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psychiatry syndromes

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Syndromes in Psychiatry (BY DNB CET REVIEW TEAM)
Wernicke’s encephalopathy An acute reaction to severe thiamine deficiency mostly d/t chronic alcohol use. C/b ocular signs (nystagmus & external ophthalmoplagia) Higher mental function disturbance(disorientation, confusion, recent memory disturbances) Apathy & ataxia. Peripheral neuropathy & malnutrition may be co-existent. Korsakoff’s psychosis Also d/t severe thiamine deficiency d/t chronic alcohol use. C/b amnestic syndrome with gross memory disturbances, Confabulation. Insight often impaired. Marchiafava-Bignami syndrome A rare disorder most probably d/t alcohol-related nutritional deficiency. C/b disorientation, personality & intellectual deterioration, hallucinations, epilepsy, dysarthria, ataxia & spastic limb paralysis.

Holiday Heart Atrial or ventricular arrhythmias, especially paroxysmal tachycardia, after drinking a binge of alcohol in individuals showing no other evidence of heart disease. Hemp insanity (cannabis psychosis) Asso with cannabis. Acute schizophreniform disorder with disorientation & confusion. Good prognosis. Amotivational syndrome Lethargy, apathy, loss of interest, anergia, reduced drive & lack of ambition d/t chronic cannabis use. Van Gogh syndrome Dramatic self-mutilation occurring in schizophrenia. Pfropf schizophrenia A syndrome of schizophrenia occurring in presence of mental retardation. Oneiroid schizophrenia A subtype of schizophrenia with acute onset, clouding of consciousness, disorientation, dream-like states & perceptual disturbances with rapid shifting. Alice in Wonderland syndrome Perceptual distortion of shape, size, colour& reciprocal position of objects. seen with schizophrenia, migraine PAD syndrome Phobic-Anxiety-Depersonalization syndrome. Commoner in women 20-40 years. C/b diffuse anxiety, multiple phobias, panic attacks, depersonalization, derealization & depressive features. Othello syndrome (conjugal paranoia) A psychosis in which the content of delusions is predominantly jealousy (infidelity) involving spouse. Clerambault’s syndrome (erotomania) A psychosis in which the content of delusions is erotic. Most often in women with erotic conviction that a person with higher status is in love with the patient. Kadinsky-Clerambault’s syndrome A syndrome of mental automatism Folie a deux Induced delusional disorder c/b sharing of delusions b/w 2 persons. So is folie a trios, folie a quatre, folie a famille Capgras’ syndrome (delusion of doubles) C/b delusional conviction that other persons in environment are not their real selves but are their own doubles. There are 4 types 1. Typical Capgras’ syndrome(illusion des sosies)- pt sees a familiar person as a stranger who is

imposing as the familiar person. 2. Illusion de Fregoli pt falsely identifies strangers as familiar persons. 3. Syndrome of subjective doubles pt’s own self is perceived as being replaced by a double. 4. Intermetamorphosis pt’s misidentification is complete including both external appearance & personality. Fregoli’s phenomenon Delusion that a persecutor is taking on a variety of faces like an actor. Cotard’s syndrome Delusion that one has lost everything- possessions, strength & even bodily organs such as heart. Seen in severe depression where pt has extreme nihilistic delusion (e.g. may think that his bowels are rotting and he will never pass stools again) Ganser’s syndrome (hysterical pseudodementia) Commonly found in prison inmates. C/b vorbeireden- approximate answers- person understands nature of questions but answers wrong. La-Belle-Indifference Lack of concern towards symptoms despite apparent severity of disability produces. Seen in patients with conversion & dissociation disorder (hysteria). Briquet’s syndrome (Somatisation disorder) A chronic or recurrent illness with either a dramatic or complicated medical history. A pt with at least 25 unexplained medical symptoms for a diagnosis or with 20-25 unexplained symptoms for a probable diagnosis. Munchausen syndrome (Factitious disorder, Polysurgis, Professional patients, Hospital hoboes, Hospital addiction) Pt repeatedly simulates or fakes diseases for sole purpose of obtaining medical attention. Munchausen syndrome by proxy Pt intentionally produces physical signs & symptoms in another person who is under pt’s care. Charles bonnet syndrome phantom visual images

Ekbom syndrome (Restless Legs syndrome) Pt experiences extremely uncomfortable feeling in leg muscles during walking. Asso with insomnia. Gelineu’s syndrome Narcolepsy. Associated with hypersomnia. Pickwickian syndrome Sleep apnea commoner in elderly & obese persons, associated with hypersomnia. Kleine-Levin syndrome C/b hypersomnia, hyperphagia, hypersexuality

