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PSY 101 Sample Exam Questions

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PSY 101 Sample Exam Questions 1. Psychology is best defined as the scientific study of a. the mind and consciousness. b. the mental processes of individuals. c. mental disorders and abnormal behavior. d. the behavior of individuals and their mental processes. 2. Suppose you want to draw some psychological conclusions in a way that is consistent with the scientific aspect of psychology. You should base your conclusions on a. the beliefs held by most people. b. the fundamental notion of common sense. c. your personal feelings or intuitions, but only if they are reasonable. d. evidence collected according to the principles of the scientific method. 3. Which statement is MOST consistent with the perspective taken by psychologists? a. Only human behavior is of interest. b. Mental processes are of little real importance. c. Both observable behavior and mental processes are of interest. d. Behavior should only be studied in a controlled research laboratory. 4. When compared to the work of sociologists and anthropologists, psychologists are likely to focus more on a. social institutions. b. individual behavior. c. cultural differences in behavior. d. the behavior of people in groups. 5. An educational psychologist has decided to do research on reading behavior. If he were to approach this topic from the broadest level of analysis, he would be most likely to study a. whether readers move their lips while reading. b. whether attitudes toward reading vary around the world. c. the eye movements readers make while reading a page of text. d. left and right brain hemisphere differences in the processing of foreign languages. 6. To investigate behavior, researchers may use different levels of analysis. Which of the following research questions exemplifies the narrowest, most specific level of analysis? a. What are the causes of mental illness? b. Which brain structures are associated with paranoid schizophrenia? c. Are food additives responsible for the occurrence of certain types of mental illness? d. Are there differences in the prevalence of mental illness in different countries? 7. The first task in psychology is to make accurate observations about behavior. This means that psychologists must first ________ behavior. a. predict b. explain c. control d. describe

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8. A boy complains that his sister has been teasing him. The parents ask him to tell them specifically when she teases him and how it happens; they are asking him to provide behavioral data to support his claim. A psychologist would say that the child is being encouraged to do all of the following EXCEPT a. observe his sister's behavior. b. explain why his sister teases him. c. report on his sister's teasing behavior in an objective fashion. d. note the conditions under which his sister's teasing behavior occurs. 9. One day while playing golf, you catch your opponent cheating. Your subsequent belief that your opponent also probably cheats on his income tax is most consistent with which of the psychologist's research goals? a. control b. prediction c. description d. explanation 10. Two students are discussing their teacher's inability to remember student names. One attributes the inability to a poor memory, but the other believes it is due to a lack of motivation. Researchers would judge which of the two explanations is best by a. attributing the inability to a situational variable. b. measuring how strongly each friend feels about his opinion. c. attributing the inability to remember to a dispositional variable. d. determining how well each explanation predicts behavior in new situations. 11. Therapeutic programs designed to help people substitute more positive behaviors for negative behaviors are most closely related to the psychological goal of a. control. b. prediction. c. explanation. d. description. 12. Treatments for mental illness, the ability of people to eliminate unhealthy behaviors such as smoking and initiate healthy behaviors such as exercise, and the development of positive parenting practices are all consistent with the idea that a. psychology is little more than common sense. b. psychological knowledge can be used to help improve the quality of life. c. explanation and prediction are the two most important psychological goals. d. the use of animal participants has minimal relevance to modern psychological research. 13. In 1908, Hermann Ebbinghaus wrote that "Psychology has a long past, but only a short history." Which statement best captures the idea that Ebbinghaus was expressing? a. Psychologists, like philosophers, have difficulty learning from their mistakes. b. Questions about human nature have existed for a long time, but only recently have the methods necessary to answer them been developed. c. The field of psychology has existed for a long time, but only recently have scholars recorded the accomplishments of the profession. d. Although psychologists have been doing laboratory research for hundreds of years, little of substance has been discovered about human nature.

