Answering some misconceptions of Shia Creed of Islam.
In the Name of Allah (swt), The All-compassionate, The All-merciful Praise belongs to Allah (swt), the Lord of all being, the All-compassionate; the All-merciful; the Master of the Day of Judgment; Thee only, we serve, and to Thee alone we pray for succour; Guide us in the straight path; the path of those whom Thou hast blessed, not of those against whom Thou art wrathful, nor of those who are astray. O' Allah (swt)! send your blessings to the head of your messengers and the last of your prophets, Muhammad and his pure and cleansed progeny. Also send your blessings to all your prophets and envoys.
Shia Islam Misunderstood
Introduction Brief History on Shi‘i Islam Important Events o Ghadir Khum
o The Calamity of Thursday o Fadak in History Shia Misconceptions o Are Shia Considered Muslims? o Different Qur‘an (God Forbid) o Ali is God (God Forbid) o Gabriel‘s Mistake (God Forbid) o Abdullah ibn Saba' Status of Prophets and Imams Combining of Prayers and Turbah Mut‘ah Taqiyyah Tombs and Grave Worshipping Intercession
Sallam Alykum, Thank you for your question, InshAllah I will be able to answer it with the best of my abilities. I by no means have the knowledge of our Muslim scholars nor anything near it but I will attempt to bring a satisfying answer using various sources including lectures, books, and websites which I will also provide sources for at the end of each chapter. I will try not to provide answers from myself but rather will compile answers from various sources and present it in a simplified way. May you forgive me for taking a long time to answer – I wanted to be sure that you will get a decent answer, InshAllah. You wanted to know the truth about Shia Islam and why there are many misunderstandings surrounding this sect of Islam. Please understand that this question of yours could easily be turned into volumes of books so forgive me again if not enough details are given – InshAllah if you are interested you can read the books which I will provide below to further quench your thirst for knowledge and you can always visit my tumblr page where I usually post recommended books. Many non-Shia Muslims will criticize the Shia without ever meeting a Shia, nor discussing with one, or even reading any books written by Shia scholars. Many who misunderstand Shia Muslims have very little knowledge about us and many do not care enough to read about us and our ideas and views of Islam. Though this is wrong, when one seeks to learn about a specific topic (in this case Shia Islam) one must go to the direct sources (such as lectures by Shia scholars or books) and not by someone else who has little knowledge about us. When you want to learn about aero planes, you do not go ask a person who only knows about boats. So for a few moments, a person should cast aside everything they might have heard about the Shias and not be biased when learning about them. Ask Allah (swt) for guidance and clear proofs of Islam and to show you the way to correct path. Also keep in mind that the Ummah will not always have a consensus view of any one topic. For example, the pillar of Tawheed (Oneness of God), arguably the most important aspect of Islam is viewed differently from various sects. For example some say that in the afterlife you can physically see God while others might reject such a view. If the Ummah fails to agree on the most important thing in Islam, of course it will also disagree on many other aspects and thus the reason why I am even writing this. Though we should all be open minded and learn more about one another rather than criticize and hate. Throughout this work, I would be using Sunni hadeeths to show that practices and beliefs held by the Shia Creed can also be found in Sunni sources. The best way to prove Shia Islam as being a legitimate creed is to use sources from other schools of thoughts thus to stop people from criticizing the Shia for not being Islamic. I would like to also thank a friend of mine for providing me with resources which have been used throughout this answer, May Allah (swt) be pleased with this individual‘s work.
May Allah (swt) lead us and you and all Muslims to the right path, and He said in His Book: ―And (as for) those who strive hard for Us, We will most certainly guide them in Our ways, and Allah (swt) is most surely with the doers of good.‖ (Holy Quran 29:69)
Brief History on Shi‘i Islam
The term Shi'ah literally means follower in the Arabic language; followers of Imam Ali (as) (shi'ah-i ' Ali) and Ahlul Bayt (as) who are the followers of Prophet Muhammad (saw). Imam Ali (as) was under the guardianship of Prophet Muhammad (saw) during his childhood of around 8 years of age thus he learned from the absolute best creation of Allah (swt). Ali has said: ―At that time Islam had not reached any house except that of the Holy Prophet and Khadijah, and I was the third amongst them. I used to see the light of revelation and messengership and smelt the fragrance of prophethood". (Nahjul Balaghah, vol. II, pg. 182) During the early years of Muhammad‘s (saw) prophethood in which he was preaching in secret, Allah (swt) revealed this verse: ―And warn thy near relations (Holy Qur'an, 26:214) Abu Muhammad Husain al-Baghawi (in his Tafisir-Ma'alim ut-Tanzil), Shaikh 'Ala'uddin 'Ali ibn Muhammad al-Baghdadi, known as Khazin al-Baghdadi, in his Lubab-ut-Ta'wil, best known as Tafsir Khazin, Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Husain al-Bayhaqi (in his Dalail-unNubuwwah), Jalaluddin as-Suyuti (in his Jam'ul Jawami), 'Ala'uddin 'Ali Muttaqi (in Kanz-ul-'Ummal), Abu JaTer Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari (in Tarikh-ur-Rusul-walMuluk), Abu Sa'adat Mubarak ibn Athir al-Jazari (in Tarikh-ul-Kamil) and Isma'il Abul Fida (in his history, Kitab-ul-Mukhtasar fi Akhbar-il-Bashar) have quoted 'Ali as saying: "When the verse Wa andhir 'Ashiratakal-aqrabin was revealed, the noble Messenger called me and ordered me, 'O 'Ali! The Creator of the world has made me warn my people about their doom, but in view of the condition of the people and knowing that when I will give them the words of Allah (swt), they will misbehave, I felt depressed and weakened and therefore I kept quiet until Gabriel came again and informed me that there should be no more delay. Therefore, O 'Ali, take a measure of food grain, a leg of a goat and a big bowl of milk and arrange for a feast, then call the sons of 'Abdul Muttalib unto me, so that I may deliver to them the words of Allah (swt).' I did what the Prophet had told me to do and the sons of 'Abdul Muttalib, who were about forty in number gathered together. Among them were the uncles of the Prophet: Abu Talib, Hamza, 'Abbas and Abu Lahab. When the food was brought, the Prophet lifted a piece of meat and tore it into small morsels with his own teeth and scattered the pieces on the tray and said, 'Start eating in the name of Allah (swt),' All people present there had the food to their fill although the milk and the food were just sufficient for one man. Then he intended to
speak to them, but Abu Lahab interfered and said, `Verily, your comrade has entranced you.' Having heard this, all of them dispersed and the Messenger did not get a chance to speak to them. On the next day, the Messenger, of the Lord again said to me: 'O 'Ali? Make arrangements again for a feast as you had done yesterday, and invite the sons of 'Abdul Muttalib'. I arranged for the feast and gathered the guests as I was asked to do by the Prophet. Once they had finished the food, the Messenger addressed them thus: 'O sons of 'Abdul-Muttalib, I have brought for you the best blessings of this world and of the next, and I am appointed by the Lord to call you unto Him. Therefore, who amongst you will help me in this cause in order that he should be my brother, my successor and my caliph?' Nobody responded. But I, although the youngest of the congregation, said, 'O Messenger of Allah (saw), I am here to be your helper in this task.' The Prophet then patted my neck very kindly and said, 'O my people! This 'Ali is my brother, my successor and my caliph amongst you. Listen to him and obey him.' Having heard it from the Prophet, they all burst into laughter and said to Abu Talib, 'Hearken! You are ordered to obey and follow your own son! " So as you can see from this hadith, which is accepted by all Shia scholars, Islam‘s earliest years even before many of the companions have become companions that Muhammad (saw) had proclaimed Ali (as) his successor. Throughout Ali‘s (as) life, Prophet Muhammad (saw) would say nothing but good about him and praise him; this has been well documented in dozens upon dozens of hadiths in both Sunni and Shia sources some of which are: "Ali is the master of all the believers after me" (Musnad, Ahmed Hanbal, vol. 5, p 25) (Mustadrak, Hakim, vol. 3, p 134) (Sahih, al Tirmidhi, vol. 5, p 296) "You are from me, and I am from you" (Sahih, Bukhari, vol. 1, p 76) (Sahih, Tirmidhi, vol. 5, p 300) (Sunan, Ibn Majah, vol. 1, p 44) "I am the city of knowledge, and Ali is its gate" (Sahih, Tirmidhi, vol. 5, p 201) (Mustadrak, al Hakim, vol. 3, p 126) "Loving Ali is believing, and hating him is hypocrisy" (Sahih, Muslim, vol. 1, p 61)
(Sunan, al Nasai, vol. 6, p 117) (Sahih, al Tirmidhi, vol. 8, p 306) "You are to me as Aaron was to Moses, but there will be no prophet after me." (Sahih, Bukhari, vol. 2, p 305) (Sahih, Muslim, vol. 2, p 356) (Mustadrak, al Hakim, vol. 3, p 109) "Whoever accepted me as his master, then he should also accept Ali as his master. O Allah (swt) be friendly with his friends, and be enemy to his enemy" (Sahih, Muslim, vol. 2, p 362) (Mustadrak, Hakim, vol. 3, p 109) (Musnad, Ahmed Hanbal, vol. 4, p 281) ―The Messenger of Allah (saw) said, "He who insults Ali, insults me. He who insults me, insults Allah (swt). And he who insults Allah (swt), Allah (swt) will throw him into Hell" (Mustadrak, hakim, vol. 3, p 121) (Khasais, al Nasai, p 24) (Musnad, Ahmed Hanbal, vol. 6, p 33) (al Manaqib, al Khawarizmi, p 81) (al Riyadh al Nadira, Tabari, vol. 2, p 219) (Tarikh, as Suyuti, p 73) Ali (as) would have sacrificed his life for Muhammad (saw). During one incident right before the Prophet emigrated from Mecca to Medina with Abu Bakir, infidels wanted to murder Muhammad (saw) by surrounding his house during the night time and attacking him during his sleep. Muhammad (saw) knew of this evil plan of theirs and thus he asked Ali (as) to sleep in his bed while he would safely escape. Ali (as) happily accepted this dangerous mission and went into prostration to thank Allah (swt) for being able to give his life away for Muhammad (saw). While Ali (as) was in the Prophet‘s (saw) bed asleep, the infidels removed the blanket or sheet only to discover that it was Ali and not Muhammad (saw) though they did not attack Ali (as) in which made Ali (as) upset that was not able to die a martyr at that moment. Because of Ali‘s (as) bravery and willingness to give his life to Muhammad (saw), the Prophet (saw) was able to make a safe journey to Medina. Ali (as) was always on the battlefield for the sake of Islam such as the battles of Badr, Uhud, Khaybar, Khandaq, and Hunayn. Hundreds if not thousands of enemies of Islam were slain by Ali‘s (as) sword – to the point that Ali‘s (as) reputation as a warrior and Lion of Islam was known throughout Arabia. The real split between the Sunni majority and Shia minority happened during the death of our beloved Prophet (saw). During the Prophet‘s (saw) death, Ali (as) and the Prophet‘s (saw)
faithful companions such as 'Abbas, Zubayr, Salman, Abu Dharr, Miqdad and 'Ammar were busy with the burial tasks. While they were attending to Muhammad‘s (saw) burial and funeral plans others such as Abu Bakr were already trying to choose a caliph. Abu Bakr and his companions decided that the caliphate should be decided upon by elections. Please note that no Prophet or successor of the prophet or any religious leader after the prophet was ever chosen by the people or through an election. The Prophets would always choose their successor and the Shia believe, with evidence upon evidence, that the Prophet (saw) had chosen Ali (as) to be his successor and the Imam and leader of the people. So how could the caliph be chosen by the people, is this not bid‘ah when it has never been done before? When did the Holy prophet ever say that an election should take place to choose the caliph? Ali did not want to partake in the unlawful election and his full attention was to the prophet‘s burial – this is how much love he had for the Prophet. Once the caliph was chosen, Abu Bakr, Ali was not able to do anything about this. Abu Bakr had too many followers and Ali had very few political and military power – the people at the time who claimed that Ali was supposed to be the first caliph according to the Prophet were called the Shia. Also, Ali did not want the Islamic Ummah to fall apart right after the Prophet‘s death so he did not attempt an uprising. Ali, the warrior of the Muslims known as the best on the battlefield, even with his few followers would have easily taken the caliph title but he did what was best for the Ummah at the time and that was to keep it peaceful. Also, Ali was known to always be a monotheist even before the Prophet was told to announce Islam to the people. Abu Bakr before becoming a Muslim, was an idol-worshipper thus how could the title of caliphate be given to a man who worshiped idols for the majority of his lifetime when Ali was raised in the Prophet‘s home since before 10 years of age and was the very first male to become a Muslim and even before becoming a Muslim had never worshiped any idol but always worshiped the one true God? If people only used logic they could see the truth… When the caliphate of Ali finally happened, it only lasted four years and 9 months. His caliphate was the most difficult because the Islamic world has lost sight of the truth and it was Ali‘s responsibility as the leader of the Ummah to return them the path. Ali had opposition from people including Sa'id ibn 'Ass, Walid ibn 'Uqbah, Marwan ibn Hakam, 'Amr ibn 'Ass, Busr ibn Artat, Samurah ibn Jundab, and Mughirah ibn Shu'bah. Civil wars occurred throughout Ali‘s caliphate due to people‘s own faults and stubbornness and because some want revenge for Uthmaan‘s death. The Prophet said, "God has informed me that He loves four men and that I should love them also." They asked about their names. He mentioned Ali and then the names of Abu Dharr, Salman and Miqdad. (Sunan of Ibn Majah, Cairo, 1372, vol. I, p. 66.) One task which Ali sought most important was to return the public treasury to how it operated during the Prophet‘s time in which all people received a fair and lawful amount. During the caliphate of the first three caliphs, the treasury was misused and the majority of the distribution
went to the wealthy. This upset Talhah and Zubayr greatly who were receiving large sums from the treasury unlawfully. They persuaded A'ishah (umm almu'minin) to seek revenge for Uthmaan. Thus the ―Battle of the Camel‖, the first battle during Ali‘s leadership, begun. God knows whether ―seeking revenge for Uthmaan‖ was just a cover-story for them to go against the caliph of their time. After the death of Ali, Hassan ibn Ali was supposed to be the second Imam and the Caliph – this was written in Ali‘s last will. Mu'awiyah though wanted to be the caliph of the people and marched towards Iraq with a huge army and waging war against his caliph Hassan. Mu'awiyah was able to pay off many of Hassan‘s generals and eventually many left Hassan for Mu'awiyah who promised them worldly desires. To avoid bloodshed, Hassan agreed to hand of the caliphate to Mu'awiyah in agreement that Hassan would be caliph after the death of Mu'awiyah and that Hassan‘s followers would not be oppressed. Once Mu'awiyah was caliph, he said that his agreement with Hassan was null and void. Instead of obeying the agreement he made with Hassan, he announced that his son Yazid would be the next caliph. Mu'awiyah set and carried out the plans to poison Hassan, the son of the fourth caliph and the son of Fatima the Leader of women in Paradise and the grandson of the Holy Prophet. Even Hussein ibn Ali, the third Imam, was martyred by Yazid ibn Mu'awiyah along with his family. The women and children were chained and imprisoned – as to what kind of man would do this to the immediate family of Muhammad (saw) I will never understand. This tragic event which brings millions of Shias to tears every year is known as the Tragedy of Karbala. This event alone could be written in volumes of books – InshAllah (swt) I will recommend some books for you to read on this most depressing and blackest of Islamic history. Among other things Yazid is responsible for is the destruction of the holy Kaaba, the rape of thousands of women from his army, and the death of thousands of innocent men, women and children. Sunnis themselves were aware of the evilness of Mu'awiyah and Yazid that they had to distinguish the caliphs into two groups, the first being the ‖four rightly guided‖ and then the rest after Ali. If Mu'awiyah and Yazid were at all respected and thought of as religious leaders Sunnis today would use the phrase ―five or six rightly guided caliphs‖. Sources of this chapter: ―Shi‘a‖ by Sayed Muhammad Husayn Tabatabai ―The Life of Muhammad The Prophet‖ by Syed Saeed Akhtar Rizvi ―Then I Was Guided‖ by Mohammad Tijani Smaoui
If there was one event which definitely proves the status of Ahlul Bayt (as) and the Wilayat and leadership of Imam Ali (as) after the Prophet (saw) it would be Ghadir Khum. This event is one of the most well known and most referenced in both Sunni and Shi‘i sources. It is an event in which every Muslim should be familiar with because of its importance to Islam and the Messenger of Allah (swt).