Clumsy Child syndrome (Motor dyspraxia, Motor skills disorder, Developmental coordination disorder) C/b poor coordination in daily activities of life. Idiot Savant syndrome Pervasive impairment of functions but certain islets of precocity or splinter functions may remain. Heller’s syndrome (Disintegrative psychosis) A type of childhood psychosis with age of onset 3-5 years. C/b rapid downhill course leading to deterioration & development of neurological deficits. Asperger’s syndrome Predominantly in boys. Less severe form of pervasive developmental disorder Autism without significant delay in language & cognitive development. schizoid personality pedantic speech preoccupation with obscure facts Rett’s syndrome Occurs in girls. After an apparently normal early development & normal head circumference at birth, there is deceleration of head growth b/w age of 5-30 months. Loss of purposive hand movements & acquired fine motor manipulative skills with subsequent development of stereotyped hand movements. Strauss syndrome Attention deficit hyperkinetic disorder, Minimal brain dysfunction, Organic drivenness. Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome C/b multiple motor tics Multiple vocal tics Duration of >1 year Kanner syndrome Failure to develop attachment with a parenteral figure & pre-occupation with inanimate objects. Culture-Bound Syndromes are as follows Dhat syndrome A culture-bound syndrome prevalent in Indian subcontinent. C/b complaint of passage of ‘dhat’ in urine. Multiple somatic symptoms. Asthenia May be anxiety, depression or sexual dysfunction associated. Koro Prevalent in Asia including India. Affected male pt believes that his penis is shrinking & may disappear into his abdominal wall & he may die. Females affected infrequently, believing that their breasts & vulva are shrinking.

Amok Prevalent in South-East Asia. C/b sudden, unprovoked episode of rage in which affected person runs about & indiscriminately injures or kills any person who in encountered on the way. Latah (Startle reaction) Prevalent in South-East Asia & Japan. More in women, c/b automatic obedience, echolalia & echopraxia. Windigo (Wihtigo) Prevalent in native American Indians. Pt believes that he has been transformed into a wihtigo, a cannibal monster, occurring especially during times of starvation. Shinkeishitsu A defense syndrome, mainly of anxiety but with obsessive features occurring in young Japanese thrown into a modern industrial society for which they are not equipped. They feel inadequate, lost & unloved. Susto Occurs in Latin America. Pt believes that his body is entered by a magical substance & that he is altered. It takes on a delusional quality. Piblokto (Arctic Hysteria) Occurs in Askimos. Often female, who screams & tears off her clothes, throw herself on ice in extremely cold conditions. She may imitate the cry of a bird or an animal. The episode lasting for 1-2 hours, f/b amnesia of events.

COUVADE's Syndrome: Seen in husbands of pregnant women. the prospective father develops symptoms similar to pregnancy & symptoms r relieved by delivery. STOLKHOLM Syndrome: Identification with the aggressor usually seen in kidnap victims who try to protect their kidnappers. JACTATIO CAPITIS NOCTURNA: Nocturnal head banging DEJA VU: Recognition of events that are in fact new JAMAIS VU: Opposite of Deja vu where patient fails to recognise events that have occured before

SYNDROMES ASSOCIATED WITH TREATMENT OF PSYCHIATRIC CONDITIONS SUNDOWNER SYNDROME: Drowziness, confusion, ataxia, accidental falls, in older patients who are over sedated & in old patients with Dementia who react adversly to even small dose of psychoactive drug. It also occurs in demented patients when external stimuli such as light & interpersonal

orienting cues are diminishd. Most commonly occurs as result of Rx with BZD's RABBIT SYNDROME: Extra pyramidal side effect of chronic anti-psychotic treatment. Rapid & regular perioral tremors like chewing movements, tongue & other body parts not involved. NEUROLEPT MALIGNANT SYNDROME: EPS. Hyperthermia, severe muscular rigidity, autonomic instability, changes in mental status, increased CPK, liver transaminase, leucocyte function, myoglobinuria ANTI-CHOLINERGIC SYNDROME: Phenothiazines, TCAD's, Anti-Parkinson drugs all have anticholinergic properties, when these r administered in combination patient shows evidence of organic brain syndrome including difficulty in concentration, impaired short term memory, disorientation, dry SKIN due to inhibition of sweating, more noticable at night. SSRI DISCONTINUATION SYNDROME: Abrupt discontinuation of SSRI causes dizziness, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, flu-like symptoms, sensory & sleep disturbances, irritability, anxiety, crying spells. SSRI's with short half life like Paroxetine & Sertraline more likely causes SEROTONIN SYNDROME: Abdominal pain, Diarrhoea, excessive sweating, fever, tachycardia, hypertension, alteration of mental status including delirium, myoclonus, increased motor activity, mood changes Severe cases may show hyperpyrexia, shock & death. It is due to overactivity of serotoninergic receptors by excess of serotonin due to combination of MAO, SSRI or TCAD. DA COSTA's SYNDROME: Irritable heart syndrome. has as many as 20 different names. Was seen first in soldiers of civil war. Chief complaints are all related to cardiac Pathology in which the subject has fear of a heart ailment which may progress to hypochondriasis & sometimes to circulatory neurasthenia Syndromes associated with dementia Alzheimer’s disease Pick’s disease Parkinson’s disease Shy-Drager syndrome (Multisystem degeneration) Huntington’s chorea Steel-Richardson syndrome (progressive Supranuclear palsy) Binswanger’s disease (subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy) Wilson’s disease Leigh’s disease Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease ALS-Parkinson’s-Dementia complex of Gaum Syndromes associated with mental retardation Down’s syndrome Turner’s syndrome Kleinfelter’s syndrome Cri du chat syndrome

Fragile X syndrome Hartnup’s disease Tay-Sachs disease Gaucher’s disease Niemann-Pick disease Lesch Nyhan syndrome Hurler’s disease Hunter’s disease Sanfillipo’s disease Renpenning’s syndrome Sturge-Weber syndrome Crouzon’s syndrome Apert’s syndrome De Lange syndrome (Amsterdam dwarfism)

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