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14. Imagine having been a research assistant in the early laboratory of Wilhelm Wundt. Which of the following is LEAST likely to have been one of your duties? a. precisely measuring subject responses b. conducting statistical analyses of data c. taking care of the laboratory instruments d. ensuring that the methods were kept secret replication is possible. This is an important part of using the scientific method. 15. According to the ________ perspective, one purpose of behavior is to reduce the tension that has been brought about by powerful inner forces such as conflicts between personal needs and society's demands. a. cultural b. humanistic c. behavioristic d. psychodynamic 16. All of the following are direct consequences of behaviorism EXCEPT a. new therapies for modifying behavior disorders. b. guidelines to create model utopian communities. c. the determination that humans are innately good and capable of choice. d. education of children through the use of positive reinforcement rather than punishment. 17. Psychologists who accept a biological explanation of behavior make certain assumptions. Which of the following would NOT be one of these assumptions? a. Psychological behavior has a biochemical basis. b. Behavior or behavior potential is determined by heredity. c. Experience cannot alter underlying biological structures and processes. d. Complex behavior is best understood if it is broken down into smaller, elementary units of analysis. 18. Assume that humans will cooperate with one another to achieve specific goals. If cooperation among humans enhanced the survival of the human species, this outcome would be most directly consistent with the ________ perspective in psychology. a. sociocultural b. biological c. humanistic d. evolutionary 19. Eating disorders, such as anorexia or bulimia, do not seem to be as common in Third World countries as they are in technologically advanced countries. Focusing on reasons for the difference in the incidence of these illnesses around the world is most directly within the province of the ________ perspective. a. sociocultural b. cognitive c. humanistic d. evolutionary 20. Suppose you read in the newspaper that someone robbed a store after watching a particularly violent movie. If you were a cognitive psychologist seeking to understand this behavior, you would be most interested in whether the a. individual really needed the money. b. individual had relatives who were also robbers. c. movie affected the thoughts and attitudes of the individual. d. individual had a happy childhood without conflict and stress.

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21. The idea that all events, physical, mental and behavioral, are the result of, or are determined by, specific causal factors is known as a. hypothesis. b. replication. c. generalization. d. determinism. 22. A researcher believes that boys are more aggressive than girls. He goes to a playground to watch children play and finds support for his viewpoint. This researcher's data collection may be subject to a. observer bias. b. standardization. c. dependent variables. d. independent variables. 23. A store owner is trying to determine how much advertising increases her overall profit. If she conducted an experiment, amount of advertising would be the ________ variable. a. dependent b. independent c. operational d. confounding 24. Suppose you wanted to test the hypothesis that viewing pornographic material increases aggressive behavior. The dependent variable would be a. aggressive behavior. b. the age of the participants. c. viewing pornographic material. d. whether men or women served as participants. 25. A researcher theorizes that people are likely to perspire more when telling embarrassing stories than when telling funny stories. Volunteers are asked to record a memory of an embarrassing or a funny incident and their perspiration is measured. On some days, but not others, the lab where the recordings are done is very hot. Based on this information, the researcher should be concerned most about a. placebo effects. b. expectancy effects. c. the presence of a confounding variable. d. coming up with an operational definition of embarrassment. 26. To measure the effects of task complexity on an individual's perception of time, a researcher has one group of participants do simple addition problems and another group solve complex mathematical formulas. Both groups are then asked to estimate the time elapsed since they began the task. Later, the researcher finds out that the participants given the complex task were in a room with higher noise levels than the other group. In this study, the noise level would be considered an example of a. the placebo effect. b. a dependent variable. c. a confounding variable. d. an independent variable.

