Department of Business Administration Rosary College of Commerce & Arts 2011-2014
To ensure proper rehabilitation, a benchmark survey .The survey includes socio-economic survey, sociocultural survey and infrastructure survey to fix up the benchmark, which is to be improved upon after relocation. The Resettlement & Rehabilitation Action Plan is being prepared for the project and placed before the Rehabilitation and Periphery Development Advisory Committee (RPDAC) of the project for approval. The RPDAC is constituted by the Government in order to encourage participation of displaced people and their elected representatives in implementation and monitoring of the provisions of R&R Policy. The RPDAC is also responsible for overseeing and monitoring periphery development. The RPDAC approves the Resettlement & Rehabilitation plan along with the list of the displaced persons affected persons and recommend it to the Govt. for sanction of the Rehabilitation Assistance. During the process of rehabilitation, preference is given to land based rehabilitation as far as practicable. However, the ousted are thoroughly consulted and options are taken from them regarding the mode of rehabilitation i.e. land based or cash based. In cash-based rehabilitation, the displaced families are motivated to purchase productive assets. For better livelihood restoration, skill development trainings are being arranged for the ousted, taking into consideration their aptitude, qualification and their experience in sectors like Agriculture -Horticulture, reservoir fisheries, dairy and other trades like light/heavy vehicle driving, computer operation, and tailoring, etc.
The Displaced families are resettled either in a resettlement colony or in a chosen place of their own which is often called “self resettlement”. When they resettle on their own and ten or more families choose to live in close neighbourhood the place is termed as a “resettlement cluster”. With revenue surplus land becoming scarce the numbers of resettlement clusters are in rise. While resettling the displaced families in a colony or cluster care is being taken to restore their livelihood, socio-cultural identity, cultural practices and social customs. Efforts are also being made to preserve archaeological sites/monuments at their new place of relocation. Special attention is paid to develop good host and guest relationship. Besides, civic amenities are provided for a decent community living. To ensure proper resettlement, a socio-cultural survey is being meticulously done in all the ongoing irrigation Projects as Prescribed in the R&R Policy- 2006. The infrastructure survey ensures that the lost community infrastructures are replaced in the new place of relocation. To improve the quality
of lives, better infrastructural facilities in the shape of roads, electricity, drinking water, and deep bore well, ponds, schools, panchayat ghar, anganwadi centre etc. are provided after thorough discussion and active participation of the displaced families. In some cases additional infrastructure is also provided in host villages to ease out the pressure on existing infrastructure and natural resources. This helps to maintain cordial relationship between the oustees and the host population of late, proper lay out of the colonies is being done with the help of architects who finalizes the lay out plan in consultation with the displaced persons.
Resettlement and rehabilitation
People are forced to move out of their land due to both natural a nd man made disasters. Natural disasters like earthquakes, cyclones, tsunami etc. render thousands of people homeless and sometime even force them to move and resettle in other areas. Similarly, developmental projects like construction of roads, dams, canals and flyovers displace people form their home. You must all be aware of the recent nuclear leakage in Japan due to which millions of people were forced to leave the area for their safety. Thus, resettlement refer to the process of settling again in a new area. Rehabilitation means restoration to the former state. Reasons for displacement of people
Natural disasters like earthquake, cyclones, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, prolonged droughts conditions, floods, hurricanes etc.
Manmade disasters like industrial accidents ( e.g. Bhopal gas tragedy), nuclear accidents( Current disaster in Japan), oil spills( Exxon Valdez oil spill), toxic contamination of sites etc.
In search of better employment opportunities.
Developmental projects like:
Construction of dams, irrigation canals, reservoirs etc.
Infrastructural projects like flyovers, bridges, roads etc.
Transportation activities like roads, highway, canal etc.
Energy related project like power plants, oil exploration, mining activities, pipelines like HBJ pipeline etc.
Projects related with the conservation of wildlife like national parks, sanctuaries and biosphere reserves.
As per the World Bank estimates, nearly 10 lakh people are displaced worldwide for a variety of reasons. I have tried to mention a few of the sufferings that these people have to face but we are unable to feel for them:
Loss of livelihood: Displacement is not a simple incident in the lives of the displaced people. They have to leave their ancestral land and forests on which they depend for their livelihood. Many of them have no skills to take up another activity or pick up any other occupation. Usually, the new land that is offered to them is of poor quality and the refugees are unable to make a living.
Lack of facilities: When people are resettled in a new area, basic infrastructure and amenities are not provided in that area. Very often, temporary camps become permanent settlements. It is also a major problem of displacement or resettlement that people have to face.
Increase in health problems: Lack of nutrition due to the loss of agriculture and forest based livelihood, lead to the general decline in the health of the people. People are used to traditional home remedies. But th herbal remedies and plants gets submerged due to the developmental projects.
Secondary displacement: Occupational groups residing outside the submergence area but depending on the area for the livelihood also experience unemployment. Village artisans, petty traders, laborers etc, lose their living.
Loss of identity: Tribal life is community based. The tribal are simple people who have a lifestyle of their own. Displacement have a negative impact on their livelihood, culture and spiritual existence in the following ways:
Inter-community marriages, cultural functions, folk songs and dances do not take place among the displaced people. When they are resettled, it is generally individual based resettlement, which ignores communal character.
