters
78.Newer antiepileptic drugs
79.Newer Antiepileptic Drugs.
80.Newer antiepileptics
81.Newer drugs for the treatment of epilepsy with their uses.
82.Normal CSF pathway with the help of a diagram. Define and classify hydrocephalus
and enlist its causes.
83.Optic tract - anatomy, lesions
84.Paraplegia
85.Partial seizures
86.Pathogenesis of cerebral oedema, agents used, types
87.Pathogenesis, management and prognosis of H influenza meningitis in children
88.Pathophysiology and management of raised intracranial pressure
89.Pathophysiology of cerebral oedema
90.Pathway of seventh cranial nerve. Diagnosis and management of Bell's palsy.
91.Paediatric coma - all

92.Paediatric coma scale
93.Pontine haemorrhage
94.Post encephalitic/ meningitic sequelae
95.Predisposing factors types of open neural tube defects in children and its
prevention.
96.Prevention of neural tube defects
97.Progressive myoclonic seizure - all
98.Protozoal cns infections
99.Pseudo tumour cerebri
100. Pseudo seizures
101. Pseudotumor cerebri
102. Pyogenic meningitis - all
103. Rett syndrome
104. Rhizotomy in cp
105. Ring enhancing lesion on CT scan
106. Risk factors for brain abscess. Outline a schema for investigating and treatment
of 10 year old child with brain abscess
107. Shunt surgery in hydrocephalus, complications
108. Sma
109. Spina bifida
110. Steps in managing intracranial hypertension and provide rationale for each of
these steps.
111. Steroids in meningitis
112. Stroke in childhood
113. Sturge weber syndrome
114. Subdural effusion
115. Subdural tap
116. Surgery for epilepsy, refractory epilepsy management
117. Temporal lobe epilepsy
118. Treatment of a child with single enhancing ring lesion in the parietal region with
simple focal seizures.
119. Treatment of status epilepticus in a 5 year old child
120. Types of hereditary neuropathies. Outline the diagnostic approach and
management of type I HMSN.
121. Uses of CT Scan Brain
122. Utility of anterior fontanelle examination in infant

Endocrine disorders:
1. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
2. Diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism
3. Endocrine problems that can be diagnosed on the first day of life
4. Management of diabetic ketoacidosis
5. Prevention of iodine deficiency
6. Tetany in children
7. 4 year old child presents with polydypsia, and polyuria. How will you establish a
diagnosis of DI in such case? Discuss the management.
8. A 1 1/2 year old female is brought to you with obesity, short stature, hypertension,
and hypertrichosis of face and trunk. Provide differential diagnosis and approach to
investigating and managing this child.
9. A 10 year old child (wt. 22kg) presents with severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Write down
the expected clinical and investigative findings. Outline the plan of management in
first 24 hours.
10.Adrenal crisis
11.Adrenogenital syndrome
12.Approach to a child with short stature
13.Approach to a child with short stature
14.Briefly list the various thyroid function tests. Describe clinical presentation and
management of autoimmune thyroiditis
15.Brittle diabetes
16.Calcitonin
17.Causes of adrenal crisis and discuss its management
18.Classify severity of diabetic ketoacidosis on the basis of clinical and blood gas
examination. Briefly describe Somogyi and Dawn phenomenon in type 1DM.
19.Clinical features of cretinism in new-born babies
20.Clinical features, treatment and investigations of phaeochromocytoma
21.Complications of juvenile diabetes mellitus and its management
22.Congenital hyperthyroidism.
23.Congenital hypothyroidism
24.Cortisol suppression test
25.Cretinism - radio
26.Cryptorchidism, ambiguous genitalia
27.Cushing syndrome
28.Define short stature. Discuss the approach to a child with short stature and the role
of growth hormone in short statured children
29.Describe briefly the biochemical changes and management of diabetic ketoacidosis
30.Describe the calcium metabolism in a child. Detail the clinical manifestation,
diagnosis and treatment of a child with pseudohypoparathyroidism.
31.Describe the diagnostic approach in a 2 year old child with ambiguous genitalia.
32.Dhea, dheas
33.Diagnosis and management of CAH
34.Diagnostic approach for a child who presented with polyuria and polydypsia
35.Diagnostic approach to a child with resistant rickets
36.Differentiate between the laboratory features of hypoparathyroidism,
pseudohypoparathyroidism, and hyperparathyroidism.
37.Discuss approach to a child with ambiguous genitalia
38.Discuss karyotype abnormalities clinical features and management of true
hermaphrodoitism.
39.Discuss the approach to diagnosis in a 2 year old chills with ambiguous genitalia

40.Discuss the causes, clinical features and management of acquired hypothyroidism
41.Discuss the etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of
hypercalcemia
42.Discuss the evaluation of a new-born with ambiguous genitalia
43.Discuss the metabolic changes associated with diabetic ketoacidosis with steps of
treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis
44.Discuss the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Outline the causes of congenital
hypothyroidism and a brief comment on neonatal thyroid screening.
45.Endemic cretinism
46.Endocrinal disorders in adolescence and management
47.Endocrinal hypertension
48.Enumerate the cause of acute adrenal crisis. Provide key features of clinical
presentation and discuss its management.
49.Etiopathology of congenital hypothyroidism
50.Female child with ambiguous genitalia at birth
51.Goitre
52.Growth Hormone.
53.Hermaphroditism
54.How will you assess a child presenting with the features of DI
55.Hypo pituitary dwarf
56.Juvenile diabetes
57.Management of adrenogenital syndrome
58.Management of child with IDDM, advances
59.Management of puberty goitre.
60.Mineralocorticoid deficiency
61.Newer insulins
62.Outline human sex differentiation. Provide an outline of the approach to an infant
with ambiguous genitalia
63.Outline the diagnostic approach to a 14 year old boy with infantile genitalia
64.Polycystic ovary
65.Precocious puberty in male, female, cause, evaluate, management
66.Pseudo hypo parathyroidism - albright hereditary
67.Radiological features and management of cretinism
68.Renal rickets
69.Resistant rickets
70.Salt wasting crisis
71.Short stature definition, differential diagnosis and management approach
72.Short stature in a school going child
73.Solitary thyroid nodule
74.Somiyogi phenomenon, others
75.Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of Anti diuretic hormone
76.Synthesis of thyroxine
77.Thyroid hormone synthesis and its derangement
78.Virilisation
79.What are the causes of Dwarfism how will you investigate such case
80.What are the changes seen in Thyroid hormone levels around birth? Describe the
salient features of neonatal thyroid screening programme.
81.What is the sexual maturity rating, Discuss the secular trend in children
82.Write risk factors, pathogenesis and treatment of type 2 Diabetes mellitus in
children

Emergency paediatrics:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Pain management in infants and children
Physiological compensatory mechanisms during metabolic acidosis
10 year old is brought in comatosed condition. Evaluate and manage
18 month old child was brought to you after he fall upside down in a tub filled with
water. Briefly describe the possible injuries and preventive strategies to avoid
similar situation in future.
5. 3 year old child brought to the emergency room with high fever and petechiae all
over the body. What is the differential diagnosis, how will you approach and manage
the case
6. 6 years old child is brought to you with features suggestive of Acute Renal failure.
How will you evaluate and manage?
7. Briefly discuss the non-invasive estimation of gas exchange in children
8. Central venous pressure monitoring
9. Classify burns, first degree burns - management
10.Cold injury
11.Critical care in paediatrics
12.Crying infant
13.Define fluid refractory shock, describe the management strategy for a 2 year old
child with fluid refractory shock.
14.Describe the pathogenetic mechanism of injury in near drowning. Discuss the steps
of initial resuscitation and subsequent hospital management.
15.Describe the various pressures which are used during mechanical ventilation. What
is Cycling and Control in mechanical ventilator? Describe the differences in pressure
controlled and volume controlled ventilation. Illustrate with suitable indication use of
these forms of ventilation.
16.Discuss the pathophysiology, aetiology and management of ARDS
17.Early recognition and management of respiratory failure
18.Electrical burns
19.Enumerate various sedatives and analgesics recommended for children undergoing
painful procedures. Describe their main action indication in paediatric practice and
important side effects in tabular format.
20.Features of Raised intracranial tension and management.
21.Heat stroke, heat hyperpyrexia
22.Heimlich manoeuvre
23.High frequency ventilation.
24.How is the degree of burns classified? Write the initial fluid therapy for a one-yearold child weighing 10 kg with 20 %, second-degree burns.
25.How will you approach a child who is in shock.
26.How will you assess that a ten year old child who has fallen unconscious in front of
you required basic life support. What are the steps for basic life support to such a
child ( as per AHA guidelines)
27.Interpretation of blood gases and acid base parameters
28.Liquid ventilation
29.Management of drowning child.
30.Management of raised intracranial pressure
31.Near drowning in children
32.Oxygen therapy
33.Oxygen Therapy.
34.Oxygenation index
35.Pathogenesis and management of hypernatremic dehydration

36.Pathogenesis and management of pain in children
37.Plan for organizing paediatric emergency department - 250 bed hosp - 100000 ppl 100 sq kms
38.Pulse oximetry and its limitations
39.Sedation and analgesia in ICU
40.Sedation of paediatric patients
41.SIMV (Synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation)
42.SN
Physiological basis and therapeutic utility of nitric oxide
43.Status Epilepticus
44.Types of acute respiratory failure in children modes of assisted ventilation and
indications for the same in children
45.What are the criteria used to diagnose ARDS. Write in brief the pathogenesis ,
clinical features and lab findings of the same. Discuss the treatment and ventilatory
strategies in management of ARDS.