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27. Imagine that you have been hired to assist in an experiment investigating the verbal abilities of boys and girls. In preparing for the experiment, you read a research study that found higher verbal abilities in girls than boys. If this information about gender leads you somehow to communicate to the girls in the experiment that they should do better than the boys, we say that the ________ effect is operating. a. placebo b. expectancy c. double-blind d. between-subjects 28. A psychologist is doing research for a pharmaceutical company. The drugs he is testing are numbered so that he does not know what they are, nor does he know which participants are receiving which drugs. Participants are also unaware of differences in treatments. The control that is being used in this study is called a a. within-subjects control. b. correlational method. c. double-blind control. d. random assignment by chance procedure. 29. A researcher is testing whether caffeine makes people more talkative. Some of his study participants are given regular coffee to drink and some are given warm milk. His assistant then interviews the participants and counts the number of words each speaks during the interview. What seems to be missing from the design? a. a hypothesis b. a placebo control c. a dependent variable d. an independent variable 30. To save time, you assign the first fifty people who sign up to participate in your study to the experimental condition and the next fifty to the control condition. The interpretations you could draw from the study will be severely limited because a. you needed to carry out a within-subjects design. b. you failed to use random assignment to conditions. c. you did not have enough participants to conduct your study. d. you need to include another control condition to draw accurate conclusions. 31. A psychologist believes that music affects a person's mood. He has some participants listen to waltzes and others listen to military marches, then measures each participant's mood with a paper-and-pencil test. What are the independent and dependent variables? a. The waltz music is the independent variable and the military march music is the dependent variable. b. The type of music is the independent variable and the participant's mood is the dependent variable. c. The participant's mood is the independent variable and the type of music is the dependent variable. d. The participant's mood is the independent variable and the scores on the paper-andpencil test are the dependent variable. 32. You read in a health magazine that the more people drink and smoke, the greater the number of emotional problems they have. This relationship illustrates a. cause and effect. b. a zero correlation. c. a positive correlation. d. a negative correlation.

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33. After you present your excuse for missing class, your instructor tells you that she has found that the more classes students miss, the lower their test grades tend to be. This relationship illustrates a(n) a. expectancy effect. b. positive correlation. c. negative correlation. d. correlation coefficient. 34. You are about to take your first test in an introductory psychology class. Much to your surprise, the instructor hands you a test that contains ten analytical geometry problems. You would probably be able to argue that the test is not a. valid. b. reliable. c. accurate. d. reliable or valid. 35. Suppose you were interested in the kinds of movies your friends like to watch. You develop a simple questionnaire that asks them about their attitudes toward different film genres and then record which films they actually attend. This measurement technique is best described as a. self-report measures. b. behavioral observations. c. naturalistic observations. d. a combination of self-report and behavioral observations. 36. A classmate informs you that, while conducting a naturalistic observation study of children's play behavior, she had to ask the children to limit their play activity to only one area in the playground in order to make more accurate observations. Being familiar with observational methods, you should tell her that her study did not involve naturalistic observation because a. her study took place in a public setting. b. the play behavior was not naturally occurring. c. only one observation was made of the children's play behavior. d. naturalistic observational studies cannot be conducted with humans. 37. A clinical psychologist is working with the Federal Bureau of Investigation to develop an understanding of serial killers. She decides to focus her attention and measurements on a particularly brutal murderer who is serving a life sentence. Her approach is referred to as a a. case study. b. representative sample. c. within-subjects design. d. naturalistic observation. 38. Imagine that you have agreed to participate in psychological research. Prior to the study, you will be given information about what you can expect and other details of the research, and asked to sign a form indicating your willingness to participate. This process is known as a. debriefing. b. informed consent. c. risk/gain assessment. d. intentional deception.

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39. At the end of a research study, participants must be provided with as much information about the study as possible and any emotional or psychological problems must be addressed. This process is formally known as a. debriefing. b. informed consent. c. risk/gain assessment. d. unintentional deception. 40. To become a more sophisticated and critical thinker one should a. remember that correlation is the same as causation. b. accept obvious explanations rather than seeking alternatives. c. avoid being concerned with operational definitions of concepts. d. consider first how to disprove a theory before seeking confirming evidence. 41. According to the theory of natural selection, a. organisms prefer natural environments to artificial habitats. b. each organism has the ability to choose which of nature's laws it will follow. c. organisms that are well adapted to their environment will produce more offspring. d. organisms that are well adapted to their environment will produce fewer offspring. 42. As you enter a crowded room, you catch a glimpse of your friend's dark hair and slim frame. What you are noticing most directly are aspects of your friend's a. genotype. b. phenotype. c. adaptations. d. selective advantage. 43. Imagine, for a moment, that you are a finch and that you live in an environment in which seeds of all types are plentiful. Under these circumstances, the size of your beak would a. be irrelevant to your survival. b. enhance your chances of survival. c. detract from your chances of survival. d. enhance your chances of survival, but not your offspring's chances. 44. While surfing the web, you stop at an anthropology website. There, you learn that natural selection favored two major adaptations in the evolution of the human species: a. fire and the wheel. b. reading and writing. c. language and emotion. d. bipedalism and encephalization. 45. Your genetics professor has asked you to simplify the process of natural selection into a sequence of steps. Which of the following will your professor agree is the correct sequence? a. competition for resources, reproductive success, frequency of genotype increases, selection of fittest genotype, environmental pressure b. reproductive success, competition for resources, frequency of genotype increases, environmental pressure, selection of fittest genotype c. selection of fittest genotype, competition for resources, environmental pressure, reproductive success, frequency of that genotype increases d. environmental pressure, competition for resources, selection of fittest genotype, reproductive success, frequency of genotype increases