Ten years after the Migration (hijrah), the Holy Prophet ordered his close companions to call upon all the people to join him on his last pilgrimage to Hajj. This is when he taught the ummah how to perform the pilgrimage in the correct way. On the way to Mecca, the Prophet had with him more than 70,000 people. By the fourth day of travel, over 100,000 people were with the prophet. The date of this event was the 18th of Dhu'l-Hijjah of the year 10 AH. After completing his last pilgrimage (Hajjatul-Wada'), the Holy Prophet was heading toward Medina with all of the people with him. On the way there, the Prophet and the crown reached an area called Ghadir Khum. It was in this place that the following Qur‘an verse revealed:
"O Apostle! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord; and if you don't do it, you have not delivered His message (at all); and Allah (swt) will protect you from the people ..." (Holy Qur'an 5:67)
Some of Sunni references confirming that the revelation of the above verse of Qur‘an was at the place of Ghadir Khum: 1. Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Razi, under commentary of verse 5:67, v12, pp 49-50, narrated on the authorities of Ibn Abbas, al-Bara Ibn Azib, and Muhammad Ibn Ali. 2. Asbab al-Nuzool, by al-Wahidi, p50, narrated on the authorities of Atiyyah and Abu Sa'id al Khudri. 3. Nuzul al-Quran, by al-Hafiz Abu Nu'aym narrated on the authorities Abu Sa'id Khudri and Abu Rafi. 4. al-Fusool al Muhimmah, by Ibn Sabbagh al-Maliki al-Makki, p24 5. Durr al-Manthur, by al-Hafiz al-Suyuti, under commentary of verse 5:67 6. Fathul Qadir, by al-Shawkani, under commentary of verse 5:67
7. Fathul Bayan, by Hasan Khan, under commentary of verse 5:67 8. Shaykh Muhi al-Din al-Nawawi, under commentary of verse 5:67 9. al-Sirah al-Halabiyah, by Noor al-Din al-Halabi, v3, p301 10. Umdatul Qari fi Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, by al-Ayni 11. Tafsir al-Nisaboori, v6, p194 12. As well as many others…
After receiving the verse, the Holy Prophet (saw) ordered his companion Salman to build a minbar for him out of rocks and camel toolings. The Holy Prophet spent a couple of hours on some of his last sermons. One very well-known hadith was mentioned at Ghadir Khum as well as other occasions including At `Arafat, Mosque of Madinah, and the Prophet's Chamber During His Last Illness. The hadith is known as ―Tradition of the Two Weighty Things‖ (Hadith alThaqalayn). The Messenger of Allah (saw) declared: "It seems the time approached when I shall be called away (by Allah (swt)) and I shall answer that call. I am leaving for you two precious things and if you adhere to them both, you will never go astray after me. They are the Book of Allah (swt) and my Progeny, that is my Ahlul Bayt. The two shall never separate from each other until they come to me by the Pool (of Paradise)." Various versions of this hadith are found in: 1. Sahih Muslim, part 7, Kitab fada'il al-Sahabah (Maktabat wa Matba`at Muhammad `Ali Subayh wa Awladuhu: Cairo) pp. 122-123 2. Sahih Sharh Aqidat al-Tahawi, p. 654 (published by Dar al-Imam al-Nawawi). Sahih Jami' al-Saghir, Vol. 1, p. 482 (Maktaba al-Islami) 3. al-Musnad (Vol. 16, p. 28, Dar al-Hadith, Cairo). Majma' al-Zawaid (Vol. 9, p. 162, Dar al-Kitab al-Alamiya). Sahih Jami' al-Saghir, Vol. 1, p. 482 (Maktab alIslami). 4. Musnad Ahmad (Vol. 16, p. 50, Dar al-Hadith Cairo) 5. al-Mustadrak (Vol. 3, p. 109, Dar al-Marfat). al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah (Vol. 5, p. 228, Mu'sassat tarikh al-Arabi). 6. Itihaf al-Khaerati al-Mahr, Vol. 9, page 279, No. 8974, Maktaba al-Rushd, Riyadh. Matalib al-Aliya (Vol. 4, p. 65, No. 3972, Dar al-Ma'rfat) Al-Sakhawi's al-Istijlab (Vol. 1, p. 357, Dar al-Bashaira al-Islamiyyah),
Then the Messenger of Allah (swt) continued:
"Do I not have more right over the believers than what they have over themselves?" People cried and answered: "Yes, O' Messenger of God." Then followed the key sentence denoting the clear designation of 'Ali as the leader of the Muslim ummah. The Prophet (saw) held up the hand of 'Ali and said: "For whoever I am his Leader (mawla), 'Ali is his Leader (mawla)." The Prophet (saw) continued: "O' God, love those who love him, and be hostile to those who are hostile to him." Sunni Sources: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sahih Tirmidhi, v2, p298, v5, p63 Sunan Ibn Maja, v1, pp 12,43 Khasa'is, by al-Nisa'i, pp 4,21 al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v2, p129, v3, pp 109-110,116,371 Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, pp 84,118,119,152,330, v4, pp 281,368,370,372,378, v5, pp 35,347,358,361,366,419 (from 40 chains of narrators) 6. Fada'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Hanbal, v2, pp 563,572 7. Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p103 (from several transmitters) 8. Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Razi, v12, pp 49-50 9. Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthur, by al-Hafiz Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, v3, p19 10. Tarikh al-Khulafa, by al-Suyuti, pp 169,173 11. al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah, by Ibn Kathir, v3, p213, v5, p208 12. Usdul Ghabah, by Ibn Athir, v4, p114 13. Mushkil al-Athar, by al-Tahawi, v2, pp 307-308 14. Habib al-Siyar, by Mir Khand, v1, part 3, p144 15. Sawaiq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, p26 16. al-Isabah, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, v2, p509; v1, part1, p319,v2, part1, p57, v3, part1, p29, v4, part 1, pp 14,16,143 17. Tabarani, who narrated from companions such as Ibn Umar, Malik Ibn alHawirath, Habashi Ibn Junadah, Jari, Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas, Anas Ibn Malik, Ibn Abbas, Amarah,Buraydah,... 18. Tarikh, by al-Khatib Baghdadi, v8, p290 19. Hilyatul Awliya', by al-Hafiz Abu Nu'aym, v4, p23, v5, pp26-27 20. al-Istiab, by Ibn Abd al-Barr, Chapter of word "ayn" (Ali), v2, p462 21. Kanzul Ummal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, v6, pp 154,397
22. al-Mirqat, v5, p568 23. al-Riyad al-Nadirah, by al-Muhib al-Tabari, v2, p172 24. Dhaka'ir al-Uqba, by al-Muhib al-Tabari, p68 25. Faydh al-Qadir, by al-Manawi, v6, p217 26. Yanabi' al-Mawaddah, by al-Qudoozi al-Hanafi, p297
Immediately after the Prophet (saw) finished his speech, the following verse of the Qur'an was revealed: "Today I have perfected your religion and completed my favour upon you, and I was satisfied that Islam be your religion." (Holy Qur'an 5:3) Sources for the revelation of the verse after the speech: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. al-Durr al-Manthur, by al-Hafiz Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, v3, p19 Tarikh, by Khatib al-Baghdadi, v8, pp 290,596 from Abu Hurayra Manaqaib, by Ibn Maghazali, p19 History of Damascus, Ibn Asakir, v2, p75 al-Itqan, by al-Suyuti, v1, p13 Manaqib, by Khawarazmi al-Hanfi, p80 al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah, by Ibn Kathir, v3, p213 Yanabi' al-Mawaddah, by al-Qudoozi al-Hanafi, p115 Nuzul al-Quran, by al-Hafiz Abu Nu'aym narrated on the authority Abu Sa'id Khudri.
The above verse clearly indicates that Islam without clearing up matter of leadership after Prophet (saw) was not complete, and completion of religion was due to announcement of the Prophet's immediate successor. Immediately after the Prophet's speech, Hassan b. Thabit, the Companion and poet of the Messenger of Allah (saw), asked for his permission to compose a few verses of poetry about Imam 'Ali (as) for the audience. The Prophet (saw) said: "Say with the blessings of Allah (swt)". Hassan stood up and said: "O' people of Quraysh. I follow with my words what preceded and witnessed by the Messenger of Allah (swt). He then composed the following verses at the scene: He calls them, (on) the day of Ghadir, their Prophet In Khumm so hear (and heed) the Messenger's call, He said: "Who is your guide and leader? (mawlakum wa waliyyukum)" They said, and there was no apparent blindness (clearly):
"Your God, our guide, and you are our leader And you won't find from among us, in this, any disobedient," He said to him: "Stand up O' Ali, for I am pleased to announce you Imam and guide after me (min ba'di imam(an) wa hadiy(an)), So whomever I was his leader (mawla), then this is his leader (mawla) So be to him supporters in truth and followers," There he prayed: "Allah (swt)! Be a friend and guide to his follower And be, to the one who is Ali's enemy, an enemy" After his speech, the Messenger of Allah (saw) asked everybody to give the oath of allegiance to 'Ali (as) and congratulate him. Among those who did so was 'Umar b. al-Khattab, who said: "Well done Ibn Abi Talib! Today you became the Leader (mawla) of all believing men and women." Sources for the oath of allegiance: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v4, p281 Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Razi, v12, pp 49-50 Mishkat al-Masabih, by al-Khatib al-Tabrizi, p557 Habib al-Siyar, by Mir Khand, v1, part3, p144 Kitabul Wilayah, by Ibn Jarir al-Tabari al-Musannaf, by Ibn Abi Shaybah al-Musnad, by Abu Ya'ala Hadith al-Wilayah, by Ahmad Ibn `Uqdah Tarikh, by Khatib al-Baghdadi, v8, pp 290,596 from Abu Hurayra
So as you can see this is an undeniable and extremely important event in Islam, an event which the Prophet (saw) wanted as many witnesses as possible (over 100,000 showed up) and an event in which the religion of Islam was finally completed as told by the verses mentioned. Unfortunately though, some of the companions and others ignored the event and some pretended to have forgotten it. Imam Ali (as) reminded people of the event in many occasions including the day of Shura (Election Day for Uthman), the day of Jamal, the day of Rahbah, as well as others.
About the Battle of Camel, al-Hakim and Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and others recorded that: We were in the camp of Ali on the day of Battle of Camel, where Ali sent for Talha to talk to him (before the beginning of war). Talha came forward, and Ali told him: I adjure you by Allah (swt)! Didn't
you hear the Messenger of Allah (swt) (pbuh&HF) when he said: `Whoever I am his MAWLA, this Ali is his MAWLA. O God, love whoever loves him, and be hostile to whoever is hostile to him'?" Talha replied: "Yes." Ali said: "Then why do you want to fight me?" Sources: 1. 2. 3. 4. al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, pp 169,371 Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, on the authority of Ilyas al-Dhabbi Muruj al-Dhahab, by al-Mas'udi, v4, p321 Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p107
Ahmad Ibn Hanbal recorded in his Musnad that: Abu Tufayl narrated that He (Ali) gathered the people in the plain of Rahbah (on year 35 AH) and adjured in the name of Allah (swt) every Muslim male present there who had heard the proclamation of alGhadir from the Messenger of Allah (swt) (pbuh) to stand up and testify what they had heard from the Messenger on the Day of Ghadir. Thereupon thirty (30) men stood up and gave evidence that the Prophet grasped Ali's hand and said to the audience: "He (Ali) has superior authority over those who believe me to have superiority over their lives. O Allah (swt)! Love him who loves him and hate him who hates him." Abu Tufayl says that it was in a state of great mental agitation that he left the plain of Rahbah, for the Muslim masses had not complied with the tradition. He therefore called on Zaid Ibn Arqam and told him what he heard from Ali. Zaid told him not to entertain any doubt about it for he himself had heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) uttering those words.
Source: 1. Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v4, p370 also: Abd al-Rahman Ibn Abu Laylah said: I witnessed Ali administering an oath to the people in the plain of Rahbah. Ali said: "I adjure those of you in the name of Allah (swt) who heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) on the day of Ghadir saying `Ali is the Mawla of whom I am Mawla' to stand up and to testify. He who was not an eyewitness doesn't need to stand up." Thereupon twelve (12) such companions who had participated in the Battle of Badr stood up. The occasion is still fresh in my memory. Sources: 1. Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, p119, see also v5, p366
2. Khasa'is, by al-Nisa'i, pp 21,103, narrated similar to above on the authority of three others: Umayah Ibn Sa'd, Zaid Ibn yathigh, and Sa'id Ibn Wahab. And: When Ali said to Anas: "Why don't you stand up and testify what you heard from the Messenger of Allah (saw) on the day of Ghadir?" He answered, "O Amir al-Mumineen! I have grown old and do not remember." Thereupon Ali said: "May Allah (swt) mark you with a white spot (of leprosy; Alphosis) unconcealable with your turban, if you are intentionally withholding the truth." And before Anas got up from his place he bore a large white spot on his face, Thereafter Anas used to say, "I am under the curse of the righteous servant of Allah (swt)."
Sources: 1. al-Ma'arif, by Ibn Qutaybah, p14, in the account of Anas among disabled persons. 2. Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, p199, where he testifies to the above anecdote, as he says : "All stood up except three persons who came under the curse of Ali." 3. Hilyatul Awliya', by Abu Nu'aym, v5, p27 And just in case you are wanting of more hadiths for the proof of Ahlul Bayt (as), especially as successors to the holy Prophet (saw) here they are: "Yazid b. Hayyan reported, I went along with Husain b. Sabra and 'Umar b. Muslim to Zaid b. Arqam and, as we sat by his side, Husain said to him: Zaid. you have been able to acquire a great virtue that you saw Allah (swt)'s Messenger (may peace be upon him) listened to his talk, fought by his side in (different) battles, offered prayer behind me. Zaid, you have in fact earned a great virtue. Zaid, narrate to us what you heard from Allah (swt)'s Messenger (may peace be upon him). He said: I have grown old and have almost spent my age and I have forgotten some of the things which I remembered in connection with Allah (swt)'s Messenger (may peace be upon him), so accept whatever I narrate to you, and which I do not narrate do not compel me to do that. He then said: One day Allah (swt)'s Messenger (may peace be upon him) stood up to deliver sermon at a watering place known as Khumm situated between Mecca and Medina. He praised Allah (swt), extolled Him and delivered the sermon and. Exhorted (us) and said: Now to our purpose. O people, I am a human being. I am about to receive a messenger (the angel of death) from my Lord and I, in response to Allah (swt)'s call, (would bid good-bye to you), but I am leaving among you two weighty things: the one being the Book of Allah (swt) in which there is right guidance and light, so hold fast to the Book of Allah (swt) and adhere to it. He exhorted (us) (to hold fast) to the Book of Allah (swt) and then said: The second are the members of my household I remind you (of your duties) to the members of my family. He (Husain) said to Zaid: Who are the members of his household? Aren't his wives the members of his family? Thereupon he said: His wives are the members of his family (but here) the members of his family are those for whom
acceptance of Zakat is forbidden. And he said: Who are they? Thereupon he said: 'Ali and the offspring of 'Ali, 'Aqil and the offspring of 'Aqil and the offspring of Ja'far and the offspring of 'Abbas. Husain said: These are those for whom the acceptance of Zakat is forbidden. Zaid said: Yes." (Muslim Book 031, #5920) "I will leave among you TWO SUCCESSORS: THE BOOK OF ALLAH (SWT) AND MY PROGENY, MY AHL AL-BAYT. Both shall NEVER never separate until they return to me at the Lake-Font." (Musnad Ahmad Vol 16 page 28. Sahih al-Jamií alSaghir, vol. 1, p. 482, Number 2457 records. Al-Albani says: it is completely "Sahih")
"Verily I am leaving in you that to which if you firmly hold onto you will not go astray after me; The Book of Allah (swt) and my family the Ahl al-Bait. These two will not be separated until they meet me at the Fountain (of Kawthar), so look at how you deal with them after me." (Sunan Tirmidhi, Vol. 5, Page 626, Hadith 3788. Mustadrak al-Hakim, Vol. 3, Page 160, Hadith 4711) ―Amr bin al-‗Ās narrates that someone asked him: O ‗Amr! Our elders heard it from the Messenger of Allāh (saw) about ‗Alī: one who has me as his master has ‗Alī as his master. Is it correct or not? ‗Amr said: it is correct, and may I add that no one among the Companions deserves to be praised more than ‗Alī‖. (Related by Ibn Athīr in Asad-ulghābah fī ma‗rifat-is-sahābah (1:572,573). The Ghadīr Declaration 79 Hadīth No. 50)
Muslims like to believe that all the companions of the Holy Prophet (saw) were righteous. That anyone who has spoken, walked with, or maybe even just seen the Prophet (saw) has automatically become a good companion. Shia Muslims believe that some of these companions were not righteous, especially after the death of the Prophet (saw) when many companions showed their true colors. Sunni hadeeths will prove this: Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "While I was sleeping, a group (of my followers were brought close to me), and when I recognized them, a man (an angel) came out from amongst (us) me and them, he said (to them), 'Come along.' I asked, 'Where?' He said, 'To the (Hell) Fire, by Allah (swt)' I asked, 'what is wrong with them' He said, 'They turned apostate as renegades after you left.' Then behold! (Another) group (of my followers) were brought close to me, and when I recognized them, a man (an angel) came out from (me and them) he said (to them); Come along.' I asked, "Where?' He said, 'To the (Hell) Fire, by Allah (swt).' I asked, What is wrong with them?' He said, 'They turned apostate as renegades after you left. So I did not see anyone of them escaping except a few who were like camels without a shepherd." (Bukhari Volume 8, Book 76, # 587)
Narrated 'Abdullah: The Prophet said, "I am your predecessor at the Lake-Fount." 'Abdullah added: The Prophet said, "I am your predecessor at the Lake-Fount, and some of you will be brought in front of me till I will see them and then they will be taken away from me and I will say, 'O Lord, my companions!' It will be said, 'You do not know what they did after you had left.' (Bukhari Volume 8, Book 76, # 578)
Narrated Anas: The Prophet said, "Some of my companions will come to me at my Lake Fount, and after I recognize them, they will then be taken away from me, whereupon I will say, 'My companions!' Then it will be said, 'You do not know what they innovated (new things) in the religion after you." (Bukhari Volume 8, Book 76, # 584)
Narrated Abu Hazim from Sahl bin Sa'd: The Prophet said, "I am your predecessor (forerunner) at the Lake-Fount, and whoever will pass by there, he will drink from it and whoever will drink from it, he will never be thirsty. There will come to me some people whom I will recognize, and they will recognize me, but a barrier will be placed between me and them." Abu Hazim added: An-Nu'man bin Abi 'Aiyash, on hearing me, said. "Did you hear this from Sahl?" I said, "Yes." He said, " I bear witness that I heard Abu Said Al-Khudri saying the same, adding that the Prophet said: 'I will say: They are of me (i.e. my followers). It will be said, 'You do not know what they innovated (new things) in the religion after you left'. I will say, 'Far removed, far removed (from mercy), those who changed (their religion) after me." Abu Huraira narrated that the Prophet said, "On the Day of Resurrection a group of companions will come to me, but will be driven away from the Lake-Fount, and I will say, 'O Lord (those are) my companions!' It will be said, 'You have no knowledge as to what they innovated after you left; they turned apostate as renegades (reverted from Islam)." (Bukhari Volume 8, Book 76, # 585) So how can a caliph be appointed by a vote of the people when clearly some companions of the Prophet (saw) go astray and enter hellfire? Is it not possible for the people to appoint someone who does not end up as a companion of the Prophet (saw) in the afterlife? The Shia believe that only Allah (swt) can appoint a leader for the Ummah because that person is righteous and the best of Muslims after the Prophet (saw) and will not go astray as some of the companions did. Now here is a Sunni hadith about the Caliph Umar mistreating the daughter of the Holy Prophet (saw) whom the Prophet (saw) said whoever angers Fatima (as) angers Muhammad (saw). Does this hadith not go hand in hand with the previous one I just posted about the companions whom went astray?