Fluids and electrolytes:
1. Why children are more vulnerable to develop dehydration
2. (all hypo/hyper - read)
3. A one year old boy weighing 5.5 kg comes in severe dehydration. Discuss complete
management
4. Abg
5. Acid-base equilibrium - all
6. Anion gap
7. Classify and enlist the causes of metabolic alkalosis. Outline the treatment
modalities.
8. Define hypernatremia. Describe the pathophysiological changes and steps of
management of hypernatremia.
9. Define hypokalaemia. Enlist its causes and outline clinical features and its
treatment.
10.Describe briefly how the acid base balance of the body is maintained in health.
11.Describe the pathophysiology of hyponatremic dehydration. Discuss the
management of a child with serum sodium 110meq/l presenting with moderate
dehydration and seizures.
12.Discuss the causes, predisposing factors and pathophysiology of hypernatremic
dehydration in young children
13.Fluid and electrolyte balance in children
14.Fluids in burns child
15.List the causes of metabolic alkalosis. Describe the pathophysiology, clinical
features and treatment.
16.Management of hypernatremic dehydration
17.Ors, super ors
18.Outline the normal mechanism of acid base regulation in children. What is anion
gap. Describe the causes and management of a child with metabolic acidosis.
19.Outline the calcium metabolism, discuss the causes and management of
hypocalcemia in a 3 year old child.
20.Pathogenesis of oedema
21.Pathophysiology of regulation of plasma osmolality
22.Sodium bicarb
23.Steps in the management of patient with hypernatremic dehydration

Gastro intestinal system:
1. Diagnosis of carbohydrate intolerance
2. Laboratory diagnosis of lactose intolerance
3. Lactose intolerance
4. A one year old infant weighing 5.5 kg presents with acute dysentery and severe
dehydration . Discuss his complete management
5. Abdominal tuberculosis
6. Acute appendicitis
7. Aetiopathogenesis and diagnosis of Coeliac disease
8. Antibiotic ass. Enterocolitis
9. Approach and management of child with persistent diarrhoea
10.Bleeding per rectum in 4 year child
11.Causes of vomiting in childhood,
12.Celiac sprue
13.Chronic diarrhoeas
14.Colitis
15.Constipation - approach and management
16.Dd of ascites
17.Define hematemesis, melena, and hematochezia. A 3 year old child presents
with sudden onset vomiting of blood. Describe the approach to this child. Outline
the steps of management.
18.Define malabsorption. Enlist the generalized and specific malabsorption states.
Discuss the investigative plan for a child with generalized malabsorption.
19.Define recurrent abdominal pain and list the diagnostic features of functional
RAP. Suggest a plan for investigations and managing a 10 year old girl with RAP.
20.Dentition and diarrhoea
21.Diagnosis and management of a child with Coeliac disease
22.Diarrhoea treatment unit
23.Discuss the aetiology diagnosis and management of recurrent abdominal pain in
children.
24.Discuss the management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a 5 year old
child.
25.E.coli diarrhoea - pathogenesis
26.Enumerate the aetiology and discuss the pathogenesis of acute diarrhoea.
Describe the approach to management of a child with acute watery diarrhoea.
27.Esophagus - embryo, fun, diseases, diagnosis
28.Aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical features and management of acute pancreatitis
in children
29.Eventeration of diaphragm
30.Food poisoning - causes, prevention
31.Functional constipation
32.Gastro oesophageal reflux
33.H.pylori
34.Hiatus hernia
35.How will you evaluate a child with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
36.Ibd
37.Infantile colic
38.Inflammatory bowel disease -all
39.Intussception
40.Management of acute upper GI bleeding
41.Meckels diverticulum

42.One year old infant with acute gastroenteritis develops abdominal distension,
discuss the differential diagnosis.
43.Oral fissure
44.Oral ulcer in child
45.Pathogenesis of Celiac disease
46.Pathogenesis of persistent diarrhoea of infancy
47.Peritonitis - all
48.Persistent diarrhoea
49.Persistent/ protracted/ chronic/ intractable diarrhoea
50.Polypoid and polyps
51.Rectal prolapse
52.Recurrent abdominal pain - 3 yrs, 10 yrs
53.Recurrent Abdominal pain.
54.Secondary disaccharidase deficiency
55.Stool examination by naked eye
56.Sugar and worm infestation
57.Traveller’s diarrhoea

Liver & biliary disorders:
1. Cholestatic jaundice
2. Laboratory findings of fulminant hepatic failure
3. Abdominal paracentesis
4. Alfa feto protein
5. Australia antigen
6. Autoimmune hepatitis
7. Choledochal cyst
8. Chronic active hepatitis - histology, management,
9. Cirrhosis in children
10.Dane particle
11.Define fulminant hepatic failure and outline the staging of severity of hepatic
encephalopathy. Discuss the steps in its management.
12.Development of hepatic biliary structures
13.Diagrammatically represent the portal venous system and the sites of porto
systemic vascular anastomosis in portal hypertension, discuss the types cause and
pathophysiology of portal hypertension.
14.Discuss the causes clinical features and management of portal hypertension in
children
15.Drug induced jaundice
16.Drugs causing liver damage
17.Fulminant hepatic failure - all
18.Hepatic encephalopathy - all, patho, biochem
19.Indian childhood cirrhosis - patho, cf, management
20.List the causes of infantile cholestasis. Provide an algorithm for the diagnosis of
infantile cholestasis.
21.Liver abscess - amoebic, others
22.Liver biopsy
23.Liver transplantation
24.Neonatal cholestasis syndrome
25.Obstructive and hepatocellular jaundice difference
26.Outline the D/D of tender hepatomegaly. Describe the management of liver abscess.
27.Pathophysiology of portal hypertension
28.Physiological function of liver, liver function test
29.Polycystic liver disease
30.Portal vein anatomy
31.Prolonged obstructive jaundice
32.Reyes syndrome - all
33.TIPSS
34.What are the dietary sources of copper? What are the diseases associated with
abnormal copper metabolism? Describe investigations, clinical features and
treatment of any one of them.

Genetics:
1. Gene therapy
2. A couple has a child with Down syndrome. Outline the principles of genetic
counselling and antenatal management of subsequent pregnancy.
3. Antenatal counselling - haemophilia
4. Are, ad, xl. Xd inheritance
5. Barr bodies
6. Briefly discuss the principles of genetic counselling. Outline the counselling of a
family with a child with Down's syndrome
7. Cherry red spot
8. Chromosomal aberrations
9. Cytogenetics, scope
10.Dermatoglyphics in paediatrics
11.Describe symbols used in pedigree charts. Draw pedigree chart over 4 generations
depicting a)X-linked Domination disease. B) X- linked recessive disease.
12.Describe the symbols used in pedigree chart. Draw pedigree charts over 4
generations depicting X linked dominant and X linked recessive disease.
13.Digeorge syndrome'
14.Discuss the methods of detection of congenital malformation in foetus and their
prevention
15.DNA finger printing and its clinical relevance.
16.Dna structure
17.Enumerate and describe the structural abnormalities of autosomes. Illustrate with
suitable examples.
18.Fish
19.Gene therapy in children
20.Genetic counselling in a case of Down’s syndrome
21.Genetic counselling
22.Klinefelter
23.Mosaicism
24.Neonatal dwarfism
25.Non-dysjunction
26.PCR and its clinical application in paediatric practice.
27.PCR and its significance in clinical practice.
28.Polydactyly
29.Prenatal diagnosis of Down’s syndrome and Duchenne muscular dystrophy
30.Prenatal diagnostic procedures - cvs, amniocentesis, all
31.Role of umbilical cord in bone marrow transplantation
32.Stem cell transplantation
33.Translocation
34.Turner syndrome
35.Use of molecular genetics in diagnosis
36.What are mutations? Describe the consequences
37.What are trisomies? What are predisposing factors? Discuss the clinical features of 3
common trisomies seen in clinical practice.

Growth and development:
1. Approach to a child with failure to thrive
2. Sex maturity rating in female adolescent
3. A 3 year old is brought to you with delayed attainment of milestones. Outline the
points in history which will help you arrive at a possible aetiology. How will you go
about managing the child.
4. A 6 month old child is brought for not yet turning over. What points in history and
physical examination will help you arrive at a probable etiological diagnosis. What
investigations will help you in confirming your suspicion.
5. Age independent anthropometry
6. An approach to a child with obesity
7. Application of various body proportions in various childhood disorders
8. Approach to a child with delayed speech
9. Approach to child with obesity
10.Assessment of physical growth and development in a 5 year old child
11.Barkers hypothesis, thrifty gene
12.Body mass index
13.Body proportions from 2nd fetal month to adulthood
14.Bone age assessment and its usefulness
15.Catch up growth
16.Causes of failure to thrive in infancy
17.Communication skills in infancy
18.Define delayed puberty in a male childe. List the possible causes. Describe changes
in male genitals in different stages of sexual maturation.
19.Define high risk infant. Discuss the long term management of such infants with
emphasis on detection and early intervention of infants with developmental
disabilities
20.Describe (a) factors affecting child development. (b) developmental screening test
available and suitable for use in Indian children.
21.Describe failure to thrive. Give its aetiology, classification, clinical features and
management
22.Describe the aetiology, clinical manifestations and management of autistic
spectrum disorders in children
23.Describe the growth velocity of head size from birth till 5 years of age. Define
microcephaly, enumerate aetiology and approach to diagnosis in a child with
microcephaly
24.Development of an adolescent girl
25.Development of bone
26.Development screening tests under 5 years.
27.Developmental mile stones in first 2 years of life
28.Discuss briefly adolescent health problems
29.Discuss emerging pattern of fine motor skills from 6 months of age to 5 years.
30.Discuss the normal physiology of puberty and its relation to sexual development.
31.Draw the height velocity curves of girls and boys from birth to adolescence.
Describe the principles and factors governing the growth and development in
children
32.Enumerate the special health problems in adolescents
33.Enumerate causes for short stature, how do you evaluate a case of short stature and
management
34.Gessel schedule for development
35.Growth and Development in second year of life in children