Resettlement increases the poverty of the tribal due to the loss of land, livelihood,
food insecurity, jobs, skills etc.
Loss of identity of individuals and the loss of connection between the people and the environment is the greatest loss in the process. The indigenous knowledge that they have regarding the wildlife and the herbal plants are lost.
The land acquisition laws do not pay attention to the idea of communal ownership of property which increases stress within the family.
The tribal people are not familiar with the market trends, prices of commodities and policies. As such, they are exploited and get alienated in the modern era. My mother often says about the plight of people from Nepal who came newly to the city of Gangtok. Earlier, when they demanded four meters cloth piece, the shopkeeper used to measure the same from all the four sides of the piece. Actually it was only one meter in length but they used to charge the priced of four meter cloth.
Objectives of rehabilitation
The following objectives of rehabilitation should be kept in mind before the people are given an alternative site for living:
Tribal people should be allowed to live along the lives of their own patterns and others should avoid imposing anything on them.
They should be provided means to develop their own traditional art and culture in every way.
Villagers should be given the option of shifting out with others to enable them to live a community based life.
Removal of poverty should be one of the objectives of rehabilitation.
The people displaced should get an appropriate share in the fruits of the development. I should say that it is really a good move by ISC to share its profits among the active contributors.
The displaced people should be given employment opportunities.
Resettlement should be in the neighborhood of their own environment.
If resettlement is not possible in the neighbor area, priority should be given to the development of the irrigation facilities and supply of basic inputs for agriculture,
drinking water, wells, grazing ground for the cattle, schools for the children, primary healthcare units and other amenities.
Villagers should be taken into confidence at every stage of implementation of the displacement and they should be educated, through public meetings, discussion about the legalities of the Land Acquisition act and other rehabilitation provisions.
The elderly people of the village should be involved in the decision making.
Examples of resettlement and rehabilitation Displacement due to dams
India has been constructing dams and other hydel projects.In the last 50 years, 20 million people have been affected by the construction of such projects. The Hirakud dam displaced about 20000 people living in about 250 villages. The Bhakra Nangal dam was constructed around 1950's and displaced a number of people. Some of them could not be rehabilitated even today.
Displacement due to mining
Due to possibility of the accidents or sinking of the land, people have to displaced in and around the mining area. Mining take up several hectares of land thousands of people
Jharia coal fields posed problem years ago to the local residents due to the underground fire. Some 3 lakh people were to be shifted and it became a problem to find n alternative site. A huge amount of money to the tune of Rs 115 crores has been spent to put out the fire. Still the problem persists. Displacement in Japan due to nuclear crisis
You must all be aware of the current nuclear crisis in Japan where there was an explosion in three of the major reactors of Fukushima city due to tsunami. Currently, more than 2,00,000 people have been displaced form their native place and yet many are unable to find an alternative home. People were evacuated to protect them for the possible nuclear hazard and exposure. They are suffering from acute hunger as all the food supply was interrupted due to contamination of food particles by radiation.
Resettlement and Rehabilitation of People Affecting the Ecosystem
The industrial and urban development projects such as power plant, oil refineries, fertilizers, chemical industries, river valley projects, dams, reservoirs and mining etc. are the major causes for displacement of people from their well established living places. For this purpose, the govt, has introduced the land Acquisition Act, 1894, which empowers it to serve notice to the people to vacate their lands if required for the govt, planning. Provision of cash compensation in lieu of the land vacated exists in section 16 of the act. The United Nations Universal Declaration on Human Right (Article 25 (I)) has declared that right to housing is a basic human right. The involuntary movement of the residents from one place to another for resettlement gives rise to a variety of problems which may be social, economical and of other types. They are as follows: Social Problems
1. Disturbances in the social structure 2. Breakage of community structures. 3. Dispersal of kith and kins 4. Weakening of traditions. 5. Loss of cultural identity. 6. Inter-relationship and potential for mutual fraternit y is diminished. Economical Problems
(1) Income sources are shattered and ruined. (2) Families face long-term hardships. (3) Search of new jobs requires time.
Educational, Psychological and Environmental
a. Education of children gets interrupted. b. Joint families are separated which affects different members of the family, differently. c. Resettlement in the newer environment affects the mental and physical skill of the individual. d. People face greater problems of availing recourses due to competition in the relocated environment.
Resettlement and Rehabilitation (R&R) Policy
The World Bank was the first multilateral lending agency to adopt a policy for Resettlement and Rehabilitation (R&R). The Bank's present policy is contained in the document "Involuntary Resettlement," Operational Directive (OD) 4.30, adopted June 1990. OD 4.30 broadens the treatment of resettlement issues beyond hydropower and irrigation projects to all types of investment operations. It emphasizes the need for:
Minimizing involuntary resettlement;
Providing people displaced by a project with the means to improve, or at least restore, their former living standards, earning capacity, and production levels;
Involving both resettler ’s and hosts in resettlement activities;
A time-bound resettlement plan; and
Valuation and compensation principles for land and other assets affected by the project.