Abu Bakr Abdullah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Uthman Abasi Kufi narrates a tradition on the, authority of Aslam: Certainly, after the demise of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w). When they were extracting allegiance for Abu Bakr, Ali (a.s) and Zubair were with Fatemah (a.s), the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.w), consulting her and taking her view on the issue. The moment Umar heard of this, immediately he left for the house of Fatemah (s.a) and said: ―O daughter of Allah (s.w.t)‘s Messenger (s.a.w.w)! By Allah (swt) (s.w.t)! None is dearer to me than your father and none after him is more important for me than you. But by Allah (s.w.t)! This love and affection will not stop me from ordering to set ablaze your house due to these persons who have gathered in it.‖ As soon as Umar left, Fatemah (s.a) came to Ali (a.s) and Zubair and said, ―Do you know what Umar said to me? He swore by Allah (swt) (s.w.t) that if you don‘t come out of the house, he will set my house on fire and by Allah (swt) (s.w.t), he will certainly do it.‖ (‗AlMusannaf‘, vol. 7, p. 432, Tr. No. 37045, first edition)
Sources of this chapter: Direct copy and paste from www.al-islam.org/ghadir/ Sources gathered from www.shiachat.com/forum/index.php?/topic/25227-ghadir-khum-alook-at-sunni-sources/ Also for more hadiths not mentioned go to the PDF book at www.minhajbooks.com/imagesbooks/ghadir-declaration/ghadir-declaration_1.pdf To read the sermon go to www.duas.org/NEW/ghadirkhutba.htm
The Calamity of Thursday
"Whatever the Messenger hands over to you, take it, and whatever he forbids you therefrom, obey him (Qur'an, 59:7)." The above verse should be reflected upon before and after the reading of this chapter, and you will see why shortly. One event in which the Shia of Ahlul Bayt (as) will never forget is the Calamity of Thursday or as others call it Pen and Paper Incident. This event is well documented in many Sunni and Shia hadiths, such that every Muslim should be familiar with it. It is a disturbing event in which shows the true character of some of the Prophet‘s (saw) companions – during the lifetime of the Prophet (saw). While this event is a tragedy to all Shia Muslims, many Sunni Muslims do not think of importance or relevant. The incident took place during the end of the Prophet‘s (saw) lifetime, within about three days of his death. Muhammad (saw) was on his bed with his home full of companions and men including Umar. The Holy Prophet requested a pen and paper to write something down so that that Ummah will not go astray after his death. Umar denied this request of the Prophet and even accusing the Prophet of being delusional and that the Qur‘an is sufficient for the Ummah to not go astray. The men began to argue among themselves and causing much loud noise even though Muhammad (saw) was on his death bed right next to them – had they no shame? The Prophet then became angered and ordered everyone to leave his home, including Umar. ―When the time of the death of the Prophet approached while there were some men in the house, and among them was 'Umar Ibn al-Khattab, the Prophet said: "Come near let me write for you a writing after which you will never go astray." 'Umar said: "The Prophet is seriously ill, and you have the Qur'an, so Allah (swt)'s Book is sufficient for us." The people in the house differed and disputed. Some of them said, "Come near so that Allah (swt)'s Apostle may write for you a writing after which you will not go astray," while the others said what 'Umar said. When they made much noise and quarreled greatly in front of the Prophet, he said to them, "Go away and leave me." Ibn 'Abbas used to say, "It was a great disaster that their quarrel and noise prevented Allah (swt)'s Apostle from writing a statement for them.‖ (Sahih al-Bukhari Arabic-English, Volume 9 hadith # 468, and Volume 7 hadith #573) Also in Muslim: Sa'id b. Jubair reported that Ibn 'Abbas said: Thursday, (and then said): What is this Thursday? He then wept so much that his tears moistened the pebbles. I said: Ibn 'Abbas, what is (significant) about Thursday? He (Ibn 'Abbas) said: The illness of Allah (swt)'s
Messenger (may peace be upon him) took a serious turn (on this day), and he said: Come to me, so that I should write for you a document that you may not go astray after me. They (the Companions around him) disputed, and it is not right to dispute in the presence of the Apostle. They said: How is he (Allah (swt)'s Apostle)? Has he lost his consciousness? Try to learn from him (this point). He (the Holy Prophet) said: Leave me. I am better in the state (than the one in which you are engaged). I make a will about three things: Turn out the polytheists from the territory of Arabia; show hospitality to the (foreign) delegations as I used to show them hospitality. He (the narrator) said: He (Ibn Abbas) kept silent on the third point, or he (the narrator) said: But I forgot that. (Sahih Muslim Book 013, #4014) Sa'id b. Jubair reported from Ibn Abbas that he said: Thursday, and what about Thursday? Then tears began to flow until I saw them on his cheeks as it they were the strings of pearls. He (the narrator) said that Allah (swt)'s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Bring me a shoulder blade and ink-pot (or tablet and inkpot), so that I write for you a document (by following which) you would never go astray. They said: Allah (swt)'s Messenger (may peace upon him) is in the state of unconsciousness. (Sahih Muslim Book 013, # 4015) Ibn Abbas reported: When Allah (swt)'s Messenger (may peace be upon him) was about to leave this world, there were persons (around him) in his house, 'Umar b. al-Kbattab being one of them. Allah (swt)'s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Come, I may write for you a document; you would not go astray after that. Thereupon Umar said: Verily Allah (swt)'s Messenger (may peace be upon him) is deeply afflicted with pain. You have the Qur'an with you. The Book of Allah (swt) is sufficient for us. Those who were present in the house differed. Some of them said: Bring him (the writing material) so that Allah (swt)'s Messenger (may peace be upon him) may write a document for you and you would never go astray after him. And some among them said what 'Umar had (already) said. When they indulged in nonsense and began to dispute in the presence of Allah (swt)'s Messenger (may peace be upon him), he said: Get up (and go away) 'Ubaidullah said: Ibn Abbas used to say: There was a heavy loss, indeed a heavy loss, that, due to their dispute and noise. Allah (swt)'s Messenger (may peace be upon him) could not write (or dictate) the document for them. (Sahih Muslim Book 013, # 4016) What the Prophet (saw) wanted to write down must have been extremely important – important enough to which the Ummah will not go astray if but they knew what would be written. His last message to the Ummah would surely have been a very important one if he would have been granted his last wish of a pen and paper to write it down. Another thing to note down is that he was denied his request. Is it not a sin to question or deny something to the most holy of Prophet‘s (saw)?
"Obey Allah (swt) and Obey his Prophet and worry, and be warned that the Prophet's duty is only to deliver the message clearly" (Surah al Maidah verse 92) "Perform Salat (Prayer), give Zakat and Obey Allah (swt) and his Prophet" (Surah Mujadilah verses 12-13) "Obey Allah (swt) and his Prophet and if you dispute, then on him is what is imposed on him, and on you is what is imposed on you; and if you obey him you are guided aright; and there is no duty on the Prophet save the clear delivery". (Surah Nur verse 54) Say, "Obey Allah (swt) and the Prophet, but if they turn back, then verily Allah (swt) does not love the disbelievers" (Surah Aal-e-Imran verse 32) "O ye who believe! Obey Allah (swt) and His Messenger, and turn not away from him when ye hear (him speak)." (Surah Anfal verse 20) "And obey Allah (swt) and His Messenger and do not quarrel." (Surah Anfal verse 46)
Also when Umar claimed that the Qur‘an is sufficient for the Ummah, does Umar have more knowledge than Muhammad (saw) to have such a claim? Did he not know to whom the Qur‘an was directly revealed to? Does the Prophet not know enough about the Ummah or the Qur‘an for Umar to say such a disgusting thing? He claimed that the Prophet was delusional – how can a person say such a thing? Why would Allah (swt) allow his messenger to be delusional at any moment in his life? If he was delusional in this incident would he not have been delusional in his past? Would not the columns of Islam crumble if we claimed the Prophet could have been delusional for even a second of him being a Prophet? "Thursday! And you know not what Thursday is?" After that Ibn 'Abbas wept till the stones on the ground were soaked with his tears. On that I asked Ibn 'Abbas, "What is (about) Thursday?" He said, "When the condition (i.e. health) of Allah (swt)'s Apostle deteriorated, he said, 'Bring me a bone of scapula, so that I may write something for you after which you will never go astray.' The people differed in their opinions although it was improper to differ in front of a prophet. They said, 'What is wrong with him? Do you think he is talking no sense (delirious)? Ask him (to see if he is talking no sense). The Prophet replied, 'Leave me, for I am in a better state than what you are asking me.' Then the Prophet ordered them to do three things saying: 'Turn out all the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, show respect to all foreign delegates by giving them gifts as I used to do.' The third order was something beneficial which either Ibn 'Abbas did not mention or he mentioned but I forgot!‖ (Sahih al-Bukhari Arabic-English, Volume 9 hadith # 468, and Volume 4 hadith #393)
Even some Sunni Scholar‘s claim this event was a calamity and that Umar denied a request of the Prophet: "the first dispute that took place during the Prophet's sickness, according to what the Imam Abu Abdullah Muhammad b. Isma'il al-Bukhari relates on the authority of Abdullah b. Abbas, is as follows: When the last sickness of the Prophet became acute, he said, 'Bring me an inkpot and writing material; I shall write something for you so that you will not be led astray after my departure'. Umar said, 'the Prophet has been overcome by pain, God's Book is sufficient for us'. A noisy argument arose among those gathered; whereupon the Prophet said 'Go away there should be no quarrelling in my presence'. Ibn Abbas says, 'What a tragedy which prevented us from having some writing of the Prophet!". (Al Mihal al Nahal, by Allamah Muhuummud b. Add'al Karim Shahrastani, page 18 - English translation by A.K.Kazi and J.G.Flynn (publishers Kegan Paul International, First Edition 1984)) Some Sunni Muslims will attempt to refute this by stating that the Prophet fell unconscious after requesting the pen and paper but it is clear in the Sahih hadiths above that he did not fall unconscious. Would such a thing not be important enough to write down in a hadith? Even if the prophet was to have become unconscious, how would the request of the pen and paper no longer apply? Is the Prophet not able to write down what he wanted to write down after gaining conscious? God forbid the Prophet forgetting what he wanted to write… It is clear from the hadiths that: 1. Umar denied a request of the Prophet. 2. Umar claimed that the Prophet was delusional. 3. Umar and his companions caused much loud noise around the Prophet when he was on his deathbed. 4. Umar as well as the others were ordered to leave the Prophet‘s house because they have angered him. (Anyone who angers Muhammad saw angers Allah (swt) swt) 5. And because of Umar, the Ummah has gone astray due to the Prophet not being granted the request to write down what he wanted to.
Sources of this chapter: Al-Muraja'at A Shi'i-Sunni dialogue by Sayyid 'Abd al-Husayn Sharaf al-Din al-Musawi www.answering-ansar.org/answers/pen_and_paper/en/index.php ―Then I Was Guided‖ by Mohammad Tijani Smaoui
Fadak in History
Fadak was a fertile territory with palm trees near Khayber and about 140 km from the city of Medina. Fadak at first belonged to the Jews of Hijaz, who were enemies of Islam and caused problems for Prophet Muhammad (saw) and the spreading of his message. After the Muslim army defeated the Jews at the fort in Khayber, Muhammad (saw) sent a messenger to the village in Fadak and the chief, Yush'a bin Noon, of the Jews there agreed to a peace treaty and were thus allowed to live in peace and were also protected by the Muslims. According to Islam, land conquered through military means becomes the property of all Muslims. But because Fadak was not conquered by military means, rather instead by a treaty agreement it thus becomes the property of the leader of the Muslims – The Holy Prophet (saw). Thus the land of Fadak belonged fully to Muhammad (saw) and he is able to do whatever he wants with it and is able to give its rights to whomever he chooses. The Shia believe that the prophet (saw) had given the land of Fadak to his beloved daughter, Fatima (as), as a gift. "When the verse: Give the kinsmen his due, and the needy, and the wayfarer...(Surah Isra, 17:26) was revealed the Prophet called his daughter Fatimah and made over Fadak to her" (Majma'ul Bayan, vol.III, p. 411; Sharh-i Ibn Abil Hadid, vol. XVI, p.248) After the death of the Holy Prophet (saw), Abu Bakr took the rights of Fadak away from Fatima (as) due to political reasons. The caliph also gave weak hadiths that prophets do not leave behind inheritance – but it wasn‘t inheritance it was a gift to his daughter Fatima (as). The land of Fadak was already given to her by her father thus she was already the owner of it. Abu Bakr asked her to bring witnesses that Muhammad (saw) had actually given her the land and thus Fatima (as) brought forth her husband, Ali (as), and Umme Ayman (whom the Prophet had testified that she would go to Paradise), and Rabah, a freed slave of the Prophet. Even with these witnesses the caliph still denied her claim. One would wonder how would he deny her when she had witnesses such as Imam Ali (as) whom every scholar would agree was always truthful and that he was the gate to the city of knowledge. And how would one even deny the claim of the daughter of Muhammad (saw) whom the prophet even said whoever angers her is angering the Prophet (saw). Eventually the first caliph agreed to give her the property back but Umar tore up the certificate that Abu Bakr would have given to Fatima (as) to give her the lawful property. Umar said: "As Ali is a beneficiary in this case, his evidence is not acceptable and Umme Ayman being a woman, her testimony too has no value" Then he tore up the certificate. (Sharh-i Ibn Abil Hadid, vol. XVI, page 274.)
"The Caliph accepted the ownership of Fatimah. Suddenly Umar arrived and asked: "What is this certificate about? The Caliph replied: "I have confirmed Fatimah's ownership (of Fadak) in this deed". Umar said "You stand in need of income derived from Fadak. If tomorrow the idolaters of Arabia rise against the Muslims, from where will you meet the expenses of war?" Then he held the certificate in his hand and tore it up". (Seerah-i Halabi, vol. III, page 400.) 'Was the daughter of the Prophet truthful in making the claim?' He said: 'Yes'. I said: 'Did the Caliph know that she was a truthful woman?' He said: 'Yes'. I said: 'Why did the Caliph not give her that to which she was admittedly entitled?' At this moment the teacher smiled and said with great dignity: 'if he had accepted her word on that day and had returned Fadak to her on account of her being a truthful woman and without asking for any witnesses she could very well avail of this position for the benefit of her husband on the following day and say: 'My husband Ali is entitled to the caliphate' and then the Caliph would have been obliged to surrender the caliphate to Ali on account of his having acknowledged her to be a truthful woman. However, in order to obviate any such claim or dispute he deprived her of her admitted right". (Sharh-i Nahjul Balaghah by Ibn Abil Hadid, page 284.) Some might ask, why did Imam Ali (as) not return the property back to the household after he became the caliph. This is a response from Ali (as): ―I‘m ashamed before God, to return it to it‘s original owners, that which Abu Baker prohibited and Omar agreed with.‖ (lbn Abi al-hadid vol. 16 pg. 252) The Imams (as) had no desire for material gains though this is not to say that it never belonged to them – it was rightly theirs from the very beginning. Plus gaining this land would make the caliphs assume that the Ahlul Bayt (as) were attempting to gain power and resources to over throw them. Here are some more Sunni hadiths on the issue. Enjoy. Narrated 'Aisha: (mother of the believers) After the death of Allah (swt) 's Apostle Fatima the daughter of Allah (swt)'s Apostle asked Abu Bakr As-Siddiq to give her, her share of inheritance from what Allah (swt)'s Apostle had left of the Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting) which Allah (swt) had given him. Abu Bakr said to her, "Allah (swt)'s Apostle said, 'Our property will not be inherited, whatever we (i.e. prophets) leave is Sadaqa (to be used for charity)." Fatima, the daughter of Allah (swt)'s Apostle got angry and stopped speaking to
Abu Bakr, and continued assuming that attitude till she died. Fatima remained alive for six months after the death of Allah (swt)'s Apostle. She used to ask Abu Bakr for her share from the property of Allah (swt)'s Apostle which he left at Khaibar, and Fadak, and his property at Medina (devoted for charity). Abu Bakr refused to give her that property and said, "I will not leave anything Allah (swt)'s Apostle used to do, because I am afraid that if I left something from the Prophet's tradition, then I would go astray." (Later on) Umar gave the Prophet's property (of Sadaqa) at Medina to 'Ali and 'Abbas, but he withheld the properties of Khaibar and Fadak in his custody and said, "These two properties are the Sadaqa which Allah (swt)'s Apostle used to use for his expenditures and urgent needs. Now their management is to be entrusted to the ruler." (Az-Zuhrl said, "They have been managed in this way till today.") (Bukhari Volume 4, Book 53, # 325) Narrated 'Aisha: Fatima sent somebody to Abu Bakr asking him to give her her inheritance from the Prophet from what Allah (swt) had given to His Apostle through Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting). She asked for the Sadaqa (i.e. wealth assigned for charitable purposes) of the Prophet at Medina, and Fadak, and what remained of the Khumus (i.e., one-fifth) of the Khaibar booty. Abu Bakr said, "Allah (swt)'s Apostle said, 'We (Prophets), our property is not inherited, and whatever we leave is Sadaqa, but Muhammad's (saw) Family can eat from this property, i.e. Allah (swt)'s property, but they have no right to take more than the food they need.' By Allah (swt)! I will not bring any change in dealing with the Sadaqa of the Prophet (and will keep them) as they used to be observed in his (i.e. the Prophet's) life-time, and I will dispose with it as Allah (swt)'s Apostle used to do," Then 'Ali said, "I testify that None has the right to be worshipped but Allah (swt), and that Muhammad (saw) is His Apostle," and added, "O Abu Bakr! We acknowledge your superiority." Then he (i.e. 'Ali) mentioned their own relationship to Allah (swt)'s Apostle and their right. Abu Bakr then spoke saying, "By Allah (swt) in Whose Hands my life is. I love to do good to the relatives of Allah (swt)'s Apostle rather than to my own relatives" Abu Bark added: Look at Muhammad (saw) through his family (i.e. if you are no good to his family you are not good to him). (Bukhari Volume 5, Book 57, # 60) It is narrated on the authority of Urwa b. Zubair who narrated from A'isha that she informed him that Fatima, daughter of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), sent someone to Abu Bakr to demand from him her share of the legacy left by the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) from what Allah (swt) had bestowed upon him at Medina and Fadak and what was left from one-filth of the income (annually received) from Khaibar. Abu Bakr said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said:" We (prophets) do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is (to be given in)
charity." The household of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) will live on the income from these properties, but, by Allah (swt), I will not change the charity of the Messenger of Allah (swt) (may peace be upon him) from the condition in which it was in his own time. I will do the same with it as the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upun him) himself used to do. So Abu Bakr refused to hand over anything from it to Fatima who got angry with Abu Bakr for this reason. She forsook him and did not talk to him until the end of her life. She lived for six months after the death of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). When she died, her husband. 'Ali b. Abu Talib, buried her at night. He did not inform Abu Bakr about her death and offered the funeral prayer over her himself. During the lifetime of Fatima, 'All received (special) regard from the people. After she had died, he felt estrangement in the faces of the people towards him. So he sought to make peace with Abu Bakr and offer his allegiance to him. He had not yet owed allegiance to him as Caliph during these months. He sent a person to Abu Bakr requesting him to visit him unaccompanied by anyone (disapproving the presence of Umar). 'Umar said to Abu Bakr: BY Allah (swt), you will not visit them alone. Abu Bakr said: What will they do to me? By Allah (swt), I will visit them. And he did pay them a visit alone. 'All recited Tashahhud (as it is done in the beginning of a religious sermon) ; then said: We recognise your moral excellence and what Allah (swt) has bestowed upon you. We do not envy the favour (i. e. the Catiphate) which Allah (swt) nas conferred upon you; but you have done it (assumed the position of Caliph) alone (without consulting us), and we thought we had a right (to be consulted) on account of our kinship with the Messenger of Allah(may peace be upon him). He continued to talk to Abu Bakr (in this vein) until the latter's eyes welled up with tears. Then Abd Bakr spoke and said: By Allah (swt), in Whose Hand is my life, the kinship of the Messenger of Allah (swt) (may peace be upon him) is dearer to me than the kinship of my own people. As regards the dispute that has arisen between you and me about these properties, I have not deviated from the right course and I have not given up doing about them what the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) used to do. So 'Ali said to Abu Bakr: This aftetnoon is (fixed) for (swearing) allegiance (to you). So when Abu Bakr had finished his Zuhr prayer, he ascended the pulpit and recited Tashahhud, and described the status of 'Ali, his delay in swearing allegiance and the excuse which lie had offered to him (for this delay). (After this) he asked for God's forgiveness. Then 'Ali b. Abu Talib recited the Tashahhud. extolled the merits of Abu Bakr and (said that) his action was nott prompted by any jealousy of Abu Bakr on his part or his refusal to accept the high position which Allah (swt) had conferred upon him, (adding: ) But we were of the opinion that we should have a share in the government, but the matter had been decided without taking us into confidence, and this displeased us. (Hence the delay in offering allegiance. The Muslims were pleased with this (explanation) and they said: You have done the right thing. The Muslims were (again) favourably inclined to 'Ali since he adopted the proper course of action.