36.Growth charts
37.Growth factors
38.Growth monitoring
39.Head circumference
40.Height velocity pattern, peak velocity to sexual development
41.Importance of bone assessment in children
42.Intelligence
43.Mental development of a child
44.Non organic failure to thrive
45.Outline the basic principles of sleep hygiene for children and adolescents.
46.Outline the diagnostic features and clinical manifestations of obesity. Enlist the DD
of childhood obesity.
47.Physiology of puberty in boys and girls.
48.Principles of growth and development
49.Problems during Adolescence
50.Review the aetiology and management of adolescent acne. What are the
psychological complications in children?
51.Road to health chart in mch clinics
52.Sex maturity rating
53.Sexual Maturity rating.
54.Standard deviation and percentiles
55.Tall stature
56.The clinical significance of postural reflexes
57.The clinical significance of postural reflexes
58.Use of road to health chart in MCH clinic
59.Variation in growth in diff regions of India, comparison with international standards
60.Various clinical features that are likely to be associated with specific syndromes of
mental retardation.
61.Velocity and cross section standards as applied to human growth
62.What is obesity? Discuss the management of obesity in children

Haematology:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Antenatal diagnosis and carrier detection in haemophilia
Antenatal diagnosis of thalassemia
Diagnosis and management of congenital hereditary spherocytosis.
G6PD deficiency
GVHD
Prevention of iron deficiency anaemia in children
Utility of peripheral blood smear examination in children
5 year old child with bluish spots, gum bleeding 7 days. No lymphadenopathy, hsm.
Evaluate and manage
9. Alpha thalassemia.
10.Approach to bleeding diathesis
11.Biochemical markers for diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia and response to
treatment.
12.Blood transfusion, reactions, fractions
13.Bone marrow examination - health and disease
14.Bone marrow transplantation in children
15.Briefly outline normal erythropoiesis, Describe the diagnosis & management of
G6PD deficiency.
16.Cbc in a child
17.Classify causes of acquired pancytopenia. Write briefly about the management of
acquired aplastic anaemia.
18.Clinicohematological profile of megaloblastic anaemia
19.Common causes of anaemia in children
20.Complications of sickle cell anaemia
21.Current management of Thalassemia major
22.Dd for microcytic hypochromic anaemia
23.Dd of purpura
24.Define and classify anaemias basing on their peripheral smear. Write in detail about
haemolytic anaemia you have encountered during your postgraduate course
25.Define pancytopenia, enlist the causes, and assessment of severity of aplastic
anaemia in children.
26.Development of RBC
27.Development of various haemoglobins - embryonic, fetal and post neonatal period
28.Diagnosis and management of a 2 year old child with petechial skin rash
29.Diagrammatically outline the normal coagulation cascade. Outline diagnosis and
management of DIC
30.DIC
31.Discuss causes, clinical manifestations laboratory findings and treatment of folate
deficiency anaemia in children
32.Discuss the aetiology and management of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia.
33.Discuss the inherent hazards of blood transfusion in children and the necessary
measures to avoid and minimize them.
34.Discuss the pathogenesis of DIC and relate it to the laboratory abnormalities
observed in this entity.
35.Discuss the sequence of development of various haemoglobins during fetal life and
outline the clinical relevance of their persistence after birth.
36.Discuss the various aspects of management of a child with haemophilia A
37.Enlist the causes and outline the D/D and management of Iron deficiency Anaemia.
38.Enlist the common causes of macrocytic anaemia. Describe the laboratory diagnosis
and treatment of megaloblastic anaemia.

39.Fetal hb
40.G6pd deficiency
41.Genetic basis of thalassemia syndrome
42.Hereditary spherocytosis
43.Hypersplenism
44.Importance of bone marrow examination in children
45.Indicators of haemolysis
46.Iron chelation therapy
47.Iron metabolism, iron def. Anaemia
48.Lab test in suspected hemoglobinopathies
49.Leukemoid reaction'
50.List the causes of microcytic hypochromic anaemia. How will you differentiate
between iron deficiency anaemia and thallesemia? Discuss briefly the oral iron
chelators.
51.List the common causes of macrocytic anaemia. Describe the lag diagnosis of
meglaoblastic anaemia and treatment of juvenile pernicious anaemia.
52.Lymphadenopathy
53.Management of acute sickle cell crisis.
54.Management of neonatal thrombocytopenic purpura.
55.New modalities in the management of Beta thalassemia major
56.Normal haematopoiesis
57.Nutritional anaemia’s and it management
58.Outline the antenatal management of a mother with an earlier child with
thalassemia major.
59.Outline the methods of extracting various blood components. What are the
indications of usage of FFP and cryoprecipitate.
60.Pathogenesis of anaemia in G6PD deficiency.
61.Peripheral smear - importance
62.Physiology of haemostasis
63.Pt, aptt
64.Pure red cell aplasia - acq and congenital
65.Recent advances in the management of thalassemia.
66.Recent concepts in the treatment of Thalassemias in children
67.Reticulocytosis
68.Severe anaemia in first year of life
69.Sideroblastic anaemia
70.T lymphocyte
71.Thrombasthenia
72.Treatment of iron deficiency anaemia
73.Tropical eosinophilia
74.Umbilical cord blood
75.Various treatment modalities of acute ITP
76.Von Willebrand disease
77.Write differential diagnosis of a 5 year old child with petechial rash with fever. How
will you manage a child with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

Immunology:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Laboratory evaluation of T Cell functions
Pathogenesis and management of anaphylaxis
Adhesion defects
Allergic rhinitis
Anaphylaxis

6. Angio oedema
7. Approach to a child with suspected immune dysfunction
8. Ataxia telangiectasia
9. Cell mediated immunity
10.CHEDIAK HIGASHI Syndrome
11.Chronic granulomatous disease
12.Classify primary immunodeficiency in children. Write on common manifestations of
immunological disorders and principles of management
13.Common variable immunodeficiency
14.Complement system
15.C-reactive protein
16.Describe the functions of spleen. Describe clinical manifestations and management
of asplenia/ polysplenia
17.Digeorge syndrome
18.Elisa
19.Enlist the humoral immunodeficiencies disorders. Outline the diagnostic approach
and treatment.
20.Enumerate disorder of phagocyte function. Add a note on the clinical features and
management of one disorder.
21.Enumerate the chemical mediators of allergic reactions and describe the important
actions of histamine.
22.Gvhd
23.Hyper ige/jobs syndrome
24.Hyper igm
25.Hypogammaglobulinemia syndrome
26.Ig heavy and light chain deletions
27.Igg subclass deficiency
28.Immunoglobulins, biochemical function
29.Iv ig in paediatrics - uses, merits, demerits
30.Neutrophil granule defect
31.Omenn syndrome
32.Outline the functions of spleen. Describe the indications and complications of
splenectomy & post-operative management.
33.Pharmacologic therapy of allergic disorders
34.Plasmapheresis
35.Prenatal diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies
36.Primary immunodeficiency diseases - all, approach, common
37.Role of intravenous immunogolobulins in paediatric patients
38.Selection of donors, organ transplant
39.Selective iga deficiency
40.Serum sickness
41.Steven johnson
42.T- Lymphocytes.
43.Transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy'
44.Urticaria
45.Wiskott aldich syndrome
46.X linked agammaglobulinemia
47.X-linked lymphoproliferative disease

Infectious diseases:
Bacterial:
1. Antistaphyococcal agents available in india
2. Enumerate paediatric conditions in which Erythromycin is the drug of choice
3. Indications to use antibiotics in children with URTI
4. Mechanism of drug resistance
5. What is H. Pylori bacillus? How is it associated with chronic abdominal pain?
6. Interpretation of widal test in immunized children
7. Short course chemotherapy for tuberculosis
8. MDR tuberculosis
9. Prevention of tetanus
10.Diagnosis and management of child with resistant tuberculosis
11.Discuss prevention and prophylaxis against meningococcemia
12.Management of infections by organisms producing extended spectrum beta
lactamase
13.Newer diagnostic modalities for tuberculosis
14.Prophylaxis of meningococcemia
15.Nontyphoidal salmonellosis
16.Define multidrug resistant salmonella typhi and nalidixic acid resistant salmonella
typhi. Discuss the mechanism of development of drug resistance for salmonella
typhi.
17.Radiological features and confirmatory laboratory tests for congenital syphilis.
18.Classification of E Coli and pathogenesis of invasive diarrhoea, all e.coli
19.Management of typhoid fever
20.Management of plague
21.Rifampicin therapy in children
22.Preventive chemotherapy of childhood tuberculosis
23.Mode of action of antibiotics
24.Pathogenesis of primary tuberculosis
25.Prevention and early detection of pulmonary tuberculosis
26.Describe the category based treatment in childhood TB. Describe the pros and cons
of intermittent therapy of tuberculosis. What are the components of DOTS strategy
as defined by WHO.
27.Discuss the mechanism of antibiotics resistant with special focus on antitubercular
drugs
28.Discuss the pathophysiology of TBM, its staging, clinical features, complications and
management
29.Lab diagnosis of leptospirosis, management, cf
30.Macrolide antibiotics
31.MDR tuberculosis
32.Newer immuno diagnostic techniques in neural tuberculosis
33.Revised national tuberculosis control programme.
34.Side effects of antitubercular drugs
35.What are the radiological features of primary pulmonary tuberculosis? How will you
manage a case with primary complex
36.Mantoux test, false negative
37.TB meningitis - all
38.Enteric fever, all, cvs complications,
39.Ghons lesion
40.Anaerobic infections in children, cf, management
41.Staph infection in children, pneumonia

42.Toxic shock syndrome
43.Lyme disease
44.Failure in control of TB
45.Typhoid prophylaxis
46.Streptococci in illnesses of childhood
47.BCG
48.Miliary TB
49.Validity of WIDAL
50.Diphtheria - cf, complications, rx, prevention
51.Streptococcal enzymes and toxins
52.Current guidelines paediatric TB
53.Leprosy
54.Neuro Tb of vaccinated child
55.Rickettsial disease
56.Mycoplasma
57.Shigellosis
58.Brucellosis
59.Penicillin resistant pneumococci