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46. Imagine traveling back in time to the seventeenth century. A French philosopher by the name of Descartes has proposed the radical idea that a. all animals have spirits. b. the human body is an "animal machine." c. humans are no more intelligent than animals. d. human action cannot be understood by using scientific means. 47. The children in a classroom are playing the role of different parts of a neuron and arranging themselves in the order that information follows as it passes along the neuron. Beginning with incoming signals, the correct order is a. dendrites, soma, axon, terminal buttons. b. axon, dendrites, soma, terminal buttons. c. terminal buttons, soma, dendrites, axon. d. soma, terminal buttons, axon, dendrites. 48. Imagine that you have gone to the garden to pick a rose. Unfortunately, when reaching for a flower, your thumb encounters a thorn and you jerk your hand away. What is the order in which information is communicated, from the time of the prick through withdrawal of your hand and realization of pain? a. sensory neuron, brain, interneuron, motor neuron b. sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, brain c. motor neuron, interneuron, brain, sensory neuron d. brain, interneuron, sensory neuron, motor neuron 49. All the neurons of the brain and spinal cord make up the ________ nervous system. a. central b. somatic c. autonomic d. peripheral 50. You remember as a child seeing an insect buzzing on a flower and trying to catch it. You may also remember the pain and your hand automatically jerking away. Although you didn't know it at the time, your reflexive withdrawal was controlled by your a. brain. b. spinal cord. c. frontal lobe. d. autonomic nervous system. 51. Involvement of the brain is not necessary for a person to a. shake someone else's hand. b. pull his or her hand from a hot stove. c. imagine what it feels like to be paralyzed. d. feel the difference between velvet and sandpaper. 52. In the middle of the night, you hear two loud thumps outside your bedroom door. Your ________ nervous system increases your heart rate and sends blood away from internal organs to your muscles, preparing you for "fight or flight." When you learn it is just your roommate coming in late, your ________ nervous system slows down your heart rate and calms you down. a. peripheral; somatic b. somatic; peripheral c. sympathetic; parasympathetic d. parasympathetic; sympathetic

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53. A student is walking through an exhibit at the science museum entitled "The Living Brain." The exhibit takes her from the outer layers of the brain to its deepest recesses. What is the route she will follow? a. cerebrum, limbic system, brain stem b. brain stem, limbic system, cerebrum c. limbic system, cerebrum, brain stem d. cerebrum, brain stem, limbic system 54. You are working with a friend to develop flash cards to help your study of brain structures and their functions. Your friend remembers correctly that the ________ is involved primarily in autonomic processes such as heart rate and breathing, and you remember that the ________ is involved in motivation, emotion and memory processes. a. cerebrum; cerebral cortex b. brain stem; limbic system c. limbic system; brain stem d. cerebral cortex; brain stem 55. In the brain, the ________ and its surface layer, the ________, integrates sensory information, coordinates your movements, and facilitates abstract thinking and reasoning. a. cerebrum; cerebral cortex b. cerebral cortex; cerebrum c. cerebellum; cerebral cortex d. cerebral cortex; cerebellum 56. While discussing the functions of the brain stem, the lecturer notices that many of his students appear to have fallen asleep. This reminds him of the ________, which arouses the cerebral cortex to attend to new stimulation and keeps the brain alert even during sleep. a. pons b. medulla c. cerebellum d. reticular formation 57. A doctor on television is discussing the curious case of G.R., a patient who has suffered damage to his brain. G.R. believes that it is still 1970 and that the last Olympic games were held in Mexico in 1968, even though it is now the 21st century. Before the doctor divulges the part of the brain that is damaged in this individual, you predict that it is the a. thalamus. b. hypothalamus. c. hippocampus. d. medulla. 58. A woman is a hypochondriac. She is always reading medical journals and is constantly experiencing imagined symptoms of medical problems. Lately, she has been gaining a lot of weight, and feels that her internal physiological processes are out of balance. She is most likely to conclude that she has suffered brain damage to her a. amygdala. b. thalamus. c. hypothalamus. d. parietal lobe.