(Muslim Book 19, # 4352) Sources of this chapter: ―The Message‖ by Ayatullah Ja'far Subhani Hazrat Zahra‘ (s.a.) And the Heart, Rending Episode of Fadak by Ayatullah Makarem Shirazi Fadak, the Property of Fatima (s.a.) The Daughter of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) by Syed H. Akhtar
Are Shia Considered Muslims?
During the next few sections, accusations against Shia will be revealed and debunked. But before we start with that I would like you to read this verse "Oh you who believe, if a transgressor comes to you with news, try to verify it, lest you inflict damage on people unwittingly; then you may consequently regret your hasty action" (Holy Qur‘an 49:6) When you hear accusations against other Muslims, before believing in it or acting upon it – look into it and see if it is truthful or not. One can easily commit a sin because of the lies they hear from others. Let‘s begin with defining what a Muslim or a believer is according to the Holy Qur‘an. "Alif Lam Mim. This is the Book whereof there is no doubt, a guidance to those who are righteous, who believe in the unseen, and offer prayer, and spend of what We have provided them, And who believe in that which is revealed to thee (Muhammad) and that which was revealed before thee, and who are certain of the Hereafter. They follow the guidance (which comes) from their Lord; and they are the ones who will prosper." (Holy Qur‘an 2:1-5) According to this verse, a righteous person is one who 1. 2. 3. 4. Believe in the unseen (Such as Allah (swt)) Offer prayers such as the five obligatory prayers By spending their wealth in the way of Allah (swt) such as zakat And to believe in what was revealed unto Muhammad (saw) such as the Holy Qur‘an and what was revealed in the past such as the Torah. 5. And are believers of the hereafter, of heaven and hell. These five criteria are followed by all Muslims, Shia and Sunni. So how can one say the Shia are not Muslims when they believe in everything described in the verses? How can one go against the Holy Qur‘an and still say that Shia are not Muslims when they clearly are. Between the Shia and the Sunni, there are not many disagreements besides the Caliphate and jurisprudence. Both believe in the Oneness of Allah (swt) , the Prophethood of Muhammad (saw) and all the prophets (as), in the Holy Qur‘an, in the hereafter, and in the angels. Disagreeing on the caliphate should not be a reason to cause such disunity. Not believing in the caliphate of a certain person is not a sinful act. Imam Ali (as) himself did not give allegiance to Abu Bakr for 6 months. If it truly was a sin to not give allegiance or believe in
the caliphate then Ali (as) would have given allegiance right away and all Sunnis and Shia agree that Ali (as) is the gate of knowledge and that he was an extremely pious family member and companion of the Holy Prophet (saw). Imam Ali refused to give his allegiance to Abu Bakr for six months. He gave his allegiance to Abu Bakr only after the death of his wife Fatima Al-Zahra, Daughter of the Holy Prophet. (Al- Bukhari, part 5, page 177). Just because a person does not follow one of the four madhabs of Sunni Islam does not make them a non-Muslim. All the founding Imams of the madhabs - Abu Hanifah, Malik, Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, and Al-Shafi'i came and started their madhabs after the death of the Holy Prophet (saw). All Muslims agree that Islam was completed during the life of Muhammad (saw). None of the four imams completed Islam nor did any of them live during Muhammad‘s time. So for one to say that a person must follow them and only them to be considered a Muslim is wrong. The four madhabs disagree on certain jurisprudence yet they all consider one another Muslim, so to deny Shia the title of Muslim based on jurisprudence is not being fair. The majority of Shia Muslims are twelvers, following the madhab of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (as), the 6th imam of Ahlul Bayt (as) and a decendent of Muhammad (saw). Imam Ja‘far had taught thousands of students, two of which are Abu Hanifah and Malik. Shaykh Muhammad Abu Zahra who was one of the outstanding Sunni contemporary scholars said: "The Muslim scholars of various Islamic schools never agreed unanimously on a matter as much as they agree on the knowledge of Imam Ja'far and his virtue. The Sunni imams who lived during his time were his students. Malik was one of them and those who were as contemporary as Malik such as Sufyan Al-Thawri and many others. Abu Hanifah also was his student in spite of their being close in age, and he considered Imam Ja'far the most knowledgeable in the Muslim world." (Imam Ahmad, his Musnad, part 5, page 66). Also here is Abu Hanifah‘s view on Imam Ja‘far (when he entered the palace of Al-Mansur and found Imam Ja'far with him) : "When I saw Imam Ja'far, I felt that his personality commands more respect than that of the caliph himself. Yet the caliph was ruling the Muslim world, and Imam Ja'far was a private citizen." (Shaykh Muhammad Abu Zahra, AI-Imam AI-Sadiq, page 27) Imam Al-Shafi'i in his poetry said: "Members of the House of the Prophet, your love is a Divine duty on mankind. God revealed it in His Qur'an. It is of your high distinctions that whoever does not pray on you has no prayer." He also said "If the love of the members of the House of the Prophet is Rafd (rejection), let mankind and the Jinns testify that I am a rejecter."
As we can see, not only were some of the four imams direct students of Imam Ja‘far but they also had tremendous respect for him. Ja‘far‘s madhab came before all the four Sunni madhabs and so is it not closer to Muhammad‘s (saw) teachings and timeline? If this is not enough evidence for you then I shall provide more inshAllah (swt). Sheikh Mahmud Shaltut, the grand mufti of Al-Azhar mosque and a prominent Sunni scholar, issued fatwa declaring Shias are Muslims which means that a Sunni could also follow the madhab of Imam Ja‘far and still be considered a Muslim. If a learned and well respected Sunni scholar declares Shia to be Muslims, then why are their less-knowledgeable people claiming Shias are not without providing any evidence and sources but declare it solely based on their emotions or the little knowledge they have on Shia.
Sources of this chapter: ―The Shi'ites Under Attack‖ by Muhammad Jawad Chirri
Different Qur‘an (God Forbid)
Shi‘ite Muslims are constantly being accused of having a different Qur‘an, either with less or more verses or even new surahs. This accusation is far from the truth. A simple way to debunk this lie is to simply have the accuser go to any masjid that has primarily Shia worshipers and open up any of the Qur‘ans and one can easily see it is the one and only Qur‘an that we are all familiar with. Sadly, even with such an easy task as that many still claim that the Shia have their own Qur‘an. As to how is this even possible when all Muslims agree that the Qur‘an is protected by Allah (swt) and this verse clearly states this fact: ―Surely We have revealed the Reminder and We will most surely be its guardian.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 15:9) Sadly, some people would rather accuse other Muslims of having a different Qur‘an rather than believe the Qur‘an itself is protected by Allah (swt). A hadith in al-Kafi by Muhammad bin Ya'qub al-Kulayni states that the Qur‘an revealed to our Holy Prophet (saw) contained 7000 verses and this hadith itself is what many of the accusers use against the Shia. But one must understand a few things. First, al-Kulayni was not a Shi‘ite scholar but a hadith recorder and as everyone knows there are strong hadiths and there are weak ones. This hadith by al-Kulayni is regarded as a weak hadith. Second, most if not all prominent Shia scholars say that the Qur‘an we have now, the same one used by Sunnis and Shia, is the one revealed to the Holy Prophet (saw). I will not include what they have said for the sake of keeping this answer as short as possible but one can easily search this up online and see what they have said. These scholars consist of Sayyid al-Murtada, Sayed Sistani, Shaykh Al-Mufid, and many others. Thirdly, even though al-Kulayni wrote down the hadith does not mean he believes in it. Shia do not consider their books of hadith to be 100% sahih. Only the Book of Allah (swt), the Qur‘an, could carry the title of being completely accurate.
If these accusers would look into Sunni hadith books they would find hadiths which also claim the Qur‘an has been changed. Here are a few examples:
Muslim also reported in the Book of al-Rida'ah (Book of Nursing), part 10, page 29, that 'A'ishah said the following: "There was in what was revealed in the Qur'an that ten times of nursing known with certainty makes the nursing woman a mother of a nursed child. This number of nursings would make the woman 'haram' (forbidden) to the child. The this verse was replaced by 'five known nursings' to make the woman forbidden to the child. The Prophet died while these words were recorded and read in the Qur'an."
Al-Muttaqi 'Ali bin Husam al-Din in his book "Mukhtasar Kanz al-'Ummal" printed on the margin of Imam Ahmad's Musnad, part two, page 2, in his hadith about chapter 33, said that Ibn Mardawayh reported that Hudhayfah said: 'Umar said to me 'How many verses are contained in the chapter of al-Ahzab?' I said, '72 or 73 verses.' He said it was almost as long as the chapter of the Cow, which contains 287 verses, and in it there was the verse of stoning. But do the Shia accuse Sunnis of having an altered Qur‘an after reading such hadiths? No, so why are the Shia accused? Lastly, I would like to show you the introduction to al-Kulayni‘s book Al-Kafi and let you decide if he really believed in the hadith or not of the 700 verses.
Al-Kulayni mentioned in his introduction to his book the following: "Brother, may God lead you to the right road. You ought to know that it is impossible for anyone to distinguish the truth from the untruth when Muslim scholars disagree upon statements attributed to the Imams. There is only one way to separate the true from the untrue reports, through the standard which was declared by the Imam:
"'Test the various reports by the Book of God; whatever agrees with it take it, whatever disagrees with it reject it.
"'Take what is agreed upon (by scholars). Certainly the universally accepted should not be doubted. '"
Sources of this chapter: ―The Shi'ites Under Attack‖ by Muhammad Jawad Chirri
Ali is God (God Forbid)
Possibly the worst accusation against Shia Islam is that the Shia worship Ali (as) as God or that Ali (as) is Allah (swt) (God Forbid such beliefs). Anyone who believes that Imam Ali is Allah (swt) or a god is committing the worst of all sins – shirk (polytheism). It is clearly shown in the Holy Qur‘an that attributing partners to Allah (swt) or worshiping others instead of Allah (swt) is of the worst of sins and is guaranteed hellfire. ―Surely Allah (swt) does not forgive that anything should be associated with him, and forgives what is besides that to whomsoever He pleases, and whoever associates anything with Allah (swt), he devises indeed a great sin.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 4:48) ―Surely whoever associates (others) with Allah (swt), then Allah (swt) has forbidden to him the garden, and his abode is the fire; and there shall be no helpers for the unjust.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 5:72) ―Do not associate aught with Allah (swt); most surely polytheism is a grievous inequity.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 31:13) ―And whoever associates anything with Allah (swt), he devises indeed a great sin.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 4:48) ―And worship Allah (swt) and do not associate anything with Him.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 4:36) As you can see, these verses and dozens upon dozens of similar ones, associating anything with Allah (swt) is a great sin in which will not be forgiven. Anyone with any sense could clearly see that it is strictly and plainly forbidden to have such beliefs. No Shia Muslim holds such beliefs. A Shia believes in the Unity of Allah (swt) and that Imam Ali (as) is but a human being, though a human being with an elevated status given by Allah (swt). Allah (swt) existed before all that existed and will remain after all that is perished. Unfortunately, there has been those who exaggerate the status of Imam Ali (as) and claim him to be god (God Forbid such beliefs). These people are called Ghulats. During the time of Imam Ali (as), they existed and even claimed their beliefs to Imam Ali (as). Imam Ali (as) would not allow anyone to have such views. Muhammad b. Ya`qub from Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad from Ibn Abi `Umayr from Hisham b. Salim from Abu `Abdillah .ال س الم ع ل يهHe said: A group came to Amir al-Mumineen ,ال س الم ع ل يهand they said: Peace be upon you, O our Lord! So he sought their repentance, but they did not repent. So he dug a pit for them and lit a fire in it and dug a pit to its other side and conveyed between them (i.e. joined the two
pits to one another). So when they did not repent he threw them in the pit and lit (the fire) in the other pit until they died. And: And from Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad from Ibn Mahbub from Salih b. Sahl from Kirdeen from a man from Abu `Abdillah and Abu Ja`far ال س الم ع ل يهما that when Amir al-Mu‘mineen ال س الم ع ل يهdeparted from the people of Basra, seventy men of the Zutt came to him. So they gave salam to him and spoke with him in their language. So he responded to them in their language. Then he said: Verily I am not as you say. I am a created servant of Allah (swt). So they refused him and they said: You are He. So he said: If you do not cease and return from what you have said regarding me, and repent to Allah (swt), I shall kill you. So they refused to return and repent. So he commanded that wells be dug for them, so they were dug. Then some of them were pierced to some (i.e. the wells joined to one another via an opening between them). Then he hurled them in it. Then he covered their heads (i.e. of the wells‘ openings). Then the fire was ignited in a well from them in which there was not (any)one of them in it. So the smoke entered upon them in it and they died. (From Man La Yahdarahu al-Faqih) Shia Muslims do not worship Ali (as), do not claim he is a god or a prophet or a status higher than Muhammad (saw). Yes, it is possible that some people do hold these view – but these are not the views of the majority of Shia Muslims, especially Twelver Shias. We Shia do not associate ourselves with ghulats or people with those types of views. Such person cannot be called a Muslim because they do not even believe in the Shahada which states that there is no god but Allah (swt) and that Muhammad (saw) his is prophet. To claim that Ali (as) is god goes completely against the Shahada. I don‘t see a reason to continue this section. It‘s like someone claiming that Shia Muslims pray to Buddha (God Forbid), it is just such a stupid belief that only the very ignorant will believe in such lies. No Shia Marjae will claim that Ali (as) is god or a partner of Allah (swt). No Shia book will claim such a thing, and no lecture will claim such a thing. It is a belief of ghulats and not part of Shia Islam. Sources of this chapter: Hadeeths from http://www.tashayyu.org/
Gabriel‘s Mistake (God Forbid)
Another horrible lie against the Shia is that the Angel Gabriel had made a mistake by bringing the revelation to Muhammad (saw) rather than Ali. As to how anyone can believe in this I will never understand. First of all, believing that angels can make mistakes is a belief of the Christians (i.e. fallen angels). We Muslims believe that angels are perfect beings whom follow Allah (swt)‘s every command without a single mistake. As to why would Allah (swt) create and choose the angels to follow his commands and carry out the tasks they are given if they are capable of mistake? Such a belief that Ali was supposed to be a prophet could possibly be a belief of the Ghulat‘s (those who exaggerated the status of Ali). Such beliefs are not found in mainstream Shi‘ism. There are no hadiths in shia books, especially no sahih hadiths which claim Gabriel made a mistake. Rather if one was to look into Sunni hadiths could find narrations in which seem to give the Caliph Umar a higher status than the Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw). "Al-Hakim Al-Nisaburi (in his book AI-Mustadrak, part 3, page 84), reported that Ubayy Ibn Ka'b said the following: "I heard the Messenger of God saying: The first one the Almighty will embrace on the Day of Judgement is 'Umar. The first one the Lord will shake hands with will be 'Umar, and the first one the Almighty takes by His hand and admits to paradise is 'Umar." and Al-Hakim said "This hadith is authentic." (AI-Mustadrak, part 3, page 90). If the sun never rose on a man better than 'Umar, it means that 'Umar was not less than any of the Prophets of God including their highest, Muhammad Ibn Abdullah. and It is reported among the virtues of 'Umar that the Messenger of God said: "Whenever Gabriel delayed in his visits to me, I guessed that he was sent to 'Umar." (Ibn Abi AlHadid, Vol.6, part 12, page 178). Though these narrations in no way mean that the Sunni Muslims hold Umar higher in status than Muhammad (saw) , so why should the Sunnis believe that the Shia hold a higher status for Ali than Muhammad (saw)? No Muslim in their right mind would claim Gabriel made a mistake,
especially when Ali at the time was younger than 10 years of age while the prophet was a grown man – can an angel of Allah (swt) not distinguish between a child and a man, the most perfect man to have been created at that? Sources of this chapter: ―The Shi'ites Under Attack‖ by Muhammad Jawad Chirri
Abdullah ibn Saba'
Abdullah ibn Saba' is a character used by non-Shia to attack the Shia belief. Enemies of Islam and Shia Muslims claim that Shi‘ism originated from a man called Abdullah ibn Saba', a Jew who reverted to Islam during the time of the third caliph. They claim that Abdullah ibn Saba' traveled throughout the Muslim cities to announce that Ali (as) was the successor of Muhammad (saw). They claim that Abdullah ibn Saba' is the founder and origin of Shia and that all the ―false ideas‖ are from Abdullah ibn Saba'. They continue to say that Abdullah ibn Saba' had the idea of Prophet Muhammad (saw) being resurrected before the Day of Judgment because Prophet Jesus (as) would return and that Muhammad (saw) is the best of all prophets thus he must return too and that all the prophets had successors thus Imam Ali (as) is the successor of Muhammad (saw). The story continued that Abdullah ibn Saba' was able to get companions and they killed the caliph Uthman. The mere existence of Abdullah ibn Saba' is questionable, and even if such a man did exist the lies and fabrications of him spreading Shia beliefs is in itself propaganda against the Shia creed. Many of these fabricated stories of Abdullah ibn Saba' actually originate from a man called Sayf Ibn Umar al-Tamimi who lived in the 2nd century after hijra. Sayf is known to be a liar and fabricator who came up with disgusting claims to please governors and rulers. Sayf is also known as a follower and supporter of the Umayads, who are known to be enemies of Shia and Ahlul Bayt (as) thus of course he would create fabricated stories against Shia Muslims. Sayf is not only known to be a fabricator in Shia Islam, Sunni scholars also state that Sayf was a fabricator and cannot be trusted. The majority of Abdullah Ibn Saba‘s tales are narrated Sayf Ibn Umar thus before we analyze Abdullah ibn Saba‘, we should look into Sayf‘s character. Sayf is known to have created fictional companions and events that no other books but his mention. He has used names of cities which do not even exist or have ever existed. He has written about events which contradict with events held by majority of Muslims. ―Some biographers such as the authors of "Usdul Ghabah", "Isti'ab" and "Isabah" and geographers such as the authors of "Mu'jamul Boldan" and "al-Rawzul mi'tar" have written the life of some companions of the Prophet, and named places which exist only in the books written by Sayf.‖ Many Sunni scholars also hold negative views on Sayf. 1. al-Hakim (d. 405 AH) wrote: "Sayf is accused of being a heretic. His narrations are abandoned." 2. al-Nisa'i (d. 303 AH) wrote: "Sayf's narrations are weak and they should be disregarded because he was unreliable and untrustworthy." 3. Yahya Ibn Mueen (d. 233 AH) wrote: "Sayf's narrations are weak and useless." 4. Abu Hatam (d. 277 AH) wrote: "Sayf's Hadith is rejected."