Viral:
1. HIV and paediatrics
2. 4 year old girl is brought to the hospital with 5 days history of fever, petechial and
circulatory collapse . Her haematocrit was 45 % and platelet count 50000/cumm,
discuss the management.
3. Pathogenesis of bleeding and shock in Dengue fever
4. AFP surveillance.
5. Pathogenesis of bleeding and shock in Dengue haemorrhagic fever
6. Antiviral drugs
7. Immunological markers of viral hepatitis
8. Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV
9. Congenital rubella syndrome
10.Anti-retroviral therapy in paediatric HIV infection
11.Diagnosis of congenital rubella infection
12.Viral markers in hepatitis B
13.Prevention of HIV infection during childhood
14.Define DHF and DSS and outline the treatment of DSS
15.Diagnosis and management of DHF and DSS.
16.Factors involved in perinatal transmission of HIV infection and the various
preventive measures
17.Clinical presentations requiring screening for HIV
18.HIV and Tuberculosis
19.Prevention of childhood AIDS
20.Outline the WHO criteria for diagnosis of Dengue haemorrhagic fever. Draw an
algorithm for volume replacement for a child with DHF and >20% increase in
haematocrit.
21.Infants of HBV sero positive mother
22.Infants of HIV positive mother
23.Discuss the risk factors for vertical transmission of HIV infection and methods to
prevent parent to child transmission of HIV.
24.Diagnosis and management of acute viral hepatitis
25.Comment on clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of Swine flu in children

26.Define Dengue Haemorrhagic fever and Dengue shock syndrome. How does DHF
differ from Dengue fever with haemorrhage?
27.Outline clinical and immunological criteria for starting anti-retroviral treatment in a
HIV infected child. How will you monitor a child initiated on ART.
28.What is acute flaccid paralysis? Describe the DD and management of a child with
acute flaccid paralysis. Describe AFP surveillance.
29.Clinical features, investigations and prevention of congenital Rubella syndrome
30.Diagnosis and management of H1N1 infection in children
31.Epidemiological measures in Japanese – B encephalitis, features, management
32.Highly active anti retro viral Treatment.
33.Perinatal AIDS
34.Polio eradication- current scenario.
35.PPTCT (prevention of parent to child transmission of HIV)
36.Serological markers of infectious hepatitis, tissue markers
37.What are the opportunistic infections in HIV patients. Discuss the management of
opportunistic infections
38.Write about the management of a child with Dengue Shock Syndrome. Add a note
on the complications.
39.Viral hepatitis - a,b,c,e - all
40.Viral diseases - lab diagnosis
41.Rota virus infection
42.Viral haemorrhagic fever
43.Hanta virus inf
44.Provocative polio
45.Natural course of measles
46.Poliomyelitis - cf, management, complications
47.Enteroviruses
48.RSV
49.Infectious mononucleosis
50.Exanthematous illness - approach and management
51.Ebola virus
52.Onco virus

Parasitic and fungal:
1. Congenital toxoplasmosis
2. Define drug resistant malaria. What are the different types of drug resistance as per
WHO criteria? Discuss the various management strategies of drug resistant malaria
3. Management of cerebral malaria
4. Enumerate manifestations of severe malaria and their management
5. What are management guidelines of malaria under the national programme. How
will you manage a case of cerebral malaria?
6. Describe clinical manifestations of cerebral malaria. Enlist the differential diagnosis
and investigations required. Write management of a case of cerebral malaria in high
endemic area.
7. Management of cerebral malaria
8. Define complicated malaria. Describe the management strategies of complicated
malaria.
9. Describe the antifungals available for systemic use in India with their dosage, route
and duration of therapy for treatment of a) systemic candidiasis b) invasive
aspergillosis
10.How will you manage a child with severe malaria.

11.Newer anti-malarial care
12.Write malarial parasite life cycle in human being. What are the complicated forms of
Malaria and their management according to WHO guidelines
13.Filariasis
14.Cysticercosis
15.P.carinii
16.Candidiasis
17.Amoebiasis
18.Giardiasis
19.Malaria - immunopathology
20.Kala azar - recent advances, cf, management\
21.Round worm
22.Hook worm
23.Common helminthic infections of childhood and management

General:
1.
2.
3.
4.

What are the indications to give antibiotics to children with acute gastroenteritis
Discuss management of infant in shock
Prevention of vertically transmitted diseases
Define shock. Describe the pathophysiology and management of septic shock in
children
5. Discuss the basis for development of antibiotic resistance. Outline the steps for the
prevention of antibiotic resistance
6. Discuss definition, ethology and approach to investigation of PUO
7. 4 year old girl presents with history of fever for 2 days associated with severe
anaemia black colored urine and splenomegaly. Discuss the management for this
patient.
8. Define febrile neutropenia & describe the treatment and care of a child with febrile
neutropenia
9. Write a short note on non-specific vulvovaginitis in children with emphasis on
etiopathogenesis and treatment.
10.Clinical conditions associated with maculopapular rashes in children and their
differential diagnosis
11.Outline the approach to management of a 2 month old infant having fever without
focus.
12.Discuss the classification of shock in a child. Discuss the management of dengue
shock syndrome
13.A 2 year old chid presents with fever and stridor of 12 hour duration. Discuss the
differential diagnosis.
14.A 4 year old child presents with history of fever since 7 days, enlarged lymph nodes
and palpable spleen on examination? How will you investigate and manage the child
15.A 7 year old child has fever, rash, bleeding manifestation. What are the differential
diagnosis, investigations and management?
16.Emerging newer infectious diseases in children
17.Nosocomial infections
18.Hyperpyrexia
19.Fever with lymphadenopathy - 1 month fever - 8 year old
20.Rapid diagnostics for infectious diseases
21.Opportunistic infections
22.Prolonged fever in preschool children
23.Fever, lymph nodes, pallor -6 yr. Old - 1 week - dd, inv, management.

Metabolic diseases:
1. A1 antitrypsin
2. Alkaptonuria
3. Classify metabolic acidosis based on anion gap. Mention the various causes of lactic
acidosis. Describe the approach to diagnose of inborn error of metabolism in infant.
4. Clinical manifestations of hyperammonemia, diagnosis and management.
5. Describe the inborn error of metabolism affecting liver. Discuss the management of
Wilson’s disease.
6. Discuss the enzyme replacement therapy and substrate reduction strategies in
management of metabolic disease.
7. Enlist the inborn error of metabolism with their associated peculiar odour. Provide
the investigative approach for an infant with suspected IEM. Describe the treatment
of phenylketonuria.
8. Fabry disease
9. Galactosemia
10.Glycogen storage disorders
11.Hartnups disease.
12.Homocysteinuria
13.Hurlers
14.Laboratory screening tests for metabolic disorders
15.Methyl malonic aciduria
16.Mld
17.Most common human porphyrias
18.MPS - radio, all
19.Nieman pick
20.Non ketotic hyperglycinemia
21.Porphyrias - cf, types, management
22.Provide a diagrammatic representation of urea cycle. Indicate and name related
disorders of urea cycle metabolism at each step.
23.Radiological signs in mucopolysaccharoidosis
24.Screening of metabolic disorders
25.The possible conditions which could result in a 24 month old child with history of
regression of milestones over the past 8 months. He also has hepatomegaly. Detail
the clinical manifestations of Tay Sach disease.
26.Write briefly about glucose metabolism in body. Describe briefly glycogen storage
disorders.

Neonatology:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

BPD
Clinical and laboratory correlates of neuromotor outcome of birth asphyxia
Composition of ideal formula for feeding LBW babies
Haemorrhagic disease of new-born
Hypothermia in new-born
6. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in new-born
7. Immune status of small for dates babies
8. Intra uterine growth retardation
9. Kernicterus
10.Kernicterus
11.Management of neonatal hypoglycemia
12.Meconium aspiration syndrome
13.Newer modalities in the management of neonatal sepsis
14.Pathogenesis of NEC
15.Pathophysiology of transient tachypnea of the new-born and its management.
16.Perinatal asphyxia clinical features and management
17.Phycology and biochemical consequences of hypothermia in neonates
18.Prenatal steroid therapy
19.Rapid diagnostic tests in a suspected cases of neonatal septicaemia.
20.Screening tests for IEOM
21.Steps in resuscitation of new-born
22.Why preterm babies are susceptible to bacterial infections
23.4 days old baby brought with jaundice. Palms and soles jaundiced. Discuss briefly
how you evaluate and manage the baby
24.A 3 day old home delivered boy ( wt. 1.45 kg, gestation 34 weeks) is brought to you
with abnormal body movements and not accepting feeds. The child is cold to touch
and capillary filling time is 5 sec. Outline the immediate, short term and long term
management of this child.
25.A 3 day old neonate presents with recurrent seizures. Discuss the causes, evaluation
and management
26.A preterm baby of 1200 grams presents with respiratory distress. How do you
approach in diagnosing, investigation and managing this baby.
27.A term 5 day old develops convulsions. What are the etiopathogenesis, differential
diagnosis, and how do you management.
28.A term child is born apnoeic. What information of the perinatal events you would like
to know? What are the initial steps of management in the labour room? What are
the possible complications in next 48 hours.
29.A three weeks old infant is brought to the hospital with the jaundice, discuss the
diagnosis
30.Acquired haemorrhagic disorders in children
31.Adjunctive therapies in neonatal Sepsis
32.Adjuvant therapy in neonatal sepsis
33.Anaemia in new-born infant
34.Anorectal malformations, development of hindgut
35.Antenatal diagnosis
36.Antenatal Diagnosis of Down’s Syndrome.
37.Antenatal diagnosis of rh immunization
38.Apgar score
39.Apnoea of prematurity
40.Apt test
41.Biliary atresia

