Plumbing is one of the most important aspects of your
home. You should be as informed as possible when it
comes time to hire a plumber.
1/8 Bend Offset
A plumbing fitting used for positioning a pipe around an obstacle.
Covered opening in a wall or ceiling near a fixture that allows
access for servicing
a plumbing or electric system.
Arconitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)
A type of plastic used to make plumbing pipe
• Air Gap
Vertical, unobstructed distance, between the flood level in a plumbing fixture and
the lowest water supply inlet, such as the distance between the rim of the tub and
• Air Trap
A u-shaped pipe filled with water and located beneath plumbing fixtures to form a
seal against the passage of gases and odors.
Acetylene tank holding 40 cubic feet of gas, used for plumbing, once used to fuel
Boats, thus the name.
Control of water flow through a heat distribution unit using an elbow plumbing
Plumbing fixture's separate vent in a building drainage system.
The sphere shaped end of this flexible plumbing joint rests in a socket.
Plumbing fixture drain to the main drain line.
• Circuit Vent
• Plumbing drainage system vertical vent which is run from the last two
traps on a horizontal drain line to the main vent stack of a building
• Closet Auger
• A plumbing tool used for clearing obstructions from toilet traps to the
mouth of the waste pipe.
• A type of fitting with two female ends that receive the smaller ends of
piping or tubing, making a connection. A mechanical device or part for
joining parts together to make a joint. A type of fitting used to join
• Directional Tee Plumbing
• Tee fitting, which directs flow in one direction by use of an internal baffle.
• Drum Trap
• Plumbing fixture, which is cylindrical in shape, which retains water as a
seal, with an outlet at its top and an inlet at its base. Used in plumbing
fixtures that are too low to the floor for installation of a P-trap.
Plumbing fitting, shaped like an elbow, which allows water to flow in a curve. Also
referred to as an elbow, it is designed to use with pipe, tubing, conduit, or duct and
is available in 90 to 45 degrees.
• Finish Plumbing
Installation of plumbing fixtures to make the system usable.
• First Draw
Water that has been sitting in pipes or plumbing fixtures overnight and is first
drawn when taps are opened in the morning. For instance, where lead is present in
plumbing, this water would have the highest levels of lead contamination.
• Fixture Branch
• Pipe that carries wastes from non-toilet plumbing fixtures directly to the
building drain. It is also called a waste pipe, wet vent, or fixture drain.
• Fixture Drain
• Pipe that carries wastes from non-toilet plumbing fixtures directly to the
building drain. It is also called a waste pipe, wet vent, or fixture branch.
• Horizontal Branch
Lateral drain pipes which run from the plumbing fixtures to the waste stack in a
building or into the soil.
Plumbing drainage fitting that enlarges the diameter of a straight-line run by virtue
of its larger size on one end and smaller on the other. If it is used for the reverse,
to make the diameter of a straight-line run smaller, it is called a reducer.
Plumbing device, used to prevent sewer gas from entering a building, by keeping a
water seal in the drain.
• Pipe Ell
• Plumbing fitting, shaped like an elbow, which allows water to flow in a
curve. Also referred to as an ell, it is designed to use with pipe, tubing,
conduit, or duct and is available in 90 to 45 degrees.
• Tradesman who installs and repairs plumbing systems.
• Collective term for the pipes and fixtures, etc. involved with the movement
of fluid throughout a building.
• Plumbing Bend
• Elbow fitting, used in drain and vent lines, to make a bend at
an angle to the main line.
• Plumbing Drawing Symbols
• Symbols used to denote specific fittings, etc. of drawing.
• Plumbing Fixture
• Mechanism which both receives and discharges wastes and
water into a drainage system.
• Plumbing Snake
• Thin, flexible length of spiral-wound metal, which is inserted into a drain
and rotated to clear anything that is clogged in the pipes.
• Plumbing Tree
• Prefabricated set of drain waste, vent, and supply lines.