5. Ibn Abi Hatam (d. 327 AH) wrote: "Scholars have abandoned Sayf's narrations." 6. Abu Dawud (d. 316 AH) wrote: "Sayf is nothing. He was a liar. Some of his Hadiths were conveyed and the majority of them are denied." 7. Ibn Habban (d. 354 AH) wrote: "Sayf attributed fabricated traditions to the good reporters. He was accused of being a heretic and a liar." 8. Ibn Abd al-Barr (d. 462 AH) mentined in his writing abut al-Qa'qa: "Sayf reported that al-Qa'qa Said: I attended the death of the Prophet Muhammad." Ibn Adb al-Barr continued: "Ibn Abu Hatam said: Sayf is weak. Thus, what was conveyed of the presence of al-Qa'qa at the death of the Prophet is rejected. We mentioned the Sayf's traditions for knowledge only." 9. al-Darqutini (d. 385 AH) wrote: "Sayf is weak". 10. Firoozabadi (d. 817 AH) in "Towalif" mentioned Sayf and some others by saying: "They are weak." 11. Ibn al-Sakan (d. 353 AH) wrote: "Sayf is weak." 12. Safi al-Din (d. 923 AH) wrote: "Sayf is considered weak." 13. Ibn Udei (d. 365 AH) wrote about Sayf: "He is weak. Some of his narrations are famous yet the majority of his narrations are disgraceful and not followed." 14. al-Suyuti (d. 900 AH) wrote: "Sayf's Hadith is weak." 15. Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (d. 852 AH) wrote after mentioning a tradition: "Many reporters of this tradition are weak, and the weakest among them is Sayf." So as you can see, Sayf is not a trusted person in either Shia or Sunni Islam. Yet why do some people still believe in his stories about Abdullah ibn Saba‘? Many of the hadiths about Abdullah ibn Saba‘ do not even have a chain of authorities (isnad) which is one of the primary was of deciding whether a hadith is legit or not. These hadiths will start with a phrase such as ―some people say so and so…‖ and not even list the people. Such weak hadiths could be found in Sunni works such as: 1. Ali Ibn Isma'il al-Ash'ari (d. 330) in his book "Maqalat al-Islamiyin" (Essays about the People of Islam). 2. Abdul-Qahir Ibn Tahir al-Baghdadi (d. 429) in his book "al-Farq Bain al-Firaq" (Differences of the Sects). 3. Muhammad Ibn Abdil-Karim al-Shahrastani (d. 548) in his book "al-Milal wan Nihal" (Nations and Cultures). Some narrations not from Sayf also exist in Shia and Sunni source but they are different than what Sayf has said. They state that Abdullah ibn Saba‘ existed during the time of Imam Ali (as) and that he claimed himself as a prophet and Ali was God (God Forbid). That When Ali (as) found out about this he imprisoned and then had Abdullah ibn Saba‘ burned to death for holding such views.
Yet even these narrations are not found in any of the major Sunni Sahihs and were never rated authentic by either Shia or Sunni scholars. Below are some of the hadiths on Abdullah ibn Saba‘ that did not originate from Sayf. One can easily see that these hadiths have different views on Abdullah ibn Saba‘ than the narrations of Sayf. It is attributed to Abu Ja'far (AS) saying: Abdullah Ibn Saba used to claim being a prophet and claimed that The Commander of Believers, Ali (AS) is God. Allah (swt) is Higher than such (claim). This news reached to The Commander of Believers (AS), so he called him and questioned him. But he repeated his claims and said: "You are Him (i.e., God), and it has been revealed to me that you are God and I am a prophet." So The Commander of Believers (AS) said: "How dare you! Satan has made a mockery of you. Repent for what you said. May your mother weep at your death! Quit (your claim)." But he refused, so (Imam Ali) imprisoned him and asked him three times to repent, but he didn't. Thus he burnt him with fire and said: "Satan had taken him into his whim, he used to come to him and to induce these (thoughts) in him." (Rijal, by al-Kushshi)
Moreover it is reported that Imam Ali Ibn Husain (AS) said: "May the curse of Allah (swt) be upon those who tell lies about us. I mentioned Abdullah Ibn Saba and each hair in my body stood up, Allah (swt) cursed him. Ali (AS) was, by Allah (swt), a proper servant of Allah (swt), the brother of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF). He did not earn the graciousness/honor from Allah (swt) except with the obedience to Allah (swt) and His Messenger. And (similarly) the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) did not earn the honor from Allah (swt) except with his obedience to Allah (swt)." (Rijal, by al-KuShshi)
It is reported that Abu Abdillah (AS) said: "We are a family of truthfulness. But we are not safe from a liar telling lies about us to undermine our truth with his lies in front of people. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) was the most truthful among people in what he said (Lahjatan) and the most truthful among all humanity; and Musaylima used to lie on him. The Commander of Believers (AS) was the most truthful one among the creation of Allah (swt) after the Messenger of Allah (saw); and the one who used to lie on him, and tried to undermine his truthfulness and claimed lies about Allah (swt), was Abdullah Ibn Saba." (Rijal, by alKushshi) Also:
"As he (Aba Abdillah - Ja'far al-Sadiq) was telling his companions in the subject of Abdullah Ibn Saba and that he claimed in Godness of The Commander of Believers, Ali Ibn Abi Talib. He said: When he claimed that in Ali, he asked him to repent and he refused, so he burnt him with fire." (Rijal, by al-Kushshi)
As for the Sunnis, few reports from Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani which provide the very similar information of what al-Kushshi (Kash) provided. Ibn Hajar mentioned: "Abdullah Ibn Saba was one of the extremist (al-Ghulat), dualist/seducee/manichaeist (Zindeeq), and misguided, which is conveyed that Ali burnt him with fire." (Lisan alMizan, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, v3, p289) Then Ibn Hajar continues: "Ibn Asakir mentioned in his History that `his origin (Abdullah Ibn Saba) was from Yemen and that he was a Jew who adopted Islam and traveled in the cities of Muslims and preached them to disobey their rulers, to induce evil amongst them, then he entered Damascus for that purpose.' Then Ibn Asakir mentioned a LONG STORY from the book of al-Futooh of Sayf Ibn Umar, which does not have correct support/authorities (isnad)." (Lisan al-Mizan, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, v3, p289) Then Ibn Hajar gives a tradition among whose chain of authorities two individuals are missing. In footnote he says that its has been dropped. This is the tradition: "Ali ascended the pulpit and said: What is wrong with him? People said: He is denying (or lying upon) Allah (swt) and His Messenger." (Lisan al-Mizan, by Ibn Hajar alAsqalani, v3, p289) In another tradition, Ibn Hajar reported: "Ali said to Abdullah Ibn Saba: I have been told that there shall be thirty liars/imposters (who claim prophethood) and your are one of them" (Lisan al-Mizan, by Ibn Hajar alAsqalani, v3, p290) He also wrote: "Ibn Saba and his followers believed in the deity of Ali Ibn Abi Talib, and certainly Ali burnt them by fire during his rule." (Lisan al-Mizan, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, v3, p290) As you can see, there is much more evidence against this made up character, or even overexaggerated character, and the originator Sayf than supporting evidence. Both Shia and Sunni scholars agree that Sayf, who was the first to bring hadiths about ibn Saba‘, was not a reliable person at all. But of course people will still insist that ibn Saba‘ was real and founded Shia Islam but – these are the people who attack other Muslims and bring no evidence to back up their claims. Allah (swt) has warned us of such evil-doers. All they want to do is to weaken the
Ummah as much as possible for their own personal gains and control or for their own hatred of other Muslims who practice fiqh slightly different. To claim that a Jew who reverted to Islam could so easily break up the Ummah and cause divisions just seems unreal.
Sources of this chapter:
Information and direct copy and paste from http://www.al-islam.org/encyclopedia/
―Abdullah Ibn Saba‘and Other Myths‖ by Sayyid Murtada Al-Askari
Status of Prophets and Imams
"Verily Allah (swt) intends to keep off from you every kind of uncleanness O' People of the House(Ahlul-Bayt), and purify you with a perfect purification". (Quran, the last sentence of (Holy Qur‘an 33:33) The status of Prophets and Imams within the Shia creed is fairly misunderstood. This is understandable due to how Shia Muslims view Prophets and Imams a bit differently from Sunni Muslims. The concept of Imamah is vital in the Shia school of thought. Shia Muslims believe that an Imam is divinely appointed by Allah (swt) and must be followed after a prophet such as Prophet Muhammad (saw). Sunnis believe that the successor of the Prophet (saw) should be appointed by an election, such as Abu Bakr‘s coming into power. My question is when has a successor ever been appointed by an election after a prophet? People like yourself and I are unable to choose a successor who would be the most perfect for the role. We can easily be influenced by bias and end up choosing a poor successor. But when Allah (swt) chooses the successors – you know that this successor is the most perfect being for the job. Abu Bakr himself has said: ―O people! I was appointed over you, but I am not the best one among you.‖ (al-Suyuti, Tarikh al-Khulafa‘, 69) Allah (swt) in the Holy Qur‘an says that he alone will choose successor or Imam for the earth: ―And when your Lord said to the angels, I am going to place in the earth a khalif, they said: What! wilt Thou place in it such as shall make mischief in it and shed blood, and we celebrate Thy praise and extol Thy holiness? He said: Surely I know what you do not know.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 2:30) ―O Dawud (David)! Verily! We have placed you as a successor on earth, so judge you between men in truth (and justice) and follow not your desire for it will mislead you from the Path of Allah (swt). Verily! Those who wander astray from the Path of Allah (swt) (shall) have a severe torment, because they forgot the Day of Reckoning.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 38:26) ―And when his Lord tried Ibrahim with certain words, he fulfilled them. He said: Surely I will make you an Imam of men. Ibrahim said: And of my offspring? My covenant does not include the unjust, said He.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 2:124) ―And We made of them Imams to guide by Our command when they were patient, and they were certain of Our communications.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 32:24)
Prophets (as) in Shia Islam, as well as the twelve Imams and Fatima (as) daughter of Muhammad (saw), are seen as infallible. Prophets and Imams are meant to be the most perfect examples for mankind to follow. If they made mistakes and errors, especially in morals and religion, people would imitate these mistakes and who would be accountable for these mistakes in the afterlife? The followers or the Prophets (God Forbid)? Infallibility is given to the Prophets (as) and Imams (as) by Allah (swt) so that they would abstain from sins using free will. It is not that that Prophets and Imams are unable to sin, but rather they choose not to sin. This is evident in the Holy Qur‘an: ―Surely. as regards My servants, you have no authority, over them except those who follow you of the deviators.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 15:42) ―He (Satan) said: Then by Thy Might I will surely make them live an evil life, all, Except Thy servants from among them, the purified ones.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 38:82-83) In the first verse, Allah (swt) tells the accursed Satan that the devils will not have any power over Allah (swt)‘s servants. Now we can say that even some of the most pious of Muslims fall to sin. So who are these servants whom Allah (swt) mentions that not even Shaytan can reach? It is the Prophets (as) and Imams (as) whom are infallible thus Satan is unable to reach them. In the second verse, Satan (may Allah (swt) protect us from him) states that he can corrupt all humans except for the purified servants of Allah (swt) whom he is unable to reach, the Prophets (as) and Imams (as). As you can see, Shia Muslims believe that the Prophets, from Adam to Muhammad (peace upon them all), and the twelve Holy Imams and Lady Fatima (peace upon them all), were of the best of people who did not commit any sin. Is this not a beautiful view? Unfortunately, Sunni Muslims believe that the Prophets (as) were capable of committing wrongs. Some Sunni hadiths (Sahih) even degrade the status of Prophet Muhammad (saw). ―Umar sought permission from the Messenger of Allah (saw) to visit him when some women of Quraysh were busy talking with him and raising their voices above his voice. When Umar sought permission, they stood up and went hurriedly behind the curtain. The Messenger of Allah (saw) gave him permission smilingly. Thereupon Umar said, 'O Messenger of Allah (aw), may Allah (swt) keep you happy all your life.' Then the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, 'I wonder at those women who were with me, and that no sooner did they hear your voice that they immediately wore the hejab.'‖ (Sahih alBukhari, ―Book on the Beginning of Creation‖ Hadith 3051, ―Book on Outstanding Traits‖ Hadith 3407, ―Good Manners‖ Hadith 5621; Sahih Muslim, ―Book on the Merits of the Companions‖ Hadith 4410; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 1, 171, 182, and 187)
The women in the above hadith respected Umar more than Muhammad (saw)? Muhammad (saw) who is the greatest of all creations? Shia Muslims do not believe in such things such as this hadith. Or this verse in which Muhammad (saw) allowed singing? ―Abu Bakr came to see me and I had two girls with me from among the girls of the Ansar, and they were singing what the Ansar recited to one another at the Battle of Bu΄ath. They were not however singing girls. Upon (seeing) this, Abu Bakr said, 'What? This wind instrument of Satan (being played) in the house of the Messenger of Allah (saw), and this too on Eid (Muslim holiday) day?' At this, the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, 'Abu Bakr, all people have a festival, and this is our festival (so let them play on).'‖ (Sahih al-Bukhari, ―Book on Friday Prayer‖ Hadith 897; Sahih Muslim, ―Book on the ‗Eid Prayers‖ Hadith 1479; al-Nisa΄i, ―Book on the ‗Eid Prayers‖ Hadith 1575-1577 and 1579; Sunan ibn Majah, ―Book on Marriage‖ Hadith 1888; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Part 6, 166, 186, and 247) In the next hadeeth, Umar instructs the Holy Prophet (saw) not to do something and that the Holy Qur‘an agreed with Umar. Narrated `Aisha: The wives of the Prophet used to go to Al-Manasi, a vast open place (near Baqi` at Medina) to answer the call of nature at night. `Umar used to say to the Prophet "Let your wives be veiled," but Allah's Apostle did not do so. One night Sauda bint Zam`a the wife of the Prophet went out at `Isha' time and she was a tall lady. `Umar addressed her and said, "I have recognized you, O Sauda." He said so, as he desired eagerly that the verses of Al-Hijab (the observing of veils by the Muslim women) may be revealed. So Allah revealed the verses of "Al-Hijab" (A complete body cover excluding the eyes). (Sahih Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 4, Number 148) In the next verse, Umar says something and a verse from the Holy Qur‘an is revealed relating to his wording. I wonder how such hadeeths come about which raise the character of a normal human being who was known to be an idol worshiper before Islam to that of a prophetic person. Narrated Umar: The wives of the Prophet out of their jealousy, backed each other against the Prophet, so I said to them; "It may be, if he divorced you all, that Allah will give him, instead of you wives better than you." So this Verse was revealed. (66.5) (Sahih Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, Number 438) Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "Among the nations before you there used to be people who were inspired (though they were not prophets). And if there is any of such a persons amongst my followers, it is 'Umar." (Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 57, Number 38)
As for the above verse, was their no better person to be inspired than Umar? Was not Imam Ali (as) always a monotheist and never worshiped an idol nor has there been any hadeeths to claim he has sinned? Whereas Umar was an idol worshipper before coming to Islam. Here is a hadeeth in which Umar continues to question the Holy Prophet (saw) Narated By Ibn 'Umar : When 'Abdullah bin Ubai (the chief of hypocrites) died, his son came to the Prophet and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Please give me your shirt to shroud him in it, offer his funeral prayer and ask for Allah's forgiveness for him." So Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) gave his shirt to him and said, "Inform me (When the funeral is ready) so that I may offer the funeral prayer." So, he informed him and when the Prophet intended to offer the funeral prayer, 'Umar took hold of his hand and said, "Has Allah not forbidden you to offer the funeral prayer for the hypocrites? The Prophet said, "I have been given the choice for Allah says: '(It does not avail) Whether you (O Muhammad) ask forgiveness for them (hypocrites), or do not ask for forgiveness for them. Even though you ask for their forgiveness seventy times, Allah will not forgive them. (9.80)" So the Prophet offered the funeral prayer and on that the revelation came: "And never (O Muhammad) pray (funeral prayer) for any of them (i.e. hypocrites) that dies." (9. 84) (Sahih Bukhari Volume 2, Book 23, Hadith 359) There are even Sunni hadiths which state that Muhammad (saw), the Seal of Prophethood, was urinating while standing up in: Sahih Muslim, Bab al-Hirab wal-Darq Yawm al-‗Eid; Sahih Muslim, ―Book of Taharah‖ Ch. 22; Sahih al-Bukhari, ―Book of Wudu‖ Vol. 1. There are also many more Sunni hadiths which seem to lower the status of Muhammad (saw) in embarrassing ways. How could anyone say such things about their Prophet (saw) I will never understand. Tell me which view of prophethood is more beautiful? The Shia view in which prophets did not commit wrongs and sins or the Sunni view in which prophets sin and had a lesser status than even their companions? Some accuse the Shia Muslims of believing that the 12 Holy Imams control the universe, even to the degree of controlling the atoms themselves. No Muslim believes such a thing. Allah (swt) bestows powers and knowledge upon some of his most pious servants. For example, Prophet Jesus (as) for example was able to resurrect the dead among other abilities. When Allah (swt) will say: O Isa son of Marium! Remember My favor on you and on your mother, when I strengthened you I with the holy Spirit, you spoke to the people in the cradle and I when of old age, and when I taught you the Book and the wisdom and the Taurat and the Injeel; and when you determined out of clay a thing like the form of a bird by My permission, then you breathed into it and it became a bird by My permission, and you healed the blind and the leprous by My permission; and when you brought forth the