42.Bilirubin metabolism
43.Biology and role of cytokines in new-born infants
44.Biophysical profile scoring
45.Breast milk fortification
46.Briefly discuss the normal fetal development of surfactant. List the uses of
surfactant in new born.
47.Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, CLD
48.Bullous skin lesions in neonate
49.Calcium regulation in the foetus
50.Candidiasis in neonates
51.Care of the new-born in the delivery room
52.Cephalhematoma
53.Chorionic villus sampling
54.Classification and management of breast milk jaundice
55.Clinical approach, investigations, and management of a neonate with cholestatic
jaundice
56.Complications in infants born to diabetic mother
57.Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome in new-born. Pathophysiology, clinical
features, management.
58.Congenital hypertrophic pyloric syndrome
59.Congenital mega colon
60.Congenital stridor
61.Congenital syphilis - workup, management
62.Constipation in new-born
63.Convulsion - 12 hrs., 16 hrs., d3, d5
64.CPAP
65.CTEV (Congenital Talepus Equino Varus)
66.Dangers of artificial feeding
67.Define polycythaemia in a new-born. What are the factors predisposing to it?
Describe the impact of polycythaemia on various systems and their clinical
presentation. Describe the management of polycythaemia in new-born.
68.Define preterm. What are the causes of preterm? Problems of preterm and how will
you manage
69.Define RH incompatibility, RH isoimmunisation and RH haemolytic disease. How will
you manage the mother and neonate with history of intrauterine and neonatal death
due to haemolytic disease
70.Dehydration fever in neonate
71.Delayed passage of meconium
72.Describe the bilirubin metabolism, and list the causes and approach to the diagnosis
of hyperbilirubinemia in neonate
73.Describe the changes taking place in circulation at birth and their implications in
neonatal resuscitation.
74.Describe the pathophysiology of Meconium Aspiration syndrome (MAS). Discuss the
management and complications of Meconium Aspiration (MAS)
75.Describe the surgical causes of Respiratory Difficulty in the new-born
76.Diagnosis and management of persistent neonatal jaundice at the age of 3 weeks
in a term baby
77.Different methods of diagnosis and assessment of the foetus.
78.Differential cyanosis
79.Differential diagnosis of neonatal sepsis
80.Discuss aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis and management of a bleeding neonate
81.Discuss briefly maternal conditions affecting foetus and neonate.

82.Discuss briefly pathophysiology and recent modalities of management of HIE
83.Discuss briefly the differential diagnosis of respiratory distress in new-born and
outline the advances in the management of HMD.
84.Discuss controversies in neonatal resuscitation. How will you manage a new-born
with meconium aspiration syndrome
85.Discuss level 3 neonatal care in current scenario
86.Discuss pathophysiology of hypoxic ischemic brain damage in new-born and its
management
87.Discuss respiratory distress syndrome with special reference to surfactant therapy
88.Discuss the clinical features diagnosis and management of neonatal necrotizing
enterocolitis.
89.Discuss the aetiology, pathogenesis and clinical features of common trans placental
infections? How will you investigate
90.Discuss the aetiopathogenesis and management of birth asphyxia
91.Discuss the anorectal malformations in a male child. How will you diagnose? Discuss
the management and complications
92.Discuss the causes, pathophysiology and management of circulatory failure in
neonate
93.Discuss the complications of foetus and new-born of a mother with diabetes during
pregnancy.
94.Discuss the aetiology of cortical necrosis in new-born and older children separately.
State the most important clinical manifestations of cortical injury and factors
determining prognosis.
95.Discuss the impact of pain on a preterm neonate. Identify common procedures
associated with pain in a new born. Describe the strategies for pain management in
new-born.
96.Discuss the pathogenesis and management of meconium aspiration syndrome
97.Discuss the pathophysiology of HIE in neonates.
98.Discuss the predisposing factors, causative agents, methods of diagnosis and
treatment of neonatal osteomyelitis
99.Discuss various adjunct therapies in neonatal sepsis
100. Discuss various stages of lung development. Enumerate various congenital
Anomalies of lung. Describe in details of Sequestration of lung.
101. ECMO
102. Ectodermal dysplasia
103. Enumerate the socio demographic factors associated with low birth weight
babies. Discuss the clinical problems of preterm infants
104. Enumerate common peripheral nerve injuries in neonates. Describe their clinical
characteristics and outline the management.
105. Enumerate congenital anomalies presenting as respiratory distress in new-borns.
Describe pre-operative and post-operative care in neonate with TO fistula.
106. Enumerate the causes of PPHN in neonates and discuss the pathophysiology.
107. Enumerate the clinical features that indicate presence of possible intrauterine
infections in a neonate. Describe the interpretation of TORCH screen.
108. Erb’s palsy
109. Erb’s palsy
110. Aetiology and pathology of neonatal Necrotizing enterocolitis
111. Aetiology, pathogenesis and management of neonate with RDS
112. Etiopathogenesis of neonatal seizures
113. Evaluation of a new-born with haematuria

114. Evaluation of infant born to gestational diabetes class – ‘B’ and how do you
manage both symptomatic and Asymptomatic hypoglycemia and hypocalcaemia in
such infant.
115. Exchange transfusion - all
116. Fallacies of APGAR score.
117. Fetal circulation
118. Fetal circulation
119. Fetal circulation and cardiovascular adjustment at birth
120. Fetal monitoring
121. Fetal Therapy.
122. Fluid requirement in new-born
123. Fluid therapy in special situations in neonates
124. GI motility disorders in neonates
125. Good attachment
126. Grey baby syndrome and bronze baby syndrome
127. Growth charts for preterms
128. Guidelines for Managing an infant born to HIV positive mother.
129. Head and neck injuries in neonate
130. Healthy new-born developed jaundice, high colored urine and very pale stools.
Liver was palpable 4 cm. Discuss dd and management
131. Hearing loss in nicu graduates
132. Hemolytic uremic syndrome
133. Haemorrhagic Disease of New Born.
134. Haemorrhagic disease of the new-born infant
135. HIE
136. HIE (Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy)
137. Hirshprung
138. Home based new-born care
139. Hypokalaemia in new-born
140. Imperforate anus
141. Infection control in neonatal intensive care unit.
142. International classification of retinopathy of prematurity
143. Intra cranial haemorrhage
144. Kidney functions in the neonate
145. Kleihauer betke test
146. Large for date babies
147. Leucocoria
148. Levels of nicu care
149. Live birth and other definitions
150. Management of PDA in preterm neonates
151. Mechanism of neuronal damage due to HIE.
152. Medical management of foetal problems
153. Milia
154. Minor developmental peculiarities in neonate
155. NEC
156. Neonatal candidiasis
157. Neonatal dwarfism
158. Neonatal hypotonia
159. Neonatal pulmonary haemorrhage
160. Neonatal screening for hypothyroidism
161. Neonatal tetanus
162. Neonatal tetany
163. Neonatal thrombocytopenia
164. Neonatal thyroid screening

165. Neonatal transient cutaneous lesions
166. Neonatal transport
167. Neural tube defects
168. New-born born to hbsag mother
169. Non cardiac ccf in neonates
170. Non immune hydrops
171. Non immune hydrops fetalis
172. Non-nutritive sucking
173. Non shivering thermogenesis
174. Non stress monitoring, oxytocin challenge test
175. Normal cerebro spinal fluid circulation in the new-born and the changes that take
place in aqueduct stenosis.
176. Occupational and environmental risks to the foetus
177. Oligohydramnios
178. Organization and levels of new-born care
179. Osteopenia of prematurity
180. Outline fetal circulation, discuss the diagnosis management of PPHN in new-born.
181. Outline the normal metabolism of bilirubin. Outline the principle of phototherapy
for treatment of neonatal jaundice. List factors that influence efficacy of
phototherapy
182. Outline the normal metabolism of bilirubin. Outline the principle of phototherapy
for treatment of neonatal jaundice. List factors that influence efficacy of
phototherapy
183. Oxygen free radicals in neonatal diseases
184. Pain management in new-borns
185. Palsies - erb, klumpke
186. Partial exchange
187. Pathogenesis of kernicterus
188. Pathophysiology of hyperbilirubinemia
189. Pathophysiology of Hypoxic brain injury in neonate
190. Pathophysiology of apnoea of prematurity
191. Peripheral smear in new-born - importance
192. Persistent jaundice in neonates
193. Persistent pulmonary hypertension in new-born
194. Physiological variations in the skin of a new-born.
195. Physiology of thermoregulation
196. Placental dysfunction syndrome
197. Placental dysfunction syndromes
198. Plan nicu - 3500 deliveries - discuss manpower, equipment, other facilities
199. Polycythaemia in new-born
200. Polyhydramnios
201. Ponderal index
202. Prenatal diagnosis and fetal therapy
203. Prevention of hypothermia in the new-born
204. Prevention of nb infection
205. Primary and secondary apnoea in new-born
206. Problems of IUGR baby.
207. Promoters and protectors of white matter disorder in new-borns.
208. Recent advances in SIDS
209. Rectum development, congenital anomalies
210. Renal functions during neonatal period
211. Respiratory distress in term new-born 1 hour after birth - dd management
212. Retinopathy of prematurity

213. Retinopathy of prematurity.
214. Role of folic acid in the prevention of neural tube defects.
215. Role of oxygen free radical in the pathogenesis of neonatal disorders
216. Role of vitamin E in prematures
217. Sclerema neonatorum
218. Scores in nicu
219. Screening tests for neonatal sepsis
220. Sepsis screen in neonate/ ECMO
221. Septo optic dysplasia
222. Side effects of phototherapy
223. Signs of post maturity
224. Single umbilical artery syndrome
225. Skin lesions in new-born
226. Steroids in neonatal care
227. Sudden infant death syndrome - recent advances, etio, management
228. Surfactant therapy
229. Surfactant therapy in HMD
230. Surgical causes of neonatal respiratory distress
231. Test for pulmonary maturity
232. Thermal regulation in the new-born.
233. Trans placental infections
234. Transitional stools
235. Treatment and prevention of fetal disease
236. Treatment modalities for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia.
237. Ultra sound markers of trisomy 21
238. Umbilical cord
239. Umbilical cord sepsis
240. Umbilical bleeding
241. Use of Inotropes in NICU
242. Vitamin e in new-born
243. Warm chain
244. What are the etiopathogenesis of PPHN. Outline the diagnosis and management.
245. What are the methods of diagnosis of fetal disorders. What are fetal medical
options for the various fetal disorders.
246. What are the methods of diagnosis of fetal disorders? Describe fetal medical and
surgical therapeutic options for various fetal disorders.
247. Write notes on embryological development of abdominal diaphragm and types of
congenital diaphragmatic hernia
248. Write on physiology of adrenal cortex: discuss in detail the diagnosis and
management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia
249. Write the components, pre requisites and benefits of kangaroo mother care.