• Plumbing Y-Branch
• Y-shaped fitting, also called a wye, which has one straight side and a
branch joining at an angle and is used to join a branch line and a main run.
• Pressure Head
• Pressure in a plumbing system. The unit of measure which is the vertical
force exerted by water at a depth of one foot.
• A plumbing fitting with a 180-degree bend.
• Rough In Plumbing
• Plumbing system installation which prepares for but does not include the
installation of fixtures
• A plumbing trap that takes the shape of the letter S and is used where a
waste pipe feeds into the floor instead of the wall, which uses a P Trap.
Disallowed in many parts of the country, they can create a siphoning
situation, pulling water out of the trap.
• A system of pipes, containment and treatment facilities for the disposal of
• Soil Pipe
• A pipe that penetrates a roof and is used to vent a building's plumbing.
• Tap Water
• Water provided by a water company by way of the home's plumbing
• A plumbing fitting in the shape of the letter "T," used to connect three
sections of pipe.
• Curved section of drain line that prevents sewer odors from escaping into
the atmosphere. All fixtures that have drains must have a "P" trap
installed. A toilet is the only plumbing fixture with an "S" trap.
• Surface material on some plumbing fixtures derived from or
consisting of glass, translucent, and low on porosity.
• Waste Stack
• A vertical pipe in a plumbing system that carries the
discharge from any fixture.
• Plumbing is a great way to improve the quality of life in your
home. You'll want to make sure you are choosing the right
plumber for your home and your budget. We offer Plumbing
Service Requests from local, prescreened plumbers. plumber.
When you think if the
plumbing tool, this is it.
The adjustable pipe wrench is
an iconic symbol of
• This tool provides tremendous leverage and grip. Once you tighten the
wrench around the pipe by use of the knurled knob, it is designed to grip
round objects (such as pipes) securely by digging its sharp serrated teeth into
the pipe with increasing pressure as the wrench is turned.
• As a result this wrench is known for leaving teeth marks behind. I don't
recommend this wrench for removal of trim and if used that way, I suggest you
use duct tape on the serrated teeth to protect the trim finish. More preferable
however is to use an adjustable crescent wrench for fine work on trim that is
One of the most essential tools in the plumbing trade is the wrench,
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THEORY OF HOUSE
• how to design an efficient distribution system for the water to
• The main thing is having the water heater as close to major
points of use as possible.
> and any computations that must be made.
• Diameter of the pipe needed depends on what the fixtures
consume, how long the run is, and the supply pressure.
In general, your options inside a house are 3/4" and 1/2".
Rarely is 1" needed other than the entrance before it splits to hot and
A general rule of thumb is that 3/4" is used for distribution and 1/2" for
branches to each room.
The theory is that there is less wear and tear on your plumbing fixtures
the slower the water is moving.
The larger the diameter, the slower the water moves.
The trade-off (which I consider to be a big deal) is that a bigger pipe
wastes a lot more energy heating water that doesn't need to be heated
- both hot and cold, and just plain wastes water when you let the tap
run while waiting for hot or cold water.
FAUCET REPAIR: TROUBLESHOOTING
SLUGGISH WATER FLOW
• If sluggish water flow from your faucet is a problem, you may
find the trouble lies with your faucet aerator. This device is most
often located at the tip of the faucet and works by mixing air and
water in order to give you an even flow of water. When mineral
deposits accumulate or if you have a damaged aerator, the best
thing to do is forgo faucet repair and replace the part. If it's just
dirt that is lodged in your faucet aerator, you can conduct faucet
repair in five easy steps:
• 1. Unscrew the faucet aerator from the spout, using oil to loosen
the connection if necessary.
2. Disassemble the parts, keeping in mind the order of the
3. Use a toothbrush to clean the disk and screen with soap and
4. To clear out debris in the disk, use a pin or toothpick.
5. Flush the components with water before reassembling the