dead by My permission; and when I withheld the children of Israel from you when you came to them with clear arguments, but those who disbelieved among them said: This is nothing but clear enchantment. (Holy Qur‘an 5:110) The Imams (as) did not have unlimited knowledge or power (God Forbid such beliefs). This would be a form of shirk to believe such a thing. Only Allah (swt) is All-Powerful and AllKnowledgeable as it clearly says throughout the Glorious Holy Qur‘an. The Imams (as) were however given great knowledge and abilities to an extent from Allah (swt). No Shia however believes that this knowledge and power exceeded Prophet Muhammad‘s (saw). The Imams (as) did have perfect knowledge of Islam and fiqh to lead the Ummah correctly after Muhammad (saw) so that we do not lose Islam. In a hadith used earlier in this chapter, Abu Bakr said that he was not the best among people. He was not infallible. He was fully capable of misunderstanding a verse in the Holy Qur‘an or committing a sin. The Ummah deserves a successor of the Prophet (saw) who did not err or sin. Here are some Sunni narrations in which elevate the status of the Holy Imams (as): Jalaluddin al-Suyuti mentioned that: "I have heard some of the deniers of (truth) deny what has been conveyed about Jesus that when he descends will pray the Fajr prayer behind al-Mahdi . They say, Jesus has higher status than to pray behind a non-Prophet. This is a bizarre opinion since the issue of prayer of Jesus behind al-Mahdi(as) has been proven strongly via numerous authentic traditions from the Messenger of Allah (saw), who is the most truthful." And then al-Suyuti goes on narrating some of the traditions in this regard. (Nuzool Isa Ibn Maryam Akhir al-Zaman, by Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, p. 56) "The Mahdi is of this Ummah, and that Jesus will come down and pray behind him." (Fat'h al-Bari, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, v5, p. 362) The Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) said: "He who wants to see Noah in his determination, Adam in his knowledge, Abraham in his clemency, Moses in his intelligence and Jesus in his religious devotion should look at Ali Ibn Abi Talib." (Sharh Ibn Abi al-Hadid, v2, p449. Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhruddin al-Razi, under the commentary of the verse of Impreciation (Mubilah), v2 p288.) Narrated Aisha: One day the Prophet (PBUH&HF) came out afternoon wearing a black cloak (upper garment or gown; long coat), then al-Hasan Ibn Ali came and the Prophet accommodated him under the cloak, then al-Husain came and entered the cloak, then Fatimah came and the Prophet entered her under the cloak, then Ali came and the Prophet entered him to the cloak as well. Then the Prophet recited: "Verily Allah (swt) intends to keep off from you every kind of uncleanness O' People of the House (Ahlul-Bayt), and purify you a perfect purification (the last sentence of Verse 33:33)." (Sahih Muslim, Chapter of virtues of companions, section of the virtues of the Ahlul-Bayt of the Prophet (PBUH&HF), 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1883, Tradition #61)
Muhammad (saws) said: "One of them (i.e. the Thaqalayn) is the Book of Allah (swt) and the other one is my select progeny (Itrat), that is family (Ahlul-Bayt). Beware of how you behave (with) them when I am gone from amongst you, for Allah (swt), the Merciful, has informed me that these two (i.e., Quran and Ahlul-Bayt) shall never separate from each other until they reach me in Heaven at the Pool (of al-Kawthar). I remind you, in the name of Allah (swt), about my Ahlul-Bayt. I remind you, in the name of Allah (swt), about my Ahlul-Bayt. Once more! I remind you, in the name of Allah (swt), about my Ahlul-Bayt." (A‘alam al-Wara, pg. 132-133) ―He Prophet (PBUH&HF) looked toward Ali, al-Hasan, al-Husain, and Fatimah, and said: "I am in the state of war with those who will fight you, and in the state of peace with those who are peaceful to you." Sunni Sources: 1. Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p699 2. Sunan Ibn Majah, v1, p52 3. Fada'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v2, p767, Tradition #1350 4. al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p149 5. Majma' al-Zawa'id, by al-Haythami, v9, p169 6. al-Kabir, by Tabarani, v3, p30, also in al-Awsat 7. Jamius Saghir, by al-Ibani, v2, p17 8. Tarikh, by al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi, v7, p137 9. Sawai'q al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p221 10. Talkhis, by al-Dhahabi, v3, p149 11. Dhakha'ir al-Uqba, by al-Muhib al-Tabari, p25 12. Mishkat al-Masabih, by Khatib al-Tabrizi, English Version, Tdadition #6145 ―The Holy Prophet (pbuh) said about Imam Ali (as), Bibi Fatima al-Zahra (as), Imam Hasan (as) and Imam Husayn (as): I am at peace with whomsoever they are at peace, and I am at war with whomsoever they are at war‖. (Sahih Ibn Hibban, Vol. 15, p. 434) ―Narrated Jabir Ibn Samura: I heard the Prophet saying, "There will be twelve commanders (Amir)." He then said a sentence which I did not hear. My father said, the Prophet added, "All of them will be from Quraish." (Sahih al-Bukhari Hadith: 89.329) Now these next few hadeeths might be a bit off topic but they are more appropriate to this chapter than others. The Sunni‘s always claim that the Shia disrespect the wives of the Holy Prophet (saw) (Aishia) so thus I would like you to read these hadeeths in which Abu Bakr and Umar slap the wives of the Holy Prophet (saw) which also happen to be Mother of the Believers thus they are not only slapping the wives of the holy Prophet (saw) but their mothers as well. You tell me who is being disrespectful, Shia or these companions
Jabir b. 'Abdullah (Allah be pleased with them) reported: Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him) came and sought permission to see Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him). He found people sitting at his door and none amongst them had been granted permission, but it was granted to Abu Bakr and he went in. Then came 'Umar and he sought permission and it was granted to him, and he found Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) sitting sad and silent with his wives around him. He (Hadrat 'Umar) said: I would say something which would make the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) laugh, so he said: Messenger of Allah, I wish you had seen (the treatment meted out to) the daughter of Khadija when you asked me some money, and I got up and slapped her on her neck. Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) laughed and said: They are around me as you see, asking for extra money. Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him) then got up went to 'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) and slapped her on the neck, and 'Umar stood up before Hafsa and slapped her saying: You ask Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) which he does not possess. They said: By Allah, we do not ask Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) for anything he does not possess. Then he withdrew from them for a month or for twenty-nine days. Then this verse was revealed to him:" Prophet: Say to thy wives... for a mighty reward" (xxxiii. 28). He then went first to 'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) and said: I want to propound something to you, 'A'isha, but wish no hasty reply before you consult your parents. She said: Messenger of Allah, what is that? He (the Holy Prophet) recited to her the verse, whereupon she said: Is it about you that I should consult my parents, Messenger of Allah? Nay, I choose Allah, His Messenger, and the Last Abode; but I ask you not to tell any of your wives what I have said He replied: Not one of them will ask me without my informing her. God did not send me to be harsh, or cause harm, but He has sent me to teach and make things easy. (Sahih Muslim, Book 9, Hadith 3506) Narrated Aisha: Abu Bakr came to towards me and struck me violently with his fist and said, "You have detained the people because of your necklace." But I remained motionless as if I was dead lest I should awake Allah's Apostle although that hit was very painful. (Sahih Bukhari Volume 8, Book 82, Number 828) Sources of this chapter:
“Inquiries About Shi'a Islam” by Sayed Moustafa al-Qazwini
―The Shi'ites Under Attack‖ by Muhammad Jawad Chirri
Combining of Prayers and Turbah
Shia Muslims, like all Muslims, pray the five mandatory prayers every day. The difference between Shia Muslims and other Muslims is that the Shia pray the five prayers but have three timings for prayer rather than five. For example, Fajr is prayed in its own time. Then Zuhr and Asr are prayed in the second timing. And finally Maghrib and Isha are prayed in the third timing. The timings are combined, not the actual prayers thus Shia do pray five different prayers but three times a day. Maliki, Shafi΄i, and Hanbali schools of thoughts from Sunni Islam declare that combining the prayers is only allowed when one his traveling whereas Hanafi says that combining is only allowed on the day of Arafat. Thus you can see that Sunni‘s themselves differ among the prayer timings and to an extent also combine the prayers to closer time periods. The Shia‘s believe that combining of prayers can be used anytime and if one pleases, they can also pray them at separate timings such as how Sunni‘s pray them. Praying five prayers three times a day is more convenient for a Muslim, especially those who have school or work. It makes their daily routines much easier to follow. Praying the prayers separately can cause stress when one working many hours a day such as a doctor and this could lease the person to miss one of the prayers. Also, when it comes to congregation prayers, it is much easier for people to come to the masjid to pray two prayers rather than come to the mosque to pray one prayer then come back again to prayer another pray. This could lead to Muslims missing out some congressional prayers. Lastly, the practice of combining the prayer timings is a Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (saw). If Shia believed that the Prophet (saw) never combined the prayers, then we would also not combine them. But according to hadeeths (even in Sunni sources) his (saw) prayers were combined. The Shia use this verse to justify their way of praying: ―Keep up prayer from the declining of the sun till the darkness of the night and the morning recitation; surely the morning recitation is witnessed.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 17:78) As you can see the three times of prayer are "Sun's Decline, Darkness of the Night, and the Morning Prayer." It clearly shows only three and not five. Where in the Qur‘an does it specify five different timings? Even Sunni scholar Fakhr al-Din al-Razi understood it the way Shia understand it in his Tafsir, Vol. 5, pg. 428. Even Sunni hadiths support the combining of prayers as how Shias pray: Ibn Abbas says: "The Prophet (PBUH&HF) prayed in Madina, while residing there, not traveling, seven and eight (this is an indication to the seven Raka't of Maghrib and Isha combined, and the eight Raka't of Zuhr and `Asr combined)." (Musnad al-Imam Ibn Hanbal, vol. 1, page 221)
Ibn Abbas says: "The Prophet (PBUH&HF) prayed Zuhr and `Asr in combination and Maghrib and Isha in combination WITHOUT a reason for fear or travel." (Muwatta' of Malik, vol. 1, page 161) Ibn Abbas reported: ―The messenger of Allah(may peace be upon him) observed the noon and the afternoon prayers together, and the sunset and Isha prayers together without being in a state of fear or in a state of journey‖ (Sahih Muslim, English version, Chapter CCL, Tradition #1515) Ibn Abbas reported that the messenger of Allah(may peace be upon him) combined the noon prayer with the afternoon prayer and the sunset prayer with the Isha prayer in Medina without being in a state of danger or rainfall. And in the hadith transmitted by Waki(the word sare): "I said to Ibn Abbas: What prompted him to do that? He said: So that his(prophet's)Ummah should not be put to (unnecessary) hardship." (Sahih Muslim, English version, Chapter CCL, Tradition #1520) Abdullah b. Shaqiq reported: Ibn Abbas one day addressed us in the afternoon(after the afternoon prayer) till the sun disappeared, and the stars appeared, and the people began to say: Prayer, prayer. A person from Banu Tamim came there. He neither slackened nor turned away, but (continued crying): Prayer, prayer. Ibn Abbas said: May you be deprived of your mother, do you teach me sunnah? And then he said: I saw the messenger of Allah(may peace be upon him) combining the noon and afternoon prayers and the sunset and Isha prayers. Abdullah b. Shaqiq said: Some doubt was created in my mind about it. So I came to Abu Huraira and asked him(about it) and he testified his assertion. (Sahih Muslim, English version, Chapter CCL, Tradition #1523) Abdullah b. Shaqiq al-Uqaili reported: A person said to Ibn Abbas(as he delayed the prayer): Prayer. He kept silent. He again said: Prayer. He again kept silent, and he cried: Prayer. He again kept silent and said: May you be deprived of your mother, do you teach us about prayer? We used to combine two prayers during the lifetime of the messenger of Allah(may peace be upon him). (Sahih Muslim, English version, Chapter CCL, Tradition #1524) Ibn Abbas reported: The messenger of Allah(may peace be upon him) observed the noon and afternoon prayers together in Medina without being in a state of fear or in a state of journey. Abu Zubair said: I asked Sa'id[one of the narrators] why he did that. He said: I asked Ibn Abbas as you have asked me, and he replied that he[the Holy prophet] wanted that no one among his Ummah should be put to [unnecessary] hardship. (Sahih Muslim, English version, Chapter CCL, Tradition #1516 Ibn Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah(may peace be upon him) observed in Medina seven (rakahs) and eight(rakahs), i.e., (he combined) the noon and afternoon
prayers(eight rakahs) and the sunset and Isha prayers(seven Rakahs). (Sahih Muslim, English version, Chapter CCL, Tradition #1522) As can be seen from these traditions, the followers of Ahlul Bayt (as) follow the prayer method of the Holy Prophet (saw). Now we will move on to the second part of this chapter, the turbah that Shia use in salah. Some people like to attack the Shia by claiming that prostrating on earth (turbah) or a natural material such as a leaf for example means that the Shia are praying to the material. This is a dangerous accusation, implying that fellow Muslims practice shirk by praying to a piece of clay. We Shia Muslims do not pray to the piece of clay or rock, we simply prostrate on it. We pray to Allah (swt) as instructed by the Holy Qur‘an itself. The piece of clay is nothing but a piece of clay. It is not a divine object or some kind of portal to the heavens. It simply shows that a Muslim is so humble before Allah (swt) that we will even place our foreheads upon the dust because of our love and fear of Allah (swt). Go to any atheist and ask them to bow down and place their foreheads on dirt, they will not do so because they lack this humbleness. We Muslims are created from earth (clay) and when we die we are buried in the earth, so why not use the earth to prostrate on during Salah? ―Imam al-Bukhari narrates that the Prophet said, ―I have been given five things which were not granted to anyone (any other prophet) before me: (1) Every apostle was sent particularly to his own people, whereas I have been sent to all people - red and yellow. (2) The spoils of war have been made lawful for me, and these were never made lawful for anyone before me. (3) The earth has been made pure and a place of prostration for me, so whenever the time of prayer comes for any one of you, he should pray wherever he is (upon the ground). (4) I have been supported by awe (to cause fear and intimidation to enter the hearts of the Prophet's enemies) from the distance (which if covered, would take one month to cross). (5) I have been granted intercession.‖ (Sahih al-Bukhari, ―Book on Making Ablutions with Sand or Earth‖ Hadith 323, ―Prayer‖, Hadith 419, ―The Prescribed Fifth Portion‖ Hadith 2890; Sahih Muslim, ―Book on masjids and Places of Performing Prayers,‖ Hadith 810; al-Nisa‘i, ―Book on Washing and the Dry Ablution‖, Hadith 429, ―masjids‖ Hadith 728; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 3, 305; al-Darami, ―Book on Prayer‖, Hadith 1353) According to this well documented Sunni hadeeth, the earth which ofcourse means dirt and stones as well as grass and other natural material have been made pure and a place of prostration for salah. The Masjid of the Holy Prophet (saw) itself did not have carpets on its earth (dust) grounds. Carpets did exist during the period but the Prophet (saw) had not chosen to use them in his mosque. Even when it rained and the dirt turned into mud, the Muslims and the Prophet (saw) would continue to pray and prostrate on this earth.