Nephrology:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Enumerate the principles of management of Idiopathic Nephrotic syndrome.
Histopathological changes in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Hypospadias
Management of acute renal failure
Recurrent UTI in childhood
Toxic nephropathy
7. What factors will you consider in deciding the prognosis of child with nephrotic
syndrome
8. Bartter syndrome
9. Biochemical and endocrinal changes in chronic renal failure
10.CKD - all
11.Classify types of renal tubular acidosis and their management principles
12.Classify urinary tract infections an provide and algorithm for management of a child
with the first episode of UTI
13.Clinical features grading and management of VUR
14.Clinical signs and treatment of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets
15.Colored urine syndromes in paediatrics
16.Define anion gap and its utility. Outline the major causes of metabolic acidosis in
children. Outline the treatment of renal tubular acidosis.
17.Define renal osteodystrophy. Enumerate its clinical features and outline the
management.
18.Describe the diagnostic approach and management in a case of frequently relapsing
and steroid dependant nephrotic syndrome.
19.Describe the etiological factors, clinical manifestations and management of children
with UTI
20.Describe the pathogenesis of chronic renal failure and outline important principles in
the management of such case.
21.Diagnosis and management of recurrent haematuria
22.Discuss renal replacement therapy
23.Discuss the approach to a child with recurrent UTI. What are the indications, goal,
and schedule of antimicrobial prophylaxis in treating such a child?
24.Discuss the pathogenesis, Clinical features and management of acute post
streptococcal glomerulonephritis.
25.Discuss the use of recombinant human erythropoietin therapy( indication, dose,
aim, precautions, benefits and complications) in management of CRF. List reasons of
resistance to such therapy.
26.Endocrine functions of kidney
27.Erythropoietin, recombinant epo
28.Aetiology of haematuria in the new-born
29.Etiopathogenesis and diagnosis of HUS
30.Evaluation of a child with haematuria, 5 years,
31.Evaluation of Proteinuria
32.Fanconi syndrome
33.FRNS
34.Functions of kidney, nephron
35.Give the grading of vesico ureteral reflux. Outline its evaluation and management in
children
36.Glomerular Filtration rate.
37.How will you clinically evaluate child with haematuria.
38.Imaging studies indicated in a child with UTI

39.List the children to be selected for assessing renal function. Briefly discuss the tests
used to assess the renal function in children
40.Management of 8 year old child with first attack of urinary tract infection
41.Management of steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome
42.Management of steroid resistant Nephrotic syndrome
43.Management of VUR (Vesico Ureteric Reflux)
44.Micro phallus
45.Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
46.Neurogenic bladder
47.Non excretory functions of kidneys
48.Outline the development of glomerular filtration. Outline the methods for evaluating
GFR in children.
49.Outline the differential diagnosis of an abdominal lump with haematuria in a 3 year
old child. Describe its investigations and treatment
50.Outline the etiopathogenesis of ARF in children, Duscuss briefly the management.
51.Outline the grades of VUR. Discuss the management of a child with recurrent UTI
with grade 4 VUR.
52.Pathogenesis, clinical features and management of distal RTA
53.Pathophysiology of Nephrotic syndrome
54.Peritoneal dialysis, ambulatory pd
55.Persistent asymptomatic proteinuria
56.Persistent asymptomatic proteinuria
57.Posterior urethral valve
58.Pre renal vs renal failure
59.Proteinuria
60.Pyuria
61.Recurrent UTI in an infant
62.Renal imaging
63.Renal osteodystrophy
64.Renal replacement therapy
65.Renal tubular acidosis
66.SN renal replacement therapy in end stage renal disease
67.SRNS
68.Urine examination
69.What are the causes of acute renal failure in a four year old child. How will you
investigate such a case? Discuss the management of ARF
70.What are the causes of acute renal failure in children ? How will you investigate such
case? Discuss the management.
71.What are the clinical manifestations of UTI in children? Describe the plan of
investigations and management of a 2 year old boy with recurrent UTI.
72.What is ARF? List the common causes leading to it . Tabulate the laboratory indices
used to differentiate pre renal and intrinsic renal failure. Outline the medical
management of ARF.
73.Write the management of a six years old child of nephrotic syndrome who is
frequently relapsing. Enumerate complications that can occur

Nutrition:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Baby friendly hospital initiative
Hypervitaminosis A in children
Vitamin A supplementation
Anti-infective properties of human milk
Approach to a child with obesity
Balanced diet
Bioactive factors of human milk
Biochemical changes in PEM
Briefly describe baby friendly hospital initiative and list ten steps to successful
breast feeding.
10.Calcium metabolism
11.Carnitine
12.Classify the various causes of rickets and outline how to differentiate them
13.Compare the compositions of human milk with cow's milk. Outline the difference in
the milk composition of a mother with premature neonate from that of a term
neonate. Describe the immunological factors present in human milk.
14.Complications of total parenteral nutrition, all about tpn
15.Cow milk allergy - all
16.Daily nutritional requirement as RDA in infants and children
17.Define food allergy? Discuss the most common clinical manifestations and how will
you manage common food allergies
18.Define probiotics and prebiotics. And enumerate their essential characteristics.
Outline the effects of probiotic in various gastrointestinal disorders.
19.Define probiotics. Explain their physiological mechanism of action, opportunities and
threats associated with the use of probiotics in paediatric practice.
20.Define syndrome X. Outline the diagnostic and laboratory workup for obese children
21.Describe the attributes of complementary feeding. What is the safe age of
introduction complementary feeding in your opinion. Justify. Describe some foods
appropriate for complementary feeding.
22.Describe the functions and metabolism of vitamin D. Discuss the aetiology and
management of vitamin D – resistant rickets
23.Describe vit D metabolism. Describe diagnostic approach to a 3 year old child with
rickets who has shown no response to treatment with 6 lakh IU of vit D
24.Diet in ckd, ns
25.Differences in the composition of milk secreted by mother delivering term and
preterm babies
26.Discuss biochemical and metabolic derangements in a child with severe
malnutrition. Discuss factors associated with high mortality in severe PEM
27.Discuss the calcium and Vit D metabolism. Outline an approach to a case of
resistant rickets.
28.Discuss the diet plan in various metabolic disorders.
29.Discuss the pathophysiological basis of clinical and radiological manifestations of
nutritional rickets.
30.Discuss the physiology of breast milk secretion an advantages of breast feeding with
special reference to metabolic aspects . What are the cause of lactation failure?
31.Drugs secreting in breast milk
32.Effect of zinc supplementation in persistent diarrhoea
33.Enlist the problems in breast feeding and outline the management of the same
34.Enumerate functions and therapeutic uses of vit E
35.Formula feeds, danger

36.Functions of Vit D
37.Give dietary requirements of zinc in children and discuss its role in childhood
immunity and infections.
38.Green leafy vegetables in diet
39.Hazards and virtues of Vitamin A in paediatric practise
40.Human milk bank
41.Immunological changes that take place in PEM
42.Implications of excess vitamin
43.Laboratory findings of severe Malnutrition.
44.Management of 4 year old child with grade IV malnutrition
45.National policy on infant milk substitutes
46.Nutritional Recovery syndromes.
47.Nutritional support of the critically ill children
48.Outline the initial management (first 48hours) of a 2 year old severely malnourished
child (wt. 5.5 kg) who is cold to touch and has oedema and poor peripheral pulses.
49.Outline the metabolism and functions of Vit D in the human body. Describe in detail
the aetiology and pathological changes in rickets
50.Pathophysiology of lactation failure
51.Poly unsaturated fatty acids
52.Prevention of fluoride toxicity
53.Reference protein and balanced diet
54.Resistant Rickets
55.Role of diet in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
56.Role of iron in health and diseased state
57.Role of zinc in health and diseases of children
58.Scurvy - dd, radio
59.Sources, deficiency state and uses of magnesium in children
60.Supplementary nutrition
61.Ten steps of successful breastfeeding
62.Toxicity of vitamins
63.Uses of Vitamin A
64.Vitamin a supplementation in under 5
65.Vitamin D resistant rickets
66.Vitamin dependency states
67.What are the causes of non-nutritional rickets. How will you manage such a child.
68.What is complementary feeding? Discuss the feeding problems in first years of life
69.Write in detail about BPNI (Breast feeding promotion network in India)

Oncology:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Management of CNS leukaemia
Treatment and prognosis of ALL
ALL - FAB classification
Chemotherapy of ALL (Acute lymphati8c leukaemia)
Chronic myeloid leukaemia
Classify childhood histiocytosis. Describe the clinical manifestations and diagnosis
and treatment of LCH.
7. Craniopharyngioma
8. Current therapy of ALL
9. Define tumour lysis syndrome. Enlist its important constituents. Outline its aetiology
and describe the management.
10.Ewing Sarcoma.
11.Hodgkin’s disease
12.Immediate and long term complications of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia.
13.Intra-abdominal tumours
14.Lymphomas - classify, features, management
15.Lymph reticular malignancies in children
16.Management of a child with acute leukaemia
17.Neuroblastoma
18.Oncologic emergencies
19.Pre-treatment staging for staging paediatric Non-hodgkin’s lymphoma.
20.Prognostic indictors in acute leukaemia
21.Retinoblastoma
22.What symptoms and signs would make you suspect an acute leukaemia in a child?
How would you investigate such a child? Briefly outline the principles of therapy.
23.Wilms tumour
24.Write in brief the clinical manifestations, lab findings and management principles of
Langerhans Cell histiocytosis.