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59. While going for the ball in the soccer league championship, a player slips and hits the back of his head so hard that he "sees stars." Which lobe of the brain was stimulated when he hit his head? a. frontal b. temporal c. parietal d. occipital 60. If we can apply Mark Rosenzweig's research on rats raised in impoverished or enriched environments to humans, then we would encourage humans to live in a. an environment that is deprived of unnecessary stimulation. b. an environment that is full of stimulation when children, but not when adults. c. an enriched environment even after childhood. d. a stressful environment in order to strengthen the functioning of the hippocampus. 61. All of the following are critical elements that define learning EXCEPT for which one? a. Change in behavior must be relatively consistent. b. Change in behavior must be permanent c. Change in behavior must be based on experience. d. Change can occur in behavior or in behavior potential. 62. A child is bitten by a dog while delivering a newspaper to a house. The next day when he sees the house he feels anxious, even though the dog is nowhere in sight. The CS in this case is the a. barking dog. b. pain the child feels when bitten by the dog. c. pain the child feels when remembering being bitten by the dog. d. sight of the house. 63. A new dog owner is trying to use classical conditioning to train her dog to blink whenever she says "Blink." She blows into his eyes, then says "Blink," but the dog is not learning to blink at her command. To improve her training technique, she should a. not say "Blink" until after the dog has blinked. b. say "Blink" before blowing into the dog's eyes. c. say "Blink" without blowing into the dog's eyes. d. give the dog a treat whenever he blinks. 64. A girl classically conditions her dog to blink by blowing into her dog's eyes just after saying "Blink." Unfortunately, her parrot overhears the procedure, and says "Blink" all day long when the girl is out. When she returns, the girl says "Blink" to her dog, but he does not blink. It appears as though a. the dog is now under the parrot's control. b. spontaneous recovery has occurred. c. the dog's behavior has generalized. d. extinction has taken place. 65. A girl has been hit by the school bully and is afraid to go to school. During summer recess her fear of going to school decreases and she is eager to go back. However, the first day back to school her fear returns once again. The reappearance of her fear is an example of a. savings. b. extinction. c. stimulus generalization. d. spontaneous recovery.

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66. A friend has taught her dog to bark whenever she says "Speak." Now, she wants to teach him a new trick by saying "Sit." But he barks whenever she says "Sit." The dog's behavior is an example of a. spontaneous recovery. b. stimulus generalization. c. stimulus discrimination. d. extinction. 67. The results of Robert Rescorla's research on the importance of contingency in classical conditioning are analogous to the real-world situation in which people a. ignore car alarms because they are not dependable predictors of burglary attempts. b. enter a door that says "no admittance" if they see others using the door. c. predict weather based on idiosyncratic physiological states or hunches. d. believe the predictions of horoscopes because they are based on random events. 68. After Watson and Rayner established conditioned fear in Little Albert, they found that a. his fear generalized to other furry objects. b. he had developed strong masochistic tendencies. c. it was fairly easy to remove the experimentally conditioned fear. d. he had only been pretending to be afraid. 69. A drug addict always "shoots up" at his girlfriend's house. On the day that they break up, he injects himself with his usual dose of heroin, but this time it is in his own home. Based on the research findings of Shepard Siegel, the addict a. is more likely to overdose. b. is less likely to overdose. c. will experience effects no different than before. d. will become less addicted. 70. All of the following behaviors are instances of operants EXCEPT for which one? a. A pigeon pecks a key to receive a food reinforcer. b. Ted raises his hand in class and waits to be called. c. Baby Terri coos in order to be picked up by mom. d. Jim blinks in response to the flash of the camera. 71. Which of the following statements is an example of a reinforcement contingency? a. A child's mother will give him what he wants, but only if he says "please." b. When a door is closed, you should knock before entering. c. Hot dogs and peanuts go together, because both are sold at baseball games. d. If the recipe says to preheat the oven, you should turn it on before mixing the ingredients. 72. Covering your ears when you find yourself in a room that is too noisy is an example of ________ conditioning; wearing earplugs that reduce sound intensity before going into a room that you know will be too noisy is an example of ________ conditioning. a. escape; avoidance b. avoidance; escape c. operant; classical d. classical; operant 73. A youngster finds that whenever he cries, he receives attention from his mom. So he cries a lot more in order to receive attention. Technically, the attention he receives is a. a negative reinforcer. b. a positive reinforcer. c. a negative punisher. d. neither a reinforcer nor a punisher.