Imam al-Bukhari narrates that when the Prophet used to do the prayers in his own room, he would pray on khumra (a solid piece of dirt or a piece of straw). The Messenger of Allah performed his prayer and I (one of the wives of the Prophet) was lying down opposite to him while I was in menses. Sometimes his clothes touched me when he prostrated, and he used to prostrate on khumra.‖ (Sahih al-Bukhari, ―Book on Menstruation‖, Hadith 321, ―Book on Prayer,‖ Hadith 366, 487, and 488; Sahih Muslim, ―Book on Prayer‖, Hadith 797; al-Nisa‘i, ―Book on masjids‖, Hadith 730; Abu Dawud, ―Book on Prayer‖, Hadith 560; Ibn Majah, ―Book on Immediate Call for Prayer‖, Hadith 1018; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 6, 330, 331, 335, and 336; al-Darami, ―Book on Prayer‖ Hadith 1338) One of the wives of the Prophet said, ―I never saw the Prophet (while prostrating) prevent his face from touching the earth.‖ (Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 6, 58; al-Muttaqi alHindi, Kanz al-Ummal, Vol. 4, 212) Wa΄il, one of the Prophet's companions narrates, ―I saw (that) the Prophet, once he prostrated touched his forehead and nose on the earth.‖ (al-Jassas, Ahkam al-Quran, Vol. 3, 36; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 4, 315) Jabir ibn 'Abdullah al-Ansari says, ―I used to pray the noon prayers with the Messenger of Allah and I used to take a bunch of pebbles in my palm to cool them because of the enormous heat so I could prostrate on them.‖ (Sahih al-Nisa‘i, Vol. 2, 204; al-Hiythami, Sunan al-Bayhaqi, Vol. 1, 439;/ Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 3, 327) Anas ibn Malik narrates, ―We used to pray with the Messenger of Allah during the enormous heat, and one of us would take pebbles in our hands and once they were cool, put them down and prostrate on them.‖ (al-Hiythami, Sunan al-Bayhaqi, Vol. 2, 105; Nayl al-Awtar, Vol. 2, 268) Al-Khabbab ibn al-Arth says, ―We complained to the Messenger of Allah about the intensity of the heat of the ground and its effects on our foreheads and palms (during prostration) but the Prophet did not excuse us from praying on the ground.‖ (al-Hiythami, Sunan al-Bayhaqi, Vol. 2, 106) Narrated Abu Sa'id al-Khudri: ―I saw Allah's Apostle prostrating in mud and water and saw the mark of mud on his forehead (Al-Bukhari, Sahih (English translation), vol. 1, book 12, no. 798; vol. 3, book 33, no. 244 and also Sunan Abu Dawud, Urdu Edition, page 381, 376) Narrated Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri: ―A cloud came and it rained till the roof started leaking and in thosedays the roof used to be of the branches of date-palms. Iqama was
pronounced and I saw Allah's Apostles prostrating in water and mud and even I saw the mark of mud on his forehead.‖ (Saheeh al Bukharee Volume 1, Book 11, Number 638) The Messenger of Allah said: The earth has been made for me (and for my followers) a place for praying and a thing to perform Tayammum, therefore anyone of my followers can pray wherever the time of a prayer is due. (Saheeh al Bukharee, Book on Making Ablutions with Sand or Earth, hadith Volume 1, Book 7, Number 331) Narrated Maymuna: Allah's Apostle used to pray on a Khumra (a small mat (made from palm leaf) sufficient just for the face and the hands while prostrating during prayers). (AlBukhari, Sahih (English translation), vol. 1, book 8, no. 378) The Messenger of Allah said: Make your faces dusty, and cover your noses with dust" (Targhib wal-Tarhib, Vol 1 page 581) The Messenger of Allah said: Rub yourself by earth because its pity/mercy for you, pity/mercy just like the kind mother have mercy for her childern, verily you have been created from it, it is your livelihood (food) and to it you will be buried after death (Kanz al Ummal Volume 7 Hadeeth Number 19778) The Messenger of Allah said: Bow/Prostrate your Face on earth/soil Towards Allah (Kanz ul Ummal Vo.7 Tradition No. 19809) There are also narrations in which the Prophet (saw) saw a man prostrating on his turban and the Prophet (saw) instructed him to remove the turban and prostrate on the earth. (al-Hiythami, Sunan al-Bayhaqi, Vol. 2, 105; Ibn Hajar, al-Isabah li Ma‗rifat al-Sahabah, Vol. 2, 201) As you can see, prostrating on earth is permissible according to Sunni sources yet the Shia Muslims are still attacked and are said are praying to rocks. But of course there are certain situations in which a Muslim might not have access to a piece of earth during Salah, such as when on a plane or a ship. In these emergency situations, praying on a piece of cloth or carpet is permissible. Messenger of Allah has said, ―Nothing has been forbidden to man, except that Allah permits it for whoever is compelled (in times of emergency).‖ Also, for those who prostrate on carpet, can it not be said that they are praying to the carpet as how some claim the Shia praying to the stone? Whereas the Sunni Muslims prostrate on a material put together by man, Shia Muslims prostrate on something which Allah (swt) has created and all we do is mold it into a small piece. Sources of this chapter: • • http://www.al-islam.org/encyclopedia/ and other pages from the site. ―Inquiries About Shi'a Islam‖ by Sayed Moustafa al-Qazwini
Mut‘ah is also one of the most favorite topics used by enemies of Shia in trying to disprove the Shia creed. Mut‘ah is a temporary marriage which can last a day or years; a couple will agree on when the period of marriage begins and when it ends. Now in Islam, a permanent marriage is something in which every Muslim should aim for. It has been said that marriage completes half of a person‘s deen. Mut‘ah is a marriage which should be used only in certain situations and is not something that should be encouraged for all the youth to partake in. Mut‘ah marriages hold the same legality as permanent ones, such as upholding each other‘s dignity, will, and respect. It shares the same rules as permanent marriage and conditions and restrictions could be used when setting up a mut‘ah marriage. In non-Shia schools of thought, if a man marries a lady knowing that he will divorce her within a short period of time and without telling her this, then the marriage is still valid. In this type of situation, isn‘t mut‘ah a better choice in which both the man and woman will agree and know of all the conditions? ―In essence, temporary marriage is a 'normal marriage' with a mutual agreement that is conditioned by a period of time. The conditions for this marriage include the following: a proposal and acceptance, a dowry for the woman, both parties have to consent and both have the freedom to accept or decline, both have to be sane, and a virgin woman must have her father's or guardian's approval. However, in temporary marriage, there is no obligation for sustenance or inheritance unless it is stated and conditioned in the marriage contract.‖ (Sayed Moustafa al-Qazwini) Mut‘ah itself does not even need to be about sexual activities. Restrictions of mut‘ah could state that no physical contact will be made. Mut‘ah can be used as a way to communicate with a person from the opposite gender in private in a hallal way to get to know the person better for permanent marriage. Mut‘ah could also be uses for sexual pleasures too. It is humanistic nature to have sexual pleasures, this is one of the gifts bestowed to humans from Allah (swt). Unlike Christianity for example, in which forbids sexual acts for priests and nuns, Islam permits sexual acts to all Muslims and is not something which is haraam or shameful. If a man or woman have not been married and are fairly old in age, they could have a lot of built of sexual tension within them and mut‘ah could be the hallal means to rid oneself from this tension. Is this not the reason as to why priests are associated with sexual abuse? One of the needs of the body is to release any sexual tension that is built up and this is why marriage in Islam is recommended to the youth. The earlier the one marries the less sins the person will avoid (such as masturbation). Also, all Muslims (Shia and Sunni) agree that mut‘ah was permitted during the time of the Holy Prophet (saw) by Qur‘an and Sunnah. The disagreement is on whether mut‘ah was later abrogated by Qur‘an and made forbidden after it has been made hallal. This fact alone should stop anyone from condemning mut‘ah in such ways as calling it prostitution or evil or anything else negative. If it was once permissible and was Sunnah, then saying such negative things is also
insulting the Holy Prophet (saw) who declared it permissible during his lifetime according to all Sunni scholars. Shia Muslims claim that the Holy Prophet (saw) did not stop mut‘ah marriages but it was Umar who decided it would not be a permissible practice. Shia scholars use this following verse to prove mut‘ah legitimacy: ―And all married women except those whom your right hands possess (this is) Allah's ordinance to you, and lawful for you are (all women) besides those, provided that you seek (them) with your property, taking (them) in marriage not committing fornication. Then as to those whom you profit by, give them their dowries as appointed; and there is no blame on you about what you mutually agree after what is appointed; surely Allah is Knowing, Wise.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 4:24) But of course Sunni hadeeths should also be provided: Imam al-Bukhari narrates, ―There came to us the declarer of Allah's Messenger and said, 'Allah's Messenger has granted you permission to have temporary marriage,'—that is mut'ah with women.‖ (Sahih al-Bukhari, ―Book on Marriage‖, Hadith 4725; Sahih Muslim, ―Book on Marriage‖, Hadith 2494; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 4, 47, 51, and 55) Imam al-Bukhari narrates, ―We were on an expedition with Allah's Messenger and we had no women with us. We said, 'should we not have ourselves castrated?' He (the Prophet) forbade us to do so. He then granted us permission to contract temporary marriage for a stipulated period giving the women garments; and 'Abdullah then recited this verse, ―O you who believe, do not make unlawful the good things that Allah has made lawful for you, and do not transgress. Allah does not like the transgressors.‖ (Noble Quran, 5:87; Sahih al-Bukhari, ―Book on the Interpretation of the Noble Quran‖, Hadith 4249, ―Marriage‖, Hadith 4683 and 4686; Sahih Muslim, ―Book on Marriage‖, Hadith 2493; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 1, 385, 390, 420, 432, and 450) Imam al-Bukhari narrates: ―We went out with Allah's Messenger on the expedition to Banu al-Mustaliq. We were suffering from the absence of our wives, so we decided to have temporary marriage with women but by observing 'azl (outside ejaculation). But we said, 'We are doing an act whereas Allah's Messenger is amongst us - why not ask him?' So we asked Allah's Messenger and he said, 'It does not matter if you do not do it, for every soul that is to be born up to the Day of Resurrection will definitely be born (and nothing can prevent this from occurring).'‖ (Sahih al-Bukhari, ―Book on Types of Selling‖, Hadith 2077, ―Setting Free‖, Hadith 2356; Sahih Muslim, ―Book on Marriage‖, Hadith 2599; al-Tirmidhi, ―Book on Marriage‖, Hadith 1057; al-Nisa‘i, ―Book on Marriage‖, Hadith 3275; Abu Dawud,
―Book on Marriage‖, Hadith 1855-1857; Ibn Majah, ―Book on Marriage‖, Hadith 1916; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 3, 88; Malik, ―Book on Divorce‖, Hadith 1090, alDarami, ―Book on Marriage‖, Hadith 2126 and 2127) Narrations in which state that mut‘ah was allowed by the Holy Prophet (saw) can also be found in Sahih Muslim, ―Book of Marriage‖, Ch. 3, Narrations 15-17. Even some Sunni scholars, such as al-Qurtubi, allowed mut‘ah as seen in his Tafsir al-Qurtubi, Vol. 5, 132; Tafsir al-Tabari. Sources of this chapter: • • • www.al-islam.org ‗Aalim Network QR ―Temporary Marriage in Islamic Law‖ by Sachiko Murata ―Inquiries About Shi'a Islam‖ by Sayed Moustafa al-Qazwini
Taqiyyah is one of the most misunderstood aspects of Islam, something which many claim is only found in Shia Islam and has no place in other sects of Islam. Whoever says such a thing is clearly ignorant and this will be proven. Many non-Shia Muslims accuse Shia of concealing their true beliefs and lying all the time and call this taqiyyah. Such person‘s do not understand taqiyyah at all. Taqiyyah is to conceal your beliefs in situations which could endanger your life or someone else‘s life. It does not mean one is allowed to lie to get their way or whenever they please. Lying is a great sin in Islam and the Qur‘an has dozens of verses to condemn liars. ―He who disbelieves in Allah (swt) after his belief in Him, (is the liar) except he who is compelled while his heart remains steadfast with the faith (has nothing worry). But who opens his breast for infidelity; on these is wrath of Allah (swt), and for them is a great torment.‖ (Holy Qur'an 16:100) ―This verse of the Qur‘an refers to the incident when 'Ammar bin Yasir (May Allah (swt) be pleased with both) had to utter some words against Islam to save himself from the Quraishite infidels. It clearly allows hiding one 's true faith when one is in danger of one's life. This rule is called taqiyah.‖ This verse from the Holy Qur‘an clearly shows that taqiyyah is part of Islam. Taqiyyah does not mean one should abandon their beliefs and religion, but rather conceal them. Here some Sunni hadiths which support taqiyyah: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti in his book, "al-Durr al-Manthoor Fi al-Tafsir al-Ma'athoor," narrates Ibn Abbas', opinion regarding al-Taqiyya in the Quranic verse: "Let not the believers take for friends or helpers unbelievers rather than believers: if any do that, (they) shall have no relation left with Allah (swt) except by way of precaution ("tattaqooh"), that ye may guard yourselves ("tooqatan") from them....(3:28)" that Ibn Abbas said: "al-Taqiyya is with the tongue only; he who has been COERCED into saying that which angers Allah (swt) , and his heart is comfortable (i.e., his TRUE faith has NOT been shaken.), then (saying that which he has been coerced to say) will NOT harm him (at all); (because) alTaqiyya is with the tongue only, (NOT the heart)."
Ibn Abbas also commented on the above verse, as narrated in Sunan alBayhaqi and Mustadrak al-Hakim, by saying: "al-Taqiyya is the uttering of the tongue, while the heart is comfortable with faith." and "It is permissible to speak words of unbelief when al-Taqiyya is mandatory." (Abu Bakr al-Razi in his book, "Ahkam al-Quran," v2, p10) And It has been narrated by Abd al-Razak, Ibn Sa'd, Ibn Jarir, Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn Mardawayh, al-Bayhaqi in his book "al- Dala-il," and it was corrected by al-Hakim in his book "alMustadrak" that: "The nonbelievers arrested `Ammar Ibn Yasir (RA) and (tortured him until) he (RA) uttered foul words about the Prophet (PBUH&HF), and praised their gods (idols); and when they released him (RA), he (RA) went straight to the Prophet (PBUH&HF). The Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: "Is there something on your mind?" `Ammar Ibn Yasir (RA) said: "Bad (news)! They would not release me until I defamed you (PBUH&HF) and praised their gods!" The Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: "How do you find your heart to be?" `Ammar (RA) answered: "Comfortable with faith." So the Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: "Then if they come back for you, then do the same thing all over again." Allah (swt) at that moment revealed the verse: "....except under compulsion, his heart remaining firm in faith...(16:106)" And Humaid b. 'Abd al-Rahman b. 'Auf reported that his mother Umm Kulthum daughter of 'Uqba b. Abu Mu'ait, and she was one amongst the first emigrants who pledged allegiance to Allah (swt)'s Apostle (may peace be upon him), as saying that she heard Allah (swt)'s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: A liar is not one who tries to bring reconciliation amongst people and speaks good (in order to avert dispute), or he conveys good. Ibn Shihab said he did not hear that exemption was granted in anything what the people speak as lie but in three cases: in battle, for bringing reconciliation amongst persons and the narration of the words of the husband to wife, and the narration of the words of a wife to her husband (in a twisted form in order to bring reconciliation between them). (Sahih Muslim (English version), Chapter MLXXVII, v4, p1373, #6303) And
And Allah (swt) said `except when you hale to guard your-selves against them for fear from them‘. And it is Taqiyah.
.... And Hassan (Basri) said: `Taqiyah is upto the Day of Resurrection .... And the Prophet (s.a:w.) said: `Deed are according to intention. (al‑Bukhari, as‑Sahib. Egypt ed., vol. 9, pp. 24‑25) As long as you know in your heart your true beliefs, the lying in taqiyyah to protect your life or someone else‘s life is permissible. Life is a very precious thing given to from Allah (swt) , why give it up when you could use taqiyyah in certain situations? Though to use taqiyyah and have someone else‘s life be in danger is not permissible. ―And he who saves it (i.e., a human life) shall be as though he has saved the whole mankind.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 5:32) Let‘s say you were in a situation and either use taqiyyah and lie and be saved from death or tell the truth and be killed. Being killed could be seen as suicide especially when you could have simply lied yet hold the truth in your heart and live. In this situation, lying is obviously a lesser sin so the logical thing to do is lie. But in situations in which your life is in harm, Allah (swt) allows you to lie in a form called taqiyyah. Or look at it from this perspective. A non-Muslim is looking and wanting to kill a certain Muslim. The Muslim is in hiding and the non-Muslim comes to you and asks you the whereabouts of the Muslim. You could either tell the truth and the consequence is the Muslim being killed or you can lie and save the Muslims life. Which would you rather commit, a lie or a murder? To lie would be using taqiyyah in this certain situation because you are saving a Muslims life. ―Let not the believers take the disbelievers as their friends rather than the believers; whoso shall do this then he has no relation with Allah (swt) except when you have to guard Yourselves against them for fear from them; but Allah (swt) cau-tions you of Himself for unto Allah (swt) is the end of your jour-ney. Say, whether you conceal what is in your hearts or manifest it, Allah (swt) knows it; and He knows all that is in the heavens and all that is‑in the earth; and verily Allah (swt) has power over all things.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 3:28‑29) ―And said a man who was a believer from among the people of Pharaoh: who used to conceal his faith …‖ (Holy Qur‘an 40:28) Some would say that if taqiyyah was allowed, why did Imam Hussein (as) not use it and swear allegiance to Yazid and save his life? The answer is simple: Using taqiyyah and having someone
else‘s life be destroyed is not allowed. Also, using taqiyyah and having someone else‘s faith be destroyed is also not permissible. If Imam Hussein (as) used taqiyyah and swore allegiance to Yazid – then many Muslims would believe that Yazid was a righteous ruler all that he introduced in Islam was righteous (though it was clearly not) and thus their faith would crumble. This is why Hussein (as) did not use taqiyyah. A Sunni scholar writes: "Know that the long arguments for and against taqiyah are useless …. but there is no doubt in its validity and legality. Of course, common people do not like its name (taqiyah) because it has been identified with the Shi'as. Otherwise, the whole world uses it naturally, though some call it `tolerance', others name it as `diplomacy, and some call it `common sense'. And it is proved by proofs of Shari‘ah (Islam).‖ (Tufi, Sharhu 'l Arba'in an‑Nawawi as quoted in Falkun‑Najat, 2nd ed. Lahore, vol. 2, p. 107) Sources of this chapter: ―Taqiyah‖ by Syed Saeed Akhtar Rizvi
Tombs and Grave Worshiping
One of the worst accusations against Shia Muslims is that they worship the graves or those buried in the grave (God Forbid), we have already stated that Shia are Muslims and the worship of any Muslim belongs to Allah (swt) and Allah (swt) alone . To accuse any Muslim that they worship anyone or anything besides Allah (swt) is a great sin. These accusations have been made against the Shia as hate propaganda and to separate the Shia and Sunni as much as possible. Till this day many Sunnis still believe Shias worship graves… oh how ignorant these people are. But you cannot really blame them but rather blame the leaders and so called sheikhs who say such harmful things. One argument is that constructing a tomb over a grave is haraam. A simple refute (non-scholarly) is that the grave of Imam Bukhari has a large dome over it. So how can Sunni‘s demand that the shrines and domes over the Ahlul Bayt (as) graves be demolished when one of the most respected Sunni Imam‘s has his very own dome? Even the Sunni scholar ibn Taymiyyah has a tomb. There is a shrine of Sayida Zainab (as) and a shrine for Imam Hussein (as) in Egypt – a Sunni country. If it was truly haraam would the Sunnis in Egypt allow shrines to exist in their own country? Abu Hanifa has a shrine in Baghdad, Iraq. If it is truly haraam to build shrines why would Abu Hanifa have one? Apparently, in these Islamic countries as well as others there are no problems with shrines. But once you go to Saudi Arabia – the building of shrines suddenly becomes a problem. The Wahabis and government of Suadi Arabia not only attack the Shia Muslims for having shrines but also Shafi‘i Sunni Muslims. Wahabis also demolished a house belonging to the Prophet (saw) and built a public toilet facility among other buildings over the area. Abu Bakr‘s house was demolished to make room for a hotel. Though who is worshiping these houses? No one, they are simply a part of Islamic culture and history yet these important historical pieces are now gone and businesses have been set up so the Saudi country could make more money. How is honoring the person in a tomb haraam? What is haraam about paying respect to those who have passed away? The Companions of the Cave, through the permission of Allah (swt) , have a mosque built over their graves as told in the Holy Qur‘an. ―And thus did We make (men) to get knowledge of them that they might know that Allah (swt)'s promise is true and that as for the hour there is no doubt about it. When they disputed among themselves about their affair and said: Erect an edifice over them-- their Lord best knows them. Those who prevailed in their affair said: We will certainly raise a masjid over them.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 18:21) Some will reply that the Holy Qur‘an forbids praying or standing next to a grave and will use this verse:
―And never offer prayer for any one of them who dies and do not stand by his grave; surely they disbelieve in Allah (swt) and His Messenger and they shall die in transgression.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 9:84) The response to this is that one must first understand the context of the verse. The context: When Abdullah ibn Ubay died, his son came to the Prophet (saw) and said ―could I use your shirt as a kaffan for my father?‖ and the Prophet agreed. Then the son asked if the Prophet could pray for his father and the Prophet agreed but then the Qur‘an verse listed above was revealed. It is clearly stating that one should not pray for or stands next to a grave of a disbeliever of Allah (swt) and Islam. It does not say do not stand by a grave who is a believer. Some people will see a Shia, for example, in sujuud in front of a grave of an Imam. They will say that this person is prostrating to the grave or the person within the grave. No they are not, they are prostrating to Allah (swt) and Allah (swt) only. Their Niyah is to prostrate to Allah (swt). It is funny how some Sunnis claim that Shia prostrate to the graves – how do they know this? Do they know the niyah of the one who‘s in prostration or does Allah (swt) know? Syedna Ismail (as) and his Mother Syeda Hajira (as) are said to be buried under the Hateem of the Kabah. Thus when one goes on hajj and prays, are they not near these graves? Or when one prays towards the Kabah are they also not praying towards these graves? It is the niyah of the person which makes the difference. And let us not forget Masjid al-Nabawi where the Prophet (saw) is buried. Do not millions of people pray right near this grave? The Prophet (saw) himself visited the grave of his mother, Amina binte Wahab, and he would begin to weep. So why do people have problems with Shia crying near the graves of the Holy Imams (as) when the Prophet himself wept at the grave of his mother? (Tabaqaat Ibne Saad 1:116 Sunan Nasai, Kitabul Janaiz.) Here are some hadiths on the subject: Narrated Abu Huraira: A black man or a black woman used to sweep the mosque and he or she died. The Prophet asked about her (or him). He was told that she (or he) had died. He said, "Why did you not inform me? Show me his grave (or her grave)." So he went to her (his) grave and offered her (his) funeral prayer." (Bukhari Book #8, Hadith #448) Yahya related to me from Malik that Abdullah ibn Dinar said, "I saw Abdullah ibn Umar stop by the grave of the Prophet, may Allah (swt) bless him and grant him peace, and ask for blessings on the Prophet, may Allah (swt) bless him and grant him peace, and on Abu Bakr and Umar." (Malik‘s Muwatta Book #9, Hadith #9.22.71) Sources of this chapter:
Lecture titled ―The Grave Worshipping Controversy‖ by Sayed Ammar Nakshawani from www.sayedammar.com ―Building of Tombs‖ by Sayed Murtaza Askari
The Shia use of intercession, one of the most controversial topics, is constantly being attacked to the point that Shia Muslims are called mushriks. Intercession is not only used by Shia but also by some Sunnis though Wahabis are constantly attacking this topic even though it could be found in Sunni sources and even the Holy Qur‘an. Intercession itself does not mean to ask others instead of Allah (swt) for help but rather asking these personalities (such as Prophets, Imams, Companions, etc.) to pray to Allah (swt) to help you. Does it not make sense that Allah (swt) will answer the prayers of those closer to him than us? All Muslims know that no help or good or benefits or rizk can come but from Allah (swt). So when you are sick and go to the doctor, is it because of the doctor that you are healed or because of Allah (swt)? Of course it is because of Allah (swt) that you are healed but you were able to get this healing through the doctor. Without the Will of Allah (swt), nothing can be done. For the remaining of this chapter, I will use Qur‘an and hadiths to prove intercession is permissible. The Holy Qur‘an views intercession in three different ways. The first way is that the Holy Qur‘an negates intercession as seen in this verse: ―And be on your guard against a day when no soul shall avail another in the least neither shall any compensation be accepted from it, nor shall intercession profit it, nor shall they be helped.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 2:123) Other verses state that only Allah (swt) will intercede for the people such as: ―Say: Allah's is the intercession altogether; His is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, then to Him you shall be brought back.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 39:44) And thirdly we have verses in which allow intercession: ―Allah is He besides Whom there is no god, the Everliving, the Self-subsisting by Whom all subsist; slumber does not overtake Him nor sleep; whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth is His; who is he that can intercede with Him but by His permission? He knows what is before them and what is behind them, and they cannot comprehend anything out of His knowledge except what He pleases, His knowledge extends over the heavens and the earth, and the preservation of them both tires Him not, and He is the Most High, the Great.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 2:255) ―Surely your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six periods, and He is firm in power, regulating the affair, there is no intercessor except aher His permission; this is Allah, your Lord, therefore serve Him; will you not then mind?‖ (Holy Qur‘an 10:3)
―He knows what is before them and what is behind them, and they do not intercede except for him whom He approves and for fear of Him they tremble‖ (Holy Qur‘an 21:28) ―On that day shall no intercession avail except of him whom the Beneficent Allah allows and whose word He is pleased with.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 20:109) ―They shall not control intercession, save he who has made a covenant with the Beneficent Allah.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 19:87) The Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw) himself was able to intercede for people while he was alive among them as clearly shown in this verse: ―And We did not send any messenger but that he should be obeyed by Allah's permission; and had they, when they were unjust to themselves, come to you and asked forgiveness of Allah and the Messenger had (also) asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah Oft-returning (to mercy), Merciful.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 4:64) Even Prophets (as) before Muhammad (saw) interceded for people: ―(The brothers of Yusuf) They said: O our father! ask forgiveness of our faults for us, surely we were sinners. He said: I will ask for you forgiveness from my Lord; surely He is the Forgiving, the Merciful.‖ (Holy Qur‘an 12:97-98) Here is a Sunni Hadith to support intercession: ―I will be interceding on the Day of Judgment for whoever has faith in his heart.‖ (alMuttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-Ummal, Hadith 39043) Also from the same source as above: ―Each prophet before me asked Allah for something which he was granted, and I saved my request until the Day of Judgment for intercession on behalf of my nation.‖ The Intercessors are five: the Quran, one's near relatives, trusts (amanah), your Prophet, and the family of your Prophet (the Ahlul Bayt). (al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-Ummal, Hadith 39041) Now let us go back to the Holy Qur‘an, the best of all sources. "Musa said: O Allah! Assign me a Vizier from my family, (that is) my brother Haroon. Add to my strength through him, and make him share my task: that we may celebrate thy praise without stint... (Allah) said: "We granted your requests, O Musa" (The Holy Qur'an 20:29-36)
As you can see in these verses, Prophet Musa (as) asked Allah (swt) for help by requesting his brother Haroon (as) to join his mission. For those who attack intercession, could they not also say in regards to these verse: why did Musa (as) not just ask help from Allah (swt) instead of asking for help from Allah (swt) by the aid of his brother? Is it an act of shirk that Musa (as) wanted help from his brother? Of course not! A commentary by a Sunni scholar of the verses above read: "When this verse descended, The Prophet (s) was on a mountain, straight after it's descent, The Prophet (s) prayed to Allah, Oh Allah! Through my brother Ali, ease the burden on my back', and Allah accepted this prayer"(Tafsir Durre Manthur, by Jaladin Suyuti, Vol 4 p 295) In another verse of the Holy Qur‘an it reads: "We divided them into twelve tribes or nations. We directed Moses by inspiration, when his (thirsty) people asked him for water: "Strike the rock with thy staff": out of it there gushed forth twelve springs: Each group knew its own place for water. We gave them the shade of clouds, and sent down to them manna and quails, (saying): "Eat of the good things We have provided for you": (but they rebelled); to Us they did no harm, but they harmed their own souls.‖ (The Holy Qur'an 7:160) In this verse, the people of Moses (as), asked Moses (as) for water rather than ask Allah (swt) directly. Indeed Prophet Moses (as) interceded for his people and Allah (swt) answered the prayer by providing the twelve springs. If intercession was not permissible, then why would Allah (swt) provide the people with the twelve springs when they asked Moses (as)? In another verse of the Holy Qur‘an Prophet Sulayman (as) asked help not from Allah (swt) but rather from his own servants (people much inferior to him, a Prophet): ―He said: O chiefs! which of you can bring to me her throne before they come to me in submission?‖ (Holy Qur‘an 27:38) Now if a Prophet can ask help from ordinary beings, why are we not allowed to ask for intercession from Prophets and Imams who have profound knowledge and belief to pray for us to Allah (swt)? To say that Sunni Islam forbids intercession is completely wrong. Many well-known scholars and Imams of Ahlul-Sunnah such as Shafi'i' and Maliki claim that intercession is permissible, for example from the Prophet (saw) whether he was alive or has passed away. Sources: 1. Sharh al-Mawahib' vol. 8' p. 304; 2. al-Majmu'' vol. 8' p. 274;
3. 4. 5. 6.
Ibn 'Abidin' vol. 5' p.254; al-Fatawa al-Hindiyyah' vol. 1' p. 266 and vol. 5' 318; Fath al-Qadir' vol. 8' p. 297' 298 al-Futuhat al-Rabbaniyyah 'ala al-Azkar al-Nabawiyyah' vol. 5' p. 36
―The Abbasid caliph' Mansur al-Dawaniqi' once asked Imam Malik ibn Anas whether he should turn towards the grave of the Prophet (s) or face the Qiblah for supplication? Malik answered him: Why do you want to turn away from the Prophet (s) when he (Prophet Muhammad (s)) is the wasilah (means) for you and for your father Adam' towards Allah on the Day of Resurrection. Turn to him (the Prophet) and seek his intercession (shafa'at).‖ (Taken from Al-Mughni ma' al-Sharh' vol. 3' p. 588; al-Sharh al-Kabir ma' al-Mughni' vol. 3' p. 494; alQadi 'Iyad in al-Shifa (2:92-93) And: ―Imam of Ahl'ul Sunnah 'Ala' al-Din al-Mardawi said in his book al-Insaf fi ma'rifat alrajih min al-khilaf 'ala madhhab al-Imam al-mubajjal Ahmad ibn Hanbal (3:456): "The correct position of the [Hanbali] madhhab is that it is permissible in one's supplication (du'a) to use as means a pious person' and it is said that it is desirable (mustahabb). Imam Ahmad said to Abu Bakr al-Marwazi:yatawassalu bi al-nabi fi du'a'ih -- "Let him use the Prophet as a means in his supplication to Allah". And: Imam of Ahl ul Sunnah Ibn Hajr Haytami has repeated in many places of his book alSawa'iq al-muhriqa li ahl al-dalal wa al-zandaqa (eg page 180) and al-Khayrat al-hisan (p. 69): "Imam Shafi'i made tawassul through the Family of the Prophet (Ahl al-Bayt) when he said: The Family of the Prophet are my means and my intermediary to him. Through them I hope to be given my record with the right hand tomorrow". 1. Ibn Hajr Haytami' in Al-Sawa'iq al-muhriqa li ahl al-dalal wa al-zandaqa (eg page 180) 2. al-Khayrat al-hisan (p. 69) This has also been found in Diwan al-Shafi'i as edited by 'Umar Faruq al-Dabbagh (Beirut: Dar al-arqam' n.d.) p. 50. And:
―The pilgrim should face the shrine of the Messenger of Allah (s)' make him a means (tawassul) towards reaching God and seek his wasilah as intercession (shafa'at)' in the same manner as the Bedouin who visited the Prophet's shrine and standing beside it said: ‗Peace unto you O Messenger of Allah' I have heard Allah has said: ...Had they' when they had wronged themselves' come to you and asked Allah's forgiveness and the Apostle had asked forgiveness for them' they would certainly have found Allah Most-Propitious' Most-Merciful. (Holy Qur'an 4: 64). Therefore' I have come to you for forgiveness of my sins and seeking your intercession with Allah.‖ (Al-Majmu'' vol. 8' p. 274; Fayd al-Qadir' vol. 2' p. 134; I'anah al-Talibiyyin' p. 315) And: "The heart and center of guidance towards miracles is Hadhrath ‗Ali (may Allah enlighten his face). Amongst the Ummah' both past and present no one can attain the station of Wilayath without the assistance of ‗Ali's soul' this station can only be claimed by the Imams' the sons of ‗Ali through to Hasan al Askari" (Tafseer Mazhari Chapter Aal-e-Imran' Volume 2 page 140) So as you can see, intercession is also accepted in Sunni school of thoughts. But the more sources we have the better the argument, right? So here is a very interested Sunni source of a Qur‘anic tafseer of Prophet Adam (as) seeking intercession through Ahlul Bayt (as): "Then learnt Adam from his Lord words of inspiration and his Lord turned toward him; for He is Oft-Returning Most Merciful‖ (Holy Qur‘an 2:37) "Hadhrath 'Ali narrates that he asked Rasulullah 'Which words did Allah (swt) teach Adam. He (swt) replied 'O Allah I seek repentance through Muhammad and his family". "Ibn al Najjar narrates that Ibn Abbas asked Rasulullah (s) in connection with the above matter, and Rasul (s) stated, Adam send "Through Muhammad, 'Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husayn, please accept my repentance. Allah (swt) then accepted his repentance". (Tafseer Durre Manthur Volume 1 pages 60-61 by Imam of Ahlul Sunnah al Hafidh Jaladeen Suyuti) (Imam of Ahl'ul Sunnah Mahmud Abdul Rauf also recorded this on the authority of Ibn Abbas in his book: Sayyadtun Nisa il' Jana page 87 and so did Ibn Maghazli in: Manaqib Ameer'ul Momineen page 59) Some might argue how can the dead hear? Here is a Sunni source to refute this: "The proof of dead awareness comes from two Sahih Books of Bukhari and Muslim in which Rasool Allah s.w. said that when people have buried a dead person and leave for
home, the dead can hear the thumps of sandaled feet of those who leave." (Majmuaat-alFatawa by Ibne Taymiyyah, vol. 24, page 362) Some might say that speaking to the dead is a sign of shirk but this verse clearly states otherwise: So they slew the she-camel and revolted against their Lord's commandment, and they said: O Salih! bring us what you threatened us with, if you are one of the messengers. Then the earthquake overtook them, so they became motionless bodies in their abode. Then he turned away from them and said: O my people I did certainly deliver to you the message of my Lord, and I gave you good advice, but you do not love those who give good advice. (Holy Qur‘an 7:77-79) Prophet Salih (as) gave a speech to the dead of his nation. If they were unable to hear him or if it is a sign of shirk then why would a Prophet of Allah (swt) do such an act? Now here are some Sunni hadiths in which the Holy Prophet (saw) is addressing the kuffar who died in the battle of Badr. ―Narrated Ibn 'Umar: "The Messenger of Allah spoke to the People (buried) in the Well saying: "Have you found out that what your Lord had promised you is true?" then someone exclaimed: "Are you calling out to the dead!" The Prophet replied: "You do not hear better than they do, except they do not respond."(Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 23, # 452) ―Narrated Abu Talha: "On the day of Badr, the Prophet ordered that the corpses of twenty four leaders of Quraish should be thrown into one of the dirty dry wells of Badr. When he halted at the edge of the well, he addressed the corpses of the Quraish infidels by their names and their fathers' names, "O so-and-so, son of so-and-so and O so-and-so, son of so-and-so! Would it have pleased you if you had obeyed Allah and His Apostle? We have found true what our Lord promised us. Have you too found true what your Lord promised you? "'Umar said, "O Allah's Apostle! You are speaking to bodies that have no souls!" Allah's Apostle said, "By Him in Whose Hand Muhammad's soul is, you do not hear, what I say better than they do." (Qatada said, "Allah brought them to life (again) to let them hear him, to reprimand them and slight them and take revenge over them and caused them to feel remorseful and regretful.") (Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, # 314) ―Anas b. Malik reported that: ―Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) let the dead bodies of the unbelievers who fought in Badr (lie unburied) for three days. He then came to them and sat by their side and called them and said: O Abu Jahl b. Hisham, O Umayya b. Khalaf, O Utba b. Rab'ila, O Shaiba b. Rabi'a, have you not found what your Lord had promised with you to be correct? As for me, I have found the promises of my Lord to be (perfectly) correct. Umar listened to the words of Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon
him) and said: Allah's Messenger, how do they listen and respond to you? They are dead and their bodies have decayed. Thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: By Him in Whose Hand is my life, what I am saying to them, even you cannot hear more distinctly than they, but they lack the power to reply. Then'he commanded that they should be buried in the well of Badr. (Sahih Muslim, Book 040, # 6869) ―Narrated Ibn Shihab: ―These were the battles of Allah's Apostle (which he fought), and while mentioning (the Badr battle) he said, "While the corpses of the pagans were being thrown into the well, Allah's Apostle said (to them), 'Have you found what your Lord promised true?" 'Abdullah said, "Some of the Prophet's companions said, "O Allah's Apostle! You are addressing dead people.' Allah's Apostle replied, 'You do not hear what I am saying, better than they.' (Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, # 360) The dead are even able to respond but we are unable to hear them: ―Narrated Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri: Allah's Apostle said, "When the funeral is ready (for its burial) and the people lift it on their shoulders, then if deceased is a righteous person he says, 'Take me ahead,' and if he is not a righteous one then he says, 'Woe to it (me)! Where are you taking it (me)?' And his voice is audible to everything except human beings; and if they heard it they would fall down unconscious." (Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 23, Number 462: Translated by Mohsin Khan) Shia Muslims believe that the mumins are not dead, even in the afterlife. The righteous ones remain alive. ―Rasool Allah (saw) said: Allah has declared it forbidden for the earth to eat the bodies of the prophets. So the prophets are living and they regularly receive their sustenance.‖ (Ibn Majah narrated this sahih (sound) hadith in his Sunan, b. of jana'iz (funerals) ch.65 (1:524#1636-7), b. of iqamat-us-salat was-sunnah fiha (establishing prayer and its sunnahs) ch.79 (1:345#1085); Abu Dawud, Sunan, b. of salat (prayer) 1:275 (#1047); Nasa'i, Sunan, b. of jumu'ah (Friday prayer) 3:92; Ahmad bin Hambal, Musnad (4:8); Ibn Hibban, as-Sahih (3:191#910); Darimi, Sunan (1:307#1580); Ibn Khuzaymah, as-Sahih (3:118#1733); Ibn Abi Shaybah, al-Musannaf (2:516); Hakim, al-Mustadrak (1:278); Tabarani, al-Mu'jam-ul-kabir (1:217#589); and Bayhaqi in as-Sunan-ul-kubra (3:249).
―It is revealed that the Prophet (s) knows his lovers and listens to them. Once he said to his companions about Hadrat Isa (s) that he will return to this world. Then Hadrat Eisa (s) will visit Madinah and the Prophet (s) said: And when he (Isa) will stand beside my grave calling: "O Muhammad!" I will respond to him. (Ibn Hajar 'Asqalani, al-Matalib-ul'aliyah, (4: 23 # 3853))
Sources of this chapter: Copy and Pastes from http://www.answeringansar.org/answers/can_the_dead_hear/en/chap1.php and http://www.answeringansar.org/answers/tawassul/en/chap1.php .
―Inquiries About Shi'a Islam‖ by Sayed Moustafa al-Qazwini