Psychiatry:
1. Attention deficit hyper activity disorder
2. Behaviour problems in children
3. Common behaviour problems in children
4. Food fussiness in children
5. Treatment of breath holding spells.
6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
7. Attention deficit disorders
8. Autistic disorder
9. Autistic spectrum disorders
10.Behavioural problems in children
11.Breath holding spells
12.Bruxism
13.Childhood depression
14.Common psychiatric disorders in children
15.Conduct disturbances
16.Conversion reactions in childhood
17.Day dreaming
18.Describe laboratory investigations in an infant with anorexia and briefly outline the
interpretation of the results.
19.Developmental disorders in preschool children, management
20.Dyslexia.
21.Encopresis.
22.Enumerate causes and approach to preschool child with developmental disorder.
23.Enumerate the causes of mental retardation in children. Give an outline of
management of a child with mental retardation.
24.Enuresis
25.Aetiology, clinical manifestations and treatment of autistic disorder
26.Etiological factors in juvenile delinquency
27.Habit disorders in children
28.Habit disorders
29.Health education of adolescent girls
30.Hysteria in childhood
31.Impact of television viewing on children
32.Intelligent quotient
33.Juvenile delinquency
34.Juvenile delinquency
35.Language development from 6 months to 5 years
36.Learning disability
37.Management of conversion reactions
38.Management of nocturnal Enuresis
39.Management of paroxysmal hyper cyanotic spell.
40.Masturbation
41.Maternal deprivation syndrome
42.Nail biting
43.Nocturnal enuresis
44.Physical features with mental retardation
45.Physiological phase of negativism
46.Pica
47.Play therapy
48.Preventable and retreat able causes of mental retardation, importance of parental
counselling
49.Problems of adolescence

50.Role of amino acids in mental retardation
51.Rumination
52.Scholastic backwardness
53.Sibling rivalry
54.Sleep disorders in children
55.Speech disorders in children and management
56.Stuttering versus developmental dysfluency.
57.Temper tantrum
58.Thumb sucking
59.What are the common adolescent problems in children how will you proceed and
tackle those problems
60.What are vegetative disorders? Discuss the management of child with injuries
61.What is nocturnal enuresis? Outline the causes for the same. Describe the
modalities for managing a 6 year old child with enuresis.

Respiratory system:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Aerosol therapy in children
Clinical relevance of peak expiratory flow rate in children
Management of acute bronchial asthma
4 years old child brought with history of recurrent wheeze. Discuss differential
diagnosis and management.
5. A 10 months old child has features of upper respiratory tract obstruction. Discuss
the differential diagnosis and approach to diagnosis
6. A 5 year old child is brought to you with chronic cough of 2 years duration. Outline
your approach
7. Acute breathless ness in diff age groups - 9 months, 2 yrs, adolescent
8. Acute bronchiolitis
9. Allergic rhinitis
10.Amyloidosis
11.Ari management protocols
12.Aspiration pneumonia
13.Asthma predictive index
14.Atelectasis
15.Bera
16.Bronchial foreign body and management
17.Bronchiectasis
18.Bronchiolitis obliterans
19.Bronchiolitis
20.Bulging tympanic membrane
21.Chronic cough - 7 yrs
22.Chronic sinusitis
23.Classify asthma in children. Outline the management of asthma and approach to a
case of status asthmatics.
24.Classify respiratory failure and discuss the defence mechanism of the lung
25.Clinical evaluation and management of a child with stridor
26.Congenital stridor
27.Course and prognosis of acute Bronchiolitis
28.Croup
29.Define interstitial lung disease. Enlist paediatric ilds. Write brief description of
lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis. Outline the treatment options for ILD in
children.
30.Describe the congenital malformations of lung and discuss the diagnosis and
management of the same.
31.Describe the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Give an outline for prevention and
treatment of recurrent episodes.
32.Detail the causes for localized emphysema of the lung. Describe the presentation
and management of congenital lobar emphysema.
33.Development of diaphragm
34.Development of lung, anatomy, bronchopulmonary segments
35.Differential diagnosis of haemoptysis in children
36.Differentiate pneumothorax and pneumo-mediastinum
37.Differential diagnosis and management of acute stridor in a 2 year old child
38.Discuss briefly ethology, clinical presentation diagnosis and treatment of
bronchiectasis in children.
39.Discuss briefly the D/D and management of a case of persistent pneumonia in a 3
month old infant.

40.Discuss in briefly the recent advances in the management of bronchial asthma
41.Discuss the D/D and management of a 3 year old child with a history of cough and
cold, presenting with onset of noisy breathing, barking cough, hoarse voice and
respiratory distress.
42.Discuss the pathophysiology of asthma. Outline the role of investigations in
bronchial asthma.
43.Empyema
44.Endobronchial Tb
45.Enlist the drugs used for management of childhood asthma. Explain the
pharmacological basis of their use.
46.Epistaxis in a child
47.Fiber-optic bronchoscopy
48.Foreign body aspiration
49.History of tb, fate of primary complex
50.Home oxygen therapy
51.How do you grade the severity of childhood asthma? Describe its stepwise
treatment according to severity. Compare and contrast the oral therapy and inhaled
therapy for asthma.
52.How will you define acute respiratory failure. Write common causes of acute
respiratory failure in a 2 year old child. What are the various methods of oxygen
therapy in children.
53.Immotile cilia syndromes
54.Laryngomalacia
55.Lipoid pneumonia
56.List conditions predisposing children to aspiration lung injury. Mention clinical
features and principles of management of chronic aspiration. Conditions
predisposing children to aspiration lung injury.
57.List the causes of stridor in children . How will you diagnose and manage a case of
stridor.
58.Lobes of lung, surface marking, clinical application
59.Loffler’s syndrome
60.Long term management of asthma
61.Lung compliance, resistance
62.Management of a 3 year old child with recurrent attacks of wheezing
63.Non pulmonary causes of resp distress and apnoea
64.Non respiratory functions of lung
65.Obstructive pulmonary disease
66.Obstructive sleep apnoea
67.Otitis media
68.Outline the pulmonary function testing in children with emphasis on performance
and interpretation of spirometry.
69.Outline the stepwise approach for managing infants and young children < 5 years
with chronic asthma
70.Paraquat lung
71.Pathophysiology and management of asthma in children
72.Pathophysiology and clinical features of cystic fibrosis
73.PEFR
74.Persistent cough
75.Pertussis
76.Pneumothorax - types, management
77.Postural drainage, chest physiotherapy
78.Preventive therapy in bronchial asthma

79.Pulm aspergillosis
80.Pulm hemosiderosis
81.Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
82.Pulmonary causes of clubbing
83.Pulmonary complications of HIV (Human Immuno Deficiency Virus)
84.Pulmonary oedema
85.Pulmonary embolism
86.Pulmonary function test
87.Pulmonary haemorrhage
88.Rapid test in childhood pneumonia
89.Recurrent acute otitis media in children
90.Recurrent respiratory tract infections
91.Recurrent stridor in children
92.Respiratory failure - all
93.Slowly resolving pneumonia
94.Snoring in a child
95.Staph pneumonia
96.Status asthmaticus
97.Status asthmaticus management.
98.Steroids in rs
99.Sudden choking spells in 2 yr. Child with severe paroxysms of cough - inv and
management
100. Tonsillitis, recurrent, adenoids, peritonsillar abscess
101. Tracheo oesophageal fistula and oesophageal atresia
102. Treatment of bronchial asthma
103. Upper airway obstruction
104. Use of nebulizations in paediatric practice.
105. Viruses causing ari
106. What are the audible sounds in pulmonology. Discuss the management of
expiratory wheeze in under 5 child
107. What are the common organisms causing nosocomial pneumonias? Add a note
on non – resolving pneumonias in children and clinical criteria for diagnosing
nosocomial pneumonia

Rheumatology:
1. Kawasaki syndrome
2. Classification and features of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
3. Classify vasculitis based on size of vessels involved and give examples of each
category. Describe aetiology, clinical features and management of Takayasu's
arteritis.
4. Define Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Write on classification, clinical manifestation.
Investigations and management of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
5. Dermatomyositis
6. Differential diagnosis of Kawasaki Disease
7. Discuss briefly clinical presentation and management of H S Purpura
8. Discuss the pathogenesis, differential diagnosis and echo cardio graphic findings in
kawasaki disease. How is the classical KD different from atypical KD?
9. Discuss the presentation, diagnostic criteria for Kawasaki Disease. What is the
management strategy? What are the complications?
10.Erythema nodosum
11.Phase and complication of Kawasaki’s disease.
12.Phases and complications of Kawasaki diseases
13.Tabulate differentiating features of various types of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.
14.What are the clinical manifestations of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Discuss the
differential diagnosis and management.