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74. A boy runs on an icy sidewalk, slips, and falls. In the future, he no longer runs on icy sidewalks. His getting hurt is an example of a. positive reinforcement. b. negative reinforcement. c. positive punishment. d. negative punishment. 75. A boy is sent to his room and is not allowed to watch television with the rest of the family until he can do so without yelling and jumping in the living room. When he returns to the living room, he sits down quietly. The boy's change in behavior is an illustration of a. positive reinforcement. b. positive punishment. c. negative reinforcement. d. negative punishment. 76. The parents are trying to get their three-year-old daughter to go to bed without fussing, but sometimes they give in to her tears and let her stay up later. On the basis of the partial reinforcement effect, it can be expected that the child's fussing will a. be difficult to stop. b. be easy to stop. c. disappear for a while, but then reappear. d. develop into a discriminative stimulus. 77. Imagine being quizzed by your teacher on schedules of reinforcement. You are asked to name the schedule that generates the highest rate of responding and the greatest resistance to extinction. You are told further that gamblers are often under the control of this schedule. You should respond that this describes a ________ schedule of reinforcement. a. fixed-interval b. fixed-ratio c. variable-interval d. variable-ratio 78. A boy is teaching his younger sister how to make her bed. At first, he tells her she did a good job if she gets the bedspread pulled up, even if the sheets are still rumpled. Each following day, he encourages her to be a little neater before telling her she did a good job. The boy may not know it, but he is using a. secondary reinforcement. b. primary reinforcement. c. a fixed-interval schedule. d. shaping by successive approximations. 79. Unlike most other instances of classical conditioning, taste aversion a. requires many CS-UCS pairings. b. is easy to extinguish. c. does not involve a CS-UCS association. d. can be learned with a long delay between CS and illness. 80. In a study by Lazareva and colleagues that is described in the textbook, pigeons were presented with photographs of people, flowers, cars, and chairs, and were taught to respond by pecking keys of different colors. This research was important because it demonstrated that the pigeons a. were capable of categorizing objects in different ways. b. were responding exclusively on the basis of perceptual similarity. c. showed marked preferences for people in their response choices. d. could learn a complex task by applying blind trial-and-error solutions.

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81. On their way to their 25th high school reunion, a husband asks his wife if she can remember the name of the "class clown" the year that they graduated. This best illustrates a. the partial-report procedure. b. the savings method. c. procedural memory. d. an explicit use of memory. 82. The professor has become so good at reviewing students' papers that spelling errors just seem to jump out at him. This best illustrates a. the savings method. b. iconic memory. c. an explicit use of memory. d. an implicit use of memory. 83. After waking from a nap, a student rides his bike to the library, where he studies for his test and then talks with some friends. The activity that is most closely related to his procedural memory is a. talking with his friends. b. studying for his test. c. napping. d. riding his bike. 84. Being able to use knowledge at some later time requires the operation of three mental processes. Which of the following is NOT considered to be one of these processes? a. encoding b. recoding c. storage d. retrieval 85. A student has taken a summer job answering telephone calls for sales orders. He quickly learns that it is pretty easy to remember a customer's five-digit ZIP code and seven-digit phone number, but it is much more difficult to keep track of a sixteen-digit credit card number. According to the conclusions of researcher George Miller, the student is having trouble with longer strings of numbers because a. the capacity of sensory memory is quite limited. b. memory span covers only five to nine items. c. memory span does not exist. d. the information is staying in his sensory memory. 86. A father has sent his daughter to the grocery store. As his daughter leaves, the father can hear her repeating, "a dozen eggs and a loaf of bread" over and over again. The daughter obviously is engaged in a. episodic memory. b. elaborative rehearsal. c. chunking. d. maintenance rehearsal. 87. If someone were to ask you how many windows there are in your house, you might form a mental picture of your house in order to answer the question. According to the view suggested by Alan Baddeley, the ________ component of working memory would be used to form the mental image. a. central executive b. navigational pilot c. visuospatial sketchpad d. phonological loop

