A SUMMER TRAINING REPORT ON
’ Comparative analysis of MARKETING STRATEGIES OF Vodafone & AIRTEL”
A summer training project report submitted to the Partial ul illment o the Re!uirement or the A"ard o #egree o
MASTER O$ %USINESS A#MINISTRATION TO
A%SS INSTITUTE O$ TE&'NO(OG)* MEERUT
Submitted %+, Ranjit -umar Gautam M%A . III Sem RO(( NO, /01/0233/0 Session . 03/0403/5 Under the Super6ision o , Mr7 #hananja+ 8ast 9Asst7 Pro essor* M%A:
A%SS INSTITUTE O$ TE&'NO(OG)* MEERUT
&ONTENT /7 pre ace 07 Ac;no"ledgement 17 S+nopsis 57 Need o the stud+ <7 objecti6es o the stud+ =7 &ompan+ pro ile o Airtel 27 comparison bet"een airtel and "oda one • • • • • • Airtel 8oda one &omparison bet"een mar;eting strateg+ o %harti Airtel and 8oda one =34=5 1 5 <4= 2 > ?41> 1?4<?
27 Research Methodolog+ T+pe o research methodolog+ #ata collection method Method o collection
PRE$A&E Education becomes more meaningful when its theoretical aspects are combined with practical experience. These provide an opportunity to the me to improve my understanding of the studies. This project is the result of my major project based on strategies used by two company. Major project is an integral part of Master of Business dministrator !MB " course # it aims at providing a first hand experience of the industry to the students. This practical experience helps the students to view the real business world closely which in turn widely influences their conceptions # perceptions.
% &anjit 'umar gautam( sincerely than'ful to all those people who have been giving me any 'ind of assistance in the ma'ing of this project report. % express my gratitude to Mr()hananjay *ast who has through her vast experience and 'nowledge has been able to guide me( both ably and successfully towards the completion of the project. % express my gratitude to B++ %nstitute of Technology Meerut. % would hereby( ma'e most of the opportunity by expressing my sincerest than's to all my faculties whose teachings gave me conceptual understanding and clarity of comprehension( which ultimately made my job more easy. ,redit also goes to all my friends whose encouragement 'ept me in good stead. Their continuous support has given me the strength and confidence to complete the project without any difficulty. -ast of all but not the least % would li'e to ac'nowledge my gratitude to the respondents without whom this survey would have been incomplete. % am also than'ful to authority of irtel # *odafone for providing me the information.
!& ./%T 01M & 2 1T M"
The manufacture of oral solid dosage forms such as tablets is a complex multi-stage process under which the starting materials change their physical characteristics a number of times before the final dosage form is produced. Traditionally, tablets have been made by granulation, a process that imparts two primary requisites to formulate: compactibility and fluidity. Both wet granulation and dry granulation (slugging and roll compaction are used. !egardless of weather tablets are made by direct compression or granulation, the first step, milling and mixing, is the same" subsequent step differ. #umerous unit processes are involved in ma$ing tablets, including particle si%e reduction and si%ing, blending, granulation, drying, compaction, and (frequently coating. &arious factors associated with these processes can seriously affect content uniformity, bioavailability, or stability.