Social and community paediatrics:
1. Child abuse
2. Child health care services provided through child survival and safe motherhood
programme in india.
3. Child survival and safe mother hood program
4. Effects of television watching in children
5. Health programme of adolescent
6. Management of sex abused child
7. National targets for MCH services
8. Problems of children of working mother
9. Reproductive and child health programme.
10.Reproductive child health program aims and strategies
11.Adverse effects environmental pollution in children
12.Afp surveillance
13.Applied nutrition programmes
14.At risk child - new-born, infant, child
15.Battered baby
16.Child guidance clinic
17.Child labour
18.Common disablements in children and management
19.Community management of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections with
indications for referral.
20.Define biomedical waste, briefly categorize them. Enumerate their health hazards.
List four important methods for disposal of biomedical waste.
21.Define infant mortality rate (IMR). Discuss the causes and factors affecting IMR.
Describe the management of an infant with persistent diarrhoea in the community.
22.Define perinatal mortality rate (PMR). What are the causes for PMR in India? What
steps will you take for reducing the same?
23.Describe briefly the principles of IMNCI. Outline the broad steps of case
management process.
24.Describe the criteria and conditions to be considered in approving newer vaccine in
an immunization programme of developing country.
25.Diarrheal disease control programs
26.Discuss briefly the major goals for child's growth and development by 2000 A.D.
27.Discuss briefly the paediatric components of RCH programme
28.Discuss child maltreatment. What are the factors related with child abuse
29.Discuss in detail child survival and safe mother hood program.
30.Discuss the basic elements of the AT RISK concept with regard to their advantage
and disadvantages and fallacies if any as they relate to health care of mother and
children
31.DOTS chemotherapeutic management of tuberculosis in National TB control
programme
32.Dots regimen and the problems involved in the implementation in childhood
tuberculosis
33.Drowning and submersion injuries
34.Enumerate chief causes of neonatal mortality in India. Describe the current status in
India and its states. Prepare a 5 year plan for reduction of neonatal mortality rate in
your district.
35.Enumerate the millennium development goals. Describe briefly the national health
programme to achieve millennium developmental goals in India. Write status of
India in relation to indicators of NHFS-3

36.Essential new-born care in National RCH programme.
37.Factors affecting adolescent health and development
38.Failure in control of Tb
39.Food fortification
40.Goitre eradication
41.Health advise for children traveling internationally
42.Hospital waste management
43.ICDS scheme
44.Ideal well baby
45.Identity crisis
46.Impact of media and adolescent.
47.International year of child
48.International year of the disabled
49.List and define the important public health indicators of mortality in children. Also
discuss their current status in India.
50.Measures to reduce incidence of hepatitis b in india
51.Millennium development goal (MDG) for child health under NRHM program
52.National immunization card
53.National Iodine deficiency disorder control programme
54.National leprosy eradication programme
55.National level programs for control of rheumatic fever
56.National nutritional health program
57.National policy on infant milk substitutes
58.National Rural Health Mission
59.Only child of a tubectomized mother
60.Outline the essential components and principles of IMNCI strategy. Highlight the
cardinal features of case management process of young infants ( <2 months)
61.Over protected child
62.Paediatric component of RCH programme
63.Rights of children
64.Role of health education to adolescents.
65.Role of paediatrician in disaster management
66.School health services
67.School meals program
68.Social paediatrics
69.Spacing of children
70.Street child.
71.The girl child
72.Traditional practices in new-born care
73.Treatment of handicapped child
74.What are the causes of child labour and its repercussions. What measures have
been taken to eliminate child labour in India
75.What are the causes of child labour and its repercussions. What measures have
been taken to eliminate child labour in India
76.What are the causes of under 5 years mortality in our country. Suggest measures to
reduce this mortality rate
77.What are the common causes of blindness in children. Discuss steps to prevent
blindness in this age group
78.What are the major contributors to high infant mortality in our country? What
specific areas of infant or / and new-born care can be strengthened to decrease
infant mortality in India. Describe the salient features of the IMNCI strategy.
79.What is IMNCI strategy. Discuss the factors in successful implementation of this
strategy.

80.What measures can reduce birth rate in next five years
81.Write short note on national rural health mission.
82.You are posted in a village where prevalence of anaemia is high. Discuss steps
undertaken to improve the status in children < 5 years

Toxicology:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Lead toxicity in children
Organophosphorus insecticide poisoning
Specific antidotes
3 year old boy has swallowed an unknown amount of toilet cleaner and is brought to
you in distress. Discuss the possible injuries, initial and late management of this
patient.
5. 8 year old child was bitten by a snake. Discuss the different types of pathological
changes the patient can go through. How do you grade the severity of
envenomation and discuss the management.
6. Barbiturate poisoning
7. Corrosive poisoning.
8. Discuss the general principles of managing a child with poisoning. Describe the
diagnosis and management of a child with organophosphorus poisoning
9. Enumerate clinical features of iron poisoning and describe its management.
10.Enumerate the major routes of pesticide exposure in children, outline the
manifestations of their toxicity. Discuss steps for minimization/ prevention of
exposure to pesticides in children
11.Fluoride
12.Iron poisoning
13.Kerosene poisoning
14.Lead poisoning
15.Management of lead poisoning and OP poisoning
16.Management of Salicylate poisoning, biochemical,
17.Managing scorpion sting.
18.Mercury
19.Outline the prehospital and hospital management of a 10 year old boy bitten by a
poisonous snake.
20.Paracetamol
21.Phenobarbitone
22.Recent trends in management of scorpion sting
23.Stages and management of severe iron poisoning in children
24.What is the scenario of accidental poisoning in children in your – institute? Write
about two different cases of poisoning you have managed during your PG period

Vaccination:
1. Adverse reaction that may occur following use of vaccines included in the national
immunization schedule of india.
2. Combination vaccine
3. H.influenza B vaccine
4. Hepatitis B vaccine
5. Hepatitis B vaccine
6. Live vaccines used in paediatrics age group
7. Typhoid vaccine
8. Adverse reaction following immunization
9. BCG and new tubercular vaccine.
10.Cold chain
11.Conjugated Pneumococcal vaccine
12.Describe briefly various adverse reactions following vaccinations and discuss their
management.
13.H1 N1 Vaccine
14.Hepatitis A vaccine
15.Human papilloma virus vaccine.
16.Iap immunisation schedule
17.Immunisation of adolescents
18.Immunisation schedule for 4 years unimmunized child.
19.Implementation of new vaccines for healthy outcome in Indian children
20.Influenza B vaccine
21.Measles vaccine
22.Mmr
23.Neonatal vaccination
24.Newer typhoid vaccines
25.Newer vaccines in children
26.Optional vaccines
27.Pneumococcal vaccine
28.Pulse polio immunization
29.Pulse polio programme
30.Rabies prevention
31.Recent trends in Immunization
32.Tabulate the following details about Rotavirus vaccine, hib vaccine, and
pneumococcal vaccine. A) type of vaccine b) dose c) route of administration d)
appropriate age of vaccination e) justification for its usage f) side effect g)
Drawback.
33.Utility and controversy of HPV vaccine
34.Vaccination in immunocompromised child
35.Vaccine for prevention of typhoid fever
36.Vaccine storage
37.Vaccine vial monitor
38.Varicella vaccine

Miscellaneous:
Dermatology:
1. Seborrheic dermatitis in children
2. Clinical features D/D and treatment of atopic dermatitis in infants.
3. Atopic dermatitis.
4. Examination of skin paediatrics
5. Diaper rash
6. Acne vulgaris
7. TEN
8. Acrodermatitis enteropathica
9. Fungal infections of skin
10.Impetigo
11.Infantile eczema
12.Strawberry naevi
13.Lupus vulgaris
14.Epidermolysis bullosa
15.Morbiliform rash(measles like) - dd
16.Skin manifestations of systemic diseases

Ophthalmology:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Evaluation and management of infant with squint
Eye examination in paediatric
Congenital cataract
Leukocoria
Juvenile cataract
Congenital eye defects
Fundus in paediatrics
Ophthalmic signs in paediatrics
Proptosis

Orthopaedics & musculoskeletal:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Classification and management of Osteogenesis imperfecta
Achondroplasia
Congenital dislocation of hip
Describe the developmental dysplasia of hip. Enumerate risk factors for the same.
How do you confirm the diagnosis? Outline the management
5. Define skeletal dysplasias, describe the clinical features and radiological changes of
achondroplasia.
6. Osteopetrosis
7. Osteomyelitis - acute, chronic
8. Potts disease
9. Genu valgum
10.Tb osteomyelitis
11.Avascular necrosis of femur
12.Growing pains
13.Bow legs
14.Kyphoscoliosis in young child

Drugs:

1. Third gen cephalosporins
2. Antiviral drugs
3. Essential drug therapy
4. Potassium sparing diuretics
5. Furosemide
6. Interferon
7. Inotropes in paediatrics
8. Oral iron chelating agents
9. Steroid therapy complications
10.Nsaid in paediatrics
11.Broad spectrum antihelminthics
12.Vinca alkaloids
13.Ipratropium bromide
14.Rifampicin
15.Erythromycin
16.Levamisole
17.Acyclovir
18.Albendazole
19.Ketamine]
20.Chemoprophylaxis
21.Newer macrolides
22.Cyclosporin A
23.Prostaglandins
24.Ciprofloxacin
25.Chloramphenicol
26.Orotoxic drugs
27.Metronidazole
28.Niclosamide
29.Diazepam
30.Carbenicillin
31.Ampicillin
32.Heat related injuries and management of heat stroke
33.Use of corticosteroids in cardio respiratory disorders in children
34.Role of IVIG in paediatric practice
35.Captopril
36.Nimesulide
37.Birth asphyxia - newer drugs - brain protective/sparing agents
38.Clinical importance of interferon
39.Growth factors
40.Indications for the use of IVIG in paediatric practice.
41.Enlist the common indications for the use of IVIG. Describe the mechanism of action,
doses and side effects.

Other topics:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Ultra sound in paediatrics
Telemedicine
Bone age
X-ray wrist in children
Intra dermal tests in paediatrics
Primary dentition
Dental caries, prevention
Safe injection practices
Standard deviation

10.Under-five clinic
11.Gram staining
12.Importance of parent infant bonding
13.Enumerate various air pollutants and discuss their effects on health of children.
14.Indications for various organ and tissue transplants in paediatric practice and
common considerations in selections of donors.
15.Role of oxygen free radicals in the causation of childhood diseases.
16.Discuss the measures to prevent accidents in children
17.Discuss safe injection practices at a level three health care facility. Outline the
management of a needle stick injury to a health care provider 10 minutes back.
18.Enumerate the causes of persistent fever, which are not due to infection. Describe
the clinical presentation ectodermal dysplasia.
19.Outline evidence based medicine as applicable to paediatric practice. Enlist basic
steps in the practice of evidence-based medicines. Name few databases of
systematic reviews.
20.Outline the common ethical issues in paediatric practice. Briefly discuss the process
of decision making in paediatric life sustaining interventions
21.Outline development of normal hearing in children. List causes of hearing
impairment in a 1-year-old child and its diagnostic approach.
22.Write short notes on (a) female infanticide and (b)karyotyping
23.Common disorders of phonation in children
24.Well baby clinic
25.Effective parental guidance for preventing unintentional injuries in different age
groups
26.Hospital waste management
27.Chronic fatigue syndrome

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