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88. Deciding which portions of a psychology lecture to pay attention to is part of the ________ component of working memory. a. phonological loop b. navigational pilot c. visuospatial sketchpad d. central executive 89. The multiple-choice test that you are taking now requires that you ________ the relevant information. The essay test that you will take in your History of Civilization class places more emphasis on your ability to ________ the relevant information. a. recognize; recall b. recall; recognize c. recall; recall d. recognize; recognize 90. Now middle-aged, a man can still remember his exploits on the football field when he was in high school and he is more than willing to discuss these memories with his children. The information that is the basis for his recollection is part of his ________ memory. a. semantic b. procedural c. sensory d. episodic 91. Over his lifetime, a physicist has learned a lot of mathematical equations and facts. This information is stored primarily in his ________ memory. a. semantic b. procedural c. episodic d. sensory 92. In a study that is mentioned in the textbook, scuba divers learned lists of words while they were either on a beach or under water. When tested for retention of those words, the divers did better recalling the words learned if they did so while they were a. under water. b. on the beach. c. under water, when the words had been learned under water. d. under water, even when the words had been learned on the beach. 93. As preparation for a test, a student reads the textbook chapter. Later, while going over the material with his study group, he seems to recall the material at both the beginning and the end of the chapter, but he remembers little from the middle. This illustrates what psychologists call the ________ effect. a. primacy b. recency c. contextual distinctiveness d. serial position 94. Researchers of implicit memory have investigated the relationship between encoding and retrieval by using priming based on physical features or meaning. They have concluded that a. physical priming works best. b. priming works best with fragment completion tasks. c. the form of priming that works best is independent of how information is initially encoded. d. priming works best when processes at encoding and retrieval match.

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95. Which of the following is an example of proactive interference? a. You call your new boyfriend by your old boyfriend's name. b. You call your old girlfriend by your new girlfriend's name. c. After learning Spanish, you find it difficult to remember your previously-learned Italian verbs. d. After learning how to play racquetball, you find your old squash stroke is ruined. 96. An actor is using the method of loci to help him remember his lines for a play. This method emphasizes the use of a. sound associations. b. rhymes. c. stories. d. familiar locations. 97. In trying to prepare for an exam, you form visual images, making stories that use concepts in creative ways. You are actually engaging in a. encoding specificity. b. metamemory. c. chunking. d. elaborative rehearsal. 98. A child thinks of a restaurant as a place where you go when you are hungry, where you order your food at a counter, mommy pays for it before you get it, and where you play in the playground after eating. This child's mental representation of a restaurant, which is likely to change as she gets older, is an example of a(n) a. schema. b. engram. c. prototype. d. memory hierarchy. 99. In a study by Elizabeth Loftus and her colleagues on eyewitness memory, participants were shown a film of a car accident. When tested a week later, it was found that the participant's memory of whether they had seen broken glass after an accident was most influenced by a. whether they had seen pictures of the accident. b. being asked which car had a broken window. c. the words used to describe the impact of the two cars. d. the reports given by other eyewitnesses. 100. Your grandfather seems particularly good at recalling many of the colors and smells associated with his childhood experiences. The part of the brain responsible for these memories is the a. cerebellum. b. striatum. c. cerebral cortex. d. amygdala.

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