PSYC 354 Homework 4
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Sampling and Probability
When submitting this file, be sure the filename includes your full name, course and section. Example: HW4_JohnDoe_354B01
Be sure you have reviewed this module/week’s lesson and presentations along with the practice
data analysis before proceeding to the homework exercises. Complete all analyses in SPSS, then copy and paste your output and graphs into your homework document file. Answer any written questions (such as the text-based questions or the APA Participants section) in the appropriate place within the same file.
Questions 1–15
Part I: Concepts
These questions are based on the Nolan and Heinzen reading and end-of-chapter questions.
Questions 1-10
Fill in the highlighted blanks to answer/complete the statements.
1) A(n) random sample occurs when everyone in the population has the same chance of being selected.
2) The ability to apply research findings to contexts or samples other than the one studied is called generalizability.
3) The duplication of the results of a research study in a different context or with a different sample is called replication.
4) Your own estimate of the likelihood that you will uphold your New Year's resolution is known as a(n) personal probability.
5) Expected relative-frequency probability is computed as the number of successes divided by the number of trials.
6) The experimental group is the group receiving the intervention or treatment of interest.
7) A statement that 2 populations are different from one another is a(n) research hypothesis.
8) If you find that the groups you studied differed from each other more than would be expected by chance alone, you reject the null hypothesis.
9) When you reject the null hypothesis but the null hypothesis is in fact true, you have made a(n) Type I error.
10) When you fail to reject the null hypothesis but the null hypothesis is false, you have made a(n) Type II error.
Question 11
Researchers were interested in whether touch therapy improves the weight gain of preterm infants and
compared the weight gain over a 3-week period of infants receiving touch therapy to the weight gain of infants not receiving touch therapy.
11-a) What is the likely null hypothesis for this experiment?
Touch therapy does not improve the weight gain of preterm infants.
11-b) What is the likely research hypothesis for this experiment?
Touch therapy does improve the weight gain of preterm infants.
Question 12-15
Complete the Nolan and Heinzen end-of-chapter Exercises 5.26, 5.27, 5.28, and 5.29.
12) Exercises 5.26
71/489=0.1452
13) Exercises 5.27
8/266=0.0301
14) Exercises 5.28
a)
1.73%
b)
80%
c)
37.19%
15) Exercises 5.29
a)
0.627
b)
0.003
c)
0.042
Part II & Part III
There is no new SPSS material this module/week. No questions for Part II or III
.
Part IV: Cumulative
Data provided below for Questions 1 and 2.
Grade Part IV: Questions 1a-1b
The final grades for students in a freshman seminar are shown in the left-hand column. Enter the data into a new SPSS data file.
• Create the appropriate SPSS graph to show the distribution of students’ grades.
• Compute descriptive statistics for this data.
• Which measure of central tendency would you use to describe this data?
• Why?
99.00
93.00
89.00
86.00
82.00
79.00
78.00
76.00
75.00
75.00
73.00
72.00
69.00
65.00
63.00
55.00
50.00
1-a) Create the appropriate SPSS graph to show the distribution of students’ grades.
Page 3 of 6
Answer:
1-b) Compute descriptive statistics for this data.
Which measure of central tendency would you use to describe this data? Why?
Page 4 of 6
Answer:
Descriptives
Statistic
Std. Error
Mean
95% Confidence Interval for Lower Bound
Mean Upper Bound
5% Trimmed Mean
Median
Variance
Grade Std. Deviation Minimum Maximum Range
Interquartile Range
Skewness
Kurtosis
75.24
3.097
68.67
81.80
75.32
75.00
163.066
12.770
50
99
49
17
-.146
.550
.037
1.063
Answer: Measure Of Central Tendency
Mean
Explanation/Justification:
You generally use the mean unless there are outliers or a small amount of observations. Neither is the case for this. Also, the mean and median are only 0.24 points different and the mode is the same as the median.
Page 5 of 6
Answer:
Explanation/Justification: You would use a bar graph because the independent variable is nominal and the dependent variable is scale.
2-b) What level of measurement (nom., ord., scale) is the variable “City”?
What level of measurement is the variable “Livability Rating”?
Nominal
Scale 2.b. ratings are ordinal (-2) – correction from professor
Submit Homework 4 by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 4. Remember to name file appropriately.

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