$igure7037 8arious Unit Operation Se!uences In Tablet Manu acturing
$igure70/7 T+pical Manu acturing Process O Tablet
Table7007 T+pical Unit Operation In6ol6ed In Bet Granulation* #r+ Granulation And #irect &ompressionC/1D #IRE&T BET GRANU(ATION #R) GRANU(ATION &OMPRESSIO N 1. Milling and mixing of drugs and excipients 2. ,ompression of tablet
1. Milling and mixing of drugs andexcipients
1. Milling and mixing of drugs and excipients
2. 6reparation of binder solution
2. ,ompression into slugs or roll compaction
$. 7et massing by addition of binder solution or granulating solvent
$. Milling and screening of slugs and compacted powder
3. +creening of wet mass
3. Mixing with lubricant and disintegrant
4. )rying of the wet granules
4. ,ompression of tablet
5. +creening of dry granules
8. Blending with lubricant and disintegrant to produce 9running powder9
:. ,ompression of tablet
Dispensing (weighing and measuring)
'ispensing is the first step in any pharmaceutical manufacturing process. 'ispensing is one of the most critical steps in pharmaceutical manufacturing" as during this step, the weight of each ingredient in the mixture is determined according to dose. 'ispensing may be done by purely manual by hand scooping from primary containers and weighing each ingredient by hand on a weigh scale, manual weighing with material lifting assistance li$e &acuum transfer and Bag lifters, manual or assisted transfer with automated weighing on weigh table, manual or assisted filling of loss-in weight dispensing system, automated dispensaries with mechanical devices such as vacuum loading system and screw feed system. (ssues li$e weighing accuracy, dust control (laminar air flow booths, glove boxes , during manual handling, lot control of each ingredient, material movement into and out of dispensary should be considered during dispensing.
The si%ing (si%e reduction, milling, crushing, grinding, pulveri%ation is an impotent step (unit operation involved in the tablet manufacturing. (n manufacturing of compressed tablet, the mixing or blending of several solid ingredients of pharmaceuticals is easier and more uniform if the ingredients are approximately of same si%e. This provides a greater uniformity of dose. ) fine particle si%e is essential in case of lubricant mixing with granules for its proper function. )dvantages associated with si%e reduction in tablet manufacture are as follows: i (t increases surface area, which may enhance an active ingredient*s dissolution rate and hence bioavailability. ii (mproved the tablet-to-tablet content uniformity by virtue of the increased number of particles per unit weight. iii +ontrolled particle si%e distribution of dry granulation or mix to promote better flow of mixture in tablet machine. iv (mproved flow properties of raw materials. v (mproved colour and,or active ingredient dispersion in tablet excipients. vi -niformly si%ed wet granulation to promote uniform drying. There are also certain disadvantages associated with this unit operation if not controlled properly. They are as follows: i ) possible change in polymorphic form of the active ingredient, rendering it less or totally inactive, or unstable. ii ) decrease in bul$ density of active compound and,or excipients, which may cause flow problem and segregation in the mix. iii )n increase in surface area from si%e reduction may promote the adsorption of air, which may inhibit wettability of the drug to the extent that it becomes the limiting factor in dissolution rate.
) number of different types of machine may be used for the dry si%ing or milling process depending on whether gentle screening or particle milling is needed. The ranges of equipment employed for this process includes .luid energy mill, +olloidal mill, Ball mill, /ammer mill, +utting mill, !oller mill, +onical mill, etc.
The successful mixing of powder is ac$nowledged to be more difficult unit operation because, unli$e the situation with liquid, perfect homogeneity is practically unattainable. (n practice, problems also arise because of the inherent cohesiveness and resistance to movement between the individual particles. The process is further complicated in many system, by the presence of substantial segregation influencing the powder mix. They arise because of difference in si%e, shape, and density of the component particles. The powder,granules blending are involved at stage of pre granulation and,or post granulation stage of tablet manufacturing. 0ach process of mixing has optimum mixing time and so prolonged mixing may result in an undesired product. 1o, the optimum mixing time and mixing speed are to be evaluated. Blending step prior to compression is normally achieved in a simple tumble blender. The Blender may be a fixed blender into which the powders are charged, blended and discharged. (t is now common to use a bin blender which blends. (n special cases of mixing a lubricant, over mixing should be particularly monitered. The various blenders used include 2&2 blender, 3blicone blender, +ontainer blender, Tumbling blender, )gitated powder blender, etc. But now a days to optimi%e the manufacturing process particularly in wet granulation the various improved equipments which combines several of processing steps (mixing, granulation and,or drying are used. They are 24ixer granulator2 or 2/igh shear mixing machine2.
.ollowing particle si%e reduction and blending, the formulation may be granulated, which provides homogeneity of drug distribution in blend.
'rying is a most important step in the formulation and development of pharmaceutical product. (t is important to $eep the residual moisture low enough to prevent product deterioration and ensure free flowing properties. The commonly used dryer includes .luidi%ed - bed dryer, &acuum tray dryer, 4icrowave dryer, 1pray dryer, .ree%e dryer, Turbo - tray dryer, 5an dryer, etc.
)fter the preparation of granules (in case of wet granulation or si%ed slugs (in case of dry granulation or mixing of ingredients (in case of direct compression , they are compressed to get final product. The compression is done either by single punch machine (stamping press or by multi station machine (rotary press . The tablet press is a high-speed mechanical device. (t *squee%es* the ingredients into the required tablet shape with extreme precision. (t can ma$e the tablet in many shapes, although they are usually round or oval. )lso, it can press the name of the manufacturer or the product into the top of the tablet.
0ach tablet is made by pressing the granules inside a die, made up of hardened steel. The die is a disc shape with a hole cut through its centre. The powder is compressed in the centre of the die by two hardened steel punches that fit into the top and bottom of the die. The punches and dies are fixed to a turret that spins round. )s it spins, the punches are driven together by two fixed cams - an upper cam and lower cam. The top of the upper
punch (the punch head sits on the upper cam edge .The bottom of the lower punch sits on the lower cam edge.
The shapes of the two cams determine the sequence of movements of the two punches. This sequence is repeated over and over because the turret is spinning round. The force exerted on the ingredients in the dies is very carefully controlled. This ensures that each tablet is perfectly formed. Because of the high speeds, they need very sophisticated lubrication systems. The lubricating oil is recycled and filtered to ensure a continuous supply. &ommon stages occurring during compression 1tage 6: Top punch is withdrawn from the die by the upper cam Bottom punch is low in the die so powder falls in through the hole and fills the die 1tage 7: Bottom punch moves up to ad8ust the powder weight-it raises and expels some powder 1tage 9: Top punch is driven into the die by upper cam Bottom punch is raised by lower cam Both punch heads pass between heavy rollers to compress the powder 1tage :: Top punch is withdraw by the upper cam ;ower punch is pushed up and expels the tablet Tablet is removed from the die surface by surface plate 1tage <: !eturn to stage 6
(n many cases, speed of die table is such that the time of die under feed frame is too short to allow adequate or consistent gravity filling of die with granules, resulting in weight variation and content uniformity. These also seen with poorly flowing granules. To avoid these problems, mechani%ed feeder can employ to force granules into die cavity.
II"Tablet weight monitoring de$ices%&
/igh rate of tablet output with modern press requires continuous tablet weight monitoring with electronic monitoring devices li$e Thomas Tablet 1entinel, 5harma$ontroll and =illan control 1ystem-4+. They monitors force at each compression station by starin gage technology which is then correlated with tablet weight.
III" Tablet Deduster % &
(n almost all cases, tablets coming out of a tablet machine bear excess powder on its surface and are run through the tablet deduster to remove that excess powder.
I'" #ette machine
.ette machine is device that chills the compression components to allow the compression of low melting point substance such as waxes and thereby ma$ing it possible to compress product with low meting points.
5harmaceutical manufacturers have to pac$ their medicines before they can be sent out for distribution. The type of pac$aging will depend on the formulation of the medicine.
*Blister pac$s* are a common form of pac$aging used for a wide variety of products. They are safe and easy to use and they allow the consumer to see the contents without opening the pac$. 4any pharmaceutical companies use a standard si%e of blister pac$. This saves the cost of different tools and to change the production machinery between products. 1ometimes the pac$ may be perforated so that individual tablets can be detached. This means that the expiry date and the name of the product have to be printed on each part of the pac$age. The blister pac$ itself must remain absolutely flat as it travels through the pac$aging processes, especially when it is inserted into a carton. This poses interesting problems for the designers. 0xtra ribs are added to the blister pac$ to improve